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Tujuan Pembelajaran

Alat Penukar Kalor


(Heat Exchanger)

Mengenal jenis-jenis alat penukar kalor


Mengetahui jenis APK yang paling baik untuk
aplikasi industri yang ada
Mengerti parameter kunci dalam desain APK
Mampu mengestimasi ukuran dan harga APK
Memiliki latarbelakang untuk menggunakan
software komersial untuk mendesain APK

Contents

Untuk apakah Alat Penukar Kalor?


Jenis-Jenis Alat Penukar Kalor
Bagaimana Alat penukar kalor
diklasifikasikan?
Dasar-dasar perencanaan Alat Penukar
Kalor?

Mengapa kita membutuhkan APK


Konstruksi APK
Macam-macam APK
Proses Desain APK

Apakah fungsi APK itu ?


Untuk memperoleh aliran fluida pada
temperatur yang tepat untuk proses
berikutnya
Untuk mengkondensasikan uap
Untuk menguapkan fluida
Untuk memanfaatkan panas buang
Untuk pembangkitan daya

Naphtha
and gases

Typical crude oil distillation


Top pump
around

E2

Desalter
Top pump
around

E2

Bottom
pump
around

Heavy gas oil

E3

E5

Kerosene
Distillation tower

Pendahuluan Heat Exchangers

Light
gas oil

Heavy
gas oil

Light gas oil

Kerosene

E4
E1

Bottom pump
around

E5
Storage

Furnace

E6
Reduced crude

Reduced
crude

Geothermal Power cycle

Nuclear Power Plant

Feedwater
heater

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Heat utilities
Hot utilities
Boiler generating service steam (maybe a combined
heat and power plant)
Direct fired heaters (furnace)
Electric heaters

Cold utilities
Cooling tower (wet or dry) providing service cooling
water
Direct air-cooled heat exchanger

Contoh sebuah APK

KATEGORI UTAMA ALAT PENUKAR KALOR

Heat exchangers

Recuperators
Wall separating streams

Bundle for shell-and-tube exchanger

Regenerators
Direct contact

Kebanyakan Alat Penukar Kalor memiliki 2 aliran


fluida, hot dan cold, tetapi beberapa memiliki
lebih dari dua aliran fluida

Recuperators dan regenerators


Recuperative
Has separate flow paths for each
fluid which flow simultaneously
through the exchanger
transferring heat between the
streams
Regenerative
Has a single flow path which the hot
and cold fluids alternately pass
through.

Rotating wheel

Compactness

Can be measured by the heat-transfer area


per unit volume or by channel size
Conventional exchangers (shell and tube)
have channel size of 10 to 30 mm giving
about 100m2/m3
Plate-type exchangers have typically 5mm
channel size with more than 200m 2/m3
More compact types available

Compactness

Double Pipe

Simplest type has one tube inside another - inner


tube may have longitudinal fins on the outside

However, most have a


number of tubes in the outer
tube - can have very many tubes
thus becoming a shell-and-tube

Shell and Tube


Alat Penukar Kalor tipe shell and tube yang biasa
digunakan pada industri proses

Shell-side flow

Baffle

Complete shell-and-tube

Plate-fin exchanger

Made up of flat plates (parting sheets) and


corrugated sheets which form fins
Brazed by heating in vacuum furnace

Can have many streams

Cooling Towers

7 or more streams are typical

Large shell with packing at the bottom over which


water is sprayed
Cooling by air flow and evaporation
Air flow driven by forced or natural convection
Need to continuously make up the cooling water lost
by evaporation

Exchanger specification
Heat load (duty) along with the terminal
temperatures of the streams
Maximum pressure drop each streams
liquids - 0.5 bar
gases/vapours below 2bar - 10% of inlet pressure

Design pressures and temperatures


Size/weight constraints
Standards to apply
General standards like ISO, TEMA, ASME, API etc
Companies own standards

Other requirements

The designer must supply an exchanger which

Meets the stated specification


Has reasonable initial costs and operating
costs (most exchangers are bought on the
basis of the cheapest tender)
Has a reasonable lifetime
no damaging vibration
no thermal fatigue
no unexpected fouling or corrosion

Langkah-langkah

Coarse filter

Pemilihan Heat Exchanger


Choosing the best exchanger for a
given process application

Buang Jenis Alat Penukar Kalor yang


tidak memenuhi ketentuan tekanan dan
temperatur operasi, fluid-material
compatibilitas, kondisi termal yang
extrem

Fine filter
Estimasi Harga

Coarse filter

Point-point utama

Use information on next few slides to reject


those exchangers which are clearly out of
range or are otherwise unsuitable
The information is summarised in the table
At this stage, if in doubt, include the
exchanger (poor choices are likely to turn
out expensive at the fine filter stage)

Tube /pipa dan cylinders dapat menahan tekanan


yang lebih besar dibanding dengan plates
Jika APK dapat dibangun dengan material yang
bervariasi, berarti anda dapat menentukan metal
yang dapat tahan terhadap temperatur yang extrem
dan fluida-fluida yang korosif
APK yang khusus hanya memiliki supplier yang
sangat sedikit, waktu pengiriman barang yang
lebih lama dan harus diperbaiki oleh orang yang
sangat ahli.

Thermal effectiveness

Double Pipe
Tipe APK ini adalah yang paling simpel, memiliki satu tube di
dalam dan satu tube pada bagian luar, Tube paling dalam bisa
memiliki sirip secara longitudinal pada bagian luarnya

Stream temperature rise divided by the


theoretically maximum possible
T1,in T1,out
temperature rise

T1,in T2 ,in
T1,in

T1,out

T2,in

T2,out

Double pipe

Walaupun demikian terdapat


pula jenis APK ini yang
memiliki beberpa tube didalam
tube luarnya.

Advantages/disadvantages of double-pipe

Advantages

Ukuran Normal
0.25 to 200m2 (2.5 to 2000 ft2) per unit
Note multiple units are often used

Built of carbon steel where possible

Easy to obtain counter-current flow


Can handle high pressure
Modular construction
Easy to maintain and repair
Many suppliers

Disadvantage
Become expensive for large duties (above
1MW)

Scope of double pipe

Shell and tube

Maximum pressure
300 bar(abs) (4500 psia) on shell side
1400 bar(abs) (21000 psia) on tubeside

Temperature range
-100 to 600oC (-150 to 1100oF)
possibly wider with special materials

Fluid limitations
Few since can be built of many metals

Maximum = 0.9
Minimum DT = 5 K

Size per unit 100 - 10000 ft2 (10 - 1000 m2)


Easy to build multiple units
Made of carbon steel where possible

Scope of shell and tube

Advantages/disadvantages of S&T

Advantages
Extremely flexible and robust design
Easy to maintain and repair
Can be designed to be dismantled for cleaning
Very many suppliers world-wide

Disadvantages
Require large plot (footprint) area - often need
extra space to remove the bundle
Plate may be cheaper for pressure below 16 bar
(240 psia) and temps. below 200oC (400oF)

Heat exchanger costing - fine filter


Full cost made up of
Capital cost
Installation cost
Operating cost

The cost estimation method given here is based


only on capital cost - which is the way it is often
done
Note: installation costs can be as high as capital
cost except for compact exchangers
Installation cost considerations can predominate
on offshore plant

Essentially the same as a double pipe

Maximum pressure
300 bar(abs) (4500 psia) on shell side
1400 bar(abs) (21000 psia) on tubeside

Temperature range
-100 to 600oC (-150 to 1100oF)
possibly wider with special materials

Fluid limitations
Few since can be built of many metals

Maximum = 0.9 (less with multipass)


Minimum DT = 5 K

Quick sizing of heat exchangers


DTb

DTa

We estimate the area from


A

Where

Q
UDT

DT FT DTm
DTm

DTa DTb
ln(DTa / DTb )

FT correction factor
This correction accounts for the two streams not
following pure counter-current flow
At the estimation stage, we do not know the detailed
flow/pass arrangement so we use
FT = 1.0 for counter flow which includes most compact and
double-pipe
FT = 0.7 for pure cross flow which includes air-cooled and
other types when operated in pure cross flow (e.g. shell-andtube)
FT = 0.9 for multi-pass
FT = 1.0 if one stream is isothermal (typically boiling and
condensation)

Estimating cost

Estimating U
This may be estimated for a given exchanger type
using the tables
These tables give U values as a function of Q/DT
(the significance of this group will become clear
later)
Example: high pressure gas cooled by treated
cooling water in a shell-and-tube, where
Q/DT = 30 000 W/K
gives U = 600 W/m2K
This includes typical fouling resistances

Steps in calculation

This has often been done by multiplying the


calculated area, A, by a cost per unit area
But, when comparing exchangers, U and A
vary widely from type to type. It is also
difficult to define A if there is a complicated
extended surface.
Note, from our basic heat transfer equation
UA = Q / DT

Calculate DTln and hence estimate DT


Determine Q/DT
Look up C value from table
To determine C at intermediate Q/DT, use logarithmic
interpolation - see next slide

Calculate exchanger cost from - Cost = C(Q/DT)


Taking the last shell-and-tube example, C = 0.4.
Hence, Cost = 0.4 X 30 000 = 12 000
Make sure that you take account of footnotes in
tables

Logarithmic interpolation
ln(C1)
ln(C)
ln(C2)

Desain Termal
Alat Penukar Kalor
ln(V1)

ln(V)

ln(V2)

Where the Vs are the values of Q/ T. V1 and V2


are the values either side of the required value V

ln(C1 / C2 ) ln(V / V1 )
C expln(C1 )

ln(V1 / V2 )

Q = U A DTk
yw

Harga Lokal dan harga rata-rata


Overall artinya dari the hot side ke the
cold side termasuk semua termal resistan
Titik khusus pada alat penukar kalor adalah local
Jadi kita memiliki lokal, overall coefficient
LOKAL

Thot

Tcold

q UDT
KESELURUHAN ALAT PENUKA KALOR

Q T U m AT DTm

Integral terhadap area alat penukar kalor

y
1
1
1

rcold w rhot
U cold
w
hot

Definisi dari harga rata-rata (mean values )

Dari slide sebelumnya


Persamaan Lokal q

dQ
U DT
dA

Q T
U m AT
DTm

dQ

dQ

Rearranging

dQ
UdA
DT

Integral

dQ
Q DT
T

dA

UdA

Total area AT

DTm DTLM

DTa DTb
ln( DTa / DTb )

1
1

DTm Q T

dQ

DT

QT

AT

Um

AT

Temperature

Kasus Khusus dimana Ts linear terhadap Q

Eqn. integrates to
give log. mean
temperature
difference - LMTD

Bandingkan dua sides

DT UdA

Pararel Flow

DTa

Q
DTb

1
AT

UdA
AT

Counter Flow

Cross Flow

Multipass exchangers
T1

Temp.

Untuk single-phase duties,


Faktor correction teoritis,
FT, sudah diturunkan (lihar
referensi)
Harga FT Kurang dari 1
Jangan Merancang untuk FT
kurang dari 0.8

T2
t2
t1
Q

DTm FT DTLM

Typical FT correction factor curves


For shell and tube with 2 or more tube-side passes

Curves are for different values of R

t2 t1
T T
;R 1 2
T1 t1
t2 t1

T, t = Shell / tube side


1, 2 = inlet / outlet

Thermal effectiveness

Tube layouts

Stream temperature rise divided by the theoretically


maximum possible temperature rise

T1,in

T2,out

T1,in T1,out
T1,in T2 ,in
T1,out

T2,in

Triangul
ar
30o

Rotated
triangul
ar
60o

pitch
Squar
e
90o

Rotate
d
square
45o

Typically, 1 in tubes on a 1.25 in pitch or 0.75 in


tubes on a 1 in pitch
Triangular layouts give more tubes in a given shell
Square layouts give cleaning lanes with close pitch