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Sivan Wilfred G.

Prof. Doctor
Anatomy and Physiology
18 Januarry, 2015

Cardiac arrhythmia (also known as irregular heartbeat) is any of a group of conditions

in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular, faster, or slower than normal.
Sinus Tachycardia is a heart rate that exceeds the normal range. In general, a resting

heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia

Sinus bradycardia- a heart beat that is too slow - conventionally below 60 beats per

Sinus rhythm- means a normal heart beat, both with respect to the heart rate and rhythm.

Heart rate will fall between 60 and 100 beats per minute.
Ectopic Pacemaker-is an excitable group of cells that causes a premature heart beat

outside the normally functioning SA node of the human heart.

Point of Maximal impulse-is the furthermost point outwards (laterally) and downwards

(inferiorly) from the sternum at which the cardiac impulse can be felt.
Palpitation- a noticeably rapid, strong, or irregular heartbeat due to agitation, exertion,

or illness.
Angina Pectoris-Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle.

Angina can accompany or be a precursor of a heart attack.

Mycocardial Infarction-commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood stops
flowing properly to a part of the heart, and the heart muscle is injured because it is not

receiving enough oxygen. the coronary arteries that supplies blood to the heart develops a

blockage due to an unstable buildup of white blood cells, cholesterol and fat
Pericarditis- Inflammation of the lining around the heart (the pericardium) that causes

chest pain and accumulation of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion).
Myocarditis-is a disease marked by inflammation and damage of the heart muscle.
Endocarditis- is an infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium).
Rheumatic heart disease- heart disorders that can occur as a result of rheumatic fever.
One common result of rheumatic fever is heart valve damage. This damage to the heart
valves may lead to a valve disorder.

Blood Pressure

Normotension- having or denoting a normal blood pressure.

Hypertension- abnormally high blood pressure.
Hypotension- abnormally low blood pressure.
Hypertensive crisis- when blood pressure reaches levels that are damaging
organs. Hypertensive emergencies generally occur at blood pressure levels exceeding 180
systolic OR 120 diastolic, but can occur at even lower levels in patients whose blood

pressure had not been previously high.

Systolic pressure- The blood pressure when the heart is contracting. It is specifically the

maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
Diastolic pressure- when the heart is in a period of relaxation and dilatation (expansion).

Pulse pressure- is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure readings. It

represents the force that the heart generates each time it contracts.
Mean arterial pressure- is a term used in medicine to describe an average blood
pressure in an individual. It is defined as the average arterial pressure during a single
cardiac cycle.


Anemia- when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.
Sickle Cell Anemia- means that the red blood cells are shaped like a crescent. They tend

to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs
Polycythemia Vera- is a bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the

number of blood cells. The red blood cells are mostly affected.
Plethora- an excess of blood.
Leukemia - the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased
numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal

blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.

Hemophilia- is a rare bleeding disorder in which the blood doesn't clot normally.
Hypoxia- deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.
Hypoxemia- A condition where the respiratory system fails in one or both of its gas
exchange functions (oxygenation and elimination of carbon dioxide from mixed venous

blood) is known as respiratory failure.

Thrombus- is a blood clot that forms in a vessel and remains there

Embolus- A blockage or plug that obstructs a blood 'vessel. Examples of emboli are
detached blood clots, clumps of bacteria, and clumps of other foreign material, such as

Thrombosis- is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow
of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses
platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss