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ABSTRACT

This paper compares the manufacturing and refueling


costs of a 4 Stroke IC Engine in vehicles. 4 Stroke Engine
using an automobile model reflecting the largest segment
of light-duty vehicles. We use results from widely-cited
government studies to compare the manufacturing and
refueling costs of a 4 Stroke engine capable of delivering
135 horsepower and driving approximately 300 miles. Our
results show that performs far more favorably in terms of
cost,

energy

efficiency,

weight,

and

volume.

The

differences are particularly dramatic when we assume that


energy is derived from renewable resources.
Perhaps the invention of the engine, or even introducing
its concept, was the most important scientific event in the
human history. The applications of the engines vary
according to its efficiency, and the required working
conditions. For example, certain applications require the
use of two stroke engines rather than four stroke engines.
On the other side, some vehicles has diesel operated
enginesincluding passengers cars as well. Still, there
are

other

types

of

engines

other

than

the

above

mentioned types, which were all invented a century or


more ago.

INTRODUCTION
A four-stroke engine, also known as four-cycle, is an
internal combustion engine in which the piston completes
four separate strokesintake, compression, power, and
exhaustduring two separate revolutions of the engine's
crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle.
There are two common types of engines, which are closely
related to each other but have major differences in their
design and behavior. The earliest of these to be developed
is the Otto cycle engine which was developed in 1876 by
Nikolaus August Otto in Cologne, Germany,[1] after the
operation principle described by Alphonse Beau de Rochas
in 1861. This engine is most often referred to as a petrol
engine or gasoline engine, after the fuel that powers it.
The second type of four-cycle engine is the Diesel engine
developed in 1893 by Rudolph Diesel, also of Germany.
Diesel created his engine to maximize efficiency which
was lacking in the Otto engine. There are several major
2

differences between the Otto cycle engine and the fourcycle diesel engine. The diesel engine is made in both a
two-cycle

and a four-cycle version.

Ironically Otto's

company Deutz AG produces primarily diesel engines in


the modern era.
The Otto cycle is named after the 1876 engine of Nikolaus
A. Otto, who built a successful four-cycle engine which was
based on the work of Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir.[1] It was
the third engine type that Otto developed. It used a sliding
flame gateway for ignition of its fuel which was a mixture
of illuminating gas and air. After 1884 Otto also developed
the magneto allowing the use of an electrical spark for
ignition, which had been unreliable on the Lenoir engine.
Today, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is used in
motorcycles, automobiles, boats, trucks, aircraft, ships,
heavy duty machinery, and in its original intended use as
stationary power both for kinetic and electrical power
generation. Diesel engines are found in virtually all heavy
duty applications such as trucks, ships, locomotives,
power generation, and stationary power. Many of these

diesel engine are two-cycle with power ratings up to


105,000 hp (78,000 kW).

BASIC OPERATION OF FOUR STROKE IC


ENGINE
The four cycles refer to intake, compression, combustion
(power), and exhaust cycles that occur during two
crankshaft rotations per power cycle of the four-cycle
engines. The cycle begins at Top Dead Centre (TDC), when
the piston is farthest away from the axis of the crankshaft.
A cycle refers to the full travel of the piston from Top Dead
Centre (TDC) to Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). (See Dead
centre.)

1. INTAKE Stroke: on the intake or induction stroke of


the piston, the piston descends from the top of the
cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, reducing the
pressure inside the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air,
or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by atmospheric
(or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the
intake port. The intake valve(s) then close. The
volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the
cylinder, relative to the volume of the cylinder is
called, the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
2. COMPRESSION Stroke: with both intake and exhaust
valves closed, the piston returns to the top of the
cylinder compressing the air, or fuel-air mixture into
the combustion chamber of the cylinder head.
3. POWER Stroke: this is the start of the second
revolution of the engine. While the piston is close to
Top Dead Center, the compressed airfuel mixture in
a gasoline engine is ignited, usually by a spark plug,
or fuel is injected into the diesel engine, which ignites
due to the heat generated in the air during the
compression stroke. The resulting massive pressure
5

from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air


mixture forces the piston back down toward bottom
dead centre.
4. EXHAUST Stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the
piston once again returns to top dead center while
the exhaust valve is open. This action evacuates the
burnt products of combustion from the cylinder by
expelling the spent fuel-air mixture out through the
exhaust valve(s).

Turning Moment Diagram for a Four Stroke Cycle


Internal Combustion Engine
The Concept IC Engine
The second really innovative engine design described in
these pages, is the Concept IC Engine, which utilizes a
6

revolutionary new design, to completely transform the


conventional IC engine. The great advantage of this design
is that existing IC engines can be modified to run as
Concept IC engines at minimum cost while at the same
time increasing efficiency by as much as 200% and also
reducing fuel emissions to zero. This may sound far
fetched but as you will see , if you continue to read these
pages , a detailed and well documented rationale is given
as to why this engine can and will work. In fact anyone
who can provide a logical and verifiable refutation of the
Concept IC engine shall receive from me a most abject
and humble letter of apology. Studies have shown , and
this may easily be verified from The Colorado State
University Engine Web Site , a link to which is provided ,
that IC engines lose 42% of their energy to exhaust and
28% of their energy to the cooling system. With more than
500 million cars world wide (not counting buses , trains ,
construction and military transport ) and with this number
constantly increasing there is an urgent need for better ,
cleaner , more efficient engines. The Concept IC engine

provides a low cost and highly effective solution to solving


all these problems.
Introducing the Concept IC engine:
Automotive engineering has seen a spate of innovations in
the past decade, MV's (Multiple valve's), DOHC's (Double
overhead cams), MPFI (Multi-port fuel injection) and DFI
(Direct fuel injection) which , when combined with
stronger and lighter carbon composites and metal alloys ,
are rapidly bringing reciprocating internal combustion
engine technology, as we know it , to a point where the
full potential of the engine has almost been realised.
Extensive coverage in magazines and other media , have
reported on almost every aspect of the working of these
innovations and the advantages their implementation has
resulted in , such as better fuel economy , more power
and a cleaner engine. What is less widely known is the fact
that in spite of the huge amounts of money and man
hours spent on researching and implementing these
products the overall efficiency of the RI engine has been
increased by a mere 5%. The engine is now less than 25%

efficient as compared to an original efficiency of less than


20%.
Real contribution made by recent innovations
The real contribution that innovations such as DOHC's,
MV's , MPFI and DFI have made to RI engine design has
been in high-lighting and identifying what is not wrong
with the engine. An increase in efficiency of a mere 5 % ,
or an overall efficiency of less than 25 % even after the
implementation of the innovations under discussion , has
shown that it is not basically valve over-lap , valve lead ,
valve lag, linear to rotary conversion , or any of the
traditionally quoted reasons ,which is responsible for the
poor performance of the engine. To find the underlying
causes behind the inefficiency of the RI engine, it is
necessary, therefore, to look elsewhere.
Efficiency of the IC engine
IC engines lose 42% of their energy to exhaust and 28% of
their energy to the cooling system. Therefore the true
explanation for the poor performance of the engine would
seem to lie in inefficient use of energy and loss of energy
9

through heat transfer. The loss incurred through inefficient


use of energy is easily understood , compressed fuel and
air is ignited and is then used to propel the piston down
the cylinder with explosive force for a distance of just a
few inches after which all further energy developed by the
fuel is lost and in fact becomes a liability since the piston
has to reverse direction , a process which is inhibited by
the pressure of trapped gases on the piston head. The
reason that energy loss to heat transfer has been
tolerated , and even welcomed by engineers , is a little
more involved and will be referred to later on in the
article. Notwithstanding the improvements made to the RI
engine we have to ask ourselves , and this is the million
dollar question , is this really the limit of performance of
the reciprocating internal combustion engine, does this
mark the end of the road for this more than 200 year old
concept, some entrepreneurs seem to think not , they
have come up with the idea of a concept IC engine.
Types of internal combustion engine
Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the
engine cycle used, the layout of the engine, source of
10

energy, the use of the engine, or by the cooling system


employed.
Engine configurations
Internal combustion engines can be classified by their
configuration.
Reciprocating:
Two-stroke engine
Four-stroke engine
Six-stroke engine
Otto engine
Diesel engine
Rotary:
Wankel engine
Continuous combustion:
Gas turbine

11

Jet engine (including turbojet, turbofan, ramjet,


Rocket, etc.)
Operation

Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle)


1. Intake
12

2. Compression
3. Power
4. Exhaust
As their name implies, four-stroke internal combustion
engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two
revolutions of the engine:
(1) Intake stroke (2) Compression stroke (3) Power stroke
and (4) Exhaust stroke
1. Intake stroke: The first stroke of the internal
combustion engine is also known as the suction stroke
because the piston moves to the maximum volume
position (downward direction in the cylinder). The inlet
valve opens as a result of piston movement, and the
vaporized fuel mixture enters the combustion chamber.
The inlet valve closes at the end of this stroke.
2. Compression stroke: In this stroke, both valves are
closed and the piston starts its movement to the minimum
volume position (upward direction in the cylinder) and
compresses the fuel mixture. During the compression
process, pressure, temperature and the density of the fuel
mixture increases.
3. Power stroke: When the piston reaches the minimum
volume position, the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture
13

and burns. The fuel produces power that is transmitted to


the crank shaft mechanism.
4. Exhaust stroke: In the end of the power stroke, the
exhaust valve opens. During this stroke, the piston starts
its movement in the minimum volume position. The open
exhaust valve allows the exhaust gases to escape the
cylinder. At the end of this stroke, the exhaust valve
closes, the inlet valve opens, and the sequence repeats in
the

next

cycle.

Four-stroke

engines

require

two

revolutions.
Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do
all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines.
Terminology I
TDC: top dead center, piston position farthest from
crankshaft
BDC: bottom dead center, piston position nearest to
crankshaft
Direct fuel injection: into main combustion chamber
Indirect fuel injection: into a secondary chamber
Bore: diameter of cylinder or piston face
Stroke: distance that piston moves clearance
volume: volume in combustion chamber at TDC
Displacement volume: volume displaced by piston
Ignition delay: Time between start of ignition and start
of Combustion
14

Engine components

History
Otto cycle

An Otto Engine from 1920s US Manufacture Nikolaus


August Otto as a young man was a traveling salesman for
a grocery concern. In his travels he encountered the
internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian
15

expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. In 1860 Lenoir


succeeded in creating a double acting engine which ran on
illuminating gas at 4% efficiency. The 18 liter Lenoir
Engine was able to produce only 2 horsepower. The Lenoir
engine ran on the illuminating gas that was made from
coal which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon.
Before electronic ignition systems were developed ignition control
was undertaken using mechanical distributors. The distributor
directed the output from a single high-tension (HT) ignition coil to
the relevant spark plug.
Control over the timing of ignition was done through a cam
operated contact breaker, centrifugal weights, springs and cams,
with load mapping done through using a vacuum advance unit.
Distributor based systems are prone to mechanical wear, insulation
break down and contact failure. To keep the ignition timing correct
these systems required a periodic tune up to keep them working
correctly.
Modern Electronic ignition systems do not require a distributor. A
single small HT coil is used for each spark plug and the igniter
operates each coil separately in the correct sequence.

16

Engine position information is provided by engine position sensors


and a timing disks that are accurately attached to one or two of the
main engine shafts, such as the camshaft. The firing sequence and
variable spark advance is computed accurately from the pattern of
teeth or pegs on the timing disk. If load mapping is required, this
can be achieved by adding a manifold pressure sensor or a throttle
angle potentiometer to the system. A variety of extra features are
available on such systems, which can be accessed and adjusted by
a PC.
Electronic Ignition systems provide extremely accurate spark
timings, leading to improved combustion and emissions control. As
there is no mechanical contact there is no wear therefore the
accuracy is maintained. These reasons are why electronic ignition is
used as standard throughout the industry.
Inductive ignition systems have existed since 1908, developed by
Charles Kettering who also developed the first practical engine
driven generator.
The design has been improved over the years but the most
significant

recent

development

has

been

the

introduction

of

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT); these have allowed the


design of extremely accurate, high spark energy inductive ignition
systems.

17

A single operation is carried out by a transistor turning on the


current to the ignition coils primary winding. This charging stores
energy in the coils magnetic circuit. The current is then switched off.
As the magnetic field begins to collapse the coil tries to resist the
drop in current causing the voltage in the secondary winding to rise
rapidly, this high voltage breaks down the air/fuel mixture in the
spark gap allowing a spark to pass, causing ignition of the air/fuel
mixture.
The most significant advantage of inductive ignition systems is that
inductive coils are generally more efficient than capacitive discharge
coils as they can provide longer spark duration that can ensure
complete combustion, especially on lean burn and turbo charged
engines. The ability to provide longer spark duration is because
inductive coils only provide enough energy to cross the spark gap;
the remaining energy from the ignition coil is used to maintain the
spark. Capacitive discharge coils release almost all of their energy
instantaneously, therefore considerably reducing the amount of
energy available to maintain the spark.
With inductive ignition systems the time taken to charge the ignition
coil is called the Dwell. This dwell can be increased or decreased for
differing engine applications. If longer spark duration is required to
improve combustion of lean mixtures or engines with large cylinders
the dwell time is increased, inputting more energy into the primary
18

coil. Dwell time is decreased when there is more than enough spark
energy to combust the mixture, this decrease will reduce spark plug
wear, therefore increase spark plug life.
Electronic capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) systems have been
common on large industrial engines because the technology has
been in use since the 1960's.
Capacitive discharge ignition systems work by storing energy in an
external capacitor, which is then discharged into the ignition coil
primary winding when required. This rate of discharge is much
higher than that found in inductive systems, and causes a
corresponding increase in the rate of voltage rise in the secondary
coil winding. This faster voltage rise in the secondary winding
creates a spark that can allow combustion in an engine that has
excess oil or an over rich fuel air mixture in the combustion
chamber. The high initial spark voltage avoids leakage across the
spark plug insulator and electrodes caused by fouling, but leaves
much less energy available for a sufficiently long spark duration;
this may not be sufficient for complete combustion in a lean burn
turbocharged engine resulting in misfiring and high exhaust
emissions.

19

The high voltage power supply required for a capacitor discharge


system can be a disadvantage, as this supply provides the power for
all ignition firings and is liable to failure.
Ignition in lean fuel mixtures by capacitor discharge systems can
sometimes only be accomplished by the use of multi-spark ignition,
where the ignition system duplicates the prolonged spark of
inductive spark systems by sparking a number of times during the
cycle. This adds greater stress onto the high-tension leads and can
cause considerable spark plug wear and possible failure.
The term 'CDI' is often, incorrectly, used to describe electronic
ignition systems. Most modern ignition systems are actually
Inductive Ignition systems for good reason, especially when using
lean burn fuel mixtures. Inductive ignition systems can provide
prolonged spark duration; resulting in more reliable and a cleaner
burn in modern lean burn engines.
Capacitive discharge systems may have advantage in older 4-stroke
engines, an engine running beyond its service life, or a cheap 2stroke engine. These engines will be running an oil rich / fuel rich
mixture, which may cause fouling of the spark plug gap. The higher
initial discharge of a CDI system may be able to 'burn' off these
deposits better than a comparative inductive ignition system.

20

In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in 1861 Otto


became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel
charge. In 1862, Otto attempted to produce an engine to
improve on the poor efficiency and reliability of the Lenoir
engine. He tried to create an engine which would
compress the fuel mixture prior to ignition, but failed as
that engine would run no more than a few minutes prior to
its destruction. Many engineers were also trying to solve
the problem with no success.
In 1864, Otto and Eugen Langen founded the first internal
combustion engine production company NA Otto and Cie
(NA Otto and Company). Otto and Cie succeeded in
creating a successful atmospheric engine that same year.
The factory ran out of space and was moved to the town
of Deutz, Germany in 1869 where the company was
renamed to Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik AG (The Deutz Gas
Engine

Manufacturing

Company).

In

1872,

Gottlieb

Daimler was technical director and Wilhelm Maybach was


the head of engine design. Daimler was a gunsmith who
had also worked on the Lenoir engine previously. By 1876,
Otto and Langen succeeded in creating the first internal
21

combustion engine that compressed the fuel mixture prior


to combustion for far higher efficiency than any engine
created to this time.
In 1884, Otto's company, now known as Gasmotorenfabrik
Deutz

(GFD)

developed

electric

ignition

and

the

carburetor.
In 1890, Daimler and Maybach formed a company known
as Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Today that company is
known as Daimler-Benz.

Diesel cycle

22

Audi Diesel R15 at Le Mans


The diesel engine is a technical refinement of the 1876
Otto Cycle engine. Where Otto had realized in 1861 that
the efficiency of the engine could be increased by first
compressing the fuel mixture prior to its ignition, Rudolph
Diesel wanted to develop a more efficient type of engine
that could run on much heavier fuel. The Lenoir, Otto
Atmospheric, and Otto Compression engines (both 1861
and 1876) were designed to run on Illuminating Gas (coal
gas). With the same motivation as Otto, Diesel wanted to
create an engine that would give small industrial concerns
their own power source to enable them to compete
against larger companies, and like Otto to get away from
the requirement to be tied to a municipal fuel supply. Like
Otto, it took more than a decade to produce the high
compression engine which would self ignite its fuel when
23

that fuel sprayed into the cylinder. Diesel used an air


spray combined with fuel in his first engine.
During initial development, one of the engines burst
nearly killing Diesel. He persisted and finally created an
engine in 1893. The high compression engine which
ignites its fuel by the heat of compression is now called
the Diesel engine whether it is a four-stroke or a twostroke design.
The four-stroke diesel engine has been used in the
majority of heavy duty applications for many decades.
Chief among the reasons for this is that it uses a heavy
fuel which contains more energy, requires less refinement,
and is cheaper to make (although in some areas of the
world diesel fuel costs more than gasoline). The most
efficient Otto Cycle engines run near 30% efficiency. The
Volkswagen Jetta TDI 1.9 liter engine achieves 46%. It
uses an advanced design with turbocharging and direct
fuel injection. Some BMW ship Diesels with ceramic
insulation have exceeded 60% efficiency.

24

Both Audi and Peugeot compete in the endurance races of


the Le Mans Series with race cars having diesel engines.
These

are

four-stroke,

four-valve

and

high

revving,

turbocharged diesels which dominate largely due to fuel


economy and having to make fewer stops.
Thermodynamic Analysis

25

Charles Law

The idealized four-stroke Otto cycle p-V diagram: the


intake (A) stroke is performed by an isobaric expansion,
followed by the compression (B) stroke, performed by an
adiabatic compression. Through the combustion of fuel an
isochoric process is produced, followed by an adiabatic
expansion, characterizing the power (C) stroke. The cycle
is closed by an isochoric process and an isobaric
compression, characterizing the exhaust (D) stroke.

26

The thermodynamic analysis of the actual four-stroke or


two-stroke cycles is not a simple task. However, the
analysis can be simplified significantly if air standard
assumptions are utilized. The resulting cycle, which closely
resembles the actual operating conditions, is the Otto
cycle.
Octane Requirements
Fuel octane rating
Otto Engines
During the compression cycle of a compressed charge
internal combustion engine the temperature of the fuel air
mixture rises as described by Charles's law solely due to
the compression of the gases. The temperature rise is
several hundreds of degrees.

27

A Refractory Tower showing the differing weights of


various products.
The fuels used in four-cycle engines are most typically
fractions of crude oil, coal tar, oil shale, or sands which are
produced in a process called Petroleum Cracking. The
ignition temperature of the fuel that is refracted is related
to its weight. It is separated by being heated and is
extracted at different heights in the refractory tower. The
higher the fuel vapor rises in the tower the lower its
weight and the less energy it contains. In refracting
petroleum, there is a standard weight of fuels and
products that is withdraw and which is associated with a
specific extracted material. Gasoline is a light refractory

28

product and is called a light fraction. As a light fraction it


has a relatively low flash point (that is the temperature at
which it starts to burn when mixed with an oxidizer).
A fuel with a low flash point may self ignite during
compression, and can also be ignited by carbon deposits
left in the cylinder or head of a dirty engine. In an internal
combustion engine self ignition can occur at unexpected
times. During the normal operation of the engine as the
fuel mixture is being compressed an electric arc is created
to ignite the fuel. At low rpm this occurs close to TDC (Top
Dead Center). As engine rpm rises the spark point is
moved forward so that the fuel charge can be ignited at a
more efficient point in fuel charge compression to allow
the fuel to start burning even while it is still being
compressed. This produces more effective power based on
the rising molecular density of the working medium, since
this is the essence of efficiency in the compressed charge
IE engine. A denser working medium (the air fuel mixture)
will experience a greater heat, and therefore pressure, rise
on less few when its molecules are more densely packed
together.
29

We can see this in two of the designs of the Otto engines.


The non-compression engine operated at 12% efficiency.
The

compressed

charge

engine

had

an

operating

efficiency of 30%. A Diesel engine can reach as high as


70% (Diesel's lab engine tested at 75.6% efficiency, VW
TDI is at 46%).
The problem with compressed charge engines is that the
temperature rise of the compressed charge can cause preignition. If this occurs at the wrong time and is too
energetic,

it

can

petroleum

have

destroy
widely

the

engine.

varying

flash

Fractions
points

of
(the

temperatures at which the fuel may self ignite). This must


be taken into account in engine and fuel design.
In engines, the spark is retarded when the engine is being
started, and progresses only to an appropriate amount
based on engine rpm. This is determined by laboratory
research. As the engine revolves faster it can accept
earlier ignition since the moving flame front will not have
time to be destructive.

30

In fuel, the tendency for the compressed fuel mixture to


ignite early is limited by the chemical composition of the
fuel. There are several grades of fuel to accommodate
differing performance levels of engines. The fuel is altered
to change its self ignition temperature. There are several
ways to do this. As engines are designed with higher
compression ratios the result is that pre-ignition is much
more likely to occur since the fuel mixture will be
compressed to a higher temperature prior to deliberate
ignition. The higher temperature will more effectively
evaporate fuels such as gasoline and is factor in a higher
compression

engine

being

higher

efficiency.

Higher

Compression ratios also mean that the distance that the


piston can push to produce power is greater (which is
called the Expansion ratio).

31

Bio Diesel
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based
diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or
ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically
reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat (tallow)) with
an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.
Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines
and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used
to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used
alone, or blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel can also be
used as a low carbon alternative to heating oil.
Blends
Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based
diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in
the retail diesel fuel marketplace. Much of the world uses
a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of
biodiesel in any fuel mix:[2]
100% biodiesel is referred to as B100, while
32

20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labeled B20


5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labeled B5
2% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labeled B2.
Blends of 20% biodiesel and lower can be used in diesel
equipment with no, or only minor modifications, although
certain manufacturers do not extend warranty coverage if
equipment is damaged by these blends. The B6 to B20
blends are covered by the ASTM D7467 specification.[4]
Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but
may

require

certain

engine

modifications

to

avoid

maintenance and performance problems. Blending B100


with petroleum diesel may be accomplished by:
Mixing in tanks at manufacturing point prior to
delivery to tanker truck
Splash mixing in the tanker truck (adding specific
percentages of biodiesel and petroleum diesel)
In-line mixing, two components arrive at tanker truck
simultaneously.

33

Metered pump mixing, petroleum diesel and biodiesel


meters are set to X total volume, transfer pump pulls
from two points and mix is complete on leaving
pump.

Applications
Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be
blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in
most injection pump diesel engines. New extreme highpressure (29,000 psi) common rail engines have strict
factory limits of B5 or B20, depending on manufacturer.
Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel,
and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in
vehicles (mostly vehicles manufactured before 1992),
although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely
will have already been replaced with FKM, which is
nonreactive to biodiesel. Biodiesel has been known to
break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines where
petrodiesel has been used. As a result, fuel filters may
34

become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to


pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to
change the fuel filters on engines and heaters shortly after
first switching to a biodiesel blend.
Distribution
Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005,
biodiesel use has been increasing in the United States. In
the UK, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation obliges
suppliers to include 5% renewable fuel in all transport fuel
sold in the UK by 2010. For road diesel, this effectively
means 5% biodiesel (B5).
Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance
In 2005, Chrysler (then part of DaimlerChrysler) released
the Jeep Liberty CRD diesels from the factory into the
American market with 5% biodiesel blends, indicating at
least partial acceptance of biodiesel as an acceptable
diesel fuel additive. In 2007, DaimlerChrysler indicated its
intention to increase warranty coverage to 20% biodiesel
blends if biofuel quality in the United States can be
standardized.
35

Railway usage
British train operating company Virgin Trains claimed to
have run the world's first "biodiesel train", which was
converted to run on 80% petrodiesel and only 20%
biodiesel, and it is claimed it will save 14% on direct
emissions.
The Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first
ever journey run on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green
Fuels Ltd. His Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales, and
Green Fuels managing director, James Hygate, were the
first passengers on a train fueled entirely by biodiesel fuel.
Since 2007, the Royal Train has operated successfully on
B100 (100% biodiesel).
Bio - Diesel Plant

36

Properties
Biodiesel has better lubricating properties and much
higher cetane ratings than today's lower sulfur diesel
fuels. Biodiesel addition reduces fuel system wear, and in
low levels in high pressure systems increases the life of
the fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for its
lubrication. Depending on the engine, this might include
high pressure injection pumps, pump injectors (also called
unit injectors) and fuel injectors.
Production
Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification
of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are
37

several methods for carrying out this transesterification


reaction

including

the

common

batch

process,

supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even


microwave methods.
Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of
mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most
common form uses methanol (converted to sodium
methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred
to as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester - FAME) as it is the cheapest
alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce
an ethyl ester (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Ethyl
Ester - FAEE) biodiesel and higher alcohols such as
isopropanol and butanol have also been used. Using
alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold
flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less
efficient

transesterification

reaction.

lipid

transesterification production process is used to convert


the base oil to the desired esters. Any free fatty acids
(FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and
removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding
more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst. After this
38

processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has


combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum
diesel, and can replace it in most current uses.
A by-product of the transesterification process is the
production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that
is

manufactured,

100 kg

of

glycerol

are

produced.

Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol,


which assisted the economics of the process as a whole.
However, with the increase in global biodiesel production,
the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20%
water and catalyst residues) has crashed. Research is
being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical
building block. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol
Challenge.
JATROPHA
Several groups in various sectors are conducting research
on Jatropha curcas, a poisonous shrub-like tree that
produces seeds considered by many to be a viable source
of biodiesel feedstock oil. Much of this research focuses on
improving the overall per acre oil yield of Jatropha through
39

advancements in genetics, soil science, and horticultural


practices.
SG Biofuels, a San Diego-based Jatropha developer, has
used molecular breeding and biotechnology to produce
elite hybrid seeds of Jatropha that show significant yield
improvements over first generation varieties. SG Biofuels
also claims that additional benefits have arisen from such
strains, including improved flowering synchronicity, higher
resistance to pests and disease, and increased cold
weather tolerance.
Plant

Research

Wageningen

International,

University and

department

Research

Centre

of

the

in

the

Netherlands, maintains an ongoing Jatropha Evaluation


Project (JEP) that examines the feasibility of large scale
Jatropha

cultivation

through

field

and

laboratory

experiments.
The Center for Sustainable Energy Farming (CfSEF) is a Los
Angeles-based non-profit research organization dedicated
to Jatropha research in the areas of plant science,
agronomy, and horticulture. Successful exploration of
40

these disciplines is projected to increase Jatropha farm


production yields by 200-300% in the next ten years.

Bio - Diesel Reaction

41

Diesel Engines
Diesel engines by their nature do not have concerns with
pre-ignition. They have a concern with whether or not
combustion can be started. The description of how likely
Diesel fuel is to ignite is called the Cetane rating. Because
Diesel fuels are of low volatility, they can be very hard to
start when cold. Various techniques are used to start a
cold Diesel engine, the most common being the use of a
glow plug.
In some applications, such as in burning used cooking oil,
the fuel itself is solid and must be heated to liquify prior to
use. A common complaint here is that the exhaust may
have the odor of French Fries.
Design and engineering principles
Power output limitations

42

The four-stroke cycle


1=TDC
2=BDC
A: Intake
B: Compression
C: Power
D: Exhaust
The maximum amount of power generated by an engine is
determined by the maximum amount of air ingested. The
amount of power generated by a piston engine is related
to its size (cylinder volume), whether it is a two-stroke or
four-stroke design, volumetric efficiency, losses, air-to-fuel
ratio, the calorific value of the fuel, oxygen content of the
air and speed (RPM). The speed is ultimately limited by
43

material strength and lubrication. Valves, pistons and


connecting rods suffer severe acceleration forces. At high
engine speed, physical breakage and piston ring flutter
can occur, resulting in power loss or even engine
destruction. Piston ring flutter occurs when the rings
oscillate vertically within the piston grooves they reside in.
Ring flutter compromises the seal between the ring and
the cylinder wall which results in a loss of cylinder
pressure and power. If an engine spins too quickly, valve
springs cannot act quickly enough to close the valves. This
is commonly referred to as 'valve float', and it can result in
piston to valve contact, severely damaging the engine. At
high speeds the lubrication of piston cylinder

wall

interface tends to break down. This limits the piston speed


for industrial engines to about 10 m/s.
Intake/exhaust port flow
The output power of an engine is dependent on the ability
of intake (airfuel mixture) and exhaust matter to move
quickly through valve ports, typically located in the
cylinder head. To increase an engine's output power,
irregularities in the intake and exhaust paths, such as
44

casting flaws, can be removed, and, with the aid of an air


flow bench, the radii of valve port turns and valve seat
configuration can be modified to reduce resistance. This
process is called porting, and it can be done by hand or
with a CNC machine.
Supercharging
One way to increase engine power is to force more air into
the cylinder so that more power can be produced from
each power stroke. This can be done using some type of
air compression device known as a supercharger, which
can be powered by the engine crankshaft.
Supercharging increases the power output limits of an
internal combustion engine relative to its displacement.
Most commonly, the supercharger is always running, but
there have been designs that allow it to be cut out or run
at varying speeds (relative to engine speed). Mechanically
driven supercharging has the disadvantage that some of
the output power is used to drive the supercharger, while
power is wasted in the high pressure exhaust, as the air
has been compressed twice and then gains more potential
45

volume in the combustion but it is only expanded in one


stage.

Turbocharging
A turbocharger is a supercharger that is driven by the
engine's exhaust gases, by means of a turbine. It consists
of a two piece, high-speed turbine assembly with one side
that compresses the intake air, and the other side that is
powered by the exhaust gas outflow.

46

When idling, and at low-to-moderate speeds, the turbine


produces little power from the small exhaust volume, the
turbocharger has little effect and the engine operates
nearly in a naturally aspirated manner. When much more
power output is required, the engine speed and throttle
opening are increased until the exhaust gases are
sufficient to 'spin up' the turbocharger's turbine to start
compressing much more air than normal into the intake
manifold.
Turbocharging allows for more efficient engine operation
because it is driven by exhaust pressure that would
otherwise be (mostly) wasted, but there is a design
limitation known as turbo lag. The increased engine power
is not immediately available due to the need to sharply
increase engine RPM, to build up pressure and to spin up
the turbo, before the turbo starts to do any useful air
compression.

The

increased

intake

volume

causes

increased exhaust and spins the turbo faster, and so forth


until steady high power operation is reached. Another
difficulty is that the higher exhaust pressure causes the

47

exhaust gas to transfer more of its heat to the mechanical


parts of the engine.
In

more

recent

times,

turbochargers

have

become

advanced due to design improvements, and have little, to


no turbo lag. Turbocharged automobiles are very gas
efficient due to low compression at lower engine speeds
(Turbocharger not spooled up).

Rod and piston-to-stroke ratio


The rod-to-stroke ratio is the ratio of the length of the
connecting rod to the length of the piston stroke. A longer
rod will reduce the sidewise pressure of the piston on the
cylinder wall and the stress forces, hence increasing
48

engine life. It also increases the cost and engine height


and weight.
A "square engine" is an engine with a bore diameter equal
to its stroke length. An engine where the bore diameter is
larger than its stroke length is an oversquare engine,
conversely, an engine with a bore diameter that is smaller
than its stroke length is an undersquare engine.
Valvetrain
The valves are typically operated by a camshaft rotating
at half the speed of the crankshaft. It has a series of cams
along its length, each designed to open a valve during the
appropriate part of an intake or exhaust stroke. A tappet
between valve and cam is a contact surface on which the
cam slides to open the valve. Many engines use one or
more camshafts above a row (or each row) of cylinders,
as in the illustration, in which each cam directly actuates a
valve through a flat tappet. In other engine designs the
camshaft is in the crankcase, in which case each cam
contacts a push rod, which contacts a rocker arm which
opens a valve. The overhead cam design typically allows
49

higher engine speeds because it provides the most direct


path between cam and valve.

50

Valve clearance
Valve clearance refers to the small gap between a valve
lifter and a valve stem that ensures that the valve
completely closes. On engines with mechanical valve
adjustment excessive clearance will cause noise from the
valve train. Typically the clearance has to be readjusted
each 20,000 miles (32,000 km) with a feeler gauge.
Most modern production engines use hydraulic lifters to
automatically compensate for valve train component wear.
Dirty engine oil may cause lifter failure.

51

Energy balance
Otto engines are about 30% efficient; in other words, 30%
of the energy generated by combustion is converted into
useful rotational energy at the output shaft of the engine,
while the remainder being losses due to friction, engine
accessories, and waste heat.[5] There are a number of
ways to recover some of the energy lost to waste heat.
The use of a Turbocharger in Diesel engines is very
effective by boosting incoming air pressure and in effect

52

provides the same increase in performance as having


more displacement. The Mack Truck company decades ago
developed a turbine system which converted waste heat
into kinetic energy which was fed back into the engine's
transmission. In 2005, BMW announced the development
of the turbosteamer, a two stage heat recovery system
similar to the Mack system that recovers 80% of the
energy in the exhaust gas and raised the efficiency of the
Otto engines it is applied to by 15%.[6]
By contrast, a six-stroke engine may convert more than
50% of the energy of combustion into useful rotational
energy.
Modern engines are often intentionally built to be slightly
less efficient than they could otherwise be. This is
necessary for emission controls such as exhaust gas
recirculation and catalytic converters that reduce smog
and other atmospheric pollutants. Reductions in efficiency
may be counteracted with an engine control unit using
lean burn techniques.

53

In the United States, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy


will mandate that vehicles must achieve an average of
35.5 miles per gallon (mpg) compared to the current
standard of 25 mpg. As automakers look to meet these
standards

by

2016,

new

ways

of

engineering

the

traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) could have to


be considered. Some potential solutions to increase fuel
efficiency to meet new mandates include firing after the
piston is farthest from the crankshaft, known as top dead
centre, and applying the Miller cycle. Together, this
redesign could significantly reduce fuel consumption and
NOx emissions.

Introduction to Inductive Ignition

54

All ignition systems need to know at what position the engine is in


its cycle to be able to perform accurate spark timing calculations.
This information is generally provided by a timing disc attached
either to the crankshaft (engine speed) or camshaft (half engine
speed) and an electronic sensor mounted close by. Timing discs
either have teeth or magnets arrayed around the circumference,
which the electronic sensor can see. To enable the igniter to know
when the first cylinder is at top dead centre, the timing disk either
has an additional tooth or magnet or one missing.

Introduction to Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI)

55

If the timing disk is attached to the crankshaft, there is a need in


some engine configurations to have a sensor on the camshaft so
that the igniter knows which of the four-stroke cycle the engine is
in.

non-wasted

spark

system

only

provides

spark

on

the

compression cycle of each cylinder of a four-stroke engine. Each


cylinder requires an ignition coil, and the timing disk for the ignition
system needs to rotate at half engine speed (cam shaft speed).

CDI vs Inductive Ignition Systems

56

A wasted spark system produces a spark for the compression and


exhaust stroke of each cylinder in a four-stroke engine. The reason
this system is called wasted spark is that only the spark on the
compression cycle is useful, the spark on the exhaust stroke is
wasted as there is no combustible mixture in the cylinder.
Depending on the engine configuration it may be possible to use
one dual-output ignition coil to operate two cylinders in wasted
spark mode. A benefit of wasted spark systems is that the timing
disk is attached to the crankshaft, which is generally more
accessible.
Wasted spark ignition systems are commonly found in motorcycles
but are not recommended for use in industrial or alternative fuelled
applications.
Ignition advance is the number of degrees before top-dead-centre
(TDC) that a spark occurs. The reason for ignition advance is that
the spark to combust the fuel/air mixture needs to be timed so that
the point of peak combustion pressure is when the piston is just
beyond TDC. If the point of peak combustion pressure is too early
and before TDC the pressure wave will slow down the speed of the
piston

travelling

up

towards

it,

and

may

cause

detonation

(knocking) which is very damaging to the engine. If the point of


peak combustion pressure is too late, the pressure wave will chase

57

the piston as it travels back down the cylinder in the combustion


stroke and most of the energy will be lost.
Introduction to Ignition Coils
As the speed of the engine rises, the ignition advance angle needs
to increase. This is because the time to combust an unchanging
air/fuel mixture is approximately constant. If the ignition advance
angle were kept the same, the point of peak combustion pressure
would move further and further into the combustion stroke losing
more and more power. Therefore the ignition advance needs to be
increased to bring the point of peak combustion to just beyond TDC.

Speed Mapping between Ignition Degree Vs rpm

58

The optimum amount of ignition advance varies from engine to


engine and through different fuel types, timing maps of different
engines using different fuels will be different. It is not possible to
calculate the best map for your engine; you need to test the engine
on appropriate test equipment to generate the engine maps.
Emissions can be controlled via the use of ignition advance in
addition to controlling the air/fuel mixture. Large ignition advances
will promote the formation of oxides in the exhaust gases and
increase engine power (to an extent), but will also decrease the
engines fuel consumption.
If an engine is set up for maximum power the resultant carbon
monoxide levels will be too high to meet current emissions
legislation, so it is common practice to adjust the ignition timing at
different load levels to suit (see Load Mapping). Generally the

59

ignition timing is retarded somewhat to reduce CO and NOX


emissions.
A trade off between exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and
engine power has to be taken by the application engineer during
testing.
The amount if time taken for a fuel/air mixture to combust mainly
depends on the richness of the fuel mixture. When the engine is
under low load with a lean air/fuel mixture the degree of ignition
advance will need to be large to allow for the slow combustion of
this mixture. Conversely when the engine is under load a richer
air/fuel mixture is used to provide more power. This richer mixture
has a faster combustion time so the degree of ignition advance
needs to be reduced to keep the peak combustion pressure just
beyond TDC.
To achieve this variation of ignition advance in modern engines load
mapping is used. Information is sent from either a throttle
potentiometer or a manifold pressure sensor to indicate how much
load the engine is under. Therefore, load mapping varies the
amount of ignition advance in relation to engine speed and load.
The picture below is a simulation our Sparkz GUI software. The GS8
package is able to use 5 maps to provide a 3D map of the engines

60

performance. We will assume the load mapping is being carried out


by a throttle potentiometer.
Ignition Timing
Ignition coils are used to step up the voltage of the engines primary
circuit of the 12 - 24 volt range to 20,000 to 40,000 volt range. The
increased voltage is required for the current to jump the spark gap
in spark plugs, producing the ignition of the air/fuel mixture. The
increase of the voltage is matched by a proportionate decrease in
current.
At its most basic an ignition coil is made up of a primary winding, a
secondary winding and a laminated core.

61

Wasted Spark and Non-Wasted Spark Ignition

The secondary winding is wound with considerably more turns than


the primary winding. The resulting difference in number of turns is
proportional to the step up in voltage. An inductive ignition system
swill charge the primary winding with generally 12 volts, when the
current is removed a large EMF is generated in the secondary
winding of up to 40,000 Volts, more than enough to jump across a
spark gap.
In practice ignition coils will have some extra components but are in
operation practically the same.

62

Load Map Benefits


The above is the cycle of operation of one cylinder of a 4-stroke
engine. Generally engines have 2 or more cylinders acting in
concert with each other to produce the engine power.
It is interesting to note that one complete engine cycle takes two
revolutions but that individual valves and spark plugs only operate
once in this time. Hence their timing needs to be taken from a half
engine speed signal, which is the camshafts speed.
All ignition systems need to know at what position the engine is in
its cycle to be able to perform accurate spark timing calculations.
This information is generally provided by a timing disc attached
either to the crankshaft (engine speed) or camshaft (half engine
speed) and an electronic sensor mounted close by. Timing discs
either have teeth or magnets arrayed around the circumference,
which the electronic sensor can see. To enable the igniter to know
when the first cylinder is at top dead centre, the timing disk either
has an additional tooth or magnet or one missing.

63

If the timing disk is attached to the crankshaft, there is a need in


some engine configurations to have a sensor on the camshaft so
that the igniter knows which of the four-stroke cycle the engine is
in.
Ignition Diagnostics
A

non-wasted

spark

system

only

provides

spark

on

the

compression cycle of each cylinder of a four-stroke engine. Each


cylinder requires an ignition coil, and the timing disk for the ignition
system needs to rotate at half engine speed (cam shaft speed).

64

A wasted spark system produces a spark for the compression and


exhaust stroke of each cylinder in a four-stroke engine. The reason
this system is called wasted spark is that only the spark on the
compression cycle is useful, the spark on the exhaust stroke is
wasted as there is no combustible mixture in the cylinder.
Depending on the engine configuration it may be possible to use
one dual-output ignition coil to operate two cylinders in wasted
spark mode. A benefit of wasted spark systems is that the timing
disk is attached to the crankshaft, which is generally more
accessible.

65

Wasted spark ignition systems are commonly found in motorcycles


but are not recommended for use in industrial or alternative fuelled
applications.
Ignition advance is the number of degrees before top-dead-centre
(TDC) that a spark occurs. The reason for ignition advance is that
the spark to combust the fuel/air mixture needs to be timed so that
the point of peak combustion pressure is when the piston is just
beyond TDC. If the point of peak combustion pressure is too early
and before TDC the pressure wave will slow down the speed of the
piston

travelling

up

towards

it,

and

may

cause

detonation

(knocking) which is very damaging to the engine. If the point of


peak combustion pressure is too late, the pressure wave will chase
the piston as it travels back down the cylinder in the combustion
stroke and most of the energy will be lost.
As the speed of the engine rises, the ignition advance angle needs
to increase. This is because the time to combust an unchanging
air/fuel mixture is approximately constant. If the ignition advance
angle were kept the same, the point of peak combustion pressure
would move further and further into the combustion stroke losing
more and more power. Therefore the ignition advance needs to be
increased to bring the point of peak combustion to just beyond TDC.

66

Basic mapping varies the amount of ignition advance in relation to


engine speed, this is called speed mapping and can be shown on a
graph as below.
The optimum amount of ignition advance varies from engine to
engine and through different fuel types, timing maps of different
engines using different fuels will be different. It is not possible to
calculate the best map for your engine; you need to test the engine
on appropriate test equipment to generate the engine maps.
Emissions can be controlled via the use of ignition advance in
addition to controlling the air/fuel mixture. Large ignition advances
will promote the formation of oxides in the exhaust gases and
increase engine power (to an extent), but will also decrease the
engines fuel consumption.
If an engine is set up for maximum power the resultant carbon
monoxide levels will be too high to meet current emissions
legislation, so it is common practice to adjust the ignition timing at
different load levels to suit (see Load Mapping). Generally the
ignition timing is retarded somewhat to reduce CO and NOX
emissions.

67

Working Principle

Internal combustion engine design has been dominated by two


primary types: the 2 stroke and the 4 stroke.
While the 2 stroke has dominated the market for small bikes
(mopeds, scooters and commuter bikes), the 4 stroke has been
favored by manufacturers for their large capacity machines--250 cc
and above.
With more stringent emission control standards being enforced
throughout the world, the 4 stroke is the power unit of choice for
most manufacturers. This power unit offers reliability with good fuel
consumption and low emissions.

68

The 4 stroke engine powers most of the classic motorcycles over


250 cc. There are three designs of valve layout available for 4
stroke engines: over head valves (OHV) operated by push-rods (G),
overhead camshaft (OHC) either gear or chain driven (F), and side
valves (SV) operating directly on the camshaft (F). But what are the
differences between the three designs?
OHV:
The most common valve operating design up until the '70s was the
OHV operated by push rods. The camshaft on this design is located
in the crank cases or lower part of the cylinder block.
OHC:
In the over head cam design, a camshaft is carried in the cylinder
head. Some designs have both an inlet and an exhaust camshaft
(commonly known as DOHC, or double overhead cam).

69

SV:
Side valve 4 strokes have their valves (B & H) mounted in the
cylinder. This design was popular for many inexpensive, low
performance engines.

The OHV design is simple, reliable and reasonably efficient. But how
does it work? First it is necessary to become familiar with the major
component parts:

Rocker (A)

Inlet Valve (B)

Piston (C)
70

Connecting Rod (D)

Crankshaft (E)

Camshaft (F)

Pushrod (G)

Exhaust Valve (H)

Starting at the top, the cylinder head carries the valves, inlet (B)
and exhaust (H), and the spark plug. In addition, in OHV designs
the valves are operated by a rocking arm or lever (A), also carried
in the head.
The head is generally bolted to the cylinder, and the cylinder is in
turn bolted to the crankcases; however some 4 stroke designs have
a combined cylinder and upper crankcase half. 4 stroke crankcases
are split vertically on single cylinder designs; however the Japanese
manufacturers in particular prefer horizontal splitting cases on the
majority of their multi-cylinder engines. This horizontal splitting of
the cases makes assembly and disassembly much easier.
The 4 stroke is so called as all the required functions to make the
engine run are completed in 4 strokes of the piston-- inlet,
compression, power, exhaust.

71

The first stroke is the inlet or induction stroke. As the piston moves
down inside the cylinder, the inlet valve opens allowing a fresh
change of mixed gasoline and air to enter the cylinder.

72

After the piston has completed the inlet stroke, the inlet valve
closes and the piston returns back up inside the cylinder to
compress the mixture in readiness for the power phase.
After the gases have been ignited, the piston is driven down inside
the cylinder forcing the crankshaft to rotate.
As the piston completes its power stroke, the exhaust valve opens
in readiness for the exhaust phase.

73

Arrangement of Cylinders

Fuel injection
Multipoint port fuel injection: one or more injectors at each
cylinder intake Throttle body fuel injection: injectors
upstream of intake manifold.

Carburetor
74

Word origin
The

word carburetor comes

French carbure meaning

from

"carbide".

the

Carburer means

to

combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the


more

specific

meaning

of

increasing

the carbon(and

therefore energy) content of a fuel by mixing it with a


volatile hydrocarbon
Principles
The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air
moves, the lower its static pressure, and the higher
its dynamic pressure. The throttle (accelerator) linkage
does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it
actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of
air being pulled into the engine. The speed of this flow,
and therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel
drawn into the airstream.
When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines,
special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel
starvation during inverted flight. Later engines used an
early

form

of

fuel

injection

known

as

a pressure

carburetor.
Most production carbureted (as opposed to fuel-injected)
engines have a single carburetor and a matching intake
manifold that divides and transports the air fuel mixture to
the intake valves, though some engines (like motorcycle
engines) use multiple carburetors on split heads. Multiple
75

carburetor engines were also common enhancements for


modifying engines in the USA from the 1950s to mid1960s, as well as during the following decade of highperformance muscle cars fueling different chambers of the
engine's intake manifold.
Older engines used updraft carburetors, where the air
enters from below the carburetor and exits through the
top. This had the advantage of never "flooding" the
engine, as any liquid fuel droplets would fall out of the
carburetor instead of into the intake manifold; it also lent
itself to use of an oil bath air cleaner, where a pool of oil
below a mesh element below the carburetor is sucked up
into the mesh and the air is drawn through the oil-covered
mesh; this was an effective system in a time when
paper air filters did not exist.
Beginning in the late 1930s, downdraft carburetors were
the most popular type for automotive use in the United
States. In Europe, the sidedraft carburetors replaced
downdraft as free space in the engine bay decreased and
the use of the SU-type carburetor (and similar units from
other manufacturers) increased. Some small propellerdriven aircraft engines still use the updraft carburetor
design.
Outboard

motor carburetors

are

typically

sidedraft,

because they must be stacked one on top of the other in


order to feed the cylinders in a vertically oriented cylinder
block.
76

1979 Evinrude Type I marine sidedraft carburetor

Operation

Fixed-venturi, in which the varying air velocity in


the venturi alters the fuel flow; this architecture is
employed in most carburetors found on cars.

Variable-venturi, in which the fuel jet opening is


varied by the slide (which simultaneously alters air
flow). In "constant depression" carburetors, this is done
by a vacuum operated piston connected to a tapered
77

needle which slides inside the fuel jet. A simpler version


exists, most commonly found on small motorcycles and
dirt bikes, where the slide and needle is directly
controlled by the throttle position. The most common
variable venturi (constant depression) type carburetor
is the sidedraft SU carburetor and similar models from
Hitachi, Zenith-Stromberg and other makers. The UK
location of the SU and Zenith-Stromberg companies
helped

these

domination

carburetors

in

the

UK

car

rise

to

market,

position
though

of

such

carburetors were also very widely used on Volvos and


other non-UK makes. Other similar designs have been
used

on

some

European

and

few

Japanese

automobiles. These carburetors are also referred to as


"constant velocity" or "constant vacuum" carburetors.
An interesting variation was Ford's VV (Variable Venturi)
carburetor, which was essentially a fixed venturi
carburetor with one side of the venturi hinged and
movable to give a narrow throat at low rpm and a wider
throat at high rpm. This was designed to provide good
mixing and airflow over a range of engine speeds,
though

the

VV

carburetor

proved

problematic

in

service.
Disadvantages of the Carburetor
The main disadvantage of basing a carburetor's operation
on Bernoulli's principle is that, being a fluid dynamic
device, the pressure reduction in a venturi tends to be
78

proportional to the square of the intake air speed. The fuel


jets are much smaller and limited mainly by viscosity, so
that the fuel flow tends to be proportional to the pressure
difference. So jets sized for full power tend to starve the
engine at lower speed and part throttle. Most commonly
this has been corrected by using multiple jets. In SU and
other movable jet carburetors, it was corrected by varying
the jet size. For cold starting, a different principle was
used, in multi-jet carburetors. A flow resisting valve called
a choke, similar to the throttle valve, was placed upstream
of the main jet to reduce the intake pressure and suck
additional fuel out of the jets

Under all engine operating conditions, the carburetor


must:

Measure the airflow of the engine

Deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air


mixture in the proper range (adjusting for factors such
as temperature)

Mix the two finely and evenly

This job would be simple if air and gasoline (petrol) were


ideal fluids; in practice, however, their deviations from
79

ideal behavior due to viscosity, fluid drag, inertia, etc.


require a great deal of complexity to compensate for
exceptionally high or low engine speeds. A carburetor
must provide the proper fuel/air mixture across a wide
range of ambient temperatures, atmospheric pressures,
engine speeds and loads, and centrifugal forces:

Cold start

Hot start

Idling or slow-running

Acceleration

High speed / high power at full throttle

Cruising at part throttle (light load)

In addition, modern carburetors are required to do this


while maintaining low rates of exhaust emissions.
To function correctly under all these conditions, most
carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to
support several different operating modes, called circuits.

Types of Carburetors:
1. Solex Carburetor
80

2. Carter carburetor
3. S.U. Carburetor
Carburetor Efficiency
A carburetor is the part of an internal combustion engine
that blends air and fuel in a tiny explosion. The kinetic
energy from that explosion is used to push the pistons of
the engine.
A basic understanding of how an internal combustion
engine works is as follows:
The fuel injectors inject the gasoline.
The spark plugs ignite the gasoline.
The gasoline explosion moves the pistons. (Sort of like
a potato cannon.)
The pistons turn the crankshaft.
The crankshaft turns the rest of the car.
There is alternatives to an internal combustion engine.
External Combustion = Less efficient.
Gas Turbine = More Expensive, but very efficient.
Electrical = Currently difficult to refuel.
Hybrid Internal Combustion/Electrical = More efficient,
slightly more expensive.

81

Hydrogen Fuel Cell = Very efficient, currently more

expensive.

Lack of Efficiency
The primary problem
with

carburetors

is

the fact that most of


the energy it makes
is

wasted

as

heat

and isn't converted


into kinetic energy.
The

standard

Carburetor that we've been seeing for the last 70 years is


only 9% efficient. It gets an average of 25 miles/gallon of
gasoline, depending on the weight of the car. While this
has gone up since then (usually by making more efficient
82

use of the other parts of the car and by making cars out of
lightweight materials), carburetors today are still only
about 12% efficient.
Which means the other 88% is basically wasted energy in
the form of heat.

83

Combustion
All

internal

combustion

engines

depend

on

the

combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with oxygen from


the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order
to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). The
combustion process typically results in the production of a
great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam
and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high
temperature; the temperature reached is determined by
the chemical makeup of the fuel and oxidisers (see
stoichiometry), as well as by the compression and other
factors.
The most common modern

fuels are

made up of

hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels


(petroleum). Fossil fuels include diesel fuel, gasoline and
petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Except for
the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion
engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on
natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major
modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with
gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and
84

gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of


diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield
triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used.
Engines with appropriate modifications can also run on
hydrogen gas, wood gas, or charcoal gas, as well as from
so-called producer gas made from other convenient
biomass. Recently, experiments have been made with
using powdered solid fuels, such as the magnesium
injection cycle.
Internal

combustion

engines

require

ignition

of

the

mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression


ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical
methods, hot tube and flame methods were used.
Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built.
Gasoline Ignition Process
Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a
combination of a leadacid battery and an induction coil to
provide a high-voltage electric spark to ignite the air-fuel
mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery is recharged
during operation using an electricity-generating device
85

such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine.


Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and
compress it to not more than 12.8 bar (1.28 MPa), then
use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is
compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.

Diesel Ignition Process

86

Diesel

engines

and

HCCI

(Homogeneous

charge

compression ignition) engines, rely solely on heat and


pressure created by the engine in its compression process
for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually
twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will
take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a
small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via
a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI
type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to
rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to
higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and
HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues,
although they will run just as well in cold weather once
started. Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in
automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber just before starting to
reduce no-start conditions in cold weather. Most diesels
also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless,
this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers
as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off
(which can also be done via a switch or mechanical

87

apparatus),

and

for

running

auxiliary

electrical

components and accessories. Most new engines rely on


electrical and electronic engine control units (ECU) that
also adjust the combustion process to increase efficiency
and reduce emissions.
Two-stroke configuration
Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes
(one up, one down) for every power stroke. Since there are
no

dedicated

intake

or

exhaust

strokes,

alternative

methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. The


most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to
use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh
charge in the crankcase, which is then blown through the
cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls.
Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their
power output and mechanically very simple; however,
they are also generally less efficient and more polluting
than their four-stroke counterparts. In terms of power per
cm, a two-stroke engine produces comparable power to
an equivalent four-stroke engine. The advantage of having
88

one power stroke for every 360 of crankshaft rotation


(compared to 720 in a 4-stroke motor) is balanced by the
less complete intake and exhaust and the shorter effective
compression and power strokes. It may be possible for a
two-stroke to produce more power than an equivalent
four-stroke, over a narrow range of engine speeds, at the
expense of less power at other speeds.
Small

displacement,

crankcase-scavenged

two-stroke

engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of


engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to
scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the
exhaust port. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use airassisted fuel injection which avoids this loss, and are more
efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. Fuel
injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in
order to meet ever more stringent emission standards. But
the problem of total loss oil consumption still remains a
cause of high hydro carbon emissions.
Research continues into improving many aspects of twostroke motors including direct fuel injection, amongst
other things. The initial results have produced motors that
89

are

much

cleaner

burning

than

their

traditional

counterparts. Two-stroke engines are widely used in


snowmobiles, lawnmowers, string trimmers, chain saws,
jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles.
Two-stroke engines have the advantage of an increased
specific power ratio (i.e. power to volume ratio), typically
around 1.5 times that of a typical four-stroke engine.
The largest internal combustion engines in the world are
two-stroke diesels, used in some locomotives and large
ships. They use forced induction (similar to supercharging, or turbocharging) to scavenge the cylinders; an
example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer
turbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container
ships. It is the most efficient and powerful internal
combustion engine in the world with over 50% thermal
efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small fourstroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE
900648); size is an advantage for efficiency due to the
increase in the ratio of volume to surface area.
Common cylinder configurations include the straight or
inline configuration, the more compact V configuration,
90

and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration.


Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration
which

allows

more

effective

cooling.

More

unusual

configurations such as the H, U, X, and W have also been


used.
Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need
a cylinder head at all because they can instead have a
piston at each end of the cylinder called an opposed
piston design. Because here gas in- and outlets are
positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder, one can
achieve uniflow scavenging, which, as in the four-stroke
engine, is efficient over a wide range of engine speeds.
Also the thermal efficiency is improved because of lack of
cylinder heads. This design was used in the Junkers Jumo
205 diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts at either
end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in
the Napier Deltic diesel engines. These used three
crankshafts

to

serve

three

banks

of

double-ended

cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the


crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank

91

locomotive engines, and continues to be used for marine


engines, both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators.

Two-stroke
This system manages to pack one power stroke into every
two strokes of the piston (up-down). This is achieved by
exhausting and recharging the cylinder simultaneously.
The cylinder of the four strokes engine differs from the two
strokes engine. The major difference between both
engines is the valves that are located on the top of the
cylinder. These two valves open and close alternatively to
allow either air/fuel mixture to enter or exhaust gases to
come out. As it was previously mentioned, the motion of
the two valves happen through the camshaft system. The
spark plug is the one that ignites the compressed fuel-air
mixture

at

time

when

both

valves

are

closed.

Accordingly, the piston is pushed downward, transmitting


power to the crankshaft. Power is then transferred to the

92

wheel through other mechanisms.

The steps involved here are:


Suction (Intake) stroke: During this stroke, the piston
starts its motion from the top downward of the cylinder.
Synchronously, the intake valve is opened (based on the
camshaft mechanism), allowing air/vaporized fuel mixture
to enter to the combustion chamber.

93

Compression stroke: In this one, both valves should be


closed. The piston starts to move upward to compress the
fuel, until it reaches the top dead center. By compressing
the fuel, the fuel temperature and pressure increases.

94

Power Stroke: As the piston reaches the top dead center,


the spark plug ignites a spark, allowing the fuel to burn.
The combustion yields a high power that is transmited
through the crankshaft mechanism. It should be noted
that in order for

combustion energy to be consumed

efficiently in moving the piston, both valves should be


closed.

95

Exhaust Stroke: After reaching to the maximum


displacement of the piston, most of the energy liberated is
transferred. Accordingly, the pistons starts it back upward
motion to get rid of the exhaust gases that result from
combustion. At that moment, the exhaust valve is opened
to allow it to go outside the cylinder.

96

Two Stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine:


In a two-stroke SI engine a cycle is completed in two
strokes of a piston or one complete revolution (360) of a
crankshaft. In this engine the intake and exhaust strokes
are eliminated and ports are used instead of valves. In this
cycle, the petrol is mixed with lubricant oil, resulting in a
simpler, but more environmentally damaging system, as
the excess oils do not burn and are left as a residue. As
the piston proceeds downward another port is opened, the
fuel/air intake port. Air/fuel/oil mixtures come from the
carburetor, where it was mixed, to rest in an adjacent fuel
chamber. When the piston moves further down and the
cylinder doesn't have anymore gases, fuel mixture starts
to flow to the combustion chamber and the second
process of fuel compression starts. The design carefully
considers the point that the fuel-air mixture should not
mix with the exhaust, therefore the processes of fuel
injection and exhausting are synchronized to avoid that
concern. It should be noted that the piston has three
functions in its operation:
97

The piston acts as the combustion chamber with the


cylinder

and

compresses

the

air/fuel

mixture,

receives back the liberated energy, and transfers it to


the crankshaft.
The piston motion creates a vacuum that sucks the
fuel/air mixture from the carburetor and pushes it
from the crankcase (adjacent chamber) to the
combustion chamber.
The sides of the piston act like the valves, covering
and uncovering the intake and exhaust ports drilled
into the side of the cylinder wall.
The major components of a two-stroke spark ignition
engine are the:
Cylinder: A cylindrical vessel in which a piston makes
an up and down motion.
Piston: A cylindrical component making an up and
down movement in the cylinder.

98

Combustion chamber: A portion above the cylinder in


which the combustion of the fuel-air mixture takes
place.
Intake and exhaust ports: An intake port allows the
fresh fuel-air
chamber

and

mixture to
an

exhaust

enter
port

the combustion
discharges

the

products of combustion.
Crankshaft: A shaft which converts the reciprocating
motion of the piston into a rotary motion.
Connecting rod: A rod which connects the piston with
the crankshaft.
Spark plug: An ignition-source located at the cylinder
head that is used to initiate the combustion process.

Operation
99

When the piston moves from bottom dead center (BDC)


to top dead center (TDC) the fresh air and fuel mixture
enters the crank chamber through the intake port. The
mixture enters due to the pressure difference between the
crank

chamber

and

the

outer

atmosphere

while

simultaneously the fuel-air mixture above the piston is


compressed.
Ignition: With the help of a spark plug, ignition takes place
at the top of the stroke. Due to the expansion of the gases
the piston moves downwards covering the intake port and
causes the fuel-air mixture inside the crank chamber to be
compressed. When the piston is at bottom dead center the
burnt gases escape from the exhaust port.
100

At the time the transfer port is uncovered the compressed


charge

from

the

crank

chamber

enters

into

the

combustion chamber through the transfer port. The fresh


charge is deflected upwards by a hump provided on the
top of the piston and removes the exhaust gases from the
combustion chamber. Again the piston moves from bottom
dead center to top dead center and the fuel-air mixture is
compressed when the both the exhaust port and transfer
ports are covered. The cycle is repeated.
Advantages:
It has no valves or camshaft mechanism, hence
simplifying its mechanism and construction
For one complete revolution of the crankshaft, the
engine executes one cyclethe 4-stroke executes one
cycle per two crankshafts revolutions.
Less weight and easier to manufacture.
High power-to-weight ratio

101

Disadvantages:
The lack of lubrication system that protects the engine
parts from wear. Accordingly, the 2-stroke engines have a
shorter life.
2-stroke engines do not consume fuel efficiently.
2-stroke engines produce lots of pollution.
Sometimes part of the fuel leaks to the exhaust with the
exhaust gases. In conclusion, based on the above
advantages and disadvantages, the 2-stroke engines are
supposed to operate in vehicles where the weight of the
engine is required to be small, and the it is not used
continuously for long periods of time.

102

Four-stroke

Idealized Pressure/volume diagram of the Otto cycle


showing combustion heat input Qp and waste exhaust
output Qo, the power stroke is the top curved line, the
bottom is the compression stroke
Engines based on the four-stroke ("Otto cycle") have one
power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-up-down)
and employ spark plug ignition. Combustion occurs
rapidly, and during combustion the volume varies little
103

("constant volume"). They are used in cars, larger boats,


some motorcycles, and many light aircraft. They are
generally quieter, more efficient, and larger than their
two-stroke counterparts.

The steps involved here are:


1. Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in.
2. Compression

stroke:

Fuel

vapor

and

air

are

compressed and ignited.


3. Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is
pushed downwards.
4. Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. During the 1st,
2nd, and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power
and the momentum generated by the other pistons.
In that case, a four-cylinder engine would be less
powerful than a six- or eight-cylinder engine.

104

There are a number of variations of these cycles, most


notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. The diesel cycle is
somewhat different.
Split-cycle engines separate the four strokes of intake,
compression, combustion and exhaust into two separate
but paired cylinders. The first cylinder is used for intake
and compression. The compressed air is then transferred
through a crossover passage from the compression
cylinder into the second cylinder, where combustion and
exhaust occur. A split-cycle engine is really an air
compressor on one side with a combustion chamber on
the other.
Previous split-cycle engines have had two major problems
- poor breathing (volumetric efficiency) and low thermal
efficiency. However, new designs are being introduced that
seek to address these problems.
The Scuderi Engine addresses the breathing problem by
reducing the clearance between the piston and the
cylinder head through various turbo charging techniques.
The Scuderi design requires the use of outwardly opening
105

valves that enable the piston to move very close to the


cylinder head without the interference of the valves.
Scuderi addresses the low thermal efficiency via firing
ATDC.
Firing ATDC can be accomplished by using high-pressure
air in the transfer passage to create sonic flow and high
turbulence in the power cylinder.

Diesel cycle

106

P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows
the numbers 1-4 in clockwise direction.
Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle
reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression
heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate
ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In
the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the
cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure,
as the piston moves.
Otto cycle: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the
cars internal combustion engines that work using gasoline
as a fuel. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was
described for the four-stroke engine. It consists of the

107

same four major steps: Intake, compression, ignition and


exhaust.
PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram, 1-2: Intake:
suction stroke 2-3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3-4:
Heat addition stroke 4-5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic
expansion) 5-2: Heat rejection The distance between
points 1-2 is the stroke of the engine. By dividing
V2/V1=Compression Ratio
Five-stroke
The British company ILMOR presented a prototype of 5Stroke

double

expansion

engine,

having

two

outer

cylinders, working as usual, plus a central one, larger in


diameter, that performs the double expansion of exhaust
gas from the other cylinders, with an increased efficiency
in the gas energy use, and an improved SFC. This engine
corresponds to a 2003 US patent by Gerhard Schmitz, and
was developed apparently also by Honda of Japan for a
Quad engine. This engine has a similar precedent in a
Spanish 1942 patent (# P0156621 ), by Francisco JimenoCataneo, and a 1975 patent (# P0433850 ) by Carlos
108

Ubierna-Laciana ( www.oepm.es ). The concept of double


expansion was developed early in the history of ICE by
Otto himself, in 1879, and a Connecticut (USA) based
company, EHV, built in 1906 some engines and cars with
this principle, that didn't give the expected results.

Six-stroke
First invented in 1883, the six-stroke engine has seen
renewed interest over the last 20 or so years.
Four kinds of six-stroke use a regular piston in a regular
cylinder (Griffin six-stroke, Bajulaz six-stroke, Velozeta sixstroke and Crower six-stroke), firing every three crankshaft
revolutions. The systems capture the wasted heat of the
four-stroke Otto cycle with an injection of air or water.

109

The Beare Head and "piston charger" engines operate as


opposed-piston engines, two pistons in a single cylinder,
firing every two revolutions rather more like a regular fourstroke.
Most steel engines have a thermodynamic limit of 37%.
Even when aided with turbochargers and stock efficiency
aids, most engines retain an average efficiency of about
18%-20%.Rocket engine efficiencies are better still, up to
70%, because they operate at very high temperatures and
pressures and can have very high expansion ratios.
There are many inventions aimed at increasing the
efficiency of IC engines. In general, practical engines are
always compromised by trade-offs between different
properties

such

as

response,

exhaust

efficiency,
emissions,

weight,
or

power,

noise.

heat,

Sometimes

economy also plays a role in not only the cost of


manufacturing the engine itself, but also manufacturing
and distributing the fuel. Increasing the engine's efficiency
brings better fuel economy but only if the fuel cost per
energy content is the same.

110

Conclusion
Internal

combustion

important

engines

engineering

are

among

applications.

The

the

most

theory

of

application either depends on Diesel or Otto cycles. They


are categorized either according to the operating cycle, or
due

to

the

mechanism

of

working.

Each type of engines has some advantages over the other


one. Thus, the selection of the appropriate engine requires
determining the conditions of application.
As the four-stroke engine improves in performance, and
more mechanics are trained to work on them, the fourstroke engine will eventually replace the two-stroke
version

altogether.

Two-stroke

motors

available only on special order basis.

111

will

likely

be

The theory of application either depends on Diesel or Otto


cycles. They are categorized either according to the
operating cycle, or due to the mechanism of working. Each
type of engines has some advantages over the other one.
Thus, the selection of the appropriate engine requires
determining the conditions of application.

REFERENCES
1. A Text book of Automobile Engineering Mr. R. K. Rajput
2. A Text book of Internal Combustion Engines Mr. R.K.
Rajput
3. C. Fayette Taylor and Edward S. Taylor, The Internal
Combustion

Engine,

International Textbook Company,

1961.
4. C.F. Taylor, The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory
and Practice.
5.

A.R.

Rogowski,

Elements

Engines, McGraw-Hill, 1953.


112

of

Internal

Combustion

6. L.C. Lichty, Combustion Engine Processes, McGraw-Hill


Book Company, 6th edition, 1967.
7. M. Khovakh (general editor) Motor Vehicle Engines.
English translation form Russian. MIR Publishers, Moscow,
1976.
Website
www.google.com
www.goodreads.com

113