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Definitions (Units covered)

14, 1
FREE RADICAL: reactive species with a
single unpaired electron
Units 1, 2

Possible questions
Suggest how free radicals are produced by phagocytes
during the destruction of pathogens (3M)
Phagocytes extend pseudopodia and engulf the
Phagocytes produce lysosomes, peroxidases, and
reactive oxygen species such as superoxide,
hydrogen peroxide, hypohalous acid, and hydroxyl
Reactions between these substances and the pathogen
produces free radicals.
Describe how free radicals could lead to abnormal cell
formation (4M)
Abnormally high concentrations of free radicals in the

body can be caused by exposure to ionizing

radiation and other environmental toxins.
When ionizing radiation hits an atom or a molecule in
a cell, an electron may be lost, leading to the
formation of a free radical.
The production of abnormally high levels of free
radicals is the mechanism by which ionizing radiation
kills cells.
At high concentrations, free radicals also damage
major components of cells, including DNA, proteins,
and cell membranes. The damage to cells caused by
free radicals, especially the damage to DNA, may
play a role in the development of cancer and
abnormal cells.

Describe the consequences of abnormal cells/proteins being

produced (3M) cystic fibrosis?
Abnormal cells or proteins are caused due to a
mutation in DNA or M.RNA.

14, 3

14, 4

14, 5

CHAIN REACTION: a chemical reaction

or other process in which the products
themselves promote or spread the reaction
PHAGOCYTES: a type of cell within the
body capable of engulfing and absorbing
bacteria and other small cells and particles.

ENDOGENOUS: having an internal cause

or origin
chemical process usually involving the
transfer of electrons, in which one reaction is
an oxidation and the reverse reaction is a

Abnormal cells may be less affective in carrying out

their specific tasks.
Abnormal proteins may not work the way normal
proteins do. This would led to inefficient cell

Explain the process of phagocytosis (4M)

Due to a cut in the skin the blood capillaries are
exposed to air.
Phagocytes such as neutrophils gets activated and
leave circulation heading toward the site that is
exposed to air.
Phagocytes engulf the invading pathogens by
extending pseudopodia and trapping them.
Phagocytes then digest the pathogen with the aid of
lysosomes containing enzymes.
Useful substances such as glucose and amino acids
are absorbed by the phagocyte the rest is excreted by
the cell by exocytosis.
Name the type of immune response involving phagocytosis
Non specific immune response
Explain what is meant by metabolic reactions of the ETC
where oxygen is normally reduced to water by accepting
electrons (3M)
What metabolic reaction is the ETC a part of? (1M)

14, 6

15, 1
15, 3
16, 6

16, 7

17, 1

reduction. Also redox. ( as modifier):

an oxidation-reduction reaction.
hyperglacaemic) or have high blood sugar is
a condition in which an excessive amount of
glucose circulates in the blood plasma
HYDROXYL RADICAL: an hydroxide
contain a free radical
SUPEROXIDE: an oxide containing the
anion O2
radical scavenger is a vitamin, mineral, or
enzyme that is able to destroy free radicals.
The term "free radical" refers to a molecule
that has one or more unpaired electron
GLUTATHIONE : (GSH) is an important
antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and
some bacteria and archaea, preventing
damage to important cellular components
caused by reactive oxygen species such as
free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides and
heavy metals
ANTIOXIDANT: a substance that inhibits
oxidation, especially one used to counteract
the deterioration of stored food products

Ref. to first question posed under (14,5)

Suggest how lipid solubility of Vitamin E helps to prevent
damage to biological membranes (2M)
Vitamin C is lipid soluble so can be in cooperated to
the cell membrane which I made out of

Suggest how the dietary antioxidant Vitamin C delays ageing

Suggest how Vitamin C/E work as antioxidants (3M)
Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C have a very
reactive chemical nature.
Vitamin C reacts with the free radicals, also very
reactive species, formed during respiration producing
a more stable compound.
Less free radical attack on cells and DNA.

18, 2

18, 4

18, 6

18, 7

18, 9

LIPOFUCSINS: is the name given to finely Suggest why lipofucsins are not susceptible to enzymatic
granular yellow-brown pigment granules
digestion (4M)
composed of lipid-containing residues of
lysosomal digestion. It is considered to be
one of the aging or "wear-and-tear"
pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart
muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and
ganglion cells
PEROXIDATION: Lipid peroxidation is the
oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the
process in which free radicals "steal"
electrons from the lipids in cell membranes,
resulting in cell damage. This process
proceeds by a free radical chain reaction
Suggest how the accumulation of lipofucsins in muscle cells
may interfere with their function (3M)
MUTAGENS: an agent, such as radiation or Name a mutagen found in tobacco smoke (1M)
a chemical substance, which causes genetic
LYSOSOMES: an organelle in the
Describe the function of a lysosome (3M)
cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing
Lysosomes are vesicles containing hydrolytic
degradative enzymes enclosed in a
enzymes used digestion and waste removal.
In phagocyte they are used to digest pathogens
engulfed by the phagocyte.
They are also used to digest worn out organelles.
Suggest how the chemical environment in the lysosome
prevents autolysis (4M)
CORRELATION: a mutual relationship or
Explain what is meant by there is no correlation between
connection between two or more things
the amount of lipofucsins accumulated and the reduction in
the call function and survival (2M)

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

Correlation is when two or more things or events
tend to occur at about the same time and might be
associated with each other. While causation is when
the presence of the factor almost always tests
positive for the effect.