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Network Forensics

How to create visibility into your network

Bob Miller
Senior Systems Manager
847-707-5498
robert.miller@flukenetworks.com

Todays Agenda
Introduction
Network Forensics Basics
Flow Based Forensics
Packet Forensics

Application level forensics (VoIP / Video)

WLAN Forensics
RF and 802.11

Questions
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What is Network Forensics?

The ability to look at past collected data to determine IT


security threats and piece together a time frame of events
Can also be used to analyze application performance
based on past collected data.
Forensics data can be analyzed from different sources:
Ethernet OSI Layer 2 (Data Link) to Layer 7 (Application)
WLAN Layer 1 RF spectrum & Layer 2 for IPS / Forensics
Current Netflow / IP Fix type devices (Routers, L3 Devices,
etc )

Forensics Compliance
Sarbanes-Oxley
California SB 1386
Graham Leach Bliley
HIPPA
PCI-DSS
Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
DoD
Basel II
Information Standard for Information Security (ISO 27001
Compliance)

Forensic Tools

Ethernet
Stream to Disk Technology with vast storage capacity
High Speed Disk Captures
High Speed Interfaces
Extensive capture and display filters for data analysis
WLAN
Layer 2 WLAN Analysis
Layer 1 RF Interference Detection and Analysis
Netflow Technologies
Collection from many L3 Netflow type devices for LAN, WAN, other
flow technologies devices
Network TAPS
Provides data replication without detection
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There are several areas where forensics can be applied. Samples of


some broad categories include:
Compliance: Oops, someone sent out company confidential financial
information in an unencrypted email or used IM to gossip about a
coworker's medical condition, a HIPPA violation.
Troubleshooting: Why did your network meltdown this morning? Why
do your CRM users often experience poor performance in the afternoon?
Hackers: What was hacked, how, and by whom? Often goes hand-inhand with intrusion detection systems (IDS) to see what damage if any,
was done. Its also a good way to verify that intrusion prevention systems
(IPS) are working too.
Verticals: Why did the core switch peg during a critical trading hour?
Why are doctors losing wireless connectivity? Is our converged data +
VoIP transport operating smoothly?
Law Enforcement: In particular, CALEA (the Communications
Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994), which states the
requirements of carriers to assist law enforcement in executing electronic
surveillance. CALEA is of interest more so outside the enterprise i.e.
Internet service and Internet backbone providers.
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Where are the best collection points


Data collection points will be based on requirements of
potential threats
Inside of the Firewall
devices where access to corporate network from outside the
physical location (i.e. VPN / SSL, WLAN, etc)
In critical locations where corporate data or sensitive data is
held
Locations that may government or industry compliance is
required

What kind of tools are needed


for Network Forensics?
Long term data capture and analysis
Long term Netflow Collectors with deep analysis
functionality
Server and Network Equipment logging
TAPS / Span capable Ethernet switches
NTP / Time Synchronization
Syslog Server
SNMP Traps

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Why use a TAP versus


a Network SPAN Port
TAPS can provide hidden data collection points that
threats would have a difficult time to detect
Purpose built device
Passes Layer 1 information that SPAN ports cannot
TAPS can provide better performance on busy networks in
replicating data
TAPS can allow packet injection back into network traffic

Flow Based Forensics

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What is Flow technologies and why use it.

Flow technologies that provide information based on


different criteria within a packet as it passes through the
network
Network equipment collects this data and sends it to a flow
collector in which stores and analyzes the data
Utilizes Customers current Routers and Layer 3 Switches

NetFlow Cisco Routers and L3 Switches, VM, 3Com, others


sFlow HP, Extreme, Foundry, Force 10
IPFix Nortel / Avaya (based on Netflow v9 RFC 3917)
jFlow Juniper Routers and Layer 3 switches

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Pros and Cons of Flow Based


Technologies

Pro Allows customers to use their current network


equipment so very little or no new equipment is needed
Pro Can provide very long term information about whos
talking to who and with what application
Pro Easy to configure and setup
Pro Minimum overhead within WAN circuits (<2.0% on
average per flow device)
Con Does not collect packets but reports information
from within the IP headers
Con Not all network equipment support flow based
technologies
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Flow based Forensics

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Flow based Forensics

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Net Flow using long term data collection

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NetFlow collectors key capabilities


for use in Forensics

Insight into how traffic usage is impacting network performance


The ability to collect, store, and report on every flow that is traversing your
infrastructure
not just top N or an average
The capability to keep all flows, all the time, for an infinite amount of time for regulatory,
compliance and forensic requirements
Finding challenging impacts like rogue users or denial of service attacks by seeing all
flows
Understand the impact of voice, viruses, hacking, multi-cast, DNS,
peer-to-peer and worms
Common data source with no averaging or discarding of information
Rich and granular data set is easily accessible and relevant across the enterprise

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NetFlow Forensics Reporting

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NetFlow providing Full Flow Forensics

Over 5 Million Flows Available

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Packet Based Forensics

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Packet Based Forensics

Capture data at various points in the network to collect


data, detect anomalies and notify of potential threats
Can be used in conjunction to IDS / IPS for network
security
Different than Flow based forensics
since all packets can be collected and
stored for deep packet inspection

May also be used to provide


information of application performance
issues by capturing packets transversing
the network
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Packet Based Forensics

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Packet Based Forensics

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Packet Based Forensics


for VoIP and Video

Monitor, alert, and decode Voice and Video RTP


streams for both call quality using MOS scoring.
Provide insight to the signaling traffic and how
Reliable UDP traffic is functioning

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VoIP Forensics

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VoIP & Real Time Application Forensics

Signaling Traffic

SIP
H.323
MGCP
Proprietary (CSSP, Unistim)

Voice / Video Quality Scoring

MOS Mean Opinion Score


R Factor
Jitter
Latency
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WLAN & RF Forensics

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WLAN & RF Forensics

How do we identify and analyze WLAN & RF?


RF Analysis
Layer 1 Spectrum Analysis

802.11 WLAN Analysis

WLAN Performance
Rogue Detection
Packet Decode
Channel Utilization

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RF Forensics

What is RF Forensics?
The ability to monitor, capture and analyze the physical layer
of the frequencies that the WLAN 802.11 (2.4GHz &5GHz)
use for transmission

How do we identify and analyze RF interference?


Spectrum Analyzer that not only captures the RF signature
but also identifies the source and location of the interference

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using no RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using no RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using no RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using no RF sensors

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WLAN RF Forensics
Prevention
Can be used as a denial of service attack. RF Forensics
equipment can be used to not only capture the type of RF
but also attempt to fingerprint the type of device that is
being used.
Other devices such as the cafeteria microwave, cordless
phones, older bluetooth devices can provide RF
interference at the 2.4GHz frequency. Spectrum Analysis
tools can be used to locate and identify these types of
interferences

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors
Normal RF Environment of
the 2.4GHz Band

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

RF Interference in
the 2.4GHz band

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

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WLAN Spectrum Forensics


using RF sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics

802.11 a/b/g/n including


out of country channels
WLAN APs can be used
to provide some rogue
detection, noise
information and connected
clients
Purpose built devices such
as WLAN sensors provide
not only connectivity and
rogue detection but also
off channel detection
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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using no WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using no WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using no WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using no WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


Prevention
Due to the nature of WIFI, extra diligence and equipment is
needed
Alerting and Data Capture is needed to understand what
WLAN attacks have compromised the network and
information in a timely manner

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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WLAN 802.11 Forensics


using WLAN sensors

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Conclusion

Reasons for implementing Network Forensics


Troubleshooting network and applications Time to
Resolution greatly diminished
Compliance can provide needed data collection for
government and industry regulations
Visibility into corporate applications provide insight into
user experience
network security provide detailed information of potential
and current threats

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Questions ?

Thank You!