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THE U. S.

FIGHTING MAN'S

CODE
Published by the

OFFICE OF ARMED FORCES

INFORMATION and EDUCATION

Department of Defense

November 1955

This publication includes the report of the


Secretary of Defense's Advisory Committee
on Prisoners of War

PROPERTY OF u.s. ARMY

THE JUDGE,ADVOCATE GENERAL'S SCHOOl

LIBRARY

EXECUTIVE ORDER 10631

CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MEMBERS OF THE


ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES
By virtue of the authority vested in me as
President of the United States, and as Com
mander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the
United States, I hereby prescribe the Code of
Conduct for Members of the Armed Forces
of the United States which is attached to this
order and hereby made a part thereof.
Every member of the Armed Forces of the
United States is expected to measure up to
the standards embodied in this Code of
Conduct while he is in combat or in captivity.
To ensure achievement of these standards,
each member of the Armed Forces liable to
. capture shall be provided with specific training
and instruction designed to better equip him
to counter and withstand all enemy efforts
against him, and shall be fully instructed as
to the behavior and obligations expected of
him during combat or captivity.
The Secretary of Defense (and the Secretary
of the Treasury with respect to the Coast
Guard except when it is serving as part of
the Navy) shall take such action as is deemed
necessary to implement this order and to
disseminate and make the said Code known
to all members of the Armed Forces of the
United States.

THE WHITE HOUSE,


August 17, 1955.

In signing this order, the President


said: "No American prisoner of war will
be forgotten by the United States.
Every available means will be employed
by our government to establish contact
with, to support and to obtain the
release of all our prisoners of war.
Furthermore, the laws of the United
States provide for the support and care
of dependents of members of the Armed
Forces including those who become
prisoners of war. I assure dependents
of such prisoners that these laws will
continue to provide for their welfare."

CON1
Letter of Transmittal
I. Background
ll. A Brief Look at Histor;
ID. The American Fighting
IV. A Code of Conduct for
V. Korean Summary
VI. The Road Ahead for An:
Addenda

E ORDER 10631

FOR MEMBERS OF THE


F THE UNITED STATES
~uthority

vested in me as
ited States, and as Com
the Armed Forces of the
eby prescribe the Code of
ers of the Armed Forces
which is attached to this
~de a part thereof.
the Armed Forces of the
)ected to measure up to
:odied in this Code of
in combat or in captivity.
lent of these standards,
~ Armed Forces liable to
ided with specific training
~ned to better equip him
b.stand all enemy efforts
all be fully instructed as
I obligations expected of
or captivity.
lefense (and the Secretary
th respect to the Coast
it is serving as part of
,such action as is deemed
nent this order and to
ke the said Code known
;he' Armed Forces of the

CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal
I. Background
II. A Brief Look at History
ill. The American Fighting Man and Korea
IV. A Code of Conduct for the Future
V. Korean Summary
VI. The Road Ahead for America and the Armed Forces
Addenda

.I'd~r, the President

in prisoner of war will


. the United States.
eans will be employed
t to establish contact
and to obtain the
r prisoners of war.
laws of the United
the support and care
,em bers of the Armed
those who become
I assure dependents
that these laws will
~ for their welfare."

III

OFFICE OF THI

THE DEFENSE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON

PRISONERS OF WAR

WAS

MEMBERS

Defense Advisory Committl

Mr. Carter L. Burgess, Assistant Secretary of Defense (Man


power, Personnel and Reserve)-Chairman.
General John E. Hull, USA (Retired)-Vice Chairman.
Dr. Frank B. Berry, Assista~t Secretary of Defense (Health
and Medical).
Mr. Hugh M. Milton, II, Assistant Secretary of the Army
(Manpower and Reserve Forces).
.
Mr. Albert Pratt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Personnel
and Reserve Forces).
Mr. David S. Smith, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force
(Manpower and Personnel).
Lt. General Frank W. Milburn, USA (Retired).
Vice Admiral C. A. Lockwood, USN (Retired).
Lt. General Idwal H. Edwards, USAF (Retired).
Major General Merritt A. Edson, USMC (Retired). *

Mr. Stephen S. Jackson-Committee Counsel.


Mr. Theodore Roscoe-Special Advisor.
Mr. Edward Wetter-Office of the Assistant Secretary of
Defense (Research 'and Development).

STAFF
Colonel Horace E. Townsend, USA-8tafl' Director.

Colonel John C. Steele, USA-Deputy Staff Director.

Lt. Colonel Robert B. Rigg, USA-Member.

Commander Fred W. Frank, Jr., USN-Member.

Lt. Colonel Robert E. Work, USAF-Member.

Lt. Colonel F. B. Nihart, USMC-Member.

Major Donald B. Churchman, USA-Administration.

*Died 14 August 1955

Iv

Dear Mr. Secretary:


Your Defense Advisory Comm
been in constant session for the p
to submit this report of its delibe
We are certain that many pen
mittee to recommend courses (J
revolutionar.y as the speed and tl
missile or jet aircraft.
However, our task deals with]
We can find no basis for making
on the principles and foundatio
free and strong and on the qual
men of integrity and character.
that we have determined on cou
we are convinced are best for j
position among free nations.
The Code of Conduct we rec<
and a reasonable course for mer
the future. The conscience and I
in the support of this Code, and
be provided in our homes, by ou
the Armed FOrC'39 will be requi
live by this Code.
America no longer can afford
number of our fighting men becl
the hands of an enemy in some (
has brought the challenge to the
so the Code we propose may we:
if the problem of survival shoul,
streets.
And then too the United Sta
of her high position of world
propose must consider the stand~
and of our Constitution, as weI
Nations.

;ORY COMMIITEE ON
~S

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE


WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

OF WAR

July S9, 1955


~BERS

,ant Secretary of Defense (Man


ve)-Chairman.
Retired)-Vice Chairman.
:t Secretary of Defense (Health
ssistant Secretary of the Army
rces).
ecretary of the Navy (Personnel
nt Secretary of the Air Force
USA (Retired).
, USN (Retired).
I, USAF (Retired).
on, USMC (Retired). *

1,

"

"

"

mittee Counsel.
I Advisor.
of the Assistant Secretary of
llopment).
'AFF

USA-8taft' Director.
-Deputy Staff Director.
~4':-Menil>er.
f;USN~Member.

", ~Member.
Member.

A4dministration.

Defense Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War

Dear Mr. Secretary:


Your Defense Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War has
been in constant session for the past two months and is pleased
to submit this report of its deliberations and findings.
We are certain that many persons have expected this Com
mittee to recommend courses of action which would be as '
revolutionar.yas the speed and techniques of the latest guided
missile or jet aircraft.
However, our task deals with human beings and the Nation.
We can find no basis for making recommendations other than
on the principles and foundations which have made America
free and strong and on the qualities which we associate with
men of integrity and character. It is in, this common belief
that we have determined on courses of proposed action which
we are convinced are best for the United States and fo~ its
position among free nations.
The Code of Conduct we recommend sets a high standard
and a reasonable course for members of the Armed Forces of
the future. The conscience and heart of all America are needed
in the support of this Code, and 'the best of training that can
be provided in our homes, by our schools and churches and by
the Armed Forc~ will be required for all who undertake 'to
'
, live by this Code.
America no longer can afford to think in terms of a limited

number of our fighting men becoming prisoners of war and in

the hands of an enemy in some distant land. Modern warfare

has brought the challenge to the doorstep of every citizen, and

so the Code we propose may well be a Code for all Americans

if the problem of survival should ever come to our own main

streets.
.And then too the United States must constantly be aware

of her high position of world leadership, and the Code we

propose must consider the standard of the Ten Commandments

and of our Constitution, as well as our pledge to the United

Nations.
y

No Code should overlook the watermarks of America's


greatness or bow to the easier courses which might entrap
more easily our men as alleged war criminals and weaken
their fiber for the many ordeals they may face. We must
bear in mind the past and future significance of the reserva
tion made by Soviet Russia and other Communist nations to
Article 85 of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 on prisoners
of war.
Past history, the story of Korea and the crises which faced
our prisoners of war in that conflict from capture through
Operation Big Switch and after, were all carefully considered
and are presented in our report. The prisoner of war situa
tion resulting from the Korean War has received a great deal
of adverse publicity. As is stated in our account, much of
that adverse publicity was due to lack of information and
consequent misconceptions in regard to the problem.
A few statistics may prove reassuring to anyone who thinks
the Armed Forces were undermined by Communist propa
ganda in Korea.
A total of about 1,600,000 Americans served in the Korean
War. Of the 4,428 Americans who survived Communist im
prisonment, only a maximum of 192 were found chargeable
with serious offenses against comrades or the United States.
Or put it another way. Only lout of 23 American POWs was
suspected of serious misconduct.
The contrast with civilian figures tells an interesting story.
According to the lat'e8t F. B. I. statistics, 1 in 15 persons in
the United States has been mested and fingerprinted for the
commission, or the alleged commission, of criminal acts.
When one realizes that the Armed Forces come from a croSB
section of the national population, the record seems fine indeed.
It seems better than that when one weighs in the balance the
tremendous pressures the American POWs were under.
Weighed in that balance, they cannot be found wanting.
We examined the publicly alleged divergent action taken by
the Services toward prisoners repatriated from Korea. The
disposition of all cases was governed by the facts and circum
stances surrounding each case, and was as consistent, equitable
and uniform as could be achieved by any two boardsor courts.
As legal steps, including appeals, are completed and in light of
the uniqueness of the Korean War and the particular conditions

'Ii

surrounding American prisoners


Secretaries should make thorou~
8.warded. This continuing revi
any excessive sentences, if fOUI
sidered and mitigated. This l
account a comparison with sente
ere for similar offenses.
In concluding, the Commiti
Americans require a unified au
duct for our prisoners of war ba<
program. This position is also
concensus of opinion of all
Committee. From no one did WI
tions on this point than from th
war in Kore~fficers and entis
In taking this position and rE
pointed out to the Committee, II
in return America must always
upon whom befalls prisoner of \1
able effort in obtaining their earl
side.

the

The Honorable Charles E. Wils<


The Secretary of Defense

Ie the wa.termarks of America's


sier courses which might entrap
eged war criminals and weaken
ieals they may face. We must
luture significance of the reserva
and other Communist nations to
onventions of 1949 on prisoners

Korea and the crises which faced


,t conflict from capture through
'ter, were all carefully considered
ort. The prisoner of war situa
:an War has received a great deal
stated in our account, much of
due to lack of information and
I regard to the problem.
reassuring to anyone who thinks
lermined by Communist propaAmericans served in the Korean
lSwho survived Communist 00
"of 192 were found chargeable
';J:'ades or the United States.
<J.23 American POWs was
ter
paIl m
'. eating story.

~,lin15 persons in
,cd,:fingerprinted for the
.. rill, .of criminal acts.
..;,~Forces come from a cross
iron,.the record seems :fine indeed.
m one weighs in the balance the
American POWs were under.
po cannot be found wanting.
Ueged divergent action taken by
repatriated from Korea. The
rerned by the facts and circum
and 'ras as consistent, equitable
ed by any two boards'or courts.
Is, are completed and in light of
rar and the particular conditions

surrounding American prisoners of war, the appropriate Service


Secretaries should make thorough reviews of all punishments
a.warded. This continuing review should make certain that
any excessive sentences, if found to exist, are carefully con
sidered and mitigated. This review should also take into
account a comparison with sentences meted out to other prison
ers for similar offenses.
In concluding, the Committee unanimously agreed that
Americans require a unified and purposeful standard of con
duct for our prisoners of war backed up by a first class training
program. This position is also wholeheartedly supported by
the concensus of opinion of all those who consulted with the
Committee. From no one did we receive stronger recommenda
tions on this point than from the former American prisoners of
war in Korea~fficers and enlisted men.
In taking this position and recommending this Code, it was
pointed out to the Committee, and the Committee agr-ees, that
in return America must always stand behind every American
upon whom befalls prisoner of war status and spare no reason
able effort in obtaining their earliest possible release back to our
side.
/
Sincerely,

~.'lJs"",.

_.~.~

~1fE; C/;fG"

The Honorable Charles E. Wilson


The Secretary of Defense

vii

..

" [i

I
BACKGROUND
The Fortunes of War
Fighting men declare it is neitlJ
be taken prisoner. In the sense t
it, but finds himself unable to aVI
Often, like a motor crash, it comes
too, it is accompanied by injury.
painful and in the end it may pro
with many accidents, it is "bad lu
Fighting men speak of "the fo
luck cannot smile on all partici
lose. The man taken captive is (
of Misfortune. That can be one
But the prisoner is always a sol
tune can change. In the U. S. 8'
maxim: "Luck is where you find i
searching. It may come by way I
for escape. Opportunity or luck
oner exchange. They also serve Vi
Lord helps those who hustle in th
These are the views of fighting
been prisoners of war-those whc
victions, derived from experienc
fallacy-the misconception that a
hero. Conversely, they do not c
ferior performance. Everything (
the circumstances involved.
Public Interests and Misconcept
Clearly one should not general
all into a single slot, or jump fro
Public opinion tends to settle for
convenient. The "single slot" is
equals-all deduction, quickly arri,
some thinking. But these hand:
distort factuality. Misconceptic
there has been misinformation 0
opinion may go far askew.
In the case of American POW
prisoner in Korea-misconceptic
most part they are based on errc
equals-all deductions. Too, for
365488 mg--55----2

BACKGROUND

The Fortunes of War


Fighting men declare it is neither dishonorable nor heroic to
be taken prisoner. In the sense that the victim does not covet
it, but finds himself unable to avoid it, capture is an accident.
Often, like a motor crash, it comes as complete surprise. Often,
too, it is accompanied by injury. Nearly always the upshot is
painful and in the end it may prove fatal. And, as is the case
with many accidents, it is "bad luck."
Fighting men speak of "the fortunes of war." In combat,
luck cannot smile on aU participants. Some.are bound to
lose. The man taken captive is one of the unlucky-a Soldier
of Misfortune. That can be one definition for war-prisoner.
But the prisoner is always a soldier, adversity despite. For
tune can change. In theU. S. Submarine Service there is the
maxim: "Luck is where you find it." The POW must keep on
searching. It may come by way of chance for rescue or chance
for escape. Opportunity or luck may favor him through pris
oner exchange. They also serve who only stand and wait. The
Lord helps those who hustle in the meantime.
These are the views of fighting men. And of men who have
been prisoners of war-those who have "had it." Their con
victions, derived from experience, serve to dispel a popular
fallacy-the misconception that a prisoner of war is, perforce, a
hero. Conversely, they do not chalk his capture down to in
ferior performance. Everything depends on the individual and
the circumstances involved.

Public Interests and Misconceptions


Clearly one shoUld not generalize about POWs, lump them
all into a single slot, or jump from "some to all" conclusions.
Public opinion tends to settle for generalities because they are
convenient. The "single slot" is easy to handle. The some
equals-all deduction, quickly arrived at, does not entail bother
some thinking. But these handy and quick devices serve to
distort factuality. Misconceptions result. If, in addition,
there has been misinformation or lack of information, public
opinion may go far askew.
In the case of American POWs-in particular, those taken
prisoner in Korea-misconceptions are abundant, For the
most part they are based on erroneous generalities and some
equals-all deductions. Too, for reasons which will become
1

clear, the public has heretofore not been fully informed on the
details necessary for balanced judgment.
Definitions were and are unclear or lacking. To begin with,
just what is a prisoner of war? The man and his situation may
be readily visualized. But what is his military status? What
conduct is required of ,the prisoner in regard to enemy interroga
tion? What rules and regulations must he follow during con
finement? What are his rights and privileges as codified by
various international conventions and protocols?
What treatment may the .prisoner of war expect from the
"detaining power," his captors? What conditions are imposed
by the so-called "laws of war?" Can a POW be tried as a
war criminal? What is a war criminal?
Did the American POW in Korea face some novel and
alarming menace from his Communist captors? Were nearly
all prisoners tortured or "brain washed?" Did many POWs
in Korea adopt Marxist doctrine? Were there hundreds of
subverted turncoats, traitors, voluntary collaborators? In
punishing such malefactors was there divergence in the military
Semces-some lenient; others "Spartan?"
On many of these and similar questions the citizen on the
home front has remained largely uninformed. Too often the
POW, himself, has not known the answers.

Appointment of the Defense Advisory Committee


Every war has its disturbing aftermath. There is always
another side to the Victory coin. If the victory is not clearly
imprinted and the war has ended in what seems a stalemate,
the coin becomes suspect. In any event, there is usually a
post-war inventory. If losses have been heavy and objectives
obscure, the coin may seem debased.
The inventory after the War of 1812 was unpleasant. There
were some rude reactions after the Spanish-American War.
In a great war, some battles are inevitably lost. Military
leaders study these battles, determined to uncover .mistakes,
if any were made, 80 that errors in kind may be avoided in the
future.
Correction of possible errors and the need for a unified plan
for the future led the Department of Defense to examine closely
the prisoner-or-war situation in Korea. The Defense Advisory
Committee on Prisoners of War was organized to study the
problem.

II
A BRIEF LOOK AT HISlO
From the Beginning of Time
For a full understanding of tol
background knowledge of the J:
established precedents which pr(
to shed light on preparation for :
Primitive man and his barbal
enslaved all foemen who were cal
the conqueror to hold a captured
Such a victim was Lot. Accorc
b~ the forces of Abraham-perhl
on record.
But the vanquished of the anc
mination. One finds in Samuel:
. . . go and smite Amalek and ut
spare them not." Saul was CODI
took a few Amalekite prisoners.
of Syracuse was exiled for refus
captives. But it seemed mankinc
to humane treatment of captives
ancient. Code of Manu (about 201
was enjoined to do no injury to th
enemy.
Less humane, the Romans spo
often using them for target pI
Captives were tortured for public
riors rowed Caesar's naval galleyl
and were killed when they could
and slay onl" Germanicus ord
"Do not take prisonersl We wi
destroyed." Thumbs sometimes
eign gladiator or the stalwart Wf
But mercy to the conquered foe 1
Medieval Concepts
Chivalry developed in the WE
Christian civilization, the concel
the Dark Ages, soldiering remai
knighthood served to ten:per tJ

ire not been fully informed on the


d judgment.
nclear or lacking. To begin with,
,? The man and his situation may
That is his military status? What
loner in regard to enemy interroga
l.tions must he follow during con
hts and privileges as codified by
tions and protocols?
prisoner of war expect from the
~? What conditions are imposed
iLr?" Can a POW be tried as a
r criminal?
in Korea face some novel and
ommunist captors? Were nearly
'ain washed?" Did many POWs
}trine? Were there hundreds of
~, voluntary collaborators? In
itS there divergence in the military
s "Spartan?"
war questions the citizen on the
gely uninformed. Too often the
r the answers.
~ Advisory Committee

ing aftermath. There is always


oin.H the victory is not clearly
ndedin.what seems a stalemate,
[n any event, there is usually a
J.h@ovebeenheavy and objectives
~based.
_
_
r of-1812was unpleasant. There
r the Spanish-American War.
lS are inevitably lost.
Military
letermined to uncover .mistakes
Irs in kind may be avoided in th~
s and the need for a unified plan
ent of Defense to examine closely
11 Korea.
The Defense Advisory
Var was organized to study the

II
A BRIEF LOOK AT HISTORY
From the Beginning of Time
For a full understanding of today's prisoner of war problem,
background knowledge of the past is essential. History has
established precedents which provide the knowledge necessary
to shed light on preparation for the future.
Primitive man and his barbarian descendant annihilated or
enslaved all foemen who were captured. In time it occurred to
the conqueror to hold a captured headman or leader as hostage.
Such a victim was Lot. According to Scripture he was freed
by the forces of Abraham-perhaps the earliest prisoner-rescue
on record.
But the vanquished of the ancient world usually faced exter
mination. One finds in Samuel: "thus saith the Lord of Hosts
. . . go and smite Amalek and utterly destroy all they have, and
spare them not." Saul was considered disobedient because he
took a few Amalekite prisoners. Six cen~uries later Hemocritus
of Syracuse was exiled for refusing to slaughter all Athenian
captives. But it seemed mankind had a conscience. In respect
to humane treatment of captives, it found voice in India in the
ancient. Code of Manu (about 200 B. C.). The Hindu warrior
was enjoined to do no injury to the defenseless or to the subdued
enemy.
Less humane, the Romans sported with their war-prisoners,
often using them for target practice or gladiatorial shows.
Captives were tortured for public amusement. Enslaved war
riors rowed Caesar's naval galleys to North Africa and Britain,
and were killed when they could no longer pull an oar. "Slay,
and slay on!" Germanicus ordered his Rhineland invaders.
"Do not take prisoners! We will have no peace until all are
destroyed." Thumbs sometimes went up for the valiant for
eign gladiator or the stalwart warrior who begged no quarter.
But mercy to the conquered foe was usually a whim.
Medieval Concepts
Chivalry developed in the Western World with the rise of
Christian civilization, the concept of "Do Unto Others." In
the Dark Ages, soldiering remained savage, but the codes of
knighthood served to ten:per the "Yarrior's steel. The true
3

knight refused to slay for slaughter's sake. Conquering, he


could be merciful to a gallant opponent. His prisoner was not
a plaything for sadistic ente,tainment.
If the chivalric code was sometimes more honored in breach
than in observance, the ideal-the Golden Rule-was there.
It was threatened by intolerant ideologies and the fanaticism
which fosters atrocities. Cruel pogroms and religious wars
bloodied Medieval Europe. The Islamic conquests were
savagery untrammeled. Woe to the Unbeliever captured by
the stepsons of Abu Bekrl But even as it clashed with the
sword, the scimitar acquired tempering. Possessed of his own
code, the Moslem warrior could appreciate gallantry.
The knight was called upon to assume the obligations of
noblesse oblige. Warrior or liegeman, facing battle, was pledged
to remain true to his king or cause, even if captured. Under
any circumstance treason would merit retributive punishment.
Treachery, the disclosure of a trust or the deliverance of a friend
to the enemy, was perfidious-the mark of Judas the Betrayer.
Thus rules for the fighting man in combat or in captivity were
linked to knightly concepts of duty, honor, loyalty to friend,
and gallantry to foe.
Some time during the Crusades a rule evolved in regard to
prisoner interrogation. The captive knight was permitted to
divulge his name and rank-admissions necessitated by the
game of ransom. A necessity for prisoner identification, the
rule holds today, as iInposed by the modern Geneva Conven~
tions:
"Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is
bound to give only his name, rank, date of birth, and army,
regimental, personal or serial number."
In Europe during the 17th Century the concept emerged that
prisoners of war were in custody of the capturing sovereign or
state. No rules for their treatment had yet been formulated,
but they were protected from servitude and personal revenge.
Later, during the 18th Century, captivity was considered '&
means of preventing return to friendly forces. This was a step
forward. Military prisoners were no longer considered guilty
of crimes against the state.

The American Revolution


To discourage desertions during the Revolution, the United
States established the death penalty for those. prisoners who,
after capture, took up arms in the service of the enemy. Am

nesty was granted to deserters bu


the enemy. Duress or coercion "
only in event of threatened immE
first American definition of requirE
Treaty of 1785 no standa.rd of (
conditions of confinement, care ane

The American Civil War


During the Civil Wat there was
ment afforded prisoners. About 3
the Southern forces and about 5,4,
armies joined the Federal army.
Prisoner conduct after capture w,
ment General Or:der No. 207, 3 JulJ
the order provided that it was the
escape. This order apparently v
spread practices of surrender and
further combatant service. PrOSI
based on three criteria:
-misconduct where there v
-active participation in co
-failure to return voluntar
Nine years after the Civil War f
rights of prisoners was drafted 1
(1874). It was signed by fifteen n
the agreement.

World War. I C1nd II


In 1907 the Hague Regula.tions
to captivity in war. These regula
ventions of 1929 and 1949. The t
a.nd it recently ratified the Genevl
Conventions set forth in detail the
should be afforded prisoners, but
scribe the conduct which a natron
who may become prisoners. This
tion by sovereign powers.
There are, however, several pr
which do require specific conduct.
laws, regulations and orders in for,
the detaining power. They may 1
rules. They must divulge name,l
of birth.

laughter's sake. Conquering, he


opponent. His prisoner was not
iainment.
lmetimes more honored in breach
J-the Golden Rule-was there.
tnt ideologies and the fanaticism
uel pogroms and religious wars
The Islamic conquests were
~ to the Unbeliever captured by
But even as it clashed with the
~empering. Possessed of his own
ld appreciate gallantry.
)D to assume the obligations of
geman, facing battle, was pledged
cause, even if captured. Under
lId merit retributive punishment.
irust or the deliverance of a friend
-the mark of Judas the Betrayer.
Ian in combat or in capt.ivity were
f duty, honor, loyalty to friend,
ades a rule evolved in regard to
~aptive knight was permitted to
-admissions necessitated by the
r for prisoner identification, the
by the modem Geneva Conven~
en questioned on the subject, is
rank, date of birth, and army,
number."
entury the concept emerged that
iyof the capturing sovereign or
~ment had yet been formulated,
servitude, and personal revenge.
rry,captivity was considered a
triendly forces. This was a step
'ere no longer considered guilty

ing the Revolution, the United


9nalty for those. prisoners who,
~he service of the enemy. Am-

nesty was granted to deserters but not those who deserted to


the enemy. Duress or coercion was'recognized as mitigating
only in event of threatened immediate death. This was the
first American definition of requir",prisoner conduct. In the
Treaty of 1785 no standa.rd of conduct was prescribed but
conditions of confinement, care and parole were define<J.

The American Civil War


During the Civil War there was some regression in the treat
ment afforded prisoners. About 3,170 Federal prisoners joined
the Southern forces and about 5,452 prisoners of the Southern
armies joined the Federal army.
Prisoner conduct after capture was mentioned in War Depart
ment General Or.der No. 207, 3 July 1863. Among other things,
the order provided that it was the duty of a prisoner of war to
escape. This order apparently was intended to curb wide
spread practices of surrender and subsequent parole to escape
further combatant service. Prosecution for misconduct was
based on three criteria:
-misconduct where there was no duress or coercion.
-active participation in combat against Federal forces.
-failure to return voluntarily.
Nine years after the Civil War a declaration establishing the
rights of prisoners was drafted by the Congress of Brussels
(1874). It was signed by fifteen nations, none of which ratified
the agreement.

World War. I C1nd II


In 1907 the Hague Regulations established rules pertaining
These regulations led to the Geneva Con
ventions of 1929 and 1949. The United States signed all three,
and it recently ratified the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The
Conventions set forth in detail the rights and protections which
should be afforded prisoners, but they do not.specifically pre
scribe the conduct which a nation may require of its personnel
who may become prisoners. This is rightfully left for prescrip
tion by sovereign powers.
There are, however, several provisions of the Conventions
which do require specific conduct. Prisoners are subject to the
laws, regulations and orders in force within the armed forces of
the detaining power. They may be punished for infractions of
rules. They must divulge name, rank, service number and date
of birth.
to captivity in war.

A Code of Conduct
Although all the Services had regulations, the U. S. Armed
Forces have never had a clearly defined code of conduct appli
cable to American prisoners after capture. There are piece
meal legal restrictions and regulations but no comprehensive
codification. However, despite this lack of a code, American
troops have demonstrated through all wars that they do not
surrender easily, they have never surrendered in large bodies
and they have in general performed admirably in their country's
cause as prisoners of war.

III
THE AMERICAN FIGHTING
THE KOREAN BATILE
.Our cause was simple and jus
Korean War were frequently conf
The Korean War had three af
War aspect.:-Notth Koreans figh
trol of a dhided country. There'
first United Nations' attempt to s
sor. And there was the Cold WaI
blocking the expansion of Commu
The causes of the war, United
need for Anierican intervention "VI
the public mind. This lack of un
citizens and American.fighting mE
The Communists attempted t
condition in both international
with our prisoners of war.
Armed with Soviet weapons, No
invl\ded South Korea on June
battalion of the U. S. 24th Info.:
Korea from Japan. The divisiOI
the enemy on the outskirts of Seo
The United States began a piec1
forces in Korea. The first units
prepared for combat. Thousanc
Korea. Many were veterans of '
at a factory or office job can slo
However, by Novem,ber 1950, tl
completely beaten, their capital "VI
remnant forceS were scattered an
was almost at its climax when
crashed over the Yalu.
That was on October 25th.
opened a massive counter-offeru
retreat. Early in De~ember, Am
trapped at the Chang-Jin Resen
broke the trap and fought their ,
were evacuated. There ensued

had regulations, the U. S. Armed


early defined code of conduct appli
rs after capture. There are pieceregulations but no comprehensive
~pite this lack of a code, American
through all wars that they do not
. never surrendered in large bodies
~formed admirably in their country's

III
THE AMERICAN FIGHTING MAN AND KOREA

THE KOREAN BATTLE


.Our cause was simple and just, but our objectives in the
Korean War were frequently confused in the public mind~
The Korean War had three aspects. There was the Civil
War aspectr--Notth Koreans fighting South Koreans for con
trol of a dhided country. There was the collective aspect-the
first United Nations' attempt to stop a treaty breaking aggres
sor. And there was the Cold War aspect-the Western powers
blocking the expansion of Communist imperialism.
The causes of the war, United Nations' objectives and the
need for American intervention were not clearly delineated in
the public mind. This lack of understanding prevailed among
citizens and American.fighting men.
The Communists attempted to exploit to the fullest this
condition in both international propaganda and in dealing
with our prisoners of war.
Armed with Soviet weapons, North Korean Communist forces
invl\ded South Korea on June 25, 1950. Six days later
battalion of. the U. S. 24th Infantry Division was rushed to
Korea from Japan. The division was soon in action against
the enemy on the outskirts of Seoul.
The United States began a piecemeal build-up of the fighting
forces in Korea. The firs~ units to reach Korea were not well
prepared for combat. Thousands of reserves were flown to
Korea. Many were veterans of World War II, but five years
at a factory or office job can slow up a man's trigger finger.
However, by Novem,ber 1950, the North Koreans had been
completely beaten, their capital was in Allied hands, and their
remnant forceS were scattered and disorganized. The 'victory
was ahnost at its climax when the Chinese Red avalanche
crashed over the Yalu.
That was on October 25th. A month later the Chinese
opened a massive counter-offensive hurling our forces into
retreat. Early in December, American and Allied Forces were
trapped at the Chang-Jin Reservoir. By fierce fighting they
broke the trap and fought their way to Htu;lgnam where they
were evacuated. There ensued a winter of back-to-wall

battling in subzero cold. It was during this gruelling period


that most of the American POWs were captured.

Jmprisonment, North Korea


During the Korean War a total ot 7,190 Americans were
captured by the enemy. Of these, 6,656 were Army troops'
263 wer.e Air Force men; 231 were Marines; 40 were Navy men:
'fhe Army bore the heaviest burden of prisoner losses.
The captives were marched off to various prison camps in the
North Korean interior. Altogether there were 20 of these
camps.

"Death Marches"
The first ordeal the prisoner had to suffer-and often the
worst-was the march to one of these camps. The North
Koreans frequently tied a prisoner's hands behind his back or
bound his arms with wire. Wounded prisoners were jammed
into trucks that jolted, dripping blood, along broken roads.
Many of the wounded received no medical attention until they
reached the camp. Some were not attended to until days
thereafter.
The marching prisoners were liable to be beaten or kicked
to their feet if they fell. A number of the North Korean officers
were bullwhip barbarians, products of a semi-primitive en
vironment. Probably they had neTer heard of the Geneva
Conventions or any other code of war. The worst of this breed
were responsible for the murder of men who staggered out of
line or collapsed at roadside. They were particularly brutal
to South Korean captives. Evidence indicates that many
ROK prisoners were forced to dig their own graves before they
were shot (an old Oriental custom applied to the execution of
eriminals). Some Amencans, with hands tied behind back,
were shot by the enemy.
So the journeys to the prison camps were "death marches."
EspeciaJIy in the winter of. 1950-1951 when the trails were
knee-deep in snow and polar winds flogged the toiling column.
On one of these marches, 700 men were headed north. Before
the camp was reached, 500 men had perished.

Facilities, Food, and Care Were Poor


The camps were what might be expected in a remote corner
of Asia. Prisoner rations were scanty-a basic diet of rice
occasionally leavened with Bome foul kind of soup. The Red

Chinese and Korean authorities


conformed with the rules of th
prisaner received the same food
captive. Of course, the Chinese
The average American could not
broke out in the camps. Many 0
of dysentery.
The men suffered much from
summer. Water was often searl
Barracks were foul and unsanit&.r;1
In the best of the camps the
were sometimes given tobacco, a
sional mail. As will be noted, su
as rewards for "cooperative !condt.
A few Red Cross pac~ges I
enemy consistently refused to p
Cross to inspect prisoner of war ca

Camps Varied from Bad to

WOI

In the worst of the camps, the


of their teeth and raw courage.
were knoWn to lose 50 pounds we
The "bad" camps included the
Suan, a camp known as "Dee.th ,
camp called "The Valley," ap
Kanggye. Among the worst cal
Center" near Pukchin and a ne
called "The Caves." This last
caverns in which the men werl
forced to sleep without blankets
them. There were no latrine
the prisoners were reduced to a d~
almost unbelievable. Those sen
oners accUl~ed of insubordination, .
ing to escape, or committing 8'
The testimony of survivors sugl
seldom fitted by the punishment
talk to military interrogaters wer,
"The Caves."

npak's" Was No Palace


Possibly the worst camp endl
Korea was the one knoWn as "Pak::

was during this gruelling period


'OWs were captured.

ot 7,190 Americans were


6,656 were Army troops;
were Marines; 40 were Navy men.
burden of prisoner losses.
I off to various prison camps in the
together there were 20 of these
a total

r these,

ler had to suffer-and often the


Ile of these camps. The North
[soner's hands behind his back or
Wounded prisoners were jammed
ping blood, along broken roads.
d no medical attention until they
'ere not attended to until days
lre liable to be beaten or kicked
mber of the North Korean officers
roducts of a semi-prinllitive en
lad neTer heard of the Geneva
~ of war. The worst of this breed
ler of men who staggered out of
They were particularly brutal
Evidence indicates that many
dig their own graves before they
~tom applied to the execution of
with hands tied behind back,
camps were "death marches."
950-1951 when the trails were
rinds flogged the toiling column.
nen were headed north. Before
n had perished.

ill

'ere Poor
, be expected in a remote corner
re scanty-a basic diet of rice
le foul kind of soup. The Red

Chinese and Korean authorities pointed out that this larder


conformed with the rules of the Geneva Conventions-the
prisaner received the same food as the soldiery holding him
captive. 01 course, the Chinese were inured to a rice diet.
The average American could not stomach such fare. Sickness
broke out in the camps. Many of the men suffered long sieges
of dysentery.
The men suffered much from cold in winter and heat in
summer. Water was often scarce; bathing became difficult.
Barracks were foul and unsanitary.
In the best of the camps the men behind the barbed wire
~ere som?times gi~en tobacco, a few morsels of candy, occa
SIOnal mail. As will be noted, such items were usually offered
as rewards for "cooperative ;conduct."
A few R:ed Cross paclP,iges got through. However, the
enemy consIStently refused to permit the International Red
Cross to inspect prisoner of war camps. There was good reason.
,

Camps Varied from Bad to Wone


In the worst of the camps, the prisoners existed by the skin
of their teeth and raw courage. Men in the "bad" camps
were knoWn to lose 50 pounds weight in a matter of weeks.
The "bad" camps included the so-called "Bean Camp" near
Suan, a camp known as "Dea.th Valley" near Pukchin, another
camp called "The Valley," apparently in the vicinity of
Kanggye. Among the worst camps were the "Interrogation
Center" near Pukchin and a neighboring disciplinary center
called "The Caves." This l~t was literally composed of
caverns in which the men were confined. Here they were
forced to sleep without blankets. Their food was thrown at
them. There were no latrine facilities. In "The Caves"
the prisoners were reduced to a degree of misery and,degradation
almost unbelievable. Those sent to "The Caves" were pris
oners accused of insubordination, breaking camp rules, attempt
ing to escape, or committing some other crime (so-called).
The testimony of survivors suggests that the "crime" was
seldom fitted by the punishment. Some mEm who refused tG
talk to military interrogaters were threatened with, or sent to
"The Caves."

"Pak's" Was No Palace


Possibly the worst camp endured by American POWs in
Korea was the one knoWn as "Pak's Palace." This was a highly
9

specialized interrogation center located near the city of Pyong


yang. The place was a brickyard flanked by Korean h6uses.
It waS a North Korean establishment dominated by a chief
interrogator, Colonel Pak. Pak was ably assisted by a hench
man who came to be called "Dirty Pictures" Wong by the
POWs.
The camp was under the administration of a Colonel Lee,
and there were several other interrogators on the team. But
Pak and Wong were symbolic of the institution. Pak was a
sadist, an animal who should have been in a cage. The team
employed the usual questionnaires, the carrot-alid-prod tech
niques to induce answers. .Failing to induce them, they con
trived to compel them. The "Palace" wanted military infor
mation. Coercion was used as the ultimate resort. And for
Pak, coercion began soon after a prisoner refused to talk.
Then Pak would use violence. Abusive language would .be
followed by threats, kicks, cigarette burns, and promises of
further torture.
Several U. S. Army and Navy officers were questioned at
"Pak's Palace." A few Army enlisted men went through this
brickyard mill. The great majority of POWs held there were
Air Force officers. They took a bad beating from Colonell'ak.
But the prisoners found ways to get around the beating.
One way was to convince the captors' that you were dumb,
stupid, the low man in your class. Undergoing interrogation,
one officer convinced his inquisitors that he was the stupidest
officer in the service.. He was awarded a contemptuous slap,
and that was about all.
To the surprise of some prisoners at the "Palace," the inter
rogation team would sometimes open up with a wild political
harangue. Then came the word that the enemy had established
a system of indoctrination cours~s. The prisoner might start
the hard way-and be punisheqrby restricted rations and other
.privations. If he began to show the "proper spirit"-to co
operate with his captors-he was lectured and handed Com
munist literature. A docile prisoner who read the literature
and listened politely to the lectures, was graduated to a better
class. Finally he might be sent to "Peaceful Valley." In this
lenient camp the food was relatively good. Prisoners might
even have tobacco. And here they were given all sorts of
Marxian propaganda. .The graduates from "Peaceful Valley"
and others who accepted Communist schooling were called

10

"Progressives." Prisoners who rl


program often'remained in toughe
considered "Reactionaries."
But the enemy followed no rigi<
ment of prisoners was capricio
contempt for the man who rea
The prisoner who stood up to the
an interrogator might be dismiss,
quarters as mild as any-if any pr
could be described as mild.
All in all, the docile prisoner
docility-and sometimes he gaine<
defied Pak and his breed might
might not. The ordeal was nevI
easy either for the combat troo:
trenches.
Progressives and Reactionaries

The POW "political" schools in


patterned after the Soviet Ru~sia~
mass program to spread MarxIan:
International Communism. The
to deliver lectures, write pampl
broadcasts. Progressive leaders '\1
groups to harangue the men. Thl
Capitalism and "American aggres
ized a. group known as "Peace F~
Fortunately, only a few office
ever their influence was unfortu
men: If the Captain can do it,
signs a peace petition and orders t~
follow orders, don't we? Altoget.
spot. That many of them refusee
rejected a promise, sometimes un
luxuries, and mail call) says somE
and non-coms. The men who g
ment-the active ReactionariesBreakdown of leadership was
sired. Officers were usually seg
natural leader stepped forward
Progressives were usually placed
if they weren't obeyed by the ot
in store for the "insubordinate P

~ter located near the city of Pyong


:'1ck~ard :flanked by Korean heuses.

:tablishment dominated by a chief


Pak was ably assisted by a hench
ed uDirty Pictures" Wong by the
e ~dministration of a Colonel Lee,
~. mterrogators on the team. But
l>lic of the institution. Pak was a
ld have been in a cage. The team
mnaires, the carrot-and-prod tech
Failing to induce them, they con
Ie uPalace" wanted military infor
1 as the ultimate resort. And for
after a prisoner refused to talk
nc.e. Abusive language would .b~
cIgarette burns, and promises of
Navy officers were questioned at
lly enlisted men went through this
najority of POWs held there were
,k a bad beating from Colone11")ak.
ways to get around the beating.
he captors that you were dumb
~l~s. Undergoing interrog~tion:
UlSltors that he was the stupidest
as awarded a contemptuous slap,
isoners at the uPalace," the inter
nes open up with a wild political
)rd that the enemy had established
)urs~s. The prisoner might start
edrOy restricted rations and other
;how the uproper spirit"-to cowas lectured and handed Com
prisoner who read the literature
ctures, was graduated to a better
nt ~ uPeaceful Valley/' In this
elatlvely good. Prisoners might
,re they were given all sorts of
raduates from "Peaceful Valley"
>mmunist schooling were called

"Progressives'" Prisoners who refused to go along with the


program often remained in tougher circumstances. They were
considered "Reactionaries."
But the enemy followed no rigid system. Rather, his treat
ment of prisoners was capricious. Sometimes he showed
contempt for the man who readily submitted to bullying.
The prisoner who stood up to the bluster, threats and blows of
an interrogator might be dismissed with a shrug and sent to
quarters as mild as any-if any prison barracks in North Korea
could be described as mild.
All in all, the docile prisoner did not gain much by his
docility-and sometimes he gained nothing. The prisoner who
defied Pak and his breed might take a beating, but again he
might not. The ordeal was never easy. But things weren't
easy either for the combat troops battling out there in the
trenches.
Progressives and Reactionaries

The POW "political" schools in North Korea were, of course,


patterned after the Soviet Russian design. They were part of a
mass program to spread Marxian ideology and gain converts for
International Communism. The Progressives were called upon
to deliver lectures, write pamphlets, and make propaganda
broadcasts. Progressive leaders were sent among Reactionary
groups to harangue the men. They wrote speeches condemning
Capitalism and uAmerican aggression in Korea." Theyorgan
ized e. group known as IlPeace Fighters."
Fortunately, only a few officers were Progressives. How
ever, their in:fluence was unfortunately strong on the enlisted
men. If the Captain can do it, why can't I? If the Colonel
signs a peace petition and orders the rest of us to do it, we have to
follow orders, don't we? Altogether the enlisted men were on a
spot. That many of them refused to join the Progressives (and
rejected a promise, sometimes unfulfilled, of better food, minor
luxuries, and mail call) says something for the spirit of privates
and non-corns. The men who gave the Progressives an argu
ment-the active Reactionaries-were a rugged group.
Breakdown of leadership was exactly what the enemy de
sired. Officers were usually segregated. Then as soon as a
natural leader stepped forward in a camp, he was removed.
Progressives were usually placed in leadership positions. And
if they weren't obeyed by the other POWs, punishments were
in store for the "insubordinate prisoners."
11

By design and because some officers refused to assume


leadership "responsibility, organization in some of the POW
camps deteriorated to an every-man-for-himself situation.
Some of the camps became indescribably filthy. The men
scuffied for their food. Ho~ders grabbed all the tobacco.
Morale decayed to the vanishing point. Each man mistrusted
the next. Bullies persecuted the weak and sick. Filth bred
disease and contagion swept the camp. So men died for lack
of leadership and discipline.

Ordeal by Indoctrination
When plunged into a Communist indoctrination mill, the
average American POW was under a serious handicap. Enemy
political officers forced him to read Marxian literature. He was
compelled to participate in debates. He had to tell what he
knew about American politics and American history. And
many times the Chinese or Korean instructors knew more
about these .subjects than he did. This brainstorming caught
many" American prisoners off guard. To most of them it
came as a complete surprise and they were unprepared. Lec
" tures-study "groups~iscussion groups-a blizzard of prop
aganda and hurricanes of violent oratory were" all a part of
the enemy technique.
A large number of American POWs did not lmow what the
Communist program was all about. Some were confused by
it. Self-seekers accepted it as an easy out. A few may have
believed the business. They signed peace petitions and peddled
Communist literature.' It was not an inspiring spectacle. It
set loyal groups against cooperative groups aild broke up camp
organization and discipline. It made fools of some men and
tools of others. And it provided the enemy with stooges for
propaganda shows.
Ignorance lay behind much of this trouble. A great many
servicemen were 'teen-agers. At home they had thought of
politics as dry editorials or uninteresting speeches, dull as
ditchwater. They were unprepared to give the commissars an
argument.
Some of the POWs-among them men who became defec
tors-had heard of Communism only as a name. Many had
never before heard of Karl Marx. And here was Communism
held up as the salvation of the world and Marx as mankind's
benefactor.
The Committee heard evidence which revealed that many
11

of the POWs knew too little abolJ


ideals and traditions. So the Chi
advantage.
The uninformed POWs were up
answer arguments in favor of COIl
favor of Americanism, because they
America. The Committee heard
stated that a knowledge of Coml
them to expose its fallacies to tl
indoctrinators tried hard to win thl
But as one of them put it, "We'(
Back home. We knew their line.'
weapon;;
Whil~ it might be argued that fe
converts to Communism-indeed
have been infinitesimal-the inal
for Democracy distressed loyal I
aside, there were other passive p
They lacked sufficient patriotism b
edge of American Democracy.
It seemed that these POWs in (
before they entered the Service.
cans-the responsibility for their
the school, the church, the comml
Armed Forces, the Military Sem
development.
The Committee, stressing the I
tional bulwarks against enemy p(J
mends that the Assistant Secre~
and Personnel) be directed to ini
with the Department of Health, J
other agencies and institutions OJ
Brainwashing and Indoctrination
The Committee made a thorou~
washing" question. In some caE
coercive technique was used to (
cases American prisoners of war ,
physical torture, psychiatric press
ment.
Most of the prisoners, however,
washing, but were given a high
propaganda purposes.

some officers refused to assume


rganization in some of the POW
every-man-for-himself situation.
Ie indescribably filthy. The men
o~ders grabbed all the tobacco.
Ihing point. Each man mistrusted
id the weak and sick. Filth bred
, the camp. So men died for lack

Immunist indoctrination mill, the


under a serious handicap. Enemy
I read Marxian literature.
He was
debates. He had to tell wha;t he
,ics and American history. And
r Korean instructors knew more
i did. This brainstorming caught
Iff guard. To most of them it
and they were unprepared. Lec
sion groups-a blizzard of prop
iolent oratory were all a part of
POWs did not know what the
about. Some were confused by
s an easy out. A few may have
igned peace petitions and peddled
LS not an inspiring spectacle. It
rative groups and broke up camp
It made fools of some men and
ided the enemy with stooges for

ill

of this trouble. A great many


At home they had thought of
uninteresting speeches, dull as
lpared to give the commissars. an

of the POWs knew too little about the United States and its
ideals and traditions. So the Chinese indoctrinators had the
advantage.
The uninformed POWs were up against it. They couldn't
answer arguments in favor of Communism with arguments in
favor of Americanism, because they knew very little. about their
America. The Committee heard a number of ex-POWs who
stated that a knowledge of Communism would have enabled
them to expose its fallacies to their camp-mates. The Red
indoctrinators tried hard to win the support of factory workers.
But as one of them put it, "We'd heard all that guff before.
Back home. We knew their line." Knowledge was a defense
weapon.
While it might be argued that fewof the men became sincere
converts to Communism-indeed, the percentage seems to
have been infinitesimal-the inability of many to speak up
for Democracy distressed loyal POWs. Active collaborators
aside, there were other passive prisoners that "went along."
They lacked sufficient patriotism because of their limited knowl
edge oi~American Democracy.
It seemed that these POWs in question had lost their battle
before they entered the Service. Good citizens-loyal Ameri
cans-the responsibility for their building lies with the home,
the school, the church, the community. When men enter t~e
Armed Forces, the Military Services must carryon with thIS
development.
The Committee, stressing the need for spiritual and educa
tional bulwarks against enemy political indoctrination, recom
mends that the Assistant Secretary of Defens.e (Manpower
and Personnel) be directed to initiate exploratory conferences
with the Department of Health, Education, and WelCare, and
other agencies and institutions on pre-service training.

~ them men who became defec


;m only as a name. Many had
mr. And here was Communism
e world and Marx as mankind's

ence which revealed that many

Brainwashing and Indoctrination


The Committee made a thorough investigation of the "brain
washing" question. In some cases this time consuming and
coercive technique was used to obtain confessions. In these.
cases American prisoners of war were subjected to mental and
physical torture, psychiatric pressures or "Pavlov Dogs" treat
ment.
Most of the prisoners, however, were not subjected to brain
washing, but were given a high-powered indoctrination for
propaganda purposes.

13

In either' case the members of our Armed Forces should be


given the best education and training possible in the future so
that t.hey can resist and cope with these practices.
The Committee also learned that POWs in Korea were not
drugged. Other methods such as denial of food or sleep were
equally effective and more practical.

Behind the Barbed-Wire Curtain


Perhaps the Red enemy worked harder on the Americans
than he did on the other prisoners. An American who signed
&. propaganda leaflet, a peace petition, or a germ warfare con
fession, was a big feather in the enemy's hat. Many Americans
in.Communist POW camps signed something or wrote some
thing. Out of 78 m~n under various forms of duress~ 38 signed
germ warfare confesslOns. Forty others did not. Both groups
were under coercion. Why did some men break, and some refuse
to bend?
Many servicemen exhibited pride in themselves and their
units. This was particularly pronounced where they had be
l?nged to the same unit for years. They stoody one another
like t~at u~and of brothers" inspired by NelSon. If a soldier
~as sIck, hIS fellow soldiers took care of him. They ,vllsh~d
~s .clothes, bathed him, and pulled him through. They ex
hibIted true fraternal spirit comradeship, military pride.
These soldiers did not let each other down. Nor could the
Korean Reds win much cooperation from them.
!nterrogation went' hand in glove with indoctrination. A
prIsoner was questioned for military information. He was also
~ueried on his home life and educational background. The
mterrogator made him put it in writing-a biographical sketch.
Se~dom did the brief autobiography prove sufficient. The
prls~ner w~ u~ually. compelled to write more, and in greater
detail. If his lIterary efforts were painful, the d.iscomfort was
only a. beginni~g. His autobiography was used against him.
T~e slI~htest dIscrepancy, and he was accused of lying. He
mIght discover thp,t he had written a confession of some kind
~d in any case, the information supplied theinterrogato~
WIth a useful leverage for more pressure. The author's mistake
was in taking pen in hand.
Only a handful of the POWs in Korea were able to maintain
absolute silence under military interrogation. Nearly all of the

14

American prisoners went beyond .


number, d.ate of birth restriction.
Reviewing the interrogation mf
Committee felt that the steps takl
Forces had been decidedly inadequ
The Committee recommends tha
devise a special training program
men the ways and means of resisl

What Can Be Done?


In a war for the minds of men,
successfully combatted by militaIJ
tion. In battle and in captivity
better than his training and educal
teach him combat skills. Such k
The Committee recommends
initiate &. coordinated training pro
First, general training. This i
tional training to he conducted 1
servicemen during active and rell
training. This is designed for 8
troops. A code of conduct must al
and training must be uniform am(
est degree practicable.
In all Services training should 1J
of all ranks from the enlisted man
be realistic as well as idealistic. A
with understanding, skill and dl
a conviction in the heart, consde]
man that full and loyal support of tl
of his country, his comrades, anc:
But skill must be reinforced by
by basic beliefs instilled in home
lad enters the Military Service. ]
for its principles-a sense o~ hono
such basics should be established
and further developed after he ent
The Committee recommends
eft'ective means of coordinatin
institutions, churches and othE
",rovide better understanding of

ers of our Armed Forces should be


Ild training possible in the future so
Ie with these practices.
ned that POWs in Korea were not
mch as denial of food or sleep were
practical.
:urtain

worked harder on the Americans


An American who signed
Cle petition, or a germ warfare con
~he enemy's hat. Many Americans
I signed something or wrote some
r various forms of duress, 38 signed
~orty others did not. Both groups
Id some men break, and some refuse
~isoners.

ed pride in themselves and their


y pronounced where they had be
~e.ars .. They stood,by one another
msprred by Ne1$n. If a soldier
took care of him. They ""8sh~d
~ pulled him through. They ex
'It comradeship, military pride.
iach other down. Nor could the
leration from them.
in glove with indoctrinati~n. A
Ililitary information. He was also
ld educational background. The
in writing-a biographical sketch.
~iography prove sufficient. The
led to write more, and in greater
were painful, the discomfort was
biography was used against hinIl.
Id he was accused of lying. He
7l'itten a confession of some kind.
Iation supplied the interrogators
e pressure. The author's mistake
's in Korea were able to maintain
r inteITogation. Nearly all of the

American prisoners went beyond the "absolute" name, rank,


number, date of birth restriction.
Reviewing the inteITogation matter, the Defense Advisory
Committee felt that the steps taken up to now by the Armed
Forces had been decidedly inadequate.
The Committee recommends that the Department of Defense
devise a special training program to teach American service
men the ways and means of resisting enemy interrogators.
What Can Be Done?

In a war for the minds of men, the enemy's methods can be


successfully combatted by military training and civilian educa
tion. In battle and in captivity the fighting Ameriean is no
better than his training and education. Military schooling can
teach him combat skills. Such know-how is a t'must."
The Committee recommends that the Military Services
initiate a coordinated training program includingFirst, general training. This is motivational and informa
tional training to he conducted throughout the career of all
servicemen during active and reserve duty. Second, specific
training. This is designed for and applied to combat-ready
troops. A code of conduct must apply wiiformly to all Services,
arid training must be uniform among the Services to the great
est degree practicable.
In all Services training should be adapted to cover the needs
of all ranks from the enlisted man to the commander. It must
be realistic as well as idealistic. Above all, it must be presented
with understanding, skill and devotion sufficient to implant
a conviction in the heart, conscience, and mind of the service
man that full and loyal support of the code is to the best interests
of his country, his comrades, and himself.
But skill must be reinforced by will-by moral character and
by basic beliefs instilled in home and classroom long before a
lad enters the Military Service. Pride in a country and respect
for its principles-a sense ot honor-a sense of responsibility
such basics should be established long before ubasic training,"
and further developed after he enters the Armed Forces.
The Committee recommends that the Services find an
effective means of coordinating with civilian educational
institutions, churches and other patriotic organizations to
~rovide better understanding of American ideals.

15

War has been defined as "a contes t' of wills." A trained


hand holds the weapon. But the will, the character, the spirit
of the indivi dual-t hese control the hand. More than ever,
in the war .for the ininds of men moral charac ter, will, spirit
are impor tant.
As a servic eman thinke th so is he.

IV
A CODE OF CONDUCT FOI
The Services Voice Their Opini a
The leaders of the American A.r1J
of Staff- The Depar tment of Defel
planning and policy-making boar
discussion and debate based on J
a Code of Condu ct for United Stal
Advisory Comm ittee weighed oppc
to the "name , rank, serial numbe r
embodied in the Geneva Conventi,
The traditio nal view is that th
extension of the battlefield where 1
to carry on the struggle with the
faith and courage.
The absolute restric tion-n ame,
and nothin g more, has been called
To some persons, such a restric
Especially in the light of mod
Authorities on the subjec t of inl
iron-bound "nothi ng more" of the:
They pointed out that Communis I
men of steel as Cardin al Minds zent
generally conceded that "every 1
Many prisoners in World War II
rank and serial numbe r." And ne
divulged something. Why, then, 1
m8{l endure purgat ory when his
Thm view was publicized in an a:
It was the author 's opinion that A
told that "they may sign any doc
them to, or appear on TV and deli
them."
Referring to the case of a Marro
to a fine officer who had been coel
fare confession. Why not let Am
at all? The United States could
fessions were obtain ed under dl

16

365488 "0-55- 4

s "a contest of wills." A trained


ut the will, the character, the spirit
Introl the hand. More than ever
)f men moral character, will, spirit
80

is he.

IV
A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE FUTURE
The Services Voice Their Opinions
The leaders of the American Armed Forces-the Joint Chiefs
of Staff-The Department of Defense Committees-the various
planning and policy-making boards-reach decisions through
discussion and debate based on facts. In striving to design
a Code of Conduct for United States fighting men, the Defense
Advisory Committee weighed opposing points of view in regard
to the "name, rank, serial number and date of birth'" provision
embodied in the Geneva Conventions.
The traditional view is that the POW stockade is only an
extension of the battlefield where the prisoners must be taught
to carry on the struggle with the only weapons remaining
faith and courage.
The absolute restliction-name, rank, number, date of birth,
and nothing more, has been called the "Spartan Code."
To some persons, such a restrictive code seemed unrealistic.
Especially in the light of modern interrogation methods.
Authorities on the subject of interrogation insisted that the
iron-bound "nothing more" of the Spartan Code was impossible.
They pointed out that Communist interrogators had bent such
men of steel as Cardinal Mindszenty. Doctors and psychiatrists
generally conceded that "every man has a breaking point."
Many prisoners in World War II were forced beyond "name,
rank and serial number." And nearly every prisoner in Korea
divulged something. Why, then, the dissenters asked, should a
man endure purgatory when his "breaking" was inevitable?
This view was publicized in an article in a popular magazine.
It was the author's opinion that American servicemen should be
told that "they may sign any document the Communists want
them to, or appear on TV and deliver any script the Reds hand
them."
Referring to the case of a Marine colonel, the author pointed
to a fine officer who had been coerced into signing a germ war
fare confession. Why not let American captives sign anything
at all? The United States could announce that all such con
fessions were obtained under duress, and therefore invalid.
3654;88 100-55-4

17

In addition to the "Spartan view" and the "let them talk


view" there were numerous advocates of in-between measures
talk, but don't say anything.
In Axis cainps and in Korea many prisoners had stood up
against interrogation. Many had refused to sign on any dotted
line. The idea that an officer or enlisted man might stand up
to a microphone and denounce his country, his President, or
his faith, remained repellent. Moreover, the man who signed
a germ warfare or some other confession let himself in for a
"war criminal" charge. Having obtained such a confession
the unscrupulous enemy labeled him a war criminal and claimed
that he was beyond the protecting Geneva Convention.
The Committee believes that this practice is another strong
reason for our prisoners of war adhering to a wen defined
code of conduct in any future conflict.
Pro and Con. There was much to be said on both sides. And
there was something to be said by experienced officers who felt
that a man could be taught to hold his own in the battle of wits
against enemy inteITogators. Authorities pointed out that the
Geneva Conventions did not impose "absolute silence" on the
interrogated war,,:,prisoner. There were clauses indicating that
he might discuss his employment, his finances, or his state
of health, or "conditions of captivity" if necessity demanded.
In short, he did not have to remain mute.
The Committee agreed that a line of resistance must be drawn
somewhere and initially as far forward as possible. The llame,
rank and service number provision of the Geneva Conventions
is accepted as this line of resistance.
However, in the face of experience, it is recognized that the
POW may be subjected to an extreme of coercion beyond his
ability to resist. If in his battle with .the interrogator he is
driven from his first line of resistance he must be trained for
resistance in successive positions. And, to stand on the. final
line to the end-no disclosure of vital military information and
above all no disloyalty in word or deed to his country, his service
or his comrades.
Throughout, the serviceman must be responsible for all of his
actions. This in brief is the spirit and intent of the Code of
Conduct which the Defense Advisory Committee recommends.
Prominent Civilians Stated Their View5
. The Committee discussed sociological and educational prob
lems with leading educators. It consulted with labor leaders.
The religious problem .was discussed with leaders of various

18

faiths. The Conunittee also E


valuable views of the leaders of t
tions. All contrib.uted worthwh
select a code compatible- with Ax
justice.

The Recommended Code of Cc


Mter long study and earnest
came to its decision. That dec
Conduct now proposed for all mE
The Committee recommends
Conduct be promulgated in the
The Code demands high standar<
these, each member of the Armec
be provided with specific .trainin~
to cope with all enemy efforts a
instructed as to his behavior and
the event of capture.
No prisoner of war will be fo
The support and care of depende
scribed by law. Every practica
establish contact with, to supporl
prisoners of war.
I

The United States servicemar


his nation. Any shirking of this I
ness to do his full part weakens tb
I am an American fighting mal
guard.my country and our way (
my life in theil defense.
A member of the Armed Fori
As such, it is his duty to oppose ti:
regardless of the circumstances i
whether in active participation i
war.
II
If individuals and commander,
wh~never a situation seems to be
open invitation to all weak of wi]
I will never surrender of my (]
I will never surrender my men 11
to resist.

~an view" and the "let them talk


,dvoc:ates of in-between measures-

lrea many prisoners had stood up


'f had refused to sign on any dotted
er or enlisted man might stand up
Dee his country, his President, or
Moreover, the man who signed
ler confession let himself in for a
loving obtained such a confession
led him a war criminal and claimed
ecting Geneva Convention.
hat this practice is another strong
war adhering to a well defined
l conflict.
mch to be said on both sides. And
id by experienced officers who felt
) hold his own in the battle of wits
Authorities pointedr50ut that the
impose "absolute silence" on the
~here were clauses indicating that
rment, his finances, or his state
}aptivity" if necessity demanded.
emain mute.
,a line of resistance must be drawn
r forward as possible. The name,
vision of the Geneva Conventions
istance.
perience, it is recognized that the
[l extreme of coercion beyond his
attlewith the interrogator he is
'esistance he must be trained for
ons. And, to stand on the. final
of vital military information and
or deed to his country, his service
must be responsible for all of his
spirit and intent of the Code of
,dvisory Committee recommends.

heir Views
ociological and educational prob
It consulted with labor leaders.
iscussed with leaders of various

faiths. The Comr.nittee also sought and received the in


valuable views of the leaders of the nation's veterans organiza
tions. All contrib.uted worthwhile suggestions. All helped to
select a code compatible- with American precepts of honor and
justice.

The Recommended Code of Conduct (See Addenda 2)


After long study and earnest deliberation, the Committee
came to its decision. That decision is found in the Code of
Conduct now proposed for all members of the Armed Forces.
The Committee recommends that the proposed Code of
Conduct be promulgated in the form of an Executive Order.
The Code demands high standards. To ensure achievement of
these, each member of the Armed Forces liable to capture must
be provided with specific .training designed to equip him better
to cope with all enemy efforts against him. He will be fully
instructed as to his behavior and obligations in combat and in
the event of capture.
No prisoner of war will be forgotten by the United States.
The support and care of dependents of prisoners of war is pre
scribed by law. Every practical means will be employed to
establish contact with, to support and to gain the release of all
prisoners of war.
I
The United States serviceman, by his service is protecting
his nation. Any shirking of this responsibility or any unwilling
ness to do his full part weakens this defense and invites disaster.
I am an American fighting man. I serve in the forces which
guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give
my life in their defense.
A member of the Armed Forces is always a fighting man.
As such, it is his duty to oppose the enemies of the United States
regardless of the circumstances in which he may find himself,
whether in active participation in combat, or as a prisoner of
war.
II
If individuals and commanders were permitted to surrender
wh.enever a situation seems to be desperate it would become an
open invitation to all weak of will or depressed in spirit.
I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command
I will never surrender my men while they still have the means
to resist.

19

As an individual, a member of the Armed Forces may never


voluntarily surrender himself.. When isolated and he can no
longer inflict casualties on the enemy, it is his duty to evade
capture and rejoin the nearest friendly forces.
The responsibility and authority of a commander never
extends to the surrender of his command to the enemy while it
has power to resist or evade. When isolated, cut off or sur
rounded, a unit must continue to fight until relieved, or able to
rejoin friendly forces by breaking out or by evading the enemy.

III
The fight is everywhere. Even in the prison camp. When
the use of physical weapons is denied, the mental and moral
"will to resist" must be kept alive in every prisoner.
H I am captured I will continue to resist by aU means avail
able. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to
escape. i will accept neither parole nor special favors from
the enemy.
The duty of a member of the Armed Forces to continue
resistance by all means at his disposal is not lessened by the
misfortune of capture. Article 82 of the Geneva Conventions
Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12,
1949, pertains, must be explained, and covered in the training
programs to be carried out by the Services.
Article 82 provides as follows:
"A prisoner of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations
and orders in force in the armed forces of the Detaining
Power; the Detaining Power shall be justified in taking
j~dicial or discip~ary measures ~ respect of any off~nce
committed by a pnsoner of war agamst such laws, regulatIOns
or orders. However, no proceedings or punishments contrary
to the provisions of this Chapter shall be allowed.
IIIf any law, regulation or order of the Detaining Power
shall .declare acts committed by a prisoner of war to be
punishable, whereas the same acts would not be punishable
if committed by a member of the forces of the Detaining
Power, such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only."
He will escape if able to do so, and will assist others to escape.
Parole agreements are promises given the captor by a prisoner
of war upon his faith and ~onor, to fulfill stated conditions, such
as not to bear arms or not to escape, in consideration of special
privileges-usually release from captivity or lessened restraint.
He will never sign or enter into a parole agreement.

to

IV
The most despicable act an AmI
aid and 'comfort to the enemy
harming fellow prisoners. Failurl
commensurate with rank is equally
If I become a prisoner of war ,
fellow prisoners. I will give no i
any action which might be harmf.
senior, I will take command. It
orders of those appointed over m
every way.
Informing, or any other action
prisoner, is despicable and is expre
war must avoid helping the enemy
may have kD.owledge of particular 1
therefore be made to suffer eoerci
Strong' leadership is essential 1
. cipline, camp organization, resiste
be impossible. Personal hygiene,
sick and wounded are imperative
sioned officers of the United StatE
their responsibilities and exercise t
capture. The senior line officer
within the prisoner of war camp
assume command according to ra
regard to Service. This responsib
not be evaded. If the senior office]
is incapacitated or unable to act fl
be assumed by the next senior. I
cannot be effected, an organizatio
as provided for in Articles 79-81 4
to Treatment of Prisoners of Wal
tion, or both, will be formed.
V
Every serviceman possesses s(
formation of value to the enemy,
cause the death of comrades or d
the defeat of major forces of the m

When questioned, should I beci


bound to give only name, rank, ~
birth. I will evade-canswering fur
of my ability. I will make no or~

~r

of the Armed Forces may never


f. ,When isolated and he can no
he enemy, it is his duty to evade
t friendly forces.
uthority of a commander never
is command to the enemy while it
i.
When isolated, cut off or sur
e to fight until relieved, or able to
king out or by evading the enemy.

III
Even in the prison camp. When
is denied, the mental and moral
, alive in every prisoner.
rinue to resist by aU means avail
ort to escape and aid others to
r parole nor special favors from
~ the Armed Forces to continue
s disposal is not lessened by the
!e 82 of the Geneva Conventions
, Prisoners of War of August 12,
illed, and covered in the training
the Services.

rs:

e subject to the laws, regulations


armed forces of the Detaining
rer shall be justified in taking
Laures in respect of any offence
mr against such laws, regulations
~eedings or punishments contrary
.pter shall be allowed.
r order of the Detaining Power
~d by a prisoner of war to be
Le acts would not be punishable
of the forces of the Detaining
disciplinary punishments only."
" and will assist others to escape.
! given the captor by a prisoner
, to fulfill stated conditions, such
Icape, in consideration of special
l captivity or lessened restraint.
a parole agreement.

IV

The most despicable act an American can commit is to give


aid and comfort to the enemy by informing or otherwise
harming fellow prisoners. Failure to assume responsibilities
commensurate with rank is equally reprehensible.
If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my
fellow prisoners. I will give no information nor take part in
any action which might be harmful to .my comrades. If I am
senior, I will take command. It not, I will obey the lawful
orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in
every way.
Informing, or any other action to the detriment of a fellow
prisoner, is despicable and is expressly f?rbidden. ~risoners of
war must avoid helping ihe enemy identIfy fellow pnsoners who
may have Ioiowledge of particular Y'ah~e to the e~emy, ahd may
therefore be made to suffer eoerClve mterrogatlOn.,
,
Strong' leadership is essential to discipline. Wit~out dis
cipline, camp organization, resistance and ~ve? survIval may
be impossible. Personal hygiene, camp samtatlOn, and care .of
sick and wounded are imperative. Officers and non-comUllS
sioned officers of the United States will continue to carry out
their responsibilities and exercise their al!thorit~ s~bsequent to
capture. The senior line officer or non-comm18S1~ned offic~r
within the prisoner of war camp or group of pnsonex:s will
assume command according to rank (or precedence) WIthout
regard to Service. This responsibility and acco~~ability may
not be evaded. If the senior officer or non-comm18S10ned officer
is incapacitated or unable to act for any reaso?, commS?d 'Y'ill
be assumed by the next senior. If the foregomg orgamz~tlon
cannot be effected an organization of elected representatIves,
as provided for in Articles 79-81 Geneva Conven.tion Rela~ive
to Treatment of Prisoners of War, or a clandestme organIZa
tion, or both, will be formed.

V
Every serviceman possesses some import~t ~itary in
formation of value to the enemy. By revealing It they may
cause the death of comrades or disaster to' their unit, or even
the defeat of major forces of the nation.
When questioned, sholild I become a prisoner of war, I am
bound to give only name, rank, service number, and date of
birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost
of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements dis

21

loyal to my country and its allies or harmful to their cause.


When questioned, a prisoner of war is required by the Geneva
Conventions and permitted by this Code to disclose his name,
rank, service number, and date of birth. A prisoner .of war
may also communicate with the enemy regarding his individual
health or welfare as a prisoner of war and, when appropriate,
on routine matters of camp administration. Oral or written
confessions true or false, questionnaires, personal history state
ments, propaganda recordings and broadcasts, appeals to other
prisoners of war, signatures to peace or surrender appeals self
criticisms or any other oral or written communication on b~half
of the enemy or critical or harmful to the United States its
allies, the Armed Forces or other prisoners are forbidden. '
It is a violation of the Geneva Conventions to place a prisoner
of war under physical or mental torture or any other form of
coercion to secure from him information of any kind. If
however, a prisoner is subjected to such treatment he
endeavor to avoid by every means the disclosure. of any in
formation, or the making of any statement or the performance
of any action harmful to the interests of the United States or
its allies or which will provide aid or comfort to the enemy.
. Russia and t~e Communist Bloc nations have made a sig
nificant reservatIOn to Article 85 of the Geneva Conventions of
1949: Under this reservation a prisoner of war who may be
conVlcted of an alleged war crime under the laws of the captors,
loses the protection afforded a prisoner of war by these Con
ventions. Therefore the signing of a confession or the making
of a statement by a prisoner is likely to be usedto convict him
as a "war criminal" and thus, according to this Communist
Bloc device, deny to him any protection under the ~rms of the
Geneva Conventions, including repatriation until his sentence
is served.

will

VI
An American is responsible and accountable for his actions.
Prisoner of war status doesn't change this nor does it change
the obligation to remain faithful to the United States and to the
principles for~ which it stands. Throughout his captivity a
prisoner should look to his God for strength to endure whate~er
may befall. He should remember that the United States of
~erica wi}! neither forget, nor forsake him, apd that it will
WID the ultlIDate victory.

22

I will never forget that I am


responsible for my actions, and
which made my country free. I 1
the United States of America.
The provisions of the Uniforrr
whenever appropriate continue t<
Armed Forces while they are prisOI
prisoners is subject to examinatiol
capture and through the period 0
for the rights of the individual
conditions of captivity.
A member of the Armed Force!
war has a continuing obligation to
his Service and his unit.
The life of a prisoner of war is h
hope. He must resist enemy indo
who stand firm and united agai:
another in surviving this ordeal.

s allies or harmful to their cause.


ner of war is required by the Geneva
I by this Code to disclose his name
date of birth. A prisoner ,of ws.:.
l the ene~ regarding his individual
mer of war and, when appropriate
p administration. Oral or writte~
estionnaires, personal history state
19s and broadcasts, appeals to other
to peace
. or surrender appeals, self
>r written communication on behalf
harmful to the United States its
other prisoners are forbidden. '
,eva Conventions to place a prisoner
ental torture or any other form of
im information of any kind. If,
lected to such treatment, he will
'{ means the disclosure. of any in
any statement or the performance
e interests of the United States or
de aid or comfort to the enemy.
st Bloc nations have made a sig
e 85 of the Geneva Conventions of
m a prisoner of war .who may be
rime ~nder the laws of the captors,
. a prisoner of war by these Con
~in~ of a confession or the making
18 hkely to be used to convict him
us, according to this Communist
protection under the terms of the
ng repatriation until his sentence

..

I will never forget that I am an American fighting man,


responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles
which made my country free. I will trust in my God and in
the United States of America.
The provisions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice
whenever appropriate continue to apply to members of the
Armed Forces while they are prisoners of war. The conduct of
prisoners is subject to examination as to the Circumstances of
capture and through the period of detention with due regard
for the rights of the individual and consideration for the
conditions of captivity.
A member of the Armed Forces who becomes a prisoner of
war has a continuing obligation to remain loyal to his country,
his Service and his unit.
The life of a prisoner of war is hard. He must never give up
hope. He must resist enemy indoctrination. Prisoners of war
who stand firm and united against the enemy will aid one
another in surviving this ordeal.

VI
and accountable for his actions.
't change this nor does it change
~ul to the United States and to the
ls. Throughout his captivity, a
d for strength to endure whatever
1mber that the United States of
lor forsake him, ap.d that it will
l

23

V
KOREAN SUMMARY
Misconduct by a Minority.
A total of 4,428 Am~rican figl
enemy prison camps in Korea.
with Operation "Little Switch'
enough, the ~onth after Stalin
Soviet leadership. . The war ,
Allied prisoners were returned i
many Communist Chinese and
sequent Operation "Big Switch"
were recovered. At this time it
.cans had died in Korean prison
toll-38%~was the worst sincE!
By joint action of the services
were screened by military intel
whose conduct was questioned.,
after investigation. Of the ren
separated from theservices; 3 1'4
2 were given restricted assignmeI1
martial. As of July 20, 1955,
cases pending are in various s1
may never come to trial for va
disposed of by minor disciplina
However, it is fairly certain tha
will be substantially less than
than half that many. Some Qf
discharged soon after war's end I
Information which came to ligl:
further action indicated. The
must be done in these cases-the
country and fellow prisoners D
who did not should be brought
The Committee recommends
brought to trial iUhey are charg4
which brought about the prosec1
Obviously a. charige from nnuc
-divest a guilty wrong-doer of 1
365488m~55----5

KOREAN SUMMARY

Misconduct by a Minority
A total of 4,428 American fighting men were recovered from
enemy prison camps in Korea. The prisoner exchanges began
with Operation "Little Switch" in April 1953-significantly
enough, the ~onth after Stalin died and Malenkov assumed
Soviet leadership.. The war was almost over. Some 600
Allied prisoners were returned in exchange for ten times that
many Communist Chinese and North Koreans. During sub
sequent Operation "Big Switch" most of the American prisoners
were recovered. At this time it was learned that 2,730 Ameri
cans had died in Korean prison camps. This ghastly death
toll-38%-was the worst since the Revolutionary War.
.
By joint actIon of the services, all of the prisoners recovered
were screened by military intelligence agencies. Of the 565
whose conduct was questioned, 373 were cleared or dropped
after investigation. Of the remaining 192 suspects, 68 were
separated from the services; 3 resigned; 1 received reprimand;
2 were given restricted assignmen~s; 6 were cOllvicted by courts
martial. As of July 20, 1955, 112 cases are pending. The
cases pending are in various stages of investigation. Many
may never come to trial for various reasons. Others will "be
disposed of by miMr disciplinary action or may be clear~d.
However, it is fairly certain that thenwnber brought to trial
will be substantially less than the 112 pending, perhaps less
than half that many. Some of these last are men who were
discharged soon after war's end and now have a civili"an status.
Information which came to light after their separation made
further action indicated. The Committee feels that justice
must be done in these cases-the men who kept faith with their
coUntry and fellow prisoners need have no fear-:"'but those
who did not should be brought 19 trial.
The Committee recommends that separated servicemen be
brought to trial if.they are charged with crimes .similar to those
which brought about the prosecution of other servicemen.
Obviously a change from uniform to civilian clothes does not
divest a guilty wrong-doer of responsibility for a crime.. A
365488 m r-55-5

25

civilian criminal would not be permitted to wear Army uniform


as protective coloration. If action is indicated, the dischargees
should be prosecuted in civil courts. When they cannot be
tried in civili8in courts and the evidence warrants it, they can
be brought to trial under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
The Committee finds the Uniform Code of Military
Justice adequate for the prosecution of misconduct cases of
prisoners of war in Korea. The Committee recommends that
the Uniform Code of Military Justice should govern the final,
adjudication of cases stilI pending.

None Were Tried Unjustly


Establishing fscts in the case against a prisoner charged with
misconduct is a lengthy process. Evidence must be studied
and assessed. Witnesses must be produced. Depositions
must be obtained. In the Armed Forces this amounts to the
equivalent of the work a District Attorney's office must do
before it presents a case to a Grand Jury. Consequently,
there may seem to be a long delay before an accused service
man is brought to formal trial. The Army has not been dila
tory in trying the present cases. Rather it has been thorough
and exacting in its research and investigation.
The Committee finds that those servicemen who have been
prosecuted and those who are facing trial were charged with
serious crimes. Charges included homicide, and treasonable
collaboration with the enemy, combined with informing on
fellow prisoners. No man of any service-Army, Air Force,
Navy or Marines-who might have .been charged with such
crimes would have escaped disciplinary action. As in the past,
the crimes enumerated are major offenses in the Armed Forces~
(Of course, such alleged misconduct must be substantiated by
evidence before disciplinary action is taken.)
While the six thus far tried and sentenced to prison have been
enlisted men, one officer was also disciplined; one was tried and
acquitted; and other cases' coming up involve officers. They
do not make pleasant r,eading.
A typical case involves an officer who is accused by 180
POWs of delivering anti-D. S. speeches, informing on fellow
prisoners,hoarding food, teaching' classes in Communism, and
ordering men to sign peace petitions. There is no evidence he
suffered duress.
Another case involves a sergeant accused by many witnesses
, of "ratting" on his prison-mates, beating a sick prisoner, stealillg
26

a wallet from a dying man, fore


the snow and leaving him theI
U. N. prisoners crossing a streaI
There was an officer who alle~
tors' as soon as he reached priSI
confiscating the small tobacco:
and eating more than his share ()
he made the heartless remark,
the more food for the rest of us
made propaganda broadcasts, al
prisoners. There is no evidence
There is evidence that an en
prisoners planning to escape. 1
captors. He was put in charge
in the punishment of "Reaction
for the job. No "brainwashingI
Many of the accused informe,
times with dire consequences fOJ
severely punished. The man .
victimized by "ratting" was in
Invariably he was accused of brl
which "entitled" his captors t
placed in a hole in the ground a
existence. He might be sent tc
compelled to stand for hours in
To the combat veterans, "rat
able as treason.

The Turncoats
The 21 turncoats who decided
here was another group, of "ex
cluded men accused of informing'
for electing to remain in the ene
cates that few of these 21 wel'l
munism. Expediency,opportuD
less influenced some of the groul

Promises Were Not Broken


It has been stated that menw,
can side by promises of clemen

!>ermitted to wear Army uniform


~tion is indicated, the dischargees
courts. . When they cannot be
~ evidence warrants it, they can
"niform Code of Military Justice.
~ Uniform Code of Military
ecution of misconduct cases of
l1e Committee recommends that
Justice should govern the final
ling.
against a prisoner charged with
lSS.
Evidence must be studied
1St be produced. Depositions
ned Forces this amounts to the
trict Attorney's office must do
a Grand Jury. Consequently,
delay before an accused service
, The Army has not been dila
~. Rather it has been thorough
d investigation.
lose servicemen who have been
facing trial were charged with
(ded homicide, and treasonable
, combined with informing on
any service-Army, Air Force,
have:beencharged with such
ciplinary action. As in the past,
or offenses in the Armed Forces~
nduct must be substantiated by
ction is taken.)
Id sentenced to prison have been
;0 disciplined; one was tried and
Cling up involve officers. They
1

officer who is accused by 180


. speeches, informing on fellow
mg" classes in Communism, and
tions. There is no evidence he
lant accused by many witnesses
, beating a sick prisoner, stealiIlg

a wallet from a dying man, forcing a fellow prisoner out into


the snow and leaving him there to die, and drowning three
U. N. prisoners crossing a stream.
There was an officer who allegedly courted favors of his cap
tors as soon as he reached prison camp. He is charged with
confiscating the small tobacco ration dealt to the other men
and eating more than his share of the food. It is recorded that
he made the heartless remark, "The more men who die here,
the more food for the rest of us." He signed peace petitions,
made propaganda broadcasts, and evidently "ratted" on other
prisoners. There is no evidence that he was coerced.
There is evidence that an enlisted man informed on fellow
prisoners planning to escape. He wrote Red literature for his
captors. He was put in charge of a spy system which resulted
in the punishment of "Reactionaries" in his camp. He asked
for the job. No "brainwashing" here.
Many of the accused informed on their prison-mates, some
times with dire consequences for the victims who were usually
severely punished. The man who tried to "escape and was
victimized by "ratting" was indeed a Soldier of Misfortune.
Illvariably he was accused of breaking camp rules-a violation
. which "entitled" his captors to punish him. He might be
placed in a hole in the ground and forced to endure an animal
existence. He might be sent to "The Caves." He might be
compelled to stand for hours in a latrine.
To the combat veterans, "ratting" was a crime as unforgiv.
able as treason.

The Turncoats
The 21 turncoats who decided to stay with the Communists
here was another group of "exceptions." Their number in
eluded men accused of informing-which suggests a good reason
for electing to remain in the enemy's country. Evidence iridic
cates that few of these 21 were "sincere" converts to Com~
munism. Expediency, opportunism, and fear of reprisal doubt
less influenced some of the group.

Promises Were Not Broken


It has been stated that men were Illured" back to the Ameri
can side by promises of clemency. This misconception, like
27

many others concerning the POWs, is far from the truth. The
Army possesses a tape recording of the broadcast made to the
men in question. No promise to the effect that they would not
be prosel;uted was offered. What the broadcast said in. sub
stance was this: If the men returned they would not be charged
with -desertion. "Ratting" was another matter entirely. Also
other crimes which were subsequently revealed by investigation.
Finally the Uniform Code of Military Justice is devised for
defense as well as prosecution. A military court often bends
over backward in the interest of the accused. The man is
assured a conscientious defense. If he cares to, he may pro
cure civilian lawyers. There is nothing "star chamber" about
a modern military trial. After witnessing the~rial of a con
fessed "Progressive" charged with collaborating (and confessing
to the charge), a reporter for the Christian Science Monitor
wrote: /c perhaps a word of advice is not amiss; make a
trip to one of your local, federal, state, or municipal courts;
watch the procedures, then look in at a general court-martial."
The reporter went on to observe: "The (military) code pro
vides for post-trial procedure, including automatic reviews by
the Staff Judge Advocate of the First Army and a special
board of review in the Pentagon. If this does not satisfy the
prisoner-and he can show good cause-the conviction and
sentence can go to the Court of Military Appeals, composed of
three civilian judges appointed by the President." And
clemency is possible through the Executive branch of our
government.

Service Action Not Divergent


The public has been under the misapprehension that some of
the men court-martialed and sentenced for misconduct while in
POW camps "had the book thrown at them" while others went
free.
Each of the Services thoroughly investigated all alleged cases oj
misconduct. They used generally identical criteria in determin
ing the disposition of each case. Criteria considered tYl~e of
misconduct, duress, and indications of informing or "ratting."
The Department of Defense :maintaiped, surveillance over
cases brought to trial.
The disposition of all cases was governed by the facts and
circumstances surrounding each case. and was as consistent,
equitable, and uniform as could be achieved by any two or :more
boards or courts.

No case was brought for courl


was evidence of duress, brain,
coercion.
The Committee Onds that tl
among the services. The relal
POWs naturally shifted the h
cases into the Army's column
same screening procedures in
All services applied the same I
charges of misconduct. Result~
on the evidence in each case.

Prisoners Unrecovered
The Korean Armistice Agreer
"each side would directly repatr
who desired repatriation." Th
this agreement. After repatriat
the U. N. command listed 944
presumably in enemy hands. :
finally accounted for by the Co:
efforts this list has been reduced
reason to believe were at some ti
In the United Nations, the U
demanded an accounting for the
The Committee believes that t
strictly accountable for the 471
Information indicates tbey wei
Communist hands.
All have been declared legally
munists should account for ther
agreement with the UnitedStal
The Communists admitted hoI
Department of Defense civilian
was
direct violation of the
Geneva Conventions.

Concern of Ex-Prisoners
The Committee also concern
service men who were dischargl
War-men who have been retu
repatriated POWs who may ha1
Because of the misconduct cl
number of POWs, and the accusl

>OWs, is far from the truth. The


ling of the' broadcast made to the
e to the effect that they would not
What the broadcast said in sub
turned they would not be charged
'as another matter entirely. Also
:quently revealed by investigation.
of Military Justice is devised for
n. A military court often bends
~st of the accused. The man is
lse. If he cares to, he may prois nothing "star chamber" about
ter witnessing the \rial of a con
with collaborating (and confessing
)r the Christian Science Monitor
~d of advice is not amiss; make a
leral, state, or municipal courts;
ok in at a general court-martial."
lserve: "The (military) code pro
, including automatic reviews by
r the First Anny and a special
~on. If this. does not satisfy the
good cause-the ccnviction and
of Military Appeals, composed of
nted by the President." And
1 the Executive branch of our
l'lt

jhe misapprehension that some of


ientenced for misconduct while in
U'own at them" while others went

rhly investigated all alleged cases of


illy identical criteria in determin
Lse. Criteria considered type of
itions of informing or "rattmg."
se maintained surveillance over
was governed by the facts and
eh case. and was as consistent,
I be achieved by any two or more

, No case was brought for court-martial actlonin which there


was evidence of duress, brainwashing or any other type of
coercion.
The Committee Onds that there was no divergent action
among the services. The relatively large number of Army
POWs naturally shifted the largest number of misconduct
cases into the Army's column. All services employed the
same screening procedures in examining repatriated POWs.
All services applied the same standards in weighing alleged
charges of misconduct. Resultant service actions were based
on the evidence in each case.
Prisoners Unrecovered

The Korean Annistice Agreement contained a proviso that


"each side would directly repatriate all those prisoners of war
who desired repatriation." The Communists did not honor
this agreement. After repatriation operations were concluded,
the U. N. command listed 944 servicemen as "missing" and
presumably in enemy hands. Nineteen of this number were
finally accounted for by the Communists. By our own U. S.
efforts this list has been reduced to 470, some of whom we have
reason to believe were at some time in the hands of the enemy.
In the United Nations, the United States has consistently
demanded an accounting for t.hem.
The Committee believes that the Communists should be held
strictly accountable for the 470 men still missing in action.
Information indicates they were at one time or another in
Communist hands.
All have been declared legally dead. Nevertheless, the Com
munists should account for them in accor(l.ance with a signed
agreement with the United States.
The Communists admitted holdtng 15 Air Force men and two
Department of Defense civilian employees. Their detainment
was in direct violation of the Armistice Agreement and the
Geneva Conventions.
Concern of Ex-Prisoners

The Committee also concerned itself with the question of


service men who were discharged at the close of the Korean
War-men who have been returned to civilian status. Also
repatriated POWs who may have remained in uniform.
Because of the misconduct charges brought against a small
number of POWs, and the accusations of misconduct levelled at
29

a slightly larger number, some of the former POWs may have


grown uneasy about the matter. The Committee considers
that no man with a clear conscience need worry about a possible
charge.
The repatriated POW has been entitled to special com
pensation for the period of his confinement. Every repatri
ated POW,could receive this money by applying for it, with
this exception: The war-prisoners who voluntarily, knowingly,
and without duress gave aid to, collaborated with, or in any
manner served the enemy, are excluded. All repatriated
prisoners who receive this compensation have been cleared
of any such misconduct charge.

VI

THE ROAD AHEAD FOR


ARMED FORCES
Total War for the Minds of M,
America must view the Como:
but another weapon in the WOI
men. The nation must recogni
which pays no more than lip serv;
However, the United States c
similar policy. To do so might
the United States refuses to sac
Such a justification of means for
ment of the cause for which J
conscience would revolt at such
The nation must continue to
other threat to Democracy, witl
ciples. .The machines of war al
prise, science and industry. T.
America's founders, are more t
.showcase display. They are pre
if the nation is to remaip. the gl
it is.
The responsibility for the rna
the United States and all it sta
shared by every citizen. Every
in the war for the minds of

Code of American Conduct


The battlefield of modern WI
there are no distant front lines,
rear areas. The home front is 1
front. In the dreaded event of :
nuclear war-the doorstep may
of defense. Under such circum
duct for the American servicemal
citizen.

30

e of the former POWs may have


,tter. The Committee considers
lienee need worry about a possible
; been entitled to special com
his confinement. Every repatri
I money by applying for it, with
Dners who voluntarily, knowingly,
to, collaborated with, or in any
are excluded. All repatriated
ompensation have been cleared

:e.

VI

THE ROAD AHEAD FOR AMERICA AND THE

ARMED FORCES

Total War for the Minds of Men


America must view the Communist treatment of captives as
but another weapon in the world-wide war for the minds of
men. The nation must recognize the duplicity of an enemy
which pays no more than lip service to the Geneva Conventions.
However, the United States cannot oppose duplicity with a
similar policy. To do so might be fighting fire with fire. But
the United States refuses to saerifice principle for expediency.
Such a justification of means for end would mean the abandon
ment of the cause for which America fights. The national
conscience would revolt at such a sohltion.
The nation must continue to oppose Communism, or any
other threat to Democracy, with American weapons and prin
ciples. The machines of war are assured by American enter
prise, science and industry. The principles, home-forged by
America's founders, are more than an heirloom heritage for
.showcase display. They are precepts which must be practiced
if the nation is to remain the guardian of man's liberties that
it is.
The responsibility for the maintenance and preservation of
the United States and all it stands for is one which must be
shared by every citizen. Every American is in the front line
in the war for the minds of men.

Code of American Conduct


The battlefield of modern warfare is all inclusive. Today
there are no distant front lines, remote no man's lands, far-off
rear areas. The home front is but an extension of the fighting
front. In the dreaded event of another all-out war-a thermo
nuclear war-the doorstep may become the Nation's first line
of defense. Under such circumstances, the new code of con
duct for the American serviceman might well serve the American
citizen.
31

The Code's high standards will serve as guides for Americans


in uniform. Backed by adequate training and educatioll, they
will support the assurance of Armed Forces leaders that Amer
ican fighting men will be fully prepared to meet the enemy on
any front.
The Korean story must never be permitted to happen again.

ADDI
1. Terms of Reference

2. Code of Conduct
3. Citizens, Former Prisone
Representatives Who ~
Advisory Committee 0
4. The Mind and the Spirit
5. Prisoners of War in His1
6. Bibliography
7. Charts

32

360488"0-55-6

will serve as guides for Americans


llate training and education, they
Armed Forces leaders that Amer
r prepared to meet the enemy on
'er be permitted to happen again.

ADDENDA
1. Terms of Reference
2. Code of Conduct
3. Citizens, Former Prisoners of War, and Government
Representatives Who Consulted with the Defense
Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War
4. The Mind and the Spirit in National Security
5. Prisoners of War in History
6. Bibliography
7. Charts

33

ADDENDJ
TERMS OF I

ADDENDA NO.1

TERMS OF REFERENCE

. I

35

THE SECRETA
WASH
MEMORANDUM FOR THE CE
COMMITTEE ON PRISONEF
SUBJECT: Terms of Reference
I am deeply concerned with the
of providing Americans who serVE
means we can devise to defeat thE
success of our Armed Forces it is e,
the best weapons of the mind and 1
machines of war.
Our national military needs mu
member of the Armed Forces be th
easily understood code to govern :
However, this military need must
the principles and precepts basic tc
ment must be accomplished with jt
I have appointed this Committee 1
that you consider the methods we It
ploy, the obligation which national
the Armed Forces and the obligatic
taction to its citizens in the custod
deliberation tow~rd the developmel
Code of Conduct and indoctrinati
future conflict. You will also cons
War Problem areas which I will ml
Staff support will be supplied in
Staff Director from the Office of
(M&P), the Deputy Staff Director j
Staff, and one officer each from the
Corps for full-time staff duty.
Legal counsel will be provided b
(OSD), and researchassistance will
Assistant Secretary of Defense (R&
Liaison between this Committee
Department of Defense will be COl
priata office in the Office of the Sec
the Office of the Assistant Secretar~
It is desired that this CommitteE
two months after its first meeting.

THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE


WASHINGTON
May 17, 1955
MEMORANDUM FOR THE CHAIRMAN, DEFENSE ADVISORY
COMMITTEE ON PRISONERS OF WAR

SUBJECT: Terms of Reference


I am deeply concerned with the importance to our national security
of providing Americans who serve their country in battle with every
means we can devise to defeat the enemy's techniques. To assum the
success of our Armed Forces it is equally as essential to arm them with
the best weapons of the mind and body as it is to provide them with the
machines of war.
Our national military needs must be met. This requires that each
member of the Armed Forces be thoroughly indoctrinated with a simple,
easily understood code to govern his conduct while a prisoner of war.
However, this military need must be met in a manner compatible with
the principles and precepts basic to our form of government. Enforce
ment must be accomplished with justice and understanding.
I have appointed this Committee to advise me on this matter. I request
that you consider the methods we may expect our potential enemy to em
ploy, the obligation which national military needs impose on members of
the Armed Forces and the obligation of the United States to afford pro
tection to its citizens in the custody of a foreign power. I direct your
deliberation tow~rd the development of suitable recommendations for a
Code of Conduct and indoctrination and training on preparation for
future conflict. You will also consider certain other related Prisoner of
War Problem areas which I will make known.
Staff support will be supplied in the form of a Secretariat, with the
Staff Director from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense
(M&P), the Deputy Staff Director from the Office of the Joint Chiefs. of
Staff, and one officer each from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine
Corps for full-time staff duty.
Legal counsel will be provided by the Office of the General Counsel
(OSD), and research"assistance will be supplied through the Office of the
Assistant Secretary of Defense (R&D).
Liaison between this Committee and government agencies outside the
Department of Defense will be conducted with the help of the appro
priate office in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as coordinated by
the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (M&P).
It is desired that this Committee submit. its recommendations within
t.wo months after its first meeting.

37

ADDEND.
CODE OF

~
!

ADDENDA NO.2

CODE OF CONDUCT

,I
I

39

CODE OF CONDl
For Members of the Armed Fo

t
I

By virtue of the au
President of the UnitE
mander in Chief of tt
United States, I' here
of Conduct for MembE
of the United States
this order and hereby
Every member of tl
United States is expect
standards embodied in
while he is in comba
ensure achievement ot
member of the Armed
shall be provided wit]
instruction designed t
counter and withstal
against him, and shall
to the behavior and (
him during combat or I
The Secretary of D
tary of the Treasury ,wi
Guard except when it i
Navy) shall.. take sucl
necessary to impleme
disseminate and make
to all members of the
United States.

~
I

3654880.0-55--7

CODE OF CONDUCT
For f,'lembm of the Armed Forces of the United Slales.

By virtue of the authority vested in me as


President of the United Statel', and as Com
mander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the
United States, I' hereby prescribe the Code
of Conduct for Members of the Armed ForceI'
of the United States which is attached to
this order and hereby made a part thereof.
Every member of the Armed Forces of the
United States is expected to measure lip to the
standards embodied in this Code of Conduct
while he is in combat or in captivity. To
ensure achievement of these standard", each
member of the Armed Forces liable to eapture
shall be provided with specific training and
instruction designed to better equip him to
counter and withstand all enemy efforts
against him, and shall be fully instructed as
to the behavior and obligations expected of
him during combat or captivity.
The Secretary of Defense (and the Seere
tary of the Treasury with respect to the Coast
Guard except when it is serving as part of the
Navy) shall.. take such action as is deemed
necessary to implement this order and to
disseminate and make the said code known
to all members of the Armed Forces of the
United States.

~
I

41

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
I am an American fighting man.
I serve in the forces which guard
my country and our way of life.
I am prepared to give my life in
their defense.

c(

A member of the Armed Forces is


always a fighting man. As such, it is his
duty to oppose the enemies of the United
States regardless of the circumstances in
which he may find himself, whether in
active participation in combat, or as a
prisoner of war.

of
a1
pI

IV
(continued)

T
m

or
ta
m

II
I will never surrender of my own
free will. If in command, I will
never surrender my men while
they still have the means to resist.

III
If I am captured I will .continue

to r.esist by all means available.


I will make every effort to escape
and aid others to escape. I will
accept neither parole nor special'
favors from the enemy.

As an individual, a member of the


Armed Forces may never voluntarilv
surrender himself. When isolated and
he can no longer inflict casualties on the
enemy, it is his duty to evade capture
and rejoin the nearest friendly. forces.
The responsibility and authority of a
commander never extends to the sur
render of his command to the enemv
while it has power to resist or evade.
When isolated, cut off or surrounded, a
unit must continue to fight until relieved,
or able to rejoin friendly forces, by break
ing out or by evading the enemy.
.

The duty of a member of the Armed


Forces to continue resistance bv all means
at his disposal is not lessened by the mis
fortune of capture. Article 82 of the
Geneva Convention pertains and must be
explained. He will escape if able to do
so, and will .assist others to escape.
Parole agreement,s are promises given the
captor by a prisoner of war upon his faith
and honor, to fulfill stated conditions,
such as not to bear arms or not to escape,
in consideration of special privileges,
usually release from captivity or lessened
restraint. He will never sign or enter into
a parole agreement.

If

ef
se
7!
T

c(

fo

rE

pi

When questioned, should I be


come a prisoner of war, I am
bound to give only name, rank,
service number and date of
birth. I will evade answering
further questions to the utmost
of my ability. I will make no
oral or written statements dis
loyal to my country and its allies
or har'inful to their cause.

n:

bi
m

in
oj

m
OJ

ti
pl

al

tl

CI
C(

01

S1
01

ti,
pI

fo
m
pI

IV
If I become a prisoner of war, I

will keep faith with my fellow


prisoners. I will give no informa
tion nor take part in a'ny action
which might be harmful to my'
comrades. If I am senior, I will
take command. . If not, I will
obey the lawful orders of those
appointed over me and will back
them up in every way.

42

Informing or any other action to the


detriment of a fellow prisoner is despicable
and is expressly forbidden. Prisoners of
war must avoid helping the enemy
identify fellow prisoners who may have
knowledge of particular value to the
enemy, and may therefore be made to
suffer coercive interrogation.
Strong leadership is essential to disci
pline. Without discipline, camp organiza
tion, resistance and even survival may be
impossible. .Personal hygiene, cafnp sani
tation, and care of sick and wounded are
imperative.
Officers and noncommis
sioned officers of the United States will
continue to carry out their responsibjlities
and exercise their authority subsequent
to capture. The senior line officer or non

hi

tt
m
ar

. of
w

th
co
bJ
hi
hi
efi

of
C
pI

C
pI

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
A member of the Armed Forces is
always a fighting man. As such, it is his
duty to oppose the enemies of the United
States regardless of the circumstances in
which he may find himself, whether ill
active participation in combat, or as a
prisoner of war.

As an individual, a member of the


Armed Forces may never vohintarilv
surrender himself. When isolated and
he can no longer inflict casualties on the
enemy, it is his duty to evade capture
and rejoin the nearest friendlv,forces.
The responsibility and authority of a
commander never extends to the sur
render of his command to the enem v
while it has power to resist or evade.
When isolated, cut off or surrounded, a
unit must continue to fight until relieved,
or able to rejoin friendly forces, by breaking out or by evading the enemy.
'

The duty of a member of the Armed


Forces to continue resistance bv all means
at his disposal is not lessened by the mis
'ortuneof capture. Article 82 of the
3eneva Convention pertains and must be
lxplained. He will escape if able to do
;0, and will assist others to escape.
Parole agreements are promises given the
:aptor by a prisoner of war upon his faith
md honor, to fulfill stated conditions,
mch,as not to bear arms or not to escape,
n consideration of special pri.vileges,
Isually release from captivity or lessened
'estraint. He will never sign or enter into
~ parole agreement.

Informing or any other action to the


letriment of a fellow prisoner is despicable
,nd is expressly forbiddell. Prisoners of
var must avoid helping the enemy
dentify fellow prisoners who may have
:nowledge of particular. value to the
nemy, and may therefore be made to
uffer coercive interrogation.
Strong leadership is essential to disci
,line. Without discipline, camp organiza
ion, resistance and even survival may be
npossible. .Personal hygiene, camp sani
ation, and care of sick and wounded are
nperative.' Officers and noncommis
ioned officers of the United States will
ontinue to carry out their responsibjlities
nd exercise their authority subsequent
) capture. The senior line officer or non-

IV
(continued)

When questioned, shoulO: I be.


come a prisoner of war, I am
bound to give only name, rank.
service number and date of
birth. I will evade answering
further questions to the utmost
of my ability. I will make no
oral or written statements dis
loyal to my country and its allies
or hal'inful to their cause.

commissioned officer within the prisoner"


of war camp or group of prisoners will
assume command according to rank (or
precedence) without regard to Service.
This responsibility and accountability
mav not be evaded. If the senior officer
or -nonco'mmissioned officer is incapaci
tated or unable to act for any reason, com
mand will be assumed by the next senior.
If the foregoing organization cannot be
effected, an organization of elected repre
sentatives, as provided for in Articles
79-81 Geneva Convention Relative to
Treatment of Prisoners of War, or a
covert organization, or both, will be
formed.

When questioned, a prisoner of war is


required by the Geneva Convention and
permitted by this Code to disclose his
name, rank, service number and date of
birth. A prisoner 'of war may also com
municate with the enemy regarding his
individual health or welfare as a prisoner
of war and, when appropriate, on rontine
matters of camp administration. Oral
or written confessions true or false, ques
tionnaires, personal history statements,
propaganda recordings and broadcasts,
appeals to other prisoners of war, signa
tures to peace or surrender appeals,. self
criticisms or any other oral or written
communication on behalf of the enemy
or critical or harmful to the United
States, its allies, the Armed Forces or
other prisoners are forbidden.
It is a violation of the Geneva Conven
tion to place a. prisoner of war under
physical or mental torture or any other
form of coercion to secure from him infor
mation of any kind. If, however, a
prisoner is subjected to such treatment,
he will endeavor to avoid by every means
the disclosure of any information, or the
making of any statement or the perform
ance of any action harm~ul to ~he intere;ots
of the United States or Its allles or WhICh
. will provide aid or comfort to the enemy.
Under Communist Bloc reservations to
the Geneva Convention, the signing of a
confession or the making of a statement
by a prisoner is likely to be used to convict
him as a war criminal under the laws of
his captors. This conviction ha~ the
effect of removing him from the prisoner
of war status and according to this
Communist Bloc device denying him any
protection under terms .of. the Ge~eva
Convention and repatriatIOn untIl a
prison sentence is served.

43

VI
I will never forget that I am. an
American fighting man, responsi
ble for my actions, and dedicated
to the principles which made my
country free. I will trust in my
God and in the United States of
America.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
The provisions of the Uniform Code of
Military Justice, whenever appropriate,
continue to apply. to members of the
Armed Forces while prisoners of war.
Upon repatriation, the conduct of pris
oners will be examined as to the circum
stances of capture and through the period
of detention with due regard for the
rights of the individual and consideration
for the conditions of captivity.
A member of the Armed Forces who
becomes a prisoner of war has a continuing
obligation to remain loyal to his country,
his Service and his unit.
The life of a prisoner of war is hard.
He must never give up hope. He must
resist enemy indoctrination. Prisoners of
war who stand firm and united against
the enemy, will aid one another in
surviving this ordeal.

i
'f
ADDENDA
CITIZENS, FORMER PRISONERS
MENT REPRESENTATIVES WH
DEFENSE ADVISORY COMM
WAR

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
The provisions of the Uniform Code of
Military Justice, whenever appropriate,
continue to apply. to members of the
Armed Forces while prisoners of war.
Upon repatriation, the conduct of pris
oners will be examined as to the circum
stances of capture and through the period
of detention with due regard for the
rights of the individual and consideration
for the conditions of captivitv.
A member of the Armed' Forces who
becomes a prisoner of war has a continuing
obligation to remain loyal to his country,
his Service and his unit.
The life of a prisoner of war is hard.
He must never give up hope. He must
resist enemy indoctrination. Prisoners of
war who stand firm and united against
the enemy, will aid one another in
surviving this ordeal.

1
'(
ADDENDA NO.3
CITIZENS, FORMER PRISONERS OF WAR, AND GOVERN
MENT REPRESENTATIVES WHO CONSULTED WITH THE
DEFENSE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PRISONERS OF
WAR

45

Is
my
Ia
thej

I will
free
never
they ~

Ifl am
to resist
I will ma
and aid,
accept nt
favors frQ

If I becomt
will keep I
prison ers. 1
tion nor tak
which mighl
comrades. 1
take commal
obey the lal\
apPointed OVE
them up in ev

42

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

,
l

CITIZENS, FORMER PRISONERS OF WAR, AND GOVERN


MENT REPRESENTAliVES WHO CONSULTED WITH THE
DEFENSE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PRISONERS OF
WAR
DR. ARTHUR

S.

ADAMS

Pre8ident, American Council on Education

and

Chairman, Re8erve Force8 Policy Board

HONORABLE ROBERT B. ANDERSON


Deputy Secretary of Defen8e
MAJOR CLARENCE L. ANDERSON, U. S. Army
Medical Corp8
MR. MAC ASBELL, JR.

Chairman, Subcommittee for Military Affair8-Peace and PreparedMI8


Committee
American Veteran8 of World War II
COMMANDER RALPH M. BAGWELL, U. S. Navy
DR. A. BIEDERMAN

Ojficer8 Education and Re8earch Laboratory


Air Research and Development Command
U. S. Air Force
MR. GEORGE BROWN

A88i8tant to the President


American Federation of Labor
HONORABLE HERBERT BROWNELL, JR.

do

The Attorney General of the United Statell

.0

I
he

~le

of
ny
lye

the

to

isci
dza..
y be
lani
I are
.mis

.. wiII

lities
!1 Uent
i'non-

HONORABLE WILBER M. BRUCKER

then General Coun8el, Department of Defense, now


Secretary of the Army
DR. LEONARD CARMICHAEL

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution


P. CLARK, U. S. Air Force
Chief, Promotions & Separations Division
Director of Military .Per80nnel
ST-AFF SERGEA.NT RODERICK G. CONN, U. S. Air ForC4
GENERAL ORVAL R. COOK, U. S. Air Force
Deputy Commander in Chief-Burope
DR. MEREDITH P. CRAWFORD
Director, Human Re80urce8 Rellearch Oifiu
George Washington Univer&ity
CAPTAIN BIlRT CUMBY, U. S. Army
COLONEL A.

47

MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM F. DEAN,

U. S. Army

DR. HAROLD W. DODDS

President, Princeton UniverBity


MR. ALLYN DONALDSON

Director, Office of Special Counselor Services

Department of State

CAPTAIN RAY M. DOWE, JR., U. S. Army

ADMIRAL DONALD B. DUNCAN, U. S. Navy


Vice ChieFof Naval Operations
LIEUTENANT GENERAL G. B. ERSKINE, U. S. Marine Corps (Ret.)
Director, Special Operations
Office of the Secretary of Defense
CAPTAIN J. S. F AHY, U. S. Navy

Officer Personnel Branch

Bureau of Naval Personnel

MR. CHARLES E. FOSTER

COI.ONEL K. K. LOUTHER, U. S. M,
Assistant Director of Personnel
Personnel Division
LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID F. M
MR. S. L. A. MARSHALL

Chief Editorial Writer


The Detroit News
REVERE"D WILLIAM IVrARTI"

Presiding Bishop of Methodist Churcht


DB. CHARLES MAYO

The Mayo Clinic


Rochester, Minnesota
M,
Defense Prisoner Officer
Office of the Director of Plans
REAR ADMIRAL 1. H. NUNN, U. S. ,
The Judge Advocate General
LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES L.

Assistant Director of Legislatioo


Disabled American Veterans
REAR ADMIRAL D. V. GALLERY, U. S. Navy
Chief, Air Reserve Training
REAR ADMIRAL ELTON W. GRENFELL, U. S. Navy
Assistant Chief for Personnel Control and
ACNO for Military Personnel Security
Bureau of Naval Personnel
LIEUTENANT COLONEL MONROE J. HAGOOD, U. S. Arnw
Chief, Returnees Section
G-2 Intelligence, General Staff
CORPORAL JAMES L. HALE, U. S. Marine Corps

Superintendent, St. Elizabeths Hospita


Washington, D. C.
HOSPITALMAN 3D CLASS TED P AILLI
GENERAL W. B. P.\LMER, U. S. Ar71
Vice Chief of Staff
MAJOR MARION R. P ANELL, U. S. .t
G-S Operations, General Staff

FATHER THEODORE HESBURGH

RABBI DAVID DE SOLA POOL

LIEUTENANT GENERAL EMMETT O'I

Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel


CAPTAIN PAUL T. O'DOWD, U. S. A
DR. WINFRED OVERHOLSER, M. D.

President, Notre Dame University

National Jewish Welfare Board

DR. LAWRENCE HINKLE

ADMIRAL ARTHUR

New York Hospital

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

BRIGADIER GENERAL S. W. JONES, U. S. Army


Assistant Judge Advocate General for Military Justice
MR. MILES KENNEDY

Director, National Legislative Commission


The American Legion
MR. OMAR B. KETCHUM

Director; National Legislative Service


Veterans of Foreign Wars
MAJOR GENERAL A. M. KUHFIELD,

MR. VICTOR REUTHER

AsBistant to the President


Congress of Industrial Organizations
DR. SCOVEL RICHARDSON

Chairman, U. S. Board 'of PlUole


Department of Justice
HONORABLE ROBERT TRIPP Ross

U. S. Air Force

The Assistant Judge Advocate General


H. S. LEViE, U. S. Army
Chief, International Affairs DiviBion
Office of the Judge Advocate General
COLONEL

AMBASSADOR HENRY CABOT LODGE, JR.

United States Representative to the United Nations

48

\V. RADFORD, U.

AsBistant Secretary of Defense


(Legislative and Public Affairs)
DR. H. J. SANDER
Officers Education and Research Labor,
Air Research and Development Comma
U. S. Air Force
DB. CARLETON F. SCOFIELD
Human Resources Research Ojfice
George Washington UniverBity

EAN,

U. S. Army

or Services

MR. S. L. A. MA.RSHALL

Chief Editorial Writer

The Detroit News

. S. Army
J. S. Navy
SKINE,

COI.ONEL K. K. LOUTHER, U. S. Marine Corps

Assistant Director of Personnel

Personnel Division

LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID F. MACGHEE, U. S. Air Force

REVEREI'D WILLIAM MARTIN

Presiding Bishop of Methodist Churches, Dallas, Texas

U. S. Marine Corps (Ret.)

DR. CHARLES MAYO

The Mayo Clinic


Rochester, Minnesota

LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES L. MONROE,

U. S. Air Force

Defense Prisoner Officer

Office of the Director of Plans

REAR ADMIRAL 1. H. NUNN, U. S. Navy


The Judge Advocate General
LIEUTENANT GENERAL EMMETT O'DONNELL, JR.,

FELL, U. S. Navy
rol and
~rity

DR. WINFRED OVERHOLSER, M. D.

Superintendent, St. Elizabeths Hospital


Washington, D. C.
HOSPITALMAN 3D CLASS TED PAILLETTE,'

J.

HAGOOD,

U. S. Air Force

Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel


CAPTAIN PAUL T. O'DOWD, U. S. Army

U. S. Navy

U. S. Arnw

Marine Corps

U. S. Navy

B. P.\LMER, U. S. Army
Vice Chief of Staff
MAJOR MARION R. P ANELL, U. S. Army
G-S Operations, General Staff
GENERAL W.

RABBI DAVID DE SOLA POOL

National Jewish Welfare Board


ADMIRAL ARTHUR W. RADFORD,

U. S. Navy

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff


U. S. Army
or Military Justice

I,

nis8ion

MR. VICTOR REUTHER

Assistant to the President


Congress of Industrial Organizations
DR. SCOVEL RICHARDSON

Chairman, U. S. Board of Pa.role


Department of Justice
HONORABLE ROBERT TRIPP Ross
LD,

U. S. Air Force

ral
ny
n
1E, JR.

:Jnited Nations

Assistant Secretary of Defense


(Legislative and Public Affairs)
DR. H. J. SANDER

Officers Education and Research Laboratory


Air Research and Development Command
U. S. Air Force
DR. CARLETON F. SCOFIELD
Human Resources Research Office
George Washington University

49

DR. JULIU8 SEQAL

Human Resources Research OfficI


George Washington University
MAJOR HENRY A. SEGAL, U. S.-Army
Medical Corps
GENERAL LEMUEL C. SHEPHERD, JR.

Commandant, U. S. Marine Corps


DR. FRANK STANTON

President, Columbia Broadca!lting System


HONORABLE ROBERT T. STEVENIl

then Secretary oj the Army


SERGEANT MARVIN E. TALBERT, U. S. Army
HONORABLE HAROLD E; TALBOTT
Secretary oj the Air Force
LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAM G. THRA8H,

U. S. Marine Corps

HONORABLE CHARLES S. THOMAS

Secretary oj the Navy


LIEUTENANT COLONEL C. H. THURSTON,

U. S. Armv

G-l Personnel, General Staff


GENERAL NATHAN F. TWINING,

ChieJ oj Staff
MR. BERNARD WEITZER

National Legislative Dir.ctor


Jewish War Veterans oj U. S. A.

DB.

HAROLD WOLF

Department oj Medicine
CorneU University

50

U. S. Air Foree

ADDEND)
THE MIND AN

IN NATIONA

Army
, JR.

System

U.S.Army
r

G.

THRA8H,

URSTON,

U. S. Marine Corps

U. S. Armll

U. 8. Air Force

ADDENDA NO. 4

THE MIND AND THE SPIRIT

IN NATIONAL SECURITY

51

THE MIND AND


IN NATIONAL
(An address by Admiral Arthur Radfor
of Stalf, before the Sccond National I
tions, Washingt.on, D. C., 25 October
President Eisenhower recentlv issuec
order to announce a Code of Conduct
Forces.
In brief, pointed t.crms, the first articl,
"I am an American fighting m/l.n.
my country and our way of life. lam
defense."
I believe most of J'ou realize this is
Possibly some of you feel that it Lc; writt
form. If so, you are not wrong. It is '1
followed by the men in our Armed Fore!
I would suggest, however, that this CI
every American's /l.ttitude. There is n
lack of meaning, when yotI pledge: "I se
country and our way of life." These
played by the mind and the spirit in our
Militant Liberty.
Ladies and gentlemen: Every Ameri,
mission. It is not sufficient for only are
States. In our present peril, people ev,
against militant international Commun
American way of life.
What is this"American way of life" of
I know it. We have lived it and enjoy'
define something so nebulous?
Language is sometimes a peculiar thir
us.' The word "Freedom" has far diffe
'Communist lips. And in American sp'
loosely used that its meaning begins to \I
It has become increasingly apparent to
and nations who want to remain free IT
able to explain it-by their example as ,
. It is obvious the Communists have rna
'they know what" they believe, why the
They are educated in it and completely
On the other hand, we who are free ha
have lacked the verbal ability to explai
way of life really is. We must know wl

THE MIND AND THE SPIRIT


IN NATIONAL SECURITY
(An address by Admiral Arthur Radford, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, before the Sccond National Conference on Spiritual Founda
tions, Washingt,on, D. C., 25 October 1955.)
President Eisenhower recently issued a widely publicized executive
order to announce a Code of Conduct for the members of the Armed
Forces.
In brief, pointed t.crtIis, the first article of this Code said:
"I am fin American fighting man. I serve ill the forces which guard
my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in trrBr
defense."
I believe most of ~'ou realize this is written in the form of a. creed.
Possibly some of you feel that it is written mostly for thof'e of us in uni
form. If so, you are not wrong. It is written as a guiding precept to be
followed by the men in our Armed Forces.
I would suggest, however, that this creed could very well be a part of
every American's attitude. There is no hidden meaning, nor is there
lack of meaning, when yotI pledge: "I serve in the forces which guard my
country and our way of life." These )Vords are the key to the part
played by the mind and the spirit in our national security. They signify:
Militant Liberty.
Ladies and gentlemen: Every American should be dedicated to this
mission. It is not sufficient for only a relatively few to defend the United
States. In our present peril, people everywhere must unite in the fight
against militant international Communism, or any other threat to our
American way of life.
What is this "American way of life" of which I speak? You know it and
I know it. We have lived it and enjoyed its benefits. But how can we
define something so nebulous?
Language is sometimes a peculiar thing; Sometimes it plays tricks on
us." The word "Freedom" has far different meaning when spoken from
Comn;;.unist lips. And in American speech, that word may become so
loosely used that its meaning begins to wear thin and to become vague.
It has become increasingly apparent to me since WorId War II that men
and nations who want to remain free must understand Freedom and be
able to explain it-by their example as well as in their own words.
"It is obvious the Communists have made amazing gains, largely because
'they know what" they believe, why they believe it, and can explain it.
They are educated in it and completely versed in it.
On the other hand, we who are free have many times been incoherent or
have lacked the verbal ability to explain or defend completely what our
way of life really is. We must know what we mean by it. We must be

53

-I

convinced that it presents the very best way of life in today's world-and
I think we are. But we must be able to explain this conviction to others.

Freedom
My own understanding of the American way of life is many-foid.
First it is Freedom and Liberty.
Freedom began with a belief in human dignity, and it grew with the
history of the world. Often it came in conflict with tyranny and despo
tism. Often it was knocked down, but always it arose to fight again. It
would fight, and lose, and then fight again.
We learned this in history when Moses stood beforePharaoh and said:
"Let my people go." We read it again when the barons stood before King
John and the Magna Carta was embodied into laws. We lived it still
again in the epic of Valley Forge.
Our Founding Fathers were adept at choosing the right words to
explain the meaning of our way of life. Thomas Jefferson called it
"Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness." .Patrick Henry summed it
up when he said: "Give me liberty or give me death."
All of you know well the other meanings of our four freedoms: They are
all part of the American way of life:-freedom of religion, freedom of press,
freedom of assembly; freedom of speech, and many more. We have
lived with these freedoms so long, and have enjoyed them so much, that
we are prone to take them for granted.

Faith
A second primary ingredient in our American way of life is faith.
Faith is essential. We must have it.
The New Testament calls faith "the substance of things hoped for, the
evidence of things not seen." (Hebrews 11: 1.) Let me repeat that. Faith
is "the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen."
Faith is our belief in the equality of man in the sight of God. It is
our belief in what Alexander Hamilton referred to as "the Sacred Rights
of Mankind." Far beyond the point of lip-service, we must all believe
that each and every human is entitled to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit
of Happiness." These are the "substance of things hoped for."
That cold winter at Valley Forge was truly an ordeal. The suffering
from freezing and starvation almost led American troops to abandon their
cause. Faith in their God; faith in their great leader, George Washington;
and faith in the righteousness of their cause inspired the courage with
which these men were victorious in their hour of trial. Thesc are the
"evidence of things not seen," to return again to the words of the New
Testament.
Without such faith, we could not be ready, as written in the Code of
Conduct, "to give my life in their defense." But with it, we can meet
successfully any future hour of trial.

Responsibilities
Now, faith in the principles upon which this nation was founded auto
maticall)' implies a third important element of "the American way oflife" ;
namely, the individual acceptance ofresportsibility to defend these
principles against any threat;

54

,!
~

To the young person growing up in


easy to consider the rights of man as a<
to be won. The world can too easily
personal eliort.
The lessons of history, however, teacl
with instances to prove that nations wh
apt to fall prey to tyrannical forces, fro
For every freedom there is a corresp<
denies his responsibility, he runs the ris
cepts his responsihility, he C'.l.n do much
tions to follow.
In this same vein, teaching a person
pendence and the Bill of Rights by merr
not enough, for you could teach a parr<
Instead, teaching him to understanr
better. It is all important. We should
sibilities" to go along with his "Bill of Ri
in him, a spirit of service to God and CI

Spreading the Word


Having established Faith, Responsj:
elem~nts of "the American way of life,'

whole to the concept of the mind and th


do we go about perpetuating this "Arne:
for our children tomorrow?
An important feature in the multi-f
conviction and complete command of tl:
been achieved in great part by the sui
effectively spread by organized zeal<
values and pretended to show that follo
dynamic way to economic security for:
the United States with status quo powe
onto the bounties they already possess.
Thus, the Free World, in spite of i
values, has been sometimes outmaneuvi
free have seemingly lacked the unders
defend our way of life.
The answer lies in the heart, the mine
We must teach a better understanding
way of life"; we must rebuild the com
to'that which God would have us follow
sacrifices.
We must spread the word, both at
on the good offices and influence of the
Forces, to. develop the sound minds ani
national security is fundamentally ba
Nathan Hale, who, when asked by his
simply said: "I only regret that I have 1

, best way of life in today's world-and


ble to explain this conviction to others.

American way of life is many-foid.


human dignity, and it grew with the
ae in conflict with tyranny and despo-

but always it arose to fight again. It


ht again.
Moses stood before. Pharaoh and said:
~ain when the barons stood before King
mbodied into laws. We lived it still
tept at choosing the right words to
of life. Thomas Jefferson called it
:appiness." .Patrick Henry summed it
or give me death."
anings of our four freedoms: They are
-freedom of religion, freedom of press,
speech, and many more. We have
md have enjoyed them so much, that
;ed.

To the young person growing up in a country such as ours, it is too


easy to consider the rights of man as accepted facts rather than as prizes
to be won. The world can too easily seem his for the taking, without
personal effort.
The lessons of history, however, teach us otherwise. History is replete
with instances to prove that nations who take their liberty for granted are.
apt to fall prey to tyrannical forces, from within as well as from without.
For every freedom there is a corresponding responsibility. If a person
denies his responsibility, he runs the risk of losing his freedom. If he ac
cepts his responsibility, he C'ln do much to perpetuate freedom for gencra
tiom! to follow.
In this same vein, teaching a person to recite the Declaration of Inde
pendence and the Bill of Rights by memory, line by line, word for word, is
not enough, for you could teach a parrot to do that.
Instead, teaching him to understand the meaning of liberty is much
better. It is all important. We should always give him a "Bill of Respon
sibilities" to go along with his "Bill of Rights," and at the same time, instill
in him, a spirit of service to God and country.

Spreading the Word


Having established Faith, Responsibility, and Freedom as the three
"the American way of life," I am concerned with relating the
whole to the concept of the mind and the spirit in national security. How
do we go about perpetuating this "American'way of life," for us today and
for our children tomorrow?
An important feature in the multi-faced Soviet threat has been their
conviction and complete command of their doctrine. Their successes have
been achieved in great part by the subversive appeal of an artful logic,
effectively spread by organized zealots. They have denied spiritual
values and pretended to show that following the Communist l;lystem is the
dynamic way to economic security for the masses. They have associated
the United States with status quo powers whose only motivation is to hold
onto the bounties they already possess;
Thus, the Free World, in spite of its greater resources and spiritual
values, has been sometimes outmaneuvered. Too many times we who are
free have seemingly lacked the understanding conviction with which to
defend our way of life.
The answer lies in the heart, the mind, and in the spirit of all Americans.
must teach a better understanding and appreciation of "the American
way of life"; we must rebuild the conviction that our path is the closest
to'th~t which God would have us follow, that it is truly worth;)' of personal
sacrifices.
We must spread the word, both at home and abroad. We must call
on the good offices and influence of the h~me, church, school, and Armed
Forces, to. develop the sound minds and dedicated spirits upon which our
national security is fundamentally based. We can take our cue from
Nathan Hale, who, when asked by his captors if he' had any last words,
simply said: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country."
elem~nts of

our American way of life is faith.

t.
~he substance of things hoped for, the
ews 11:1.) Let me repeat that. Faith
or, the evidence of things not seen."
'I of man in the sight of God. It is
~on referred to as "the Sacred Rights
nt of lip-service, we must. all believe
ed to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit
stance of things hoped for."
was truly an ordeal. The suffering
led American troops to abandon their
leir great leader, George Washington;
leir cause inspired the courage with
their hour of trial. These are the
turn again to the words of the New

be ready, as written ill the Code of


defense." But with it, we can meet

which this nation was founded auto


ement of "the American way of life";
of responsibility to defend these

We

55

You, laclie'" and gentlemen, are among the teachers. By virtue of the
great wisdom you possess, you are able to wield your power and influence
on people everywhere. Therefore, you have perhaps a greater responsi
bility to Freedom.
Yes, you are accountable. You are accountable for your use of Freedom
and, your powers to teach. Through your patriotic dedication, you can
rekindle the fires of understanding conviction so that all Americans will
proudl}' dedicate themselves to the words of our Founding Fathers in the
Declaration of Independence:
"Alld for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance 011 the
protection of Divine Providence, we mutually. pledge to _~ach other our
Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor."
This; ladies and gentlemen, is the Mind and Spirit in our National
Security.

ADDEND.
PRISONERS OF VI

56

..'

re among the teaehers. By virtue of the


ore able to wield your power and influence
lre, you have perhaps a greater responsim are accountable for your use of Freedom
rough your patriotic dedication, you can
ing conviction so that all Americans will
;he words of our Founding Fathers in the
, Declaration, with a firm reliance 011 the
ce, we mutually pledge to .~ach other our
sacred Honor."
s the Mind and Spirit in our National

ADDENDA NO. 5

PRISONERS OF WAR IN HISTORY

,j

57

PRISONERS OF WA
Dungeon, Cell and Stoclcade
The captive knight languish ed in a
usually rugged. Facing "duranc e vil!
terred death to capture , refusing to Burl
The Mediev al foot soldier continued
the hands of a conquer ing enemy. B\l
notable spokesm an in Hugo Grotiu s-I
world's great democr atic thinkers . },
impriso ned. He contrive d a remarka
cated himself to a study of internat iona
rules which combat ant nations could I
efforts to humani ze warfare by legal m
success. But they did publicize the pi
conscience.
The concurr ent rise of nationa lism
As nationa l armies grew, so did the c
Usually the conquer ing army had fe"
captives . Castle dungeons were few
were built to hold prisoners. The B
prison for soldiers capture d during the
As cells overflowed, the captive s werl
They were packed into airless prison st
guards were shortha nded, prisoners VI
Fortuna tely for the war-pri soner t1
One came in the device of the prisone
trom the concept that the soldier Ina
governm ent. As such he could not be
actions of that governm ent. Hence, h
going to war. The prisone r had right
the "detain ing state" and not from in
on the problem of the "war criminl
involvin g the modern POW.
The issue arose during the America
pertine nt to the POW problem of tod
of captive by captor; prisone r conduc
escape; truce exchange or prisone r re
experience with these issues was not f

The First American POW'i


George III decreed that all Amer
authori ty were war criminals subjec
Whippl e of Rhode Island reminde d th
you hang himI" But every Revoluti<
under shadow of the gallows. The
proved impract ical and English 1il

PRISONERS OF WAR IN HISTORY


Dungeon, Cell and Stockade
The captive knight languished in a "donjon." The languishing was
usually rugged. Facing "durance vile," many Medieval warriors pre
ferred death to capture, refusing to !lurrender and battling until they feU.
The Medieval foot Boldier continued to risk death or enslavement at
the hands of a conquering enemy. But in the 17th Century he found flo
notable spokesman in Hugo Grotius-Dutch lawyer, humanist, one of the
world's great democratic thinkers. At one time, Grotius himself was
imprisoned. He contrived a remarkable escape. Thereafter, he dedi
cated himself to a study of international law, attempting to devise a set of
rules which combatant nations could follow to mutual advantage. His
efforts to humanize warfare by legal means did not meet with immediate
success. But they did publicize the problem and place it on humanity's
conscience.
The concurrent rise of nationalism aggravated t~e prisoner problem:
As national armies grew, so did the complexities of war and soldiering.
Usually the conquering army had few facilities for confining a mass of
captives. Castle dungeons were few and far between. Great bastilles
were built to hold prisoners. The British constructed Dartmoor as a
prison for soldiers captured during the Napoleonic Wars.
As cells overflowed, the captives were crowded into miserable stockades.
They were packed into sirless prison ships or bleak compounds. Because
guards were shorthanded, prisoners were frequently chained in droves.
Fortunately for the war-prisoner two lenitives eventually developed.
One came in the device of the prisoner exchange. The second stemmed
from the concept that the soldier In a national army was a servant of his
government. As such he could not be held personally responsible for the'
actions of that government. Hence, he was not subject to punishment for
going to war. The prisoner had right of reparation, and it was due from
the "detaining state" and not from individual captors. The point bears
on the problem of the "war criminal"-one of the serious questions
involving the modern POW.
The issue arose during the American Revolution. So did qther issues
pertinent to the POW problem of today-questions involving treatment
of captive by captor; prisoner conduct and allegiance; prison break and
escape; truce exchange or prisoner rescue. The American patriot's first
experience with these issues was not a happy one.

The First American

POW'i

George III decreed that all Americans who revolted against Crown
authority were war criminals subject to hanging. Doughty Abraham
Whipple of Rhode Island reminded the king, "Always catch a man before
you hang himl" But every Revolutionary soldier and sailor went to war
under shadow of the gallows. The noose was relaxed only because it
proved impractical and English liberals deplored such high-handed

59

tyranny; Soon after the outbreak of hostilities prisoner exchanges were


begun and paroles arranged. Whipple himself was eventually captured.
The Red Coats considered the "Informal Commodore" worth more as
hostage than hangee.
Captive American seamen were'lodged in the worst of England's Daval
prisons, the "Old Mill" at Plymouth. Early in the war Dr. Franklin
informed Lord Stormont in Paris, "The United States are not unac
quainted with the barbarous treatment their people receive. when they
hP.ve the misfortune of being your prisoners in Europe." Lord Stormont's
answer was blunt. "The King's Ambassador receives no applications
from rebels unlesathey come to implore His Majesty's mercy." Mal
treatment of captured Yankees led Paul Jones to raid Nova Scotia in
a daring rescue effort. "Justly indignant at the suffering of these Ameri-'
cans, I resolved to make the greatest efforts to succor them." His sensa
tional raid on England featured an attempt to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk
to force a prisoner exchange.
A vie~ of Red Coat prisons in America comes from the pen of Ethan
~lIen, hImself made captive.
"The prisoners who were brought to New
1: ork were crowded into churches by the slavish Hessian guards . . . ..
I have seen sundry of the prisoner.:! in the agonies of death, in consequence
of very hunger; and others speechless and near death, biting pieces of
chIps; others pleading for God's sake for something to eat and at the
sa~e ,time shivering with cold. . . . The filth was almost' beyond de
scriptIOn. . . . I have seen in one of the churches seven dead at the same
time, lying among the excrement of their bodies. . . . I saw some sucking
bones after they were speechlesd. . . . I was persuaded that it was a
premeditated and systematized plan of the British Council to destroy the
youth of our land."
From Bunce's Romance oj the Revolution comes an equally harrowing
account. "Of all the atrocities committed, those in the prison ships of
New York am the most execrable . . . . there is nothing in history to
excel the barbarities there inflicted. Twelve thousand (American pris
oners) suffered death . . on board the filthy and malignant ships.
The scenes enacted in these prisons almost exceed belief." Worst of the
prison ships was the hulk "Old Jersey" anchored in Wallabout Bay,
Brooklyn. The many dead, thrown overside, silted the bay with skele
tons. A poet patriot engraved the picture in verse:
"Let the dark Scorpion's hulk narrate,

"The dismal tale of Red Coat hate;

"Her horrid scenes let Jersey tell,

"And mock the shades where demons dwell


..

The Red Coat leaders countered that the Yankees taned and feathered
Tory loyalists and that captive British soldiers were worked in brutal
!Dines. The claim was made (in some instances substantiated) that Con
tiI!ental Navy captains slew naval prisoners. But "Old Jersey" remained
a blot on the record.
!n the "Old Mill" at Plymouth, England, some of the Revolution's
greatest sea warriors were imprisoned. The prisoners were chained and
placed under heavy guard. Yet the "Mill" featured two of the most
remarkable. escapes in ?istory-exploits which inspire American fighting
men to thiS day. With almost superhuman determination, Captain

60

,Gustavus Conyngham and agrolJ.p of.


made a get-away. Thereby, as Cony I
treason through His Majesty's earth."
underground, the intrepid Joshua. Bl
escape. Eluding pursuers, he bluffed hi
Holland in disguise-an exploit to ri,
-born the tradition that the America:
captivity.

"The Meaning of Treason"

~
ij

.~

I1

!
~

II

I
i

II
j

Laws affccting military discipline WE


codes prevailed. Treason was punish
~ot be countenanced. The question oj
prisoner of the enemy came up durin
its decision-a precedent-wasrecordec
The accused faced trial for serving in I
claimed he was forced to do so under
held that the duress was insufficient, <
would constitute adequate excuse,
Clearer cases of treason were made :
their posts and went over to the enemy
his raider, the Ranger. The man, a D
haven and tried to fi..larm the town. 1:
During the Civil War many prisonE
3,170 Union captives exchanged blue f
went over to the Federal side. One j
Rebs" was sent West to man a frontier I
needed on the front.
In cases involving disloyal prisoner!
or degree of duress-was weighed h
Advocate General. recognized caerdol
"extrem.e suffering and privation whi<
might justify his enlistment with the
made no effort to escape when 0PPO
desertion charge. War Department (
provided that It was the duty of a pris
was designed to curb wholesale surrell
and evade further military service.
The war was opposed by NorthE
inclined to be lenient. Referring to
"Should I hang a young soldier, and
him to desert?"

Lieber's Code
Civil War prison camps were harsh
Andersonville and Florence, men suffe
lack of medication. The UDion priso'
was a bleak Alcatraz, and Union st
potomac were described as "hell hole:
Humane citizens, North and South
captive soldiery. In 1863 President]

ak of hostilities prisoner. exchanges were


:~ipple himself was eventually captured.
Informal Commodore" worth more as
e'lodged in the worst of England's naval
!louth. Early in the war Dr. Franklin
'is, "The United States are not, unac
atment their people receive. when they
prisoners in.Europe." Lord Stormont's
B Ambassador receives no applications
implore His Majesty's mercy." MaI
led Paul Jones to raid Nova Scotia in
Idignant at the sUffering of these Ameri
;est efforts to succor them." His sensa
D attempt to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk
America comes from the pen of Ethan
he prisoners who were brought to New
by the slavish Hessian guards . . . . .
I in the agonies of death, in consequence
11ess and near death, biting pieces of
sake for something to eat, and at the
. . The filth was almost beyond de
of the churches seven dead at the same
r their bodies. . . . I saw some sucking
. ... I was persuaded that it was a
n of the British Council to destroy the
~elJol~tion comes an equally harrowing
mmltted, those in the prison ships of
there is nothing in history to
:I. Twelve thousand (American pris
oard the filthy and malignant ships.
; almost exceed belief." Worst of the
rersey" anchored in Wallabout Bay
n overside, silted the bay with skele:
picture in verse:
s hulk narrate,
Coat hate;
ersey tell,
,here demons dwell
"

hat the Yankees tarred and feathered


'itish soldiers were worked in brutal
ae instances substantiated) that Con
isoners. But "Old Jersey" remained
England, some of the Revolution's
ld. The prisoners were chained and
Ie "Mill" featured two of the most
oits which inspire American fighting
uperhumandetermination, Captain

,Gustavus Conyngham and agrO\lp orfcll0V{ pri~oners tunneled out and


made a get-away. Thereby, as Conyngham dryly put it, "committing
treason through His Majesty's earth." .Aided by friends in the English
underground, the intrepid Joshua Barney contrived ~n over-the-wall
escape. Eluding pursuers, he bluffed his way across England, and l'eached
Holland in disguise-an exploit to rival anything in Dumas. So was
born the tradition that the American POW does not meekly accept
captivity.

"The Meaning of Treason"


Laws affecting military discipline were evolving. Of course, the basio
codes prevailed. Treason was punishable by death. Treachery could
not be countenanced. The question of treasonable collaboration while a
prisoner of the enemy came up during the Revolution. The case l!-nd
its decision-a precedent--wasrecorded in 1781. Respublica vs. M'Car,ty.
The accused faced trial for serving in enemy uniform after capture. He
claimed he was forced to do so under compulsion of .duress. The court
held that the duress was insufficient, only the threat of imminent death
would constitute adequate excuse.
Clearer cases of treason were made against enlisted men who deserted
their postsand went over to the enemy. Paul Jones had such a traitor in
his raider, the Ranger. The man, a David Freeman, fled ship at Whi~e
haven and tried to alarm the town. If Jones had caught him-I
During the Civil \Var many prisoners of war changed unif.orm. /Some
3,170 Union captives exchanged blue for gJ:ay. About 5,452 Confederates
went over to the Federal side. One famous company of "reconstructed
Rebs" was sent \,y est to man a frontier outpost and relieve a Union garrison
needed on the front.
In cases involving disloyal prisoners of war, the question of duress
or degree of duress-was weighed in the balance. Tlte Union Judge
Advocate General recognized coercion as a defense. It was held that
"extreme suffering and privation which endangered the prisoner's life"
might justify his enlistment with the enemy. However, if the prisoner
made no effort to escape when opportunity offered, he was liable to a
desertion charge. War Department General Order No. 207 (July 1863)
provided that it was the duty of a prisoner of war to eseape. The order
was designed to curb wholesale surrenders by men eager to obtain parole
and evade further military service.
The war was opposed by Northern "Copperheads." Lincoln was
inclined to be lenient. Referring to" "Copperhead" leaders, he asked,
"Should I hang a young soldier, and free a wily politician who induces
him to desert?"

Lieber's Code
Civil War prison camps were harsh. In Southern camps, particularly
Andersonville and Florence, men suffered greatly from malnutrition and
lack of medication. The Union prison on Johnson's Island in Lake Erie
was. a bleak Alcatraz, and Union stockades at Point Lookout on the
Potomac were described as "hell holes."
Humane citizens, North and South, appealed for lenient treatment of
captive soldiery. In 1863 President Lincoln requested Professor Francis

61

Lieber to prepare a set of rules for immediate promulgation. Lieber's


Instruction8for the Government of Armies of the United States were probably
the first comprehensive codification of international law issued by a
government. Based on moral precepts which recognized the enemy as a
fellow human with lawful rights, they embodied the first code pertaining
to prisoners of war. Lieber's code contained the following injunctions:
No, belligerent has the right to declare that he will treat every captured
man In arms . . as a brigand or a bandit.
A prisoner of war Is subject to no punishment for being a public enemy,
nor Is any revenge wreaked upon him by the Intentional Infliction of any
sutrering, or disgrace, by cruel Imprisonment, want of food, by mutila
tIOIl, death, or any other barbarity.
A prisoner of war remaIns answerable ror his crimes commItted before
the captor's army or people, (for crimes) committed before be was cap
tured, and for which he has not been punished by his own authorities.
A prisoner of war . . . Is the prisoner of the government and not ot
the captor.
Prisoners of war are subject to confinement or imprisonment such as
may be deemed necessary on account of safety, but they are to be sub
jected to no other Intentional suffering or indignity.
A prisoner of war who escapes may be shot, or otherwise killed In
mght; but neither death nor any other punishment shall be inflicted on
Idm for his attempt to escape, which the law of order does not consider
a crime. Stricter means of security shall be used after an unsuccessful
attempt at escape.
'
Every captured wounded man shall be medically treated according to
the ability of the medical staff.
Lieber's code was a milepost on civilization's highroad. But its
commandments were easier to publish than practice. For example, the
code stipulated that prisoners should receive rations similar to those issued
bis captors. Military and economic stringency often negated the inten
tion of this rule. The Confederacy agreed to recognize and apply the code.
But under pressure of ,blockade, the South was slowly starving and
Souther~ soldiers and their prisoners showed the effects of the scarcity
of food.
Lieber reoognized that war was a harsh taskmaster. Prisoners would
have to obey various prison-rules. They would be punished for infrac
tions. During the Civil War, prisoners were sometimes chained together,
placed in brutal irons or "bagged" (a suffocating canvas Back tied over
the head). They were placed in solitary confinement, and denied wster.
These vicious measures were seldom used as disciplinary punishments.
More often they were employed to wring information from a captive.
Such "third degrees" were sub rosa and usually applied by military police
or Secret Service agents.

Interrogation and Information


In the American Civil War, espionage, military intelligence, and
counterintelligence were important features of the conflict. In the two
previous wars fought by the United States few trained intelligence opera
tors had served the American forces. Efforts to gather military informa-

62

I
I

-l

tion had been haphazard and disorgan


ton Service which operated with McC
under Colonel Lafayette Baker, and a
Service put intelligence-gathering (and
a modernized basis.
Spies were called "scouts." As old B
spy, caught in disguise, faced deat~..
prisoner-of-war exemptions. The CIV:
exploits. It also featured daring raids 1
for interrogation. In every war therE
be closely linked with prisoner interro~
The officer or man who gave his ca
dangerous to country and cause as the (
enjoined "not to talk." Lieber set dOl
Honorable men, when captured, will
information concerning their own arml
mits no longer the use of any violer
extort the desired information, or to ~
Information.
Again the rule was easier to recite
there was the interrogator ordered by
tion-intelligence which might win a b
other hand, there was the prisoner, sw
might cost a battle and the lives of his CI
forces for a cruel contest. By virtue
odds are all against the prisoner. Hi
some form of duress. Accordingly, L
the captor.
Civilized men did their best to follo
and Christian doctrine.
So another significant effort was m
The going was slow but the steps werl
of something better for the POW was I

The International Red Cross


In 1864, the Swiss philanthropist l
set the stage for a conference at Gen
national Red Cross. The Red Cros
regardless of the flag they served.
sanitary personnel might continue its 1
Through the determined campaigning
joined the convent~oni~ 1882, and th~
Dunant's work lDsplred the foundi:
In 1874 a conference was held in BruSl
Government. Delegates of all the I
A 'code, based on Lieber's, was pro;
ratified. But it strongly influenced
m~t at the turn of tl~e centurY
The devoted me~ at .Geneva and 1
internationailawB wll-ich "fould be eft
race prejudice, ancient grudges, super

for immediate promulgation. Lieber's


4.rmies ojthe United States were probably
tion of international law issued by a
ecepts which recognized the enemy as &
they embodied the first code pertaining
e contained the following injunctions:
leclare that he will treat every captured
or a bandit.
o .punishment for being a public enemy,
him by the intentional Infliction or any
nprisonment, want of food, by mutllaerable for his crimes committed before
crimes) committed before be was cap
!en punished by his own authorities.
prisoner of the government and not of
conflnement or Imprisonment such as
lunt of safety, but they are to be sub.
ring or indill'nity,
may be shot, or otherwise killed in
)ther punishment shall be inflicted on
ch the law of order does not consider
t1 shall be used after an unsuccessful
!tall be medically treated according to
on civilization's highroad. But its
!ish than practice. For example, the
I receive rations similar to those issued
c stringency often negated the inten
Lgreed to recognize and apply the code.
the South was slowly starving and
rs showed the effects of the scarcity
, harsh taskmaster. Prisoners would
They would be punished for infrac
,ers were sometimes chained together
(a suffocating canvas sack tied ove;
itary confinement, and denied water.
n used as disciplinary punishments.
I wring information from a captive.
,nd usually applied by military police

plonage, military intelligence, and


eatures of the conflict. In the two
ltates few trained intelligence operaEfforts to gather military informa-

tion had been haphazard and disorganized. The advent of the Pinker
ton Service which operated with McClellan, the Federal Secret Service
under Colonel Lafayette Baker, and a well-organized 'Confederate Secret
Service put intelligence-gathering (and defenl;live counter-intelligence) on
a modernized basis.
Spies were called "scouts." As old as war was the rule that the enemy
spy, caught in disguise, faced death. They were beyond the pale of
prisoner-of-war exemptions. The Civil War featured many heroic spy
exploits. It also featured daring raids on enemy lines to capture troopers
for interrogation. In every war thereafter, military intelli~nce would
be closely linked with prisoner interrogation.
The officer or man who gave his captors military information was as
dangerous to country and cause as the deliberate traitor. So soldiers were
enjoined "not to talk." Lieber set down the rule:
Honorable men, when captured, will abstain from giving to the enemy
information concerning their own army, and the modern law of war per
mits no longer the use of any violence against prisoners, in order to
extort the desired information, or to punish them for having given false
information.
Again the rule was easier to recite than observe. On the one hand,
there was the interrogator ordered by his chiefs to acquire vital informa
tion-intelligence which might win a battle and save many lives. On the
other hand there was the prisoner, sworn to withhold information which
might cost ~ battle and the lives of his countrymen. Here are the opposing
forces for a cruel contest. By virtue of the fact that he is a captive, the
odds are all against the prisoner. His refusal to' talk inevitably invites
some form of duress. Accordingly, Lieber's Code outlawed violence by
the captor.
Civilized men did their best to follow the precepts of the Golden Rule
and Christian doctrine.
So another significant effort was made to regulate warfare by ethics.
The going was slow but the steps were in the right direction. A promise
of something better for the POW was coming from Geneva.

The International Red Cross


In 1864, the Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant wrote a book which
set the stage for a conference at Geneva and the' founding of the Inter
national Red Cross. The Red Cross offered relief to all combatants,
regardless of the flag they served. All participants agreed that "the
sanitary personnel might continue its duty in the presence of the enemy."
Through the determined campaigning of Clara Barton the United States
joined the convention in 1882, and th~ American Red. Cross w~ orga?iz~d.
Dunant's work inspired the founding of other prlsoner-rehef sOCIeties.
In 1874 a conference was held in Brussels at the instigation of the Russian
Government. Delegates of all the major European nations attended.
A 'code, based on Lieber's, was projected. The Brussels code was ~oht
ratified. But it strongly influenced the first Hague Conference whic
met at the turn of the centUI:Y.
,
The devoted men at Geneva and Brussels worked overtime to ttevise
international laws which would be effective. They were confronted with
race prejudice, ancie~t gnidges, super nAtionalism, and mistrust.

63

Czar Nicholas II sponsored the Hague Conference of 1899 which


broadened the scope of Red Cross operations. Representatives of 26
nations attended the Conference. Discussed WP,t8 disarmament proposals
and the possibility of establishing a world court. The delegates negotiated
various agreements relating to warfare arid war-prisoners.
The prlsoner-of-war code adopted at the Hague was based on the one
proposed at Brussels. It embodied many of Ueber's original stituplations.
Prisoners of war were to be considered as lawful and disarmed enemies"
They were captives of the hostile government (and not in the power of thE!
individual captors or jailol'll). Humare treatment of prisoners was
obligatory. And it was agreed that unruly prisoners could be punished
for insubordination.
.
Twenty-four of the attending powers ratified the Hague Convention.
Signers included the United States, Germany, France, England and Rus
sia. A hopeful generation called the Conference the "First Parliament of
Man."
Acting on a Russian proposal, the Netherlands called a second Hague
Conference in 1907. During this conference, the powers affirmed their
adherence to the principles previously adopted.
So the Red Cross raised its flag in the capitol of every modern nation
including Russia. Eventually the Soviet Union agreed to follow the rules
laid down by Hague and Geneva Conventions. At the outbreak of the
Korean War, the North Koreans and subsequently the Red Chinese
announced an intention to observe the rules. While the Red Cross was
conspicuous by its absence in North Korea, a few of the POWs did receive
mail and packages. And some of the Cbinese held their fire when medical
troops were recovering wounded. The Red Cross was there in shadow,
if not in substance.

The First Total War


Another conference was in the making when the First World War
exploded. The German intentions seemed only too clear when the Kaiser's
spokesman described a treaty with Belgium as a "scrap of paper."
The concept of total war-mustering an entire nation and its forces
for the conflict-waB not new. But in the modern sense it was first
advocated by the elder Von Moltke. If rules and codcs abetted the war
effort, observe them. If they didn't, they were unrealistic and to be
dispensed with. Total war was no gentleman's game. Any expedient
that IIpel1ed victory was justifiable.
Von Moltke's concept was not entirelyacceptcd by the High Command,
but the Prussian school generally endorsed a policy of Schreklichkeit
(planned terror or "Frightfulness") to subdue defiant enemy peoples.
Prussian "Frightfulliass" was amateurish, and not very effective. But it
did represent a 20th Century development in psychological warfare. Its
usefulness was countered because. it backfired in another area-propar
ganda warfare.
Organized propaganda was an innovation., The practice of propar
ganda .was as old as preaching, electioneering or salesmanship. Early
.American war propaganda was written by Thomas Paine whose book
Common Sens8 was the sensation of '76. Washington urged his troops
to read it. And the phrases "summer soldier"and "sunshine patriot"
scathed the faint-hearted of the Revolution.

64

Captain David Dixon Porter, U.


during the Civil War. Past the Vicki
boat bearing a huge sign advising: "]
was probably the originator of the las
boats he flew kites over Vicksburg.
letters on the besieged city. "Think
But organized propaganda.,-contrivi
leaflet barrages-the use of all kinds
audience or influence the enemy pop
new. From the outset Germans an
powerful weapon. Offensively and <:
to the utmost. Again 1;he Germans w
ganda "threatened." Basically, pro
and it becomes repellent.
The Germans introduced another
This new element could be called "p(
from propaganda, it involved the prol
trination. In 1914 this came as aI:
machination. The Germans did not
scale. They were pioneering. But 1
At Limburg and Zossen, the Germar
cal camps." To these camps were se
jects for subversion. The inmates weI
Instead of the normal prisoner ration
able. Tobacco and candy were pll
months of the war, Irish prisoners werl
As reported by Major H. C. Fooks
commandant talked to his men and s1
the downtrodden state of Ireland, an
placed in So separate camp, where thl
better than the English captives. .
the Limburg Camp to give a series of
Casement was a famous Irish reb
He had slipped into Germany to or@
attempts with the Irish prisoners of
Fook one learns: "The lectures were
real purpose of them was disclosed se
wherever Casement appeared; in fact
protect him from the indignant Irish
been held out for a long time, includil
especially the privilege of having ar
green uniforms and a harp embroider'
volunteered for the new. regiment f
thirty-two were despised by their C(
Fook tells of a Roman Catholic pI
the Limburg camp by special arrangel1
man, Father Corotty, refused to COOl
mans. He denounced them both to
soldiers to remain loyal to their oaths
Limburg was a valiant pleader. He'
Emil. Kapaun-a brave priest who di4

the Hague Conference of 1899 which


'oss operations. Representatives of 26
Discussed wp.l'6 disarmament proposals
" world court. The delegates negotiated
~rfare arid war-prisoners.
~ed at the Hague was based on the one
~ many of I.ie~er's original stituplations.
Idered as laWful and disarmed enemies"
~overnment (aud not in the powel' of the
HumaI'e treatment of prisoners waS
iul.t unruly prisoners could be punished
Jowers ratified the Hague Convention.
;, Germany, France,'England and Rus~
,he Conference the "First Parliament of
,he Netherlands called a second Hague
conference, the powers affirmed their
lsly adopted.
in the capitol of every modern nation
Soviet Union agreed to follow the rules
Conventions. At the outbreak of the
I and subsequently the Red Chinese
the rules. While the Red Cross was
. Korea, a few of the POWs did receive
lIe Chinese held their fire when medical
The Red Cross was there in shadow,

making when the First World War


:eemed only too clear when the Kaiser's
Belgium as a "scrap of paper."
ering an entire nation and its forces
ut in the modern sense it was first
. If rules and codes abetted the war
a't, they were unrealistic and to be
gentleman's game. Any expedient
'rely accepted by the High Command,
endorsed a policy of Schreklichkeit
to subdue defiant enemy peoples.
urish, and not very effective. But it
pment in psychological warfare. Its
t backfired in another area-props-movation., The practice of propa
ctioneering or salesmanship. Early
tten by Thomas Paine whose book
'76. .Washington. urged his troops
Der Boldier"and "sunshine patriot"
Jlution.

Captain David Dixon Porter, U. S. N., pioneered with propaganda


during the Civil War. Past the Vicksburg forts he floated a dummy gun
boat bearing a huge sign advising: "Deluded Rebels, Cave Inl" Porter
was probably the originator of the leaflet barrage. From one of his gun
boats he flew kites over Vicksburg. A cut string would drop a bag of
letters on the besieged city. "Think of chicken and biscuitsI"
But organized propaganda.,.-contrived press releases, editorial campaigns,
leaflet barrages-the use of all kinds of mass media to reach a national
audience or influence the enemy populace or army-this was something
new. From the outset Germans and Allies saw it as a tremendously
powerful weapon. Offensively and defensively, both sides employed it
to the utmost. Again the Germans went wide of the mark. Their propa
ganda "threatened." Basically, propaganda is advertising. Force it,
and it becomes repellent.
The Germans introduced another innovation during World War I.
This new element could be called "Political Warfare." As distinguished
from propaganda, it involved the process known today as political indoc
trination. In 1914 this came as an extraordinary (and an alarming)
machination. The Germans did not employ it successfully or on a large'
scale. They were pioneering. But they set the pattern for the future.
At Limburg and Zossen, the Germans set up what were known as "politi
cal camps." To these camps were sent prisoners who seemed likely sub
jects for subversion. The inmates were quartered in comfortable barracks.
Instead of the normal prisoner ration they were fed the best viands avail
able. Tobacco and candy were plentiful. During the first eighteen
months of the war, Irish prisoners were selected for these segregated camps.
As reported by Major H. C. Fooks in his book Pri80ners of War: "One
comfuandant talked to his men and stated that the emperor was aware of
the downtrodden state of Ireland, and wished that the Irish captives be
placed in a separate camp, where they would be better fed and treated
better than the English captives. . . Sir Roger Casement was sent to
the Limburg Camp to give a series of lectures."
Casement was a famous Irish rebel-in British eyes an arch-traitor.
He had slipped into Germany to organize an anti-British brigade. His
attempts with the Irish prisoners of war were a pathetic failure. From
Fook one learns: "The lectures were poorly attended and as soon as the
real purpose of them was disclosed serious trouble developed in the camp
wherever Casement appearedjin fact a lPlard had to be Bent with him to
protect him from the indignant Irishmen. Mter every inducement had
been held out for a long time, including freedom of the prison camps, and
especially the privilege of having an Irish regiment of their own with
green uniforms and a harp embroidered on the coat, only thirty-two men
volunteered for the new. regiment from four thousand captivel5. The
thirty-two were despised by their compatriots."
Fook tells of a Roman Catholic priest, an Irishman, -who was sent to
the Limburg camp by special arrangement with tlle Vatican. '.rhis clergy
man, Father Corotty, refused to cooperate with Casement and the Ger
mans. He denounced them both to the prisoners and urged the captive
soldiers to remain loyal to their oaths and their king. Father Corotty at
Limburg was a valiant pleader. He would have his counterpart in Father
Emil. Kapaun-a brave priest who died in a prison camp in North Korea.

65

One may find another parallel in the 32 Irish converts who joined the
German side in World War I and the 23 defectors who turned the coat
in Korea. A final parallel comes from the World War I account. "After
the failure of such methods the Irish captives were subjected to rigid
discipline and limitation of liberty. The leaders in this antagonism
to German diplomacy were removed from the main camp to . . .
working camps where they were forced to live on the camp foods without
receiving their packages and letters which would normally haVll been for
warded to them. Bitter complaints were made to the effect that men
too ill to get out of bed were ordered to leave in violation of the orders
of the medical officers . .. Reprisals by the Germans were not un
common."
As a footnote to this political indoctrination program, Roger Casement
was captured by British agents when a U-boat landed him in Ireland.
Summarily tried as a traitor, he was found guilty and executed.
At war's end approximately 2,200,000 prisoners were in the hands of
the Central (Germanic) Powers. The Allies were holding 615,900. The
Americans had captured some 49,000 Germans. The Germans captured
4,120 Americans. A total of 147 Americans died in the enemy's prison
camps. Few Americans escaped from Germany, but daring attempts
were made.
.
By and large, the American prisoners had been well treated. Undoubt
edly the Klaiser's military leaders foresaw the results of America's entry
into the conflict. With the handwriting on the wall it was only expedient
to treat captured Doughboys with lenience.
In reviewing World War I-the First Total War--one may note four
major developments:
Scientific intelligence warfare.
Psychological warfare.
Propaganda warfare.
Political warfare.
All dealt with the human mind, and all would be brought to bear on
future prisoners of war--in World War II and in Kor~.

Star Chamber Confessions


Intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, propaganda warfare and
political warfare did not end with the signing of the Armistice. World
War II began almost as soon as the First World War was terminated.
Out of Europe's ruins crawled Fascism and Nazism. CoIilmunism had
already taken root in the wreckage of Imperial Russia.
Began a war for the minds of Europe's people-those millions con
temptuously looked upon by War Lord and dictator as "the masses."
While spies and subversives swarmed across the Continent, the "masses"
were deluged with propaganda appeals. Salute with upraised hand, with
clenched fist and cocked elbow-here comes the Millenniuml The Rebirth
of the Roman Empire I The Thousand Year Reichl International Com
munisml The democratic nations looked on in helpless alarm.
The Fascist Terror seemed mostly bugaboo. But Nazi Germany pro
duced a horror of pogroms. Concentration camps. Torture chambers.
Finally, in the early 30's, Hitler's Blood Purge.

66

Then, from the murk of Communll


headlines.
In 1937, the Kremlin staged a whoil
defectors. Among the number brou
toughest Red commil!8arB and no less 8
one of the ablest military strategists j
astounded to hear the accused stand
treason. A number of them read or
designs against the Soviet Union ani
penitence for their deeds. With far
confessors condemned themselves at
mercy. As they marched oft toface fi
the world stared after them in astoni!
The techniques used. in the cases of
onstrated that they had a very eft'ec
make false confessions. To some eli
tractive technique, sometimes refen
ployed on American prisoners of war
confessions and other statements for
Threats. Blows. Days in solitarJ
sips of water .Then questioning, ho
eyes. Exhaustion, then, perhaps, su(
brutality to smiling kindness. Anyt;
And if the "kindness" fails, anothe
The simple carrot-and-prod procedur
and evidently did, crack the stau
would succumb sooner. A Dutch d(
psychological and physical pressurinl
The Geneva conventions outlawed
cynical and ruthless enemy would he
rules. Moreover, he might claim til
physical torture. In any event, the
the Nazi S. S. were concerned. Bt
there was some hope that the profess
abide by the Geneva Code. It woul

The Second Total War


Seen as an extension of World W
Axis Powers produced nothing new

ending. Unless it could be stated th


the battle front to the home front e
child-on a potential firing line. An
thousands of civilians were taken pril
camps.
The conflict that would leave m
atrocities. The civilians suffered II
blasted. Lidice destroyed. Thous8.l
shot. Victims beaten and torture
starved, flogged, mutilated, slain in
ments behind the walls of Oranienb
The horrors endured by captive ci

the 32 Irish converts who joined the


the 23 defectors who turned the coat
'om the World War I account. "After
:rish captives were sUbjected to rigid
~y. The leaders in this antagonism
ved from the main camp to . . . . .
~ced to live on the camp foods without
I which would normally have been for
ts were made to the effect that men
red to leave in violation of the orders
;>risals by the Germans were not un1

.octrination program, Roger Casement


nen a U-boat landed him in Ireland.
1as found guilty and executed.
10,000 prisoners were in the hands of
:'he AIIies were holding 615,900. The
)0 Germans. The Germans captured
\.mericans died in the enemy's prison
'rom Germany, but daring attempts
lers had been well treated. Undoubt
>resaw the results of America's entry
iting on the wall it was only expedient
enience.
/irst Total War-one may note four
~IIigence

warfare.

I warfare.

lI'"arfare.
'are.
md all would be brought to bear on
Var II and in Korea.

II warfare, propaganda warfare and

he signing of the Armistice. WorId


e First World War was terminated.
ism and Nazism. ComDlUnism had
If Imperial Russia..
:urope's people-those millions con
Lord and dictator as "the masses."
I across the Continent, the "masses"
,Is. Salute with upraised hand, with
~omes the Millenniuml The Rebirth
on.d Year Reichl International Com
loked on in helpless alarm.
bugaboo. But Nazi Germany pro
ltration camps. Torture chambers.
tood Purge.

Then, from the murk of Communist Russia, came a startling series of


headlines.
In 1937, the Kremlin staged a whoiesaIe purge of Bolshevik traitors and
defectors. Among the number brought to trial were some of Russia's
toughest Red commissars and no less a figure than Marshal Tukhachevsky,
one of the ablest military strategists in Europe. Western observers were
astounded to hear the accused stand up in court and openly confess to
treason. A number of them read or recited long speeches, admitting to
designs against the Soviet Union and the regime in power, and voicing
penitence for their deeds. With fantastic self-abnegation, some of the
confessors condemned themselves and recommended jud~ment without
mercy. AJJ they marched oft toface firing squads or the oblivion of Siberia,
the world stared after them in astonishment.
The techniques used in the cases of the Russian political prisoners dem
onstrated that they had a very' effective means of forcing individuals to
make false confessions. To some extent this special intensive and pro
tractive technique, sometimes referred to as "brainwashing", was em
ployed on American prisoners of war in Korea. It was used to elicit false
confessions and other statements for propaganda purposes.
Threats. Blows. Days in solitary confinement. Driblets of food and
sips of water Then questioning, hour after hour, a brilliant light in the
eyes. Exhaustion, then, perhaps, sudden leniency. An abrupt shift from
brutality to smiling kindness. Anything to throw the victim of! balance.
And if the "kindness" fails, another resort to remorseless punishment.
The simple carrot-and-prod procedure. Months of such treatment could,
and evidently did, crack the Btaunchcommissars. A sensitive man
would succumb sooner. A Dutch doctor coined the term for this type of
psychological and physical pressuring-"menticide."
The Geneva conventions outlawed duress and physical torture. But a
cynical and ruthless enemy would hardly balk at the breakage of humane
rules. Moreover, he might claim that mental torture did not constitute
physical torture. In any event, the question seemed academic as far as
the Nazi S. S. were concerned. But as. Germany marched toward war
there was some hope that the professional Wehrmacht commanders would
abide by the Geneva Code. It would appear that many of them did.

The Second To.al War


Seen as an extension of World War I, the global war exploded by the
Axis Powers produced nothing new in the way of warfare until its atomio
ending. Unless it could be stated that air raids and buzz bombs extended

the battle front to the home front and put every civilian-man, woman,
child-on So potential firing line. And for the first time in modem history,
thousands of civilians were taken prisoner and impounded in concentration
camps.
The conflict that would leave millions of dead was an anthology of
atrocities. The civilians suffe.red most. Rotterdam blasted. Coventry
blasted. Lidice destroyed. Thousands of peasants herded to the wall and
shot. Victims beaten and tortured by their S. S. captors. Resisters
starved, flogged, mutilated, slain in endurance tests and medical experi
ments behind the w8lls of Oranienburg and other "special prisons."
The horrors endured by captive civiIianll in Nazi.hands defy assessment.

67

Their sum may never be totaled. The authors of the Blood Purge silenced
many of their captives and saw to it the records were destroyed.

Prisoner Interrogation-A Battle of Wits


During World War II a total of 129,701 Americans were .captured by
the Axis enemy.
Perhaps fearing reprisal more than public opinion, the German military
were fairly.punctilious in handling American POWs. Americans captured
in Italy were awarded similarly "correct" treatment. The prisoners were
usually allowed to organize in groups. Captured officers assumed com
mand according to rank. The POWs often ran their own work details.
In lenient camps sports and shows were permitted. Red Cross packages
were distributed, and mail call was the happiest moment of the month.
But the men were behind barbed wire, and Americans behind barbed wire
are never happy men.
In the matter of prisoner interrogation the German military seem to
have been punctilious enough. At least toward the Americans. There
was none of the brutalizing that was evident in such Japanese camps as
Ofuna and Asbio, where American submariners were tortured.
.
The Americans captured by General Homma's forces on the Bataan
Peninsula and at Corregidor counted themselves fortunate if they reached
a prison camp alive. In the "Bataan Death March" General Wainwright's
surrendered troops endured one of the most excruciating ordeals of the war.
Britons and Australians caught at Singapore were similarly brutalized.
The veneer of civilization was thin on the Emperor's soldiery. It peeled
off like varnish as the Rising Sun blazed in triumph over the Southwest
Pacific.
Airmen and submariners bore the brunt of interrogation ordeals.
Reason: they usually possessed information of more value to the enemy
than an infantryman's. They may have flown from a carrier or perhaps
from some hidden island base. The name of the flattop, the location of
the base-this was vital intelligence. The submariner knew a dozen
secrets: his sub's cruising range, its radar and sonar devices, its torpedo
gear. One of the best kept secrets of the war (and one of the most im
portant) was the depth at which a U. S. submarine could operate.
So pilots and submarine sailors who were captured "got the works."
The Japanese did not employ subtle interrogation methods. Nor did they
employ the methods associated with "menticide." Prisoners were flogged
and tortured. They were treated to such Oriental punishments as judo
experts and hatchet men could devise. One submarine captain who took it
was a skipper whose vessel had been battered into surrender. Cigarette
burning, bamboo splinters under the fingernails-this officer's ordeal
hardly bears recital. But the Japanese did not extract from him the
diving depth of U. S. submarines.
In the South Pacifio after the war, Americans found the graves of
captured destroyermen. Several of the bluejackets had been beheaded.
And on Palawan Island was found -a trench containing the bodies of
American prisoners who had been drenched with gasoline and burned alive.
Their story was told by a survivor who had escaped this horror.
These grim reports from the PaoifIo may be detailed as the exception.
Late in the war Japanese prison camps were on a par with those in some

68

backward country at century's turn.


duced to meager rations. The Philipl
undergoing non-stop bombardment.
supplies were at barrel-bottom. The I
But beheadings, torture, Palawan mw
were on the record. Like the Malmec
like Buchenwald and Belsen, they awai
people of the United Nations demande l
The Germans applied other and seen
methods. Consider the testimony of
was an interrogator stationed at Auswe
This was the camp where all captllre,
brought for questioning. Every Ameri
the Germans was sent to Oberursel.
From "all but a handful" he obtained t
work was 80 successful that he came t.
Justice. After the war he was brought
able methods.
As it evolved, Scharff's methods wer,
said that he "killed his. victims with
Nazi terrorist or anS. S. savage, the
fronting a genial English-speaking GE
friendly as a new acquaintance on th
open the interview by offering the priSO]
tenant, it is my duty to ask you cert
name, rank and serial number?"
The prisoner would cheerfully compl;
.lations required him to "maintain silenc1
identification.
"Now, then," Scharff would go on ~
Are you a bomber? Or a fighter pUo
home addreBB,. Lieutenant?"-No answ
fly?"-The Lieutenant grins and sha
"I see I can't get anything out of yo
Stars and Stripes. I'll be baok in a few
The ohair, the oigarette, the Stars (I
cunningly contrived to set the prisonel
retirement gives the prisoner a chance
caught off guard. The next move bJ
moves in this game he has the advantag
call the initiative) puts him in touch w
Beute und N achrichten Abteilung, whi(
and Information." At this BUNA cen
thing recovered from downed pilots. 'I
uous as mees-hall tickets, book matchl
anything else scavanged from pilots I
informative items were letters, snapsh
on the dead or taken from prisoners.
were salvaged whenever possible. If
the pieces were recovered and shipped
BUNA.
The BUNA center also contained t'

~he authors of the Blood Purge silenced


t the records were destroyed.

of Wits
129,701 Americans were captured by
n public opinion, the German military
,merican POWs. Americans captured
rrect" treatment. The prisoners were
IpS. Captured officers assumed com
Ws often ran their own work details.
were permitted. Red Cross packages
the happiest moment of the month.
~e, and Americans behind barbed wire
gation the German military seem to
least toward the Americans. There
,s evident in such Japanese camps as
lbmariners were tortured.
eral Homma's forces on the Bataan
.themselves fortunate if they reached
Death March" General Wainwright's
l most excruciating ordeais of the war.
Singapore were similarly brutalized.
n the Emperor's soldiery. It peeled
azed in triumph over the Southwest
he brunt of interrogation ordeals.
of more value to the enemy
ilave flown from a carrier or perhaps
name of the flattop, the location of
e. The submariner knew a dozen
radar and sonar devices, its torpedo
)f the war (and one of the most im
. S. submarine could' operate.
ho were captured "got the works."
lterrogation methods. Nor did they
'menticide." Prisoners were flogged
such Oriental punishments as judo
One submarine captain who took it
battered into surrender. Cigarette
Ie fingernails-this officer's ordeal
lese did not extract from him the
~mation

Lr, Americans found the graves of


,he bluejackets had been beheaded.
a trench containing the bodies of
ched with gasoline and burned alive.
10 had escaped this horror.
l may be detailed as the exception.
18 were on a par with those in some

backward country at century's turn. The blockaded Japanese were reo


duced to meager rations. The Philippines and the Home Islands were
undergoing non-stop bombardment. Consequently food and medical
supplies were at barrel-bottom. The POW's received the leftovers.
But beheadings, torture, Palawan massacre and "Bataan Death March"
were on the record. Like the Malmedy massacre in the Belgian Bulge,
like Buchenwald and Belsen, they awaited an accounting. The outraged
people of the United Nations demanded retributive justice.
The Germans applied other and seemingly more effective interrogation
methods. Consider the testimony of Hanns Joachim Scharff. Scharff
was an interrogator stationed at Auswerstelle West, Oberursel, Germany.
This was the camp where all capt!Jred aviators (except Russian) were
brought for questioning. Every American fighter pilot made prisoner by
the Germans was sent to OberurseI. Scharff questioned 500 of them.
From "all but a handful" he obtained the information he was after. His
work was so successful that he came to the notice of the Department of
Justice. After the war he was brought to America to explain his remark
able methods.
As it evolved, Scharff's methods were not so remarkable. It might be
said that he "killed his victims with kindness." Expecting to face a
Nazi terrorist or an B. S. savage, the captured pilot found himself con
fronting a genial English-speaking German who seemed as polite and
friendly as a new acquaintance on the college campus. Scharff would
open the interview by offering the prisoner a chair and a cigarette. "Lieu
tenant, it is my duty to ask you certain questions. May I have your
name,rank and serial number?"
The prisoner would cheerfully comply. At that date U. S. Army r~gu
lations required him to "maintain silence" after he had spoken the reqUIred
identification.
"Now then" Scharff would go on amiably. "That number of yours.
Are you' a bo:Uber? Or a fighter pilot?"-No answer.-"What is your
home address, Lieutenant?"-No answer.-"What type of plane do you
fly?"-:-The Lieutenant grins and shakes his head. Scharff chuckles.
"I see I can't get anything out of you. Here take a look at the latest
Stars and Stripes. I'll be back in a few minutes."
The chair the cigarette, the Stars and Stripes-these are stage props
cunningly c~ntrived to set the prisoner at ease. The interrogator's brief
retirement gives the prisoner a chance to relax. A relaxed man may be
caught off guard. The next move by the interrogator (and in all the
moves in this game he has the advantage and maintains what chess players
call the initiative) puts him in touch with BUNA. The initials stand for
Beute
Nachrichten Abteilung, which tl'anslates roughly into "Booty
and Information." At this BUNA center the Germans assembled every
thing recovered from downed pilots. The booty included things as innoc
uous as mess-hall tickets, book matches, bits of maps, lucky pieces, and
anything else scavanged from pilots shot down over the. li~es. More
informative items were letters, snapshots, or newspaper ohppmgs found
on the dead or taken from prisoners. Needless to say, wrecked aircraft
were salvaged whenever possible. If the planes were blown to pieces,
the pieces were recovered and shipped to an assemblage base similar to
BUNA.
The BUNA center also contained thousands of dossiers on prisoners.

una

69

And thousands of dossiers on offioers who had not been taken prisoner.
Suppose the captured Lieutenant were a football hero. Doubtless when
he enlisted the old home town published his name in the paper and his
photograph with it. The chancel! were that BUNA had his name, his
address, his picture, and the names of his uncles, his cousins and his
aunts. Also his nickname-"Bud." Perhaps even the fact that his father
was president of the local bank. If "Bud" graduated from college or
military school or academy, his picture would be in the classbook along
with those of his fraternity brothers. All of which made it easier for
Interrogator Scharff. (The Germanll were not the only ones who assem
bled suoh information. It was said that when the war broke out the
British knew the name and address of every officer and man in the Nazi
Navy.)
Now, the game beoame relatively simple for Soharff. Armed with
background information from BUNA, he would return smiling to the
contest. "Well, Bud, you see I have found you out. You flew over here
in a P-38. Your squadron commander, Jack Williams, is in prison
down the line. He's a nice guy. I couldn't get anything out of him, but
my intelligence boys came across a'news clipping. You fellows flew in
here from Tunbridge Wells. Nice going. By the way, how's your little
sister Peggy? We've got a chap in my outfit who used to live in Oak
Park. I understand your father is president of the First National Bank."
What could be more disarming than this routine? Of course, it wasn't
always that easy. The Lieutenant might refuse to rise to the bait.
BUNA might have more trouble acquiring biographical information.
But the illustration suffices. Nine times out of ten a prisoner would be
completely "beaten" when the interrogator came up with his nickname,
the name of his squadron leader, and intimate details of his home. Not
to mention the type of plane he flew, the armament carried by the plane,
its rate of climb, and so on.
So Scharff was able to report that he "broke" almost 500 American
pilots. After the opening breach, the follow-through was usually easy.
The prisoner would be invited out for a stroll in the park. . Scharff
would take him to some quiet beer garden for a friendly Bock. A few
aimless remarks about nothing at all. Then Scharff would slip in the
trick question, shrouding it with indirection-an indifferent tone, an
offhand manner, or a yawn. That was the way it was done. A game of
words. A battle of wits,
And what if the prisoner proved obdurate and buttoned up into absolute
silence? Then would come the glass-of-water trick. Or one of its many
variations. There were ways to slip a pill into the prisoner's glass. Ten
minutes after drinking, he might become a very sick man. Nothing fatal
or injurious. Nothing worse than something that felt like acute indiges
tion.
As the prisoner doubles up, sweating, the interrogator is most solicitous.
"Lieutenant! You are sick! It may be peritonitis! You' must go to
the hospital immediately. Surely you have a family. You will want us
to notify your next of kin if-!"
No prisoner wants to be buried in an unknown grave. Even so, a
man might remain defiant. And Scharff would then encourage such
defiance. "Hal You won't tell me the name of your squadron com
mander. What is the name of your commanding genera!?" The defiant

70

prisoBer refuses to speak. Sehr gut, 1


is locked up with his cellmate-a pI
captured early in the war. "Huh!
''Bud'' nods grimly, "Yeah, but .they
out of me." And at that moment the
microphone. Perhaps from the pleasl
Ohio before he returned to his home (
So most of Scharff's victims were
with thumbscrews and cigarette bur
craft, misleading geniality, glib querie
feints of a boxer. The average prison
hopeless disadvantage. He was som4
who might be compelled to improvisl
and wily District' Attorney.
In the war .there were many Schal
German side. Adept Allied interro
case-hardened Luftwaffe pilots and
days of lIhe war they pumped their riv
among them Joachim Scharff. In thi
found themselves hoist on their own pe
The prisoner in an interrogation ce'
has all the say. At the end of World
was this: It i8 virtually impo8sible

interrogator.
But the experts came up with anoth

interrogator cannot be resi8ted, he ma


. prisoner may dodge loaded questions,

Treason Trials, World War II


As in World War I, and, indeed, ev,
World War disgorged a number of
first arrested by the United Nations 1
willingly cooperated with the Nazis.
In Holland, Belgium, Norway, De:
treasonable collaborators. were summ
their heads shaved by angry partisans
kangaroo court and shot.
Some British servicemen were co
laboration with the enemy while they'
pleaded coercion as a defense. As h
War, the British military judges took
They seem to have been severely ex
a Navy stoker. Rose had been captu
and shown two terrifying corpses. (l:
at its worst.) The sailor then blurt
wanted. The British found him gl
sentenced him to 16 years hard labC)
other hand, Major Cecil Boon, chargl
for the Japanese in Hong Kong, and i
plot, was acquitted on the score tb
the "punishment of death."

3er8 who had not been taken prisoner.


were a football hero. Doubtless when
blished his name in the paper and' his
I were that BUNA had his name, his
Iles of his uncles, his cousins and his
, Perhaps even the fact that his father
If "Bud" graduated from college or
cture would be in the classbook along
lers. All of which made it easier for
.ns were not the only ones who assem
~id that when the war broke out the
s of every officer and man in the Nazi
ely simple for Scharff. Armed with
'NA, he would return smiling to the
ve found you out. You flew over here
mander, Jack Williams, is in prison
couldn't get anything out of him, but
a .news clipping. You fellows flew in
going. By the way, how's your little
n my outfit who used to live in Oak
~resident of the First National Bank."
lan this routine? Of course, it wasn't
lt might refuse to rise to the bait.
acquiring biographical information.
times out of ten a prisoner would be
3rrogator came up with his nickname,
ld intimate details of his home. Not
v, the armament carried by the plane,
lat he "broke" almost 500 American
the follow-through was usually easy.
Lt for a stroll in the park., Scharff
. garden for a friendly Bock. A few
all. Then Scharff would slip in the
indirection-an indifferent tone, an
was the way it was done. A game of
>durate and buttoned up into absolute
s-of-water trick. Or one of its many
I a pill into the prisoner's glass. Ten
:ome a very sick man. Nothing fatal
omething that felt like acute indigesIlg, the interrogator is most solicitous.
be peritonitisl You' must go to
[)U have a family.
You will want us
!loy

in an unknown grave. Even so, a


Scharff would then encourage such
e the name of your squadron com
commanding general?" The defiant

prisomer refuses to speak. 8ehr gut, he goes back. to his cell. There he
is locked up with his cellmate-a pleasant fellow from Ohio who was
captured early in the war. "Huhl Did they sweat you out?" And
''Bud'' nods grimly, "Yeah, but .they couldn't get General Jones' name
out of me." And at that moment they've got it. Perhaps by concealed
microphone. Perhaps from the pleasant cellmate who lived ten years in
Ohio before he returned to his home Germany.
So most of Scharff's victims were tricked. They were not tortured
with thumbscrews and cigarette burns. They were baffled by stage
craft, misleading geniality, glib queries that were as fast as the jabs and
feints of a boxer. The average prisoner who faced Scharff was at almost
hopeless disadvantage. He was somewhat in the position of a civilian
who might be compelled to improvise his own defense against a skilled
and wily District Attorney.
In the war .there were many Scharffs. Not all of them were on the
German side. Adept Allied interrogators pumped information from
case-hardened Luftwaffe pilots and U-boat skippers. In the closing
days of "he war they pumped their rivals-captured Nazi interrogators
among them Joachim Scharff. In this duel among experts the Germans
found themselves hoist on their own petards.
The prisoner in an interrogation center is a fly in a web. The enemy
has all the say. At the end of World War II the consensus of the experts
was this: It i8 virtually impos8ible Jor anyone to resist a determined
interrogator.
But the experts came up with another consensus: AUhough a determined
. interrogator cannot be resi8ted, he may be evaded by the pri80ner. The
prisoner may dodge loaded questions.

Treason Trials, World War II


As in World War I, and, indeed, every previous major war, the Second
World War disgorged a number of indigestible traitors. Among the
first arrested by the United Nations powers were the Quislings who had
willingly cooperated with the Nazis.
In Holland, Belgium, Norway, Denmark and other occupied countries
treasonable collaborators were summarily dealt with. Those who had
their heads shaved by angry partisans got off easily. Some were tried by
kangaroo court and shot.
Some British servicemen were court-martialed for treasonable col
laboration with the enemy while they were prisoners of war. The accusp.d
pleaded coercion as a defense. As had the Federal judges of the Civil
War, the British military judges took into account "degree of coercion."
They seem to have been severely exacting in the case of Henry Rose,
a Navy stoker. Rose had been captured, beaten, threatened with death,
and shown two terrifying corpses. (An example of German interrogation
at its worst.) The sailor then blurted out the information his captors
wanted. The British found him guilty of "aiding the enemy," and
sentenced him to 16 years hard lab<,>r (subsequently reduced). On the
other hand, Major Cecil Boon, charged with writing a propaganda letter
for the Japanese in Hong Kong, and informing them of a prisoner escape
plot, was acquitted on the score that they had threatened him with
the "punishment of death."

71

American prisoners of war charged with treasonable conduct included


Sergeant John Provoo of theU. S.Army, and Chief Signalman Hirshberg
of the Navy. Another case involved an Army sergeant who wrote to a
Japanese surgeon, offering to aid the, enemy.
Altogether it would seem that the Americans taken prisoner in World
War II established a remarkably fine record for courage, endurance, and
unyielding loyalty. Like their fathers itl the A. E. F. of World War I,
they stood up to a ruthless enemy, and stood up better than well. For
the most part, the soldiers or the aviators who talked to German inter
rogators were tricked into talking by experts at the game.
The troops went to Normandy and Guadalcanal knowing Why We
Fight and The Nature of the Enemy. The American soldier and his sailor
team-mate were well informed on Hitler and Tojo.
So American POWs of World War II knew pretty much what it was all
about. There were no Arnolds, but many Wainwrights.
Of the 129,701 American prisoners in Axis captivity, 14,090 died in the
enemy's prison camps. The percentage--l0.9o/'cr-was cruel. -But un
questionably it would have been higher had morale been as low as it was
in the subsequent Korean War.

Geneva Conventions of 1949


Troubled by the terrible death-toll of prisoners in World War II, dele
gates of the many countries met at Geneva in 1949 to formulate and
define higher standards of treatment for POWs. The articles of the earlier
Geneva Convention were clarified and strengthened. Fifty-seven nations
signed the new Geneva Treaties.
Although the Russians had not participated in the Geneva (POW)
Conventions of 1929, the Soviet Union signed the 1949 Convention. So
did eight other nations in the Communist bloc. The U. S. S. R. and its
satellites held out, however, on certain points. One of their reservations
concerned Article 85, Relative To The Treatment' of Prisoners of War.
The Article reads:
Prisoners of War prosecuted under the laws oC the Detaining Power
for acts committed prior to capture shall retain, even if convicted, the
benefits of the present Convention.
The Soviet delegate entered the following reservation:
The Union oC Soviet Socialist Republics does not consider itself bound
by'the obligation, which follows from Article 85, to extend the application
oC the Convention to prisoners of war who have been convicted under the
law oC 'the Detaining Power, in accordance with the principles oC the
Nuremberg trial, Cor war crimes and crImes against humanity, it being
understood that persons convicted oC such crimes must be subjected to
the- conditions obtaining in the country in question Cor those who undergo
their punishment.
This reservation is a disturbing indication of Soviet intention so far as
applying the conventions is concerned.

The Americ:an Way


The Russians held thousands of German soldiers in captivity at the
close of World War II. Brutality breeds brutality. Hitler's legions had
murdered thousands of Russian and Ukrainian peasants. And the patriotlo

72

ij

i
I
!

I
!

II
II
'-

Slavic soldiers sought reprisal. But


designs. Doubtlel!B to the surprise o!
captured invaders were herded into "
ing Panzer officers and Stuka pilots fo
missars shoved them into colossal in
dark, week in, week out, the prisoners 1
It would seem that their crime, after:
had been guilty of anti-CommunismI
The Soviet campaign to indoctrina
Communist ideology emerges as one 01
The Reds, of course, were copying the
World War I when they tried to indo
But the early German attempt was :
program. The German attempt fai
gram gained hundreds of German COl
a figure than General Von Paulus, cal
While Soviet Communists were hal
Chinese Reds, waging civil war, ad
prisoners were herded into "political
Chinese version of Marxian doctri~
Nazi-indoctrinated German demande
evangelism.
It was nothing more tha~ a high-gl
involve "menticidal" pressuring or I
washing," Boiled down, it amountel
In America there were some who
tising. Alarmists thought the way t,
the subject. Push it out of sight.
example, caused the banning of Da~
and public libraries. Such censorslJ
stature far beyond their value.
The way to combat such a subject
or hide from it. The way to coml:
have the means at hand-The Bill
or Republican Government, or the AI
ledge of American principles-and
American fighting man possesses a :
wrested from him in combat or in cat:
AB in the interrogation battle, the
of wits. It will not be lost by the '*
necessary education.

rged with treasonable conduct included


Army, and Chief Signalman Hirshberg
>Ived an Army sergeant who wrote to a
the,enemy.
the Americans taken prisoner in World
fine record for courage, endurance, and
lthers ill the A. E. F. of World War I,
y, and stood up better than well. For
I aviators who talked to German inter
by experts at the game.
y and Guadalcanal knowing Why We
1/. The American soldier alld his sailor
Hitler and Tojo.
'ar II knew pretty much what it was all
ut many Wainwrights.
ers in Axis captivity, 14,OIJO died in the
centage-1O.9"a-was cruel. But un
ligher had morale been as low as it was

~on

of prisoners in World War II, dele


at Geneva in 1949 to formulate and
It for POWs. The articles of the earlier
and strengthened. Fifty-seven nations
t participated in the Geneva (POW)
fnion signed the 1949 Convention. So
lmunist bloc. The U. S. S. R. and its
l.ain points. One of their reservations
, The Treatment of Prisoners of War.
lder the laws of the Detaining Power
re shall retain, even if convicted, the
1.

following reservation:
lpublics does not consider itself bound
1m Article 85, to extend the application
'ar who have been convicted under the
iccordance with the principles of the
Lnd crimes against humanity, it being
of such crimes must be subjected to
iltry in question for those who undergo

I
:1,I

Slavic soldiers sought reprisal. But the men in the Kremlin had other
designs. Doubtlees to the surprise of many Russian Army veterans, the
captured invaders were herded into "political camps." Instead of shoot
ing Panzer officers and Stuka pilots for outrages committed, the Red com
missars shoved them into coloseal indoctrination mills. From dawn to
dark, week in, week out, the prisoners were besieged with Marxian doctrine.
It would seem that their crime, after all, was not invading Russia. They
had been guilty of anti-CommunismI
The Soviet campaign to indoctrinate masses of German prisoners with
Communist ideology emerges as one of the strangest war-moves in history.
The Reds, of course, were copying the tactics employed by the Germans in
World War I when they tried to indoctrinate Irish prisoners with KUltUT.
But the early German attempt was picayune compared with the Soviet
program. The German attempt failed. The Red indoctrination pro-'
gram gained hundreds of German converts. Prize of the lot was no less
a figure than General Von Paulus, captured at Stalingrad.
While Soviet Communists were haranguing German war-prisoners, the
Chinese Reds, waging civil war, adopted similar tactics. Nationalist
prisoners were herded into "political camps" and barraged with the Red
Chinese version of Marxian doctrine. But the reindootrination of a
Nazi-indoctrinated German demanded a high-powered approach akin to
evangelism.
It was nothing more tha~ a high-gear recruiting campaign. It did not
involve "menticidal" pressuring or anything akin to so-called "brain
washing." Boiled down, it amounted to a~vertising.
In America there were some who took fright at Communist adver
tising. Alarmists thought the way to combat it was to hilJc it. Taboo
the subject. Push it out of sight. The fear of l\'larxist literature, for
example, caused the banning of DaB Kapital from a number of school
and public libraries. Such censorship gave Marx and his writings a
stature far beyond their value.
The way to combat such a subject as Communism is not to hide it
or hide from it. The way to combat it is to explode it. Americans
have the means at hand-The Bill of Rights. Or call it Democracy,
or Republican Government, or the American Way. Armed with a know
ledge of American principles-and a knowledge of the cnemy's--the
American fighting man possesses a sword and shield which cannot be
wrested from him in combat or in captivity.
As in the interrogation battle, the war for the minds of men is a war
of wits. It will not be lost by the serviceman who is equipped with the
necessary education.

'ndication of Soviet intention so far as


led.

, German soldiers in captivity at the


breeds brutality. Hitler's legions had
Ukrainian peasants. And the patriotio

73

ADDEND

BIBLlOC:
The research bibliography
tains primarily classified n
reader the following unclass

ADDENDA NO.6
BIBLIOGRAPHY

The research bibliography used by the Committee con


tains primarily classified material. For the interested
reader the following unclassified articles are suggested.

75

PRISONER OF WAR DOCl


SOUF
Department of the Navy
NM 001-056.06 NMRI, Bethesda, M
Evaluation of the effects of certain d
involved in Hying. 1952
NR 143-06o-University of RochestE
STUDIES OF MOTION 8ICKNE~
Vestibular functioDB .and psychologi<
NR 173-o71-Indiana University, Dl
DETECTION OF DECEPTION, ~
Determination of reliable indicators
graphic recordings of physiological all
NR 173-181-John E. Reid & Associ
RESEARCH ON SIDE-TONE DE
Interrogation devices and procedu
easily used methods of causing lying E
themselves. Completed May 1953.

Office of the Surgeon General, De


A paper written by the five survivi
repatriated prisoners from Korea.
prisoner of war camps in Korea. Ur
Medical Association 24 June 1954.

Office of the Assistant Secretary


Publications

Arntzen, F. I., "PsychologicalObservat


Journal oj Psychiatry, 104, 1948, 4~
Book, F. and Godin, W., Russian Pi
Viking Press, New York, 1950
Bettelheim, Bruno, "Individual and
tioDB," JouT1&6l oj Abnormal and
417-452.
Brill, N. Q., "Neuropsychiatric E:
Recovered from Japanese Prison (
Medical Department.
Jeffrey, Manfred, and Bradford, E. J.
of War," British Journal of Medical
Kinnan, B. H. "Mental Disorder in ]
of Mental Science, 92, 1946,803-81:
Newman, P. H. "The Prisoner-of
Journal 1; January 1, 1944,8ff

PRISONER OF WAR DOCUMENTS FROM OFFICIAL

SOURCES

Department of the Navy


NM 001-056.06 NMRI, Bethesda, Md. CDR S. V. Thompson (MC)
Evaluation of the effects of certain drugs on the performance of personnel
involved in tlying. 1952
NR 143-06o-University of Rochester, G. R. Wendt
STUDIES OF MOTION 8ICKNESS, 30 June 1954
Vestibular functions .and psychological and physiological effects of drugs.
NR 173-071-Indiana University, Douglas ElIson
DETECTION OF DECEPTION, Sept. 1952
Determination of reliable indicators for deception measurements through
graphic recordings of physiological and motor responses.
NR 173-181-John E. Reid & Associates, Chicago
RESEARCH ON SIDE-TONE DELAY
Interrogation devices and procedures. Project to develop novel and
easily used methods of causing lying subjects to think they have betrayed
themselves. Completed May 1953.

Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army


A paper written by the five surviving Medical Corps officers who were
repatriated prisoners from Korea. Medical experiences in Communist
prisoner of war camps in Korea. Undated. Presented to the American
Medical Association 24 June 1954.

Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (R


Publications

&

D)

Arntzen, F. I., "Psychological Observations of Prisoners of War." American

Journal oj Psychiatry, 104, 1948,446-447. (German PWs in U. 8.)

Book, F. and Godin, W., Russian Purge and the Extraction oj Confession.

Viking Press, New York, 1950


Bettelheim, Bruno, "Individual and Mass Behavior in Extreme Situa
tions," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology; XXXVIII 1943,
417-452.
Brill, N. Q., "Neuropsychiatric Examination of Military Personnel
Recovered from Japanese Prison Camps," Bulletin of the U. S. Army
Medical Department.
Jeffrey, Manfred, and Bradford, E. J. G., "Neurosis in Escaped Prisoners
of War," British Journal oj Medical PSllchologll,20, 1945-46,422-435
Kinnan, B. H. "Mental Disorder in Released PriBOners of War," Journal
oj Mental Science, 92, 1946,803-813
Newman, P. H. "The Prisoner-of-War Meiltality," British Medical
Journal 1; January 1, 1944, 8ff

77

Legal
Geneva Conventions of 12 Aug. 1949 for the Protection of War Victims,
DA Pamphlet No. 20-150, Oct. 1950.
Vol. 55, 80th Congress, Public Law 810, Laws Relating to the Department
of the Army, 1948.

Manual for Court Martial, 1951.

Title 18, U. S. Code.

Documents Pertaining to Conduct in Event of Capture

War Dept., FM 27-10, 1947, "Rules of Land Warfare"


Department of State

"Chinese Communist Methods of Extracting Confessions for Political


Ends" IR-6198, dated 19 Feb 53
Operations Research Office, Johns Hoplcins Univenity

"Study of Combat Stress in Korea," ORo-T-41 (FEC), dated Dec 52,


Department of the Air Force

"Psychiatric Report," AF-RDB Report Control Symbol, DD-RDS (A)


48 ARDCD3, Project 7732, "Unclassified Intelligence Methodology"
Article: Col. John J. Driscoll, Air Force Magazine, Nov 1952, Subj:
It Could Have Been You.
Far East Command

"Communist Utilization of Prisoners of War," Hq. USA, Far East, Ad


vanced, OACofS, G-2.
Department of the Air Force

Memorandum: For Secy of Air Force, Commandant U. S. Marine Corps,


by General Erskine, Asst. to the Secy of Defense, Subj: Statements
Regarding Biological Warfare by Members of USAF and USMC.

-RAND Corporation
"Are the Cominform Countries Using Hypnotic Techniques to Elicit
Confession in Public Trials?", Irving L. Janis, RM-161, dated 25
April 49
-Miscellaneous

"Technique of Communist 'Confession' ", Edward Crankshaw, New York


Herald Tribune, dated 10 Dec 52.
"The Policy of the Soviet Union in Regard to Prisoners of War Prior to

and at the Start of World War II", Anthony S; Kawczynski, Undated

"New Facts on U. S. Germ WarCare in Korea and China" (Supplement

to "People's China"), 15 Mar 53, (No.6, Issue) (re Schwable and Bley)

Selected Articles, 1952-1953, "High Level U. S. Denials of Germ Warfare."

78

Department of State

Foreign Service Despatch 2543, Paris


American University Field Staff Stud
Department of the Army
HQ, 500th Military Intelligence Grc
instructions in Chinese dated 25 I
and the Handling of PWs," issued
CCF. 3 pp, no date.
Newspapen

Washington Evening Star, " 'Brain 'V


Washington Evening Star, "20 E:q
Forge Hospital," May 2, 1953
Washington Evening Star, "Return
After 'Brain Washing'," May 4 (or
The Washington Post, ",Freed AF C
April 27, 1953
The Washington Post, "All Released
25, 1953
The Washington Post, "Teaching a:
Washing," July 11, 1954, by Lloyd
Washington Daily News, "US Fears
Lucey, April 4, 1953
The New York Times, "Some GI C
13, 1953
The New York Times, In The Natio:
fare for the Brain' " by Arthur KI
The New York Times, "Some Prisl
1953
The New York Times, "Ex-Captive
27,1953
The New York Times, "Red LectUl'i
Johnson, May 3, 1953
The New York Times, "Red TorturE
1953
The New York Times, "US Calls 0
Korea," October 29 (or 30), 1953
New York Journal American, On T.
by Bob Considine, February 25, 1
New York Journal American, "Tell
20, 1953 .
New York Mirror, "UN POWs Ma;
1953
New York Mirror, Inside Labor, by
Christian Science Monitor, "Retur
Reds," April 20, 1953
Christian Science Monitor, "Chine!
solved in Favor of China," by Wi:

Department of State

Foreign Service Despatch 2543, Paris, May 19, 1953


American University Field Staff Study

!l9 for the Protection of War Victims,


950.
810, Laws Relating to the Department

Department of the Army

in Event of Capture

HQ, 500th Military Intelligence Group, item 9-204752, Mimeographed


instructions in Chinese dated 25 September 1951, titled "PW Policy
and the Handling of PWs," issued by the Political Section, 422dRegt,
CCF. 3 PP. no date.

of Land Warfare"

Newspapers

Washington Evening Star, " 'Brain Wash' Possibility," April 17, 1953
Washington Evening Star, "20 Exposed to Propaganda Reach Valley
Forge Hospital," May 2, 1953
Washington Evening Star, "Returned POW Says He Signed Petition
After 'Brain Washing'," May 4 (or 5), 1953
The Washington Post, ",Freed AF Captain Tells of Forced Red Study,"
. April 27, 1953
The Washington Post, "All Released POWs To Be Treated Alike," May
25, 1953
The Washington Post, "Teaching Gi's to Withstand Communist Brain
Washing," July 11, 1954, by Lloyd Shearer
Washington Daily News, "US Fears 'Confessions' of POWs," by Charles
Lucey, April 4, 1953
The New York Times, "Some GI Captives'May Seem Pro-Red," April
13, 1953
The New York Times, In The Nation, "Allen W. Dulles Describes 'War
fare for the Brain' " by Arthur Krock, April 16, 1953
The New York Times, "Some Prisoners Report Poor Care," April 21,
1953
The New York Times, "Ex-Captive Says 17 Took Red Lessons," April
27, 1953
The New York Times, "Red Lecturers Bored Most P. W.s," by Mac R.
Johnson, May 3, 1953
The New York Times, "Red Torture Cited by Chinese Bishop," May 18,
1953
The New York Times, "US Calls on UN to Scan Atrocities by Reds in
Korea," October 29 (or 30), 1953
New York Journal American, On The Line, "Red Torture Techniques,"
by Bob Considine, February 25, 1953
New York Journal American, "Tell of Red Propaganda Pressure," April
20, 1953 '
New York Mirror, "UN POWs May Get 'Brain Washings'," March 31,
1953
New York Mirror, Inside Labor, by Vict.or Riesel, M~y 1, 1953
Christian Science Monitor, "Returning GIs Report Indoctrination by
Reds," April 20, 1953
Christian Science Monitor, "Chinese-Soviet Divergences on Korea Re
solved in Favor of China," by William R. Frye, April 18, 1953

Extracting Confessions for Political


IS

Hopkins University

ORQ-T-41 (FEC), dated Dec 52,

port Control Symbol, DD-RDS (A)


la.ssified Intelligence Methodology"
Force Magazine, Nov 1952, Subj:

, of War," Hq. USA, Far East, Ad-

~, Commandant U. S. Marine Corps,

Secy of Defense, Subj: Statements


{embers of USAF and USMC.

ng Hypnotic Techniques to Elicit


ving L. Janis, RM-161, dated 25

l' ",

Edward Crankshaw, New York

tegard to Prisoners of War Prior to


, Anthony S; Kawczynski, Undated
in Korea and China" (Supplement
lo. 6, Issue) (re Schwable and Bley)
,vel U. S. Denials of Germ Warfare."

"j

79

Christian Soience Monitor, "LeGay Tells How Reds Aimed to Confuse


PWs," by Cpl. Donald LeGay, May 5, 1953
Information and "Reference Section, Radio Free Asia (Source: Interna
tional Free Trade Union News, 3-53), "Chinese Observer Says He Saw
Reds Torture UN POW's, Push Indoctrination Program," March 13,
1953
Sources: RfJaders Guide to Periodical Literatur6, May 1945 through 18
December 1953.

America
"Caution at Panmunjon", Apr 1953, 89: 65
"PWs: A Red Sop?", May 2, 1953, 89: 99
"Pros on Trial", Aug 29, 1953, 89: 511
"Wind-up of Operation Big Switch", Sep 19, 1953,89: 585
"Resistance to The Death by PWs", Oct 3, 1953, 98: 1
"Pro-Communist 23", Oct 10, 1953, 90: 35
"Conflict Over POWs", Oct 17, 1953, 90: 63
"Operation Persuader Backfires", Oct 31, 1953, 90: 115
"India Learns About Reds; Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission,"
Nov 1, 1953, 90; 167
"Puzzlement in the Pentagon", Nov 14, 1953, 90: 102-3
"Atrocities in Korea", Dec 12, 1953, 90: 283

"Prisoners; Perversion of Loyalties",


"Indian Village; Prisoner Exchange",

Current History
"Disposition of POWs; Complete Tel

Department of State Bulletin


"Thought Control in The Soviet UniOl
1951, 844-51: Dec 3, 1951, 895-9m
"Communist War In POW Camps,"
"Release of Anti-Communist PrisOIl
spondence", June 29, 1953, 28: 901
"Communist Charges Regarding ReI
Letter Sent On June 29, 1953, Jul:
"Communist Retention of U. S. POVi
Dulles, J. F., "Report of POWs: Wi
in Korea", Aug 24, 1953, 29: 235-~
Mayo, C. W., "Role of Force~ COl
Warfare Propaganda CampaIgn;
1953, 29: 641-7

Business Week

Fortune

"Nor Prison Bars A Cage", Nov 14, 1953, p. 157

"Germ Warfare: The Lie That Won'

Christian Century

International Conciliation

'Djang, R., "What Do They Confess", Aug 20, 1952,69: 946-8


Stockwell, F. G., "What Is Brainwashing?", Jan 28, 1953,70: 104-5
"Back to The Days of Hostages", Mar 18, 1953, 70: 308
Foreman, K. J., Jr., "What Is Brainwashing?", (Reply and Rejoinder),
May 6, 1953, 70: 537-8
'
"Korean Missionary Prisoners Freed", May 6, 1953, 70: 531
"Prisoners Describe Reality of War", Aug 12, 1953,70: 907
"Prisoner of War", Nov 4, 1953, 70: 1254-6

"Issues Before The 8th General ABse:

Colliers
Spellman, F., "How Red China Tortures Protestant and Catholic Mis
sionaries", May 10, 1952, 129: 15-17
Victoria, Sister Mary, "I Was A Prisoner of The Chinese Reds", May 9,
1953, 131: 68-73
Fay, B., "It's Easy To Bluff Americans", May 16, 1953, 131: 20-3
B. Stapleton and T. D. Harrison, "Why Didn't Some GIs Tum Commu
nist?" Nov 27, 1953, 132: 25-8

Commonwealth
"BraiI;lwashed", May 15, 1953, 58: 138
Hock, S., "Heresy, Yes: Conspiracy, No", May IS, 1953, 58: 155-6
"Exchange of Prisoners", Aug 21, 1953, 58: 479

80

Life
"Back After Eight Years," Apr 6, 19
"Photos Reveal Some GIs Not On E
"Into Eager Arms A Few Come HOIl
Brinkley, William, "Valley Forge I
May 25, 1953, 108-124
Heiden, K., "Why They Confess," J,
Fahy, E. E., "Burial Above Ground
"Big Switch Is Open," Aug 17, 1953,
Lee, Kyoo Hyun, "Heroism of Gen
Famous POW Is Set Free," Sept 1
"Prisoners of ?ardon," Oct 5, 1953, :
"POWs of the Reds Do Not W~
Photographs"," Oct 19, 1953
"We Got Everything You Wanted,"
"Panmunjon Dilemma," Oct 19, 195
"Prisoner's Door To Freedom," Oct
"Prodigal and His Kin," Nov 2, 195:
"Big Lie; How Reds Got Germ Con
Martin, D., "Iron Empire of Panmt

Tells How R!ds Aimed to Confuse


ay 5,1953
Radio Free Asia (Source: Interna
53), "Chinese Observer Says He Saw
[ndoctrination Program," Maroh 13,

"Prisoners; Perversion of Loyalties", Oct 16, 1953, 59: 26-9


"Indian Village; Prisoner Exchange", Oct 30, 1953, 59: 75

Current History
"Disposition of POWs; Complete

Tex~",

Sept 1953, 25: 181-4

il LiteratuT6, May 1945 through 18

Department of State Bulletin


89: 65
19: 99
II

Sep 19, 1953, 89: 585


Oct 3, 1953, 98: 1
~O: 35
190: 63
t 31, 1953, 90: 115
Nations Repatriation Commission,"
14, 1953, 90: 102-3
90: 283

"Thought Control in The Soviet Union," Nov 5,1951,25: 719-2:1: Nov 26,
1951, 844-51: Dec 3, 1951, 895-903
"Communist War In POW Camps," Feb 16, 1953, 28: 273
"Release of Anti-Communist Prisoners From UN Camps and Corre
spondence", June 29, 1953, 28: 905-8
"Communist Charges Regarding Release of Korean Prisoners"; Text of
Letter Sent On June 29, 1953, July 13, 1953, 29: 46-7
"Communist Retention of U. S. POWs", July 20, 1953,29: 73-4
Dulles, J. F., "Report of POWs: Witnessing the Return of U. S. POWs
in Korea", Aug 24, 1953,29: 235-6
Mayo, C. W., "Role of Forced Confessions In The Communist Germ
Warfare Propaganda Campaign; Statement Oct 26, 1953", Nov 9,
1953, 29: 641-7

Fortune
1953, p. 157

"Germ Warfare: The Lie That Won", Nov 1953, 48: 92

International Conciliation
, Aug 20, 1952,69: 946-8
ling?", Jan 28, 1953, 70: 104-5
~r 18, 1953, 70: 308
washing?", (Reply and Rejoinder),
, May 6, 1953, 70: 531
Aug 12, 1953, 70: 907
254-6

;ures Protestant and Catholic Mis


7
ner of The Chinese Reds", May 9,
IS", May 16, 1953, 131: 20-3
Iy Didn't Some GIs Turn Commu-

ro", May 15, 1953, 58: 155-6


1,58: 479

"Issues Before The 8th General Assembly", Sep 1953, 493: 6

Life
"Back Mter Eight Years," Apr 6, 1953, 34: 30-1
"Photos Reveal Some GIs Not On Exchange List," May 11, 1953, ~7-31
"Into Eager Arms A Few Come Home," May.ll, 1953,36-40
Brinkley, William, "Valley Forge GIs Tell of Brainwashing Ordeal,"
May 25, 1953, 108--124
Heiden, K., "Why They Confess," June 20, 1949, 92-4
Fahy, E. E., "Burial Above Ground," Sep8, 1952, 33: 126-130
"Big Switch Is Open," Aug 17, 1953,35: 22-3
Lee, Kyoo Hyun, "Heroism of General Dean Is Revealed When Most
Famous POW Is Set Free," Sept 14, 1953,35: 45
"Prisoners of ?ardon," Oct 5, 1953,35: 26
"POWs of the Reds Do Not Want To Come Home To America;
Photographs'," Oct 19, 1953
"We Got Everything You Wanted," Oct 19, 1953, 35: 45
"Panmunjon Dilemma," Oct 19,1953,35: 45
"Prisoner's Door To Freedom," Oct 26, 1953,35: 44-5
"Prodigal and His Kin," Nov 2, 1953,35: 45
"Big Lie; How Reds Got Germ Confessions," Nov 9; 1953, 35: 51
Martin, D., "Iron Empire of PanmunjoD," Nov 30, 1953, 31S: 137-8

81

look

Recd~r's Digest

Wilson, Richard, "How U. S. Prisoners Broke lTnder Red 'Brainwashing' ",


June 2, 1953, 8~83

Swift, S. K, "How They Broke Card'

Nation
"Brainwashing At Valley Forge," May 23, 1953, 176: 425-6
Oct 10, 1953, 177: 281

Reporter
"Sent To The Cleaners", May 26, I!
"Indians Test", Oct 27, 1953, 9: 2
"Panmunion-Out", Nov 24, 1953,

New Republic
"New Dangers Ahead In Korea; Chinese and North Korean Soldiers
Under Indian Custody," Oct 12, 1953, 129: 3
"Dogs, Rats and Now, Men, Germ Warfare Tortures," Nov 9, 1953, 129: 8

Saturday Review

New York Times Magazine

Saturday Evening Posl

Lawrance, W. H., "Why Do They Confess!," May 8, 1949, 7


Palmer, C. R, "War For The POW's Mind," Sept 13, 1953, 13

Gallery, D. V., "We Can Baffle the


Martin, H. H., "They Tried To Mal
1951, 224: 25
White, L., "I Was Stalin's Prisoner
17-19; Nov 10,1951,29; Nov 3,11
1951, 30; Dec 1, 1951, 30.
Bryan, Robert T., Jr., "I Came Ba(
1953, 28: 116-118; Jan 24, 1953,
Feb 7, 1953, 28: 114-118
"GIs Outshine Eggheads In Resistill
"What Price UN Pledge To The Ani
"Asiatic paws Throw The Book At
"Red Murder of 6,000 GIs Finally,

Newsweek
"How The Reds Treat American paws and How The UN Cares For
Communist paWs," Dec 17, 1951, 38: 36-7
"Communist Trial," May 12, 1952, 39: 106 (Robert A. Vogler)
"Snafu At Valley Forge," May 18, 1953,44-46
"And Buddy-Buddy; Washed Brains of POWs: Can They Be Rewashed?,"
May 4, 1953,41: 35-7
"UN Tells Panmunion Reds: 'Time, Patience Running Out'" May 11
1953, 37-38
'
,
"Without Honor," July 13, 1953, 42: 30
"What About Reds Among Freed U. S. Prisoners?," Aug 17, 1953, 42: 21
"Terror And Torture: 5 Prisoners' Stories," Aug 17, 1953, 42: 32
"Sick paws," Aug 17, 1953,42: 58
"Propaganda and Reality; Photographs," Aug 17, 1953, 42: 30
"Back From Red Death Camps, paws Rediscover Freedom" Aug 17
1953, 42: 29
'
,
"Rats," Aug 24, 1953, 42: 30
"VN Reds Move Into New Phase," Sept 21, 1953, 42: 40
"Op. Big Switch," Sept.21, 1953, 42: 90
.
"Riots And Repatriation Rules," Oct 12, 1953, 42: 36
"Lo, The Poor Indian Troops, Berated and Belabored By All" Oct 19
1953, 42: 58
'
,
"Father Mao Thrown For Loss But POW Came Far From Over," Oct 26
1953, 42: 60
'
"There's Joy in Crackers Neck," Nov 2, 1953, 42: 22-3
"Captive Sales Audience," Nov 2, 1953, 42: 81
"Stalled Truce," Nov 2, 1953,42: 42 .
"Son Of A Dog," Nov 9, 1953, 42: 38
"Thimayya of India and Korea," Nov 16, 1953,42: 40
"Fear In No Crime," Nov 16, 1953, 42:.47
"It Is Inhuman," Nov 16, 1953, 62: 32
"Korea Bunkers: Winter Watch," Nov 23, 1953, 42: 38 .
"July 4 on January 22," Nov 30, 1953, 42: 47
"Patriot's Tears," Dec 14, 1953, 42: 24

82

Wolfe, H. C., "Story Of A Shock", ]

Science Digest
Keempft'ert, W. "Prescription For 0

Science News leHer


"Forced Confessions; Menticide", Jl
Vogler, R. A. "Analyze Mind Wasbi
"Not Necessarily Commie", Oct 11,

Scholastic
"Torture Techniques of Communisl
tries", Mar 15, 1950, 56: 22
"Lie Detector: Message Claimed T.
Officers Who Are paws", Sept 24
"Freedom For A Few," Apr 29, 195
"They Refuse To Go Home", Oct 7
"They Chose Freedom", Oct 28, 191
"Prisoner Talks Stalled", Nov 4, 19
"Red's War Crimes Bared; Red Ex
Dean, W. R., "American Hero; Inte

Reeder's Digest
rs Broke IInder Red 'Brainwashing''',

Swift, S. K., "How They Broke Cardinal Mindszenty", Nov 1949, 55: 1-10

Reporter
8Y 23, 1953, 176: 425-6
it 10, 1953, 177: 281

:binese and North Korean Soldiers


953, 129: 3
'arfare Tortures," Nov 9,1953, 129: 8

"Sent To The Cleaners", May 26, 1953, 8: 2

"Indians Test", Oct 27, 1953, 9: 2

"Panmunjon-Out", Nov 24, 1953, 9: 31-2

Saturday Review
Wolfe, H. C., "Story Of A Shock", May 10, 1952, 35: 14-15

Saturday Evening Posl


onfes87," May 8, 1949, 7
Mind," Sept 13, 1953, 13

JWs and How The UN Cares For


38: 36-7
9: 106 (Robert A. Vogler)
153,44-46
)f POWs: Can They Be Rewashed?,"
Patience Running Out'," May 11,
30
S. Prisoners?," Aug 17, 1953, 42: 21
ories," Aug 17, 1953, 42: 32

hs," Aug 17, 1953,42: 30


Ws Rediscover Freedom," Aug 11,
ept 21, 1953, 42: 40
)0
12,1953, 42: 36
~d and Belabored By All," Oct 19,
)W Came Far From Over," Oct 26,
2, 1953, 42: 22-3
3,42: 81
16, 1953, 42: 40
1:.47
'{ 23, 1953, 42: 38 .
,42: 47

Gallery, D. V., "We Can Baffle the Brainwashers", 22 Jan. 1955.


Martin, H. H., "They Tried To Make Our Marines Love Stalin", Aug 25,
1951, 224: 25
White, L., "I Was Stalin's Prisoner" (R. A. Vogler), Oct 27, 1951, 224:
17-19; Nov 10,1951,29,; Nov 3,1951,36-37; Nov 17, 1951,29; Nov 24,
1951, 30; Dec 1, 1951, 30.
Bryan, Robert T., Jr., "I Came Back From A Red Death Cell", Jan 17,
1953, 28: 116-118; Jan 24, 1953, 34: 58-63; Jan 31, 1953, 27: 83-86;
Feb 7, 1953, 28: 114-118
"GIs Outshine Eggheads In Resisting Reds", Oct 31, 1953, 226: 10
"What Price UN Pledge To The Anti-Red POWs?", Oct 31, 1953, 226:10
"Asiatic POWs Throw The Book At Reds", Nov 14, 1953,226: 10
"Red Murder of 6,000 GIs Finally Angers Us", Nov 28, 1953, 226: 10

Science Digest
Keempffert, W. "Pres.cription For Our POWs", Dec 1953, 34: 29-30

Science News Le"er


"Forced Confessions; Menticide", July 21, 1951, flO: 43
Vogler, R. A. "Analyze Mind Washing", May 16, 1953,310-311
"Not Necessarily Commie", Oct 11, 1953, 64: 230

Scholastic
"Tortur~

Techniques of Communist Prosecutors In Iron. Curtain Coun


tries", Mar 15, 1950, 56: 22
"Lie Detector: Message Claimed To Have Been Signed By 38 American
Officers Who Are POWs", Sept 27, 1950, 57: 13
"Freedom For A Few," Apr 29, 1953, 62: 14
"They Refuse To Go Home", Oct 7,1953,63: 17
"They Chose Freedom", Oct 28,1953,63: 12
"Prisoner Talks Stalled", Nov 4, 1953,63: 19-20
"Red's War Crimes Bared; Red Explainers Fail", Nov 11, 1953, 63: 33
Dean, W. R., "American Hero; Interview"; Nov 18, 1953, 63: 6

83

Time
"Brainwaahing", Oct. 8, 1951, 58: 39-40
"Brainwashing At Work", May 26,1953,59: 41
"Welcome To Freedom", Apr 27, 1953,32
"Prisoners: Anly 149 American", May 4, 1953,33
"The Boys Come Home", May 11, 1953, 30
"Big Switch", Aug 17, 1953,62: 20
"Ugly Story", Aug 24, 1953, 62: 18
"Reactionaries", Sept 7, 1953, 62: 32
"Blackmail Scheme", Sept 21, 1953, 62: 33
"Tough Prisoners", Sept 21, 1953,62: 28-9
"Just A Stone's Throw; Anti-Communist North Korean and Chinese
Prisoners", Sept 28, 1952, 62: 19
"23 American", Oct 5, 1953,62: 33
"Sin ~f Omission", Oct 12, 1953,62: 26
"To A Young Progressive", Oct 19, 1953,62: 32
"Frustration At Panmunjon", Oct 19, 1953, 62: 42
"One Who Won't Return", Oct 26, 1953,62: 27
"Door to Taiwan", Oct 26, 1953, 62: 32
"Story of Blood", Nov 2, 1953,62: 27
"Stymied", Nov 2, 1953, 62: 28
"One Changed His Mind", Nov 2, 1953, 62: 25-6
"Cowardice In Korea", Nov 2, 1953,62: 31
"Germ Warfare: Forged Evidence", Nov 9, 1953,62: 22
"2nd Humiliation; The Explainers", Nov 9, 1953,62: 26
"Go Slow", Nov 16, 1953, 62: 24
"Towards Disenchantment In India", Nov 23, 1953, 62: 35
"Towards January 22", Nov 30, 1953, 62: 41
"Soldier's Soldier", Dec 7, 1953, 62: 27
"Other Side", Dec 14, 1953, ~2: 40

U. N. Bulletin

"Prison Breaks Threaten Armistice", July I, 1953, 16: 8-10

U. N. World

Domaitre, E., "Why Do They Confess", Dec 1949, 3: 22-4

U. S. News and World Report


Hayes, John D. "I Saw Red China From Inside", Mar 13, 1953,26-32
Dulles, Allan W., "Brain Warfare-Russia's Secret Weapon", May 8,
. 1953, 54-58 (It Explains The "Confessions" of Captured Americans)
"Real Story of Returned Prisonera", May 29, 1953, 54-63 (Tape Record
ings of GIa Back From Korea)
"Korean War Prisoners-It'll Be a Long Trail Home", June 5, 1953, 22
. i'Prisoners Who Broke", Aug 1, 1953, 36: 30
"Report of POWs' Text of Agreement and Supplementary Agreement",
Aug 7, 1953, 35: 92-4
"Missing In Action: 8,000 Now Known To Be Dead", Aug 7, 1953,35: 28
"Truth VB Promises In Korea", Aug 14, 1953, 35: 35

84

"General Clark Reports on Korea; T


Aug 6, 1953", Aug 14, 1953, 35: 82
Peterson, C. B., "Prisonera Swayed;
1953, 35: 28
"Back To The Germ Warfare Hoax, '1
Sept 18, 1953,35: 20-4, Sept 4, 195
"Korean Puzzle: Americans Who Sta;
Russell, R. B., "For The Prisoners WJ
Letter to Defense Secretary WilSOI
Oct 16, 1953, 35: 51-3
.
"Articles From The Macon (Ga.) TelE
Than Confess Germ Warfare", Oct
"Big Flop At Pammunjon", Oct 30, I!
Mayo, G. W., "Destroying American
Text of Report To Political Commi
Dickenson, 8. 8. "Why Some GIs Su
1953,35: 33
"Where are 944 Missing GIs?", Dec]
Lawrence, D., "To Th~ Unreturned F

Vital Speeches
Lew, D. H. "Brainwashing In 8talinis
Douglas,P. E., "Korean POW Issue"
Bokolzky, O. X. "Where Are Our Bon
Sheen, Fulton, "Changed Concept of

-40
.953,59: 41
i3,32
Ly 4, 1953, 33
953, 30

52: 33
: 28-9
nunist North Korean and Chinese
26
953,62: 32
, 1953, 62: 42
~53, 62: 27
32

"General Clark Reports on Korea; Text of Dieeul!sion at The Pentagon,


Aug 6, 1953", Aug 14, 1953, 35: 8~5
Peterson, C. B., "Prisoners Swayed; Didn't Fall, Interview", Aug 28,
1953,35: 28
"Back To The Germ Warfare Hoax, Tortures; U. S. Officers' Own Story",
Sept 18, 1953, 35: 20-4, Sept 4, 1953, 35: 24
"Korean Puzzle: Americans Who Stay", Oct 9, 1953, 35: 3HO
Russell, R. B., "For The Prisoners Who Broke, Kindness or Punishment?
Letter to Defense Secretary Wilson With Statement by Mr. Wilson",
Oct 16, 1953, 35: 5l-3
"Articles From The Macon (Ga.) Telegraph: Fliers Ready to Die Rather
Than Confess Germ Warfare", Oct 16, 1953, 35
"Big Ftop At Panmunjon", Oct 30, 1953, 35: 30-2
Mayo, G. W., "Destroying American Minds; Russians Made It a Science;
Text of Report To Political Committee, UN", Nov 6, 1953,35: 97-101
Dickenson, 8. S. "Why Some GIs Stay With Reds: Interview", Nov 13,
1953,35: 33
"Where are 944 Missing GIs?", Dec 18, 1953, 35: 77-8
Lawrence, D., "To Th.e Unreturned Prisoners", 35: 100

Vital Speeches

53,62: 21H1
62: 31
~ov 9, 1953, 62: 22
~ov 9, 1953, 62: 26

Lew, D. H. "Brainwashing In Stalinist China", June 1, 1952, 18: 497-501


Douglas,P. E., "Korean POW Issue", July 1, 1953, 19: 568-70.
Sokolzky, O. X. "Where Are Our Bons?", Sept 1, 1953, 19: 678-9
Sheen,Fulton, "Changed Concept of Man", Nov 15, 1953, 20: 83-5

Nov 23, 1953, 62: 35


,62: 41
7

...

July 1, 1953, 15: 8-10

~",

Dec 1949, 3: 2H

om Inside", Mar 13, 1953,26-32


:tussia's Secret Weapon", May 8,
essions" of Captured Americans)
.lay 29, 1953, 54-63 (Tape Recordng Trail Home", June 5, 1953,22
35: 30
and Supplementary Agreement",

To Be Dead", Aug 7, 1953, 35: 28


4, 1953,35: 35

85

ADDEND,
CH.A

NO. 1
NO. 2
NO. 3
NO...

POW BREAKDOWN
BREAKDOWN BY SER'
HOW POW'S WERE P
HOW SUSPECTS WERE

ADDENDA NO. 7
CHARTS
NO.1
NO. 2
NO.3
NO .4

POW BREAKDOWN
BREAKDOWN BY SERVICE
HOW POW'S WERE PROCESSED
HOW SUSPECTS WERE INVESTIGATED

87

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AN ADDITIONAL 470 WERE MISSING

2,730
DEAD

NO I

20 JULY 1955

21 Refused Repatriation
II Retained by the Communists
AQainst Their Will
(Subsequently Released)

OUT OF 1.6 MILLION IN KOREAN CONFLICT


7,190 WERE CAPTURED

t t t t t t t tt 1
I

NAVY ,

MARINE CORPS

AIR FORCE ,

ARMY

7,190 CAPTURED KOREA

3%

20 JULY 1955
NO -2

AIR
FORCE

MARINE
CORPS

NAVY

I
I

ARMY

BIG &
lITTLE SWITCH

INTERROGATION

224

200

31

3,973

JOINT
ACTION

G2
I

,I

CLEARED

,863

",I OSI

I ONI

,I G2

81-,+ /

52--+

426--t

SERVICE

SCREENING

565

NO 3

20 JULY 1955

REQUIRED
FURTHER
INVESTIGATION

HOW THE 4,428 POW's WERE PROCESSED

87

FORCE

AIR

52

CORPS

MARINE

NAVY

ARMY
426

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OF INQUIRY r - - -...

same form or punishment.

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(54 Arm,> .tlil und"I.I'1 OIlon,l" I.",tll.tlon.

BOARD
GEN'L, OFFICERS

M.C.
COURT OF INQUIRY

~-"BOARD

I---e

MAXIMUM
139 POSSIBLE
MISBEHAVIOR
CASES

4
6 10
SEPARATED
RESIGNED

54*

63
9 126

RESTRICTED
ASSIGNMENT

REPRIMAND

PENDING

CONVICTED
(Court Martial)

G2

SEPARATED

STATUS
AS OF 2 NOV. 1955

SPECIAL COUNCIL

ONI
(Relnlerv)ew)

CLEARED

HOW THE 565 WERE INVESTIGATED

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THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE


November 1955
This official Department of Defense publication is for the use of
personnel in the Military Services.

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Charles E. Wilson

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93

By

ORDER OF THE SECRETARIES OF THE ARMY AND THE

AIR FORCE:

OFFICIAL:

MAXWELL D. TAYLOR,
General, ["nite.d States Army,
Ohief of Staff

JOHN A. KLEIN,
Major General, United States A7'1n,ll,
The Adjutant General.

N. F. TWINING,
OFFICIAL:
Chief of Staff, United States Air Force.
E. E. TORO,
Colonel, United States Air Force,
Air Adjutant General.
DISTRIBUTION:

Active Army: Three copies per 100 Officers and Enlisted Men PLUS:
Gen Staff, DA (2)

SS, DA (2) .

Tee Svc, DA (2)

Hq CONARC (15)

Army AA Comd (15)

OS Maj Comd (15)

MDW (15)

Armies (15)

Corps (5)

Div (.5)

Tng Div t5)

Brig (5)

Regt (5)

Bn (5)

Instl (5)

USMA (75)

PMST (2)

CrtIit Dist (2)

Cruit Main Sta (2)

MAAG (2)

Mil Msn (2)

ARMA (2)

NG and USAR: Div (3); Brig (3); Regt (3); Bn (3); Co (1).
For explanation of abbreviations used, see SR 320-50-1.

94

U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1955