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RC Op-Amp Circuits (5.

4)

Dr. Holbert
November 14, 2002

ECE201 Lect-20

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Digital Meters and Oscilloscopes


Most multimeters and oscilloscopes are now
digital.
A digital multimeter or a digital oscilloscope
has an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter.
Most digital meters and all digital
oscilloscopes have one or more processors.

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Data Acquisition Systems


In many applications, digital meters and
scopes are being replaced by data
acquisition cards that fit into a computer.
The data acquisition cards have A/D
converters.
The computer provides processing and
storage for the data.
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A Generic Digital Meter


Input Switching
and Ranging

A/D Converter
Amplifier

Display

Processor

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Voltage Measurements

100V
10V
1V

Hi

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Com

Model for Meter


Hi
10M

Ideal Meter

Com

The ideal meter measures the voltage across


its inputs. No current flows into it; it has
infinite input resistance.
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Meter Loading
Hi
R

10M

Ideal Meter

Com

The 10M meter resistance in parallel with R


may change the voltage that you measure.
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Loading
When measuring the voltage across R, we
need to make sure that R is much less than
10M.
If R is close to 10M, significant current
flows through the meter, changing the
voltage across R.

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Loading Example
Hi
50A

2M

10M

Ideal Meter

Com

Without Meter: voltage is 100V


With Meter: measured voltage is 83.3V
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Current Measurements

100V
10V
1V

Com Amp

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Measuring Large Currents


(> 100mA)
The current to be measured is passed
through a small resistor (called a shunt
resistor) and the resulting voltage across the
shunt resistor is measured.
From the voltage, the current can be
computed.
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11

Meter Loading
Amp
R

Rs

Ideal Meter

Com

The Rs shunt resistance in series with R may


change the current that you measure.
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12

The Voltage Follower


+

vin

vout

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Without a Voltage Follower


Rs
Sensor

vs

+
vA/D

RA/D

A/D
Converter

vA/D is not equal to vs


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14

Op-Amp Review
The ideal op-amp model leads to the
following conditions:
i+ = i- = 0
v+ = v The op amp will set the output voltage to
whatever value results in the same voltages
at the inputs.
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15

Op-Amp Review
To solve an op-amp circuit, we usually
apply KCL (nodal analysis) at one or both
of the inputs.
We then invoke the consequences of the
ideal model.
We solve for the op-amp output voltage.

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With a Voltage Follower


+
vs

Rs

+
vA/D

RA/D

Sensor

vA/D is equal to vs
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A/D
Converter

17

An Integrator
C
R

Vin

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+
Vout

18

KCL at the Inverting Input


C
iC(t)
R
iR(t) ivin(t)

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+
vout(t)

19

KCL
i = 0
vin (t ) v vin (t )
iR (t ) =
=
R
R
d (vout (t ) v )
dvout (t )
i C (t ) = C
=C
dt
dt

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20

Solve for vout(t)


vin (t )
dv out (t )
+C
=0
R
dt
dvout (t )
vin (t )
=
dt
RC
t

vin ( x)
vout (t ) =
dx
RC

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21

Class Example
Learning Extension E5.9

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22