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GEOPET BACHELOR PROGRAM IN

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

BASIC RESERVOIR
ENGINEERING

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lecture, you should be able to understand the
fundamentals of reservoir engineering and do some basic
analyses/calculations as follows:
PVT Analysis

Special Core Analysis


Well Test Analysis

Production Forecast
3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

References
1. L.P.Dake (1978). Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering,
Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

2. L.P.Dake (1994). The Practice of Reservoir Engineering,


Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

3. B.C.Craft & M.Hawkins (1991). Applied Petroleum


Reservoir Engineering,Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

4. T. Ahmed (2006). Reservoir Engineering Handbook , Gulf


Professional Publishing, Oxford.

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Outline
Key Concepts in Reservoir Engineering
Fundamentals of Oil & Gas Reservoirs

Quantitative Methods in Reservoir Characterization and


Evaluation.

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Part I

Key Concepts in
Reservoir Engineering

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Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Definition of Reservoir

In petroleum industry, reservoir fluids is a mixture of


hydrocarbons (oil and/or gas), water and other non-hydrocarbon
compounds (such as H2S, CO2, N2, ...)

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline or profession of

applying necessary knowledge and utilizing


physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.
3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying necessary knowledge and utilizing
physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.
3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

Necessary Knowledge
Knowledge about oil & gas reservoirs
Reservoir Rock Properties & Behavior during the
Production Process
Reservoir Fluid Properties & Behavior during the
Production Process
Fluid Flows in Reservoirs

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Necessary Knowledge (contd)


Technical & Scientific Knowledge
Quantitative Methods for Reservoir
Characterization
Quantitative Methods for Reservoir
Evaluation

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10

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying necessary knowledge and utilizing
physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

11

Physical Resources
In-place Reservoir Resources
Reservoirs energy source resulted from the
initial pressure & drive mechanisms during
production
Available flow conduits thanks to reservoirs
characteristic properties such as permeability
distribution.
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12

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying necessary knowledge and utilizing
physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.

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13

Design and Implementation


Design and Implement an Oil Field Development Plan
Plan for producing oil & gas from the reservoirs in the
field: Exploit reservoir energy sources; Design

appropreate well patterns; Select suitable subsurface &


surface facilities ... during the lifecycle of the oil field

3/18/2013

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14

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying necessary knowledge and utilizing
physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.
3/18/2013

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15

Desired Objective
To Maximize the profit resulted from the
recovered oil & gas
To recover as much as possible oil & gas from
the reservoirs
To recover high-quality oil & gas

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16

Definition of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of
applying necessary knowledge and utilizing
physical resources in order to design and

implement systems and processes that realize a


desired objective and meet specified criteria.

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17

Specified Criteria
Money associated with hired manpower,
facilities, technologies, ...
Time
Local regulations

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18

Oil Fields and Their Lifecycle

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Oil Fields and Their Lifecycle


A lifecycle of an oil field consists of the following stages:
Exploration
Appraisal

Development
Production

Abandonment
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Revenue Throughout LifeCycle

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Part II

Basic Properties and


Behaviors of
Oil & Gas Reservoirs
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22

Classification of Reservoir Fluids


Volatile Oil

Black Oil

Pressure path
in reservoir

Five Basic
Reservoir
Fluids

2
Critical
point

Dewpoint line

Black Oil
% Liquid

Volatile oil
Pressure

Pressure, psia

Pressure path
in reservoir

Critical
1 point

% Liquid

33

Separator

Separator

Temperature

Temperature, F

Pressure path
in reservoir

Critical
point

Wet gas

% Liquid
Critical
point
3

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature

Temperature

Retrograde Gas

Wet Gas

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Dry gas

% Liquid
2

Separator

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Retrograde gas

Pressure path
in reservoir

Pressure path
in reservoir
1

Separator
Temperature

Dry Gas

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23

Pressure-Temperature Diagrams
Used to visualize the fluids production path from
the reservoir to the surface
Used to classify reservoir fluids
Used to develop different strategies to produce
oil/gas from reservoir

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24

Pressure, psia

Phase Diagrams
Single
Liquid
Phase
Region

Initial
Reservoir
State

Critical
Cricondenbar Point

Single
Gas
Phase
Region

Two-Phase
Region

Cricondentherm

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature, F
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25

Pressure, psia

Black Oil
Pressure path
in reservoir Critical
Point Dewpoint line
Black Oil
% Liquid

Separator

Temperature, F
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26

Volatile-Oil
Pressure path 1
in reservoir

Critical
point

2
Pressure

Volatile oil
% Liquid

3
Separator

Temperature, F
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27

Retrograde Gas
Pressure path
in reservoir
1

Pressure

Retrograde gas

Critical point
% Liquid

Separator

Temperature
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28

Wet Gas

Pressure

Pressure path
in reservoir
1

Wet gas

Critical
point

% Liquid
2

Separator

Temperature
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29

Dry Gas

Pressure

Pressure path
in reservoir
1

Dry gas

% Liquid
2

Separator

Temperature
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30

Field Identification
Black
Oil
Initial Producing <1750
Gas/Liquid
Ratio, scf/STB
Initial Stock< 45
Tank Liquid
Gravity, API
Color of StockDark
Tank Liquid

Volatile
Oil
1750 to
3200

Retrograde
Gas
> 3200

Wet
Dry
Gas
Gas
> 15,000* 100,000*

> 40

> 40

Up to 70

No
Liquid

Colored

Lightly
Colored

Water
White

No
Liquid

*For Engineering Purposes

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31

Laboratory Analysis

Phase
Change in
Reservoir
Heptanes
Plus, Mole
Percent
Oil
Formation
Volume
Factor at
Bubblepoint

Black
Oil
Bubblepoint

Volatile
Retrograde
Wet
Oil
Gas
Gas
Bubblepoint Dewpoint No Phase
Change

> 20%

20 to 12.5

< 12.5

< 4*

Dry
Gas
No
Phase
Change
< 0.8*

< 2.0

> 2.0

*For Engineering Purposes


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32

Field Identification
Initial producing
gas/oil ratio, scf/STB

50000
Wet
gas

Dry
gas

Retrograde
gas

Volatile
oil

Black
oil

Dewpoint gas
Bubblepoint oil

0
0

30
Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid, mole %

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Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

33

Primary Production Trends

Time
34

Flui

Time

Time

Time

No
liquid

Time

API

API

Time

Dry
Gas
GOR

GOR

Wet
Gas

Time

API

Time

API

API

Time

Retrograde
Gas
GOR

Volatile
Oil
GOR

GOR

Black
Oil

No
liquid

Time

Exercise 1
Based on the phase diagrams of volatile oil
and retrograde gas, describe some
characteristic properties of these two
reservoir fluids
Name some applications of phase diagrams
in selecting surface facilities

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

35

Basic Properties of Natural Gas


Equation-of-State (EOS)
Apparent Molecular Weight of Gas Mixture
Density of Gas Mixture
Gas Specific Gravity
Z-factor (Gas Compressibility or Gas Deviation
Factor)
Isothermal Compressibility
Gas Formation Volume Factor
Gas Viscosity
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36

Gas Equation-Of-State (EOS)


pV = nZRT

Equation of State:

Quantity

Description

Unit/Value

Pressure

psia

Volume

ft3

Mole Number

lb-mol

Gas Deviation
Factor

dimensionless

Temperature

Rankine

R
3/18/2013

Universal Gas
10.73
3/lb-mole. R
constant
psia.ft
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Engineering
- HCMUT

37

Apparent Molecular Weight of a


Gas Mixture
Normally, petroleum gas is a mixture of various
light hydrocarbon (C1-C4). For example:
Component Mole Percent

Molecular
Weight
(lb/lb-mol)

Critical

Critical

Pressure

Temperature

(psia)

(oR)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1)
C1

0.85

16.043

666.4

343.00

C2

0.04

30.070

706.5

549.59

C3

0.06

44.097

616.0

665.73

iC4

0.03

58.123

527.9

734.13

nC4

0.02

58.123

550.6

765.29

=
Ma
3/18/2013

yM
=
i =1

20.39

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38

Density of Gas Mixture


Gas density is calculated from the definition of
density and the EOS

mg

nM a p pM a
g =
=
=
Vg nZRT ZRT

3/18/2013

(lb/ft )

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39

Gas Specific Gravity


The specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the
gas density to that of the air

g M a
Ma
g =
=
=
air M air 28.97

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40

Gas Deviation Factor (Z-factor)


Z-factor in the EOS accounts for the difference in
the behavior of natural gases in compared with ideal
gases.
Z-factor can be expressed as: Z=Z(ppr,Tpr) where
ppr: pseudo-reduced pressure
Tpr: pseudo-reduced temperature
ppc: pseudo-critical pressure
Tpc: pseudo-critical temperature

p
T
=
p pr =
; Tpr
p pc
Tpc
=
p pc

y p ;T
=
yT
i

3/18/2013

ci

pc

i ci

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41

Standing-Katz Chart
Step 1: Calculate pseudo-critical
pressure and temperature

=
p pc

y p ;T
=
yT
i

ci

pc

i ci

Step 2: Calculate pseudo-reduced


pressure and temperature:

p
T
=
p pr =
; Tpr
p pc
Tpc
Step 3: Use Standings-Katz chart
to determine Z

3/18/2013

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

42

Dranchuk & Abou-Kassem


Correlation
F ( =
R1 r
r)

R2

1 0
+ R3 r2 R4 r5 + R5 r2 (1 + A11 r2 ) exp( A11 r2 ) +=

r = 0.27 p pr / ( ZTpr )
R1 =
A1 + A2 / Tpr + A3 / Tpr3 + A4 / Tpr4 + A5 / Tpr5
R2 = 0.27 p pr / Tpr
R3 =
A6 + A7 / Tpr + A8 / Tpr2
R4

A9 ( A7 / Tpr + A8 / Tpr2 )

R5 = A10 / Tpr3
A1 = 0.3265; A2 = 1.0700; A3 = 0.5339
A4 = 0.01569; A5 = 0.05165; A6 = 0.5475
A7 = 0.7361; A8 = 0.1844; A9 = 0.1056
A10 = 0.6134; A11 = 0.7210
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43

Exercise 2
Component

yi

Mi

Tci,R

pci

CO2

0.02

44.01

547.91

1071

N2

0.01

28.01

227.49

493.1

C1

0.85

16.04

343.33

666.4

C2

0.04

30.1

549.92

706.5

C3

0.03

44.1

666.06

616.4

i - C4

0.03

58.1

734.46

527.9

n - C4

0.02

58.1

765.62

550.6

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44

Wichert-Aziz Correction Method


Corrected pseudo-critical temperature:

T pc = T pc , o R
Corrected pseudo-critical pressure:
p pcTpc
p pc =
,
psia
Tpc + yH 2 S (1 yH 2 S )
Pseudo-critical temperature adjustment factor
=
120

3/18/2013

(( y

H2S

+ yCO2

0.9

yH 2 S + yCO2

1.6

) + 15 ( y

0.5
H2S

yH 2 S 4.0 ,

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45

Exercise 3
Given the following real gas composition,
Component
C1
C2
CO2
H2S

Mole fraction
0.76
0.07
0.1
0.07

Determine the density of the gas mixture at 1,000


psia and 110 F using Witchert-Aziz correction
method.
3/18/2013

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46

Sutton Correction Method


Step1: Calculate the parameters J and K:
2

0.5

Tc
Tc o
1
2
yi
J
+ yi
, R/psia
3 i
pc i 3 i
pc i

Tci
, o R/psia
K = yi
pci
i

Step 2: Calculate the adjustment parameters:


FJ

1 Tc
y

3 pc C
7+

0.5

Tc
2
+ y

3 pc

C7+

J = 0.6081FJ + 1.1325 FJ2 14.004 FJ yC + 64.434 FJ yC2


7+

Tc

p
c

3/18/2013

7+

2
3
0.3129 yC7+ 4.8156 yC7+ + 27.3751 yC7+

C7+
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47

Sutton Correction Method (cont.)


Step 3: Adjust the parameters J and K

J = J J
K = K K
Step 4: Calculate the adjusted pseudo-critical
terms
2
K
T pc =
J
T pc
p pc =
J

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48

Correlations for Pseudo Properties


of Real Gas Mixture

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49

Isothermal Compressiblity of
Natural Gas Mixture
By definition, the compressibility of the gas is
1 dV
cg =
V dp

or

cg=

1 1 dz

p z dp T

Isothermal pseudo-reduced compressibility:

c
cg p=
=
pr
pc

3/18/2013

1
1 dz

p pr
z dp pr

Tpr

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50

Gas Isothermal Compressiblity Correlation by


Matter, Brar & Aziz (1975)
cg
=

1
0.27
2
p pr
z Tpr

dz

r T pr

1+

r dz

z d r T

pr

dz
4
2
2 4
2
=+
+
+
+

T
T
T
T
A
A
A
2

exp

(
)
(

1
2 r
3 r
4 r
8 r
8 r
8 r )
d r Tpr

A5
A2 A3
T1 =A1 +
+ 3 ; T2 =A4 +
Tpr Tpr
Tpr
T3

0.27 p pr
A5 A6
A7
; T4 =
; T5
=
3
Tpr
Tpr
Tpr
3/18/2013

A1

0.3150624

A5

-0.61232032

A2

-1.04671

A6

-0.10488813

A3

-0.578327

A7

0.68157001

A4

0.5353077

A8

0.68446549

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51

Gas Formation Volume Factor


By definition, the gas FVF is
Bg =

V p ,T
Vsc

Combining the above equation with the EOS yields

zT
Bg = 0.02827
p
zT
Bg = 0.005035
p

3/18/2013

(ft 3 /scf)
(bbl/scf)

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52

Gas Viscosity Correlation Method by


Carr, Kobayashi and Burrows (1954)
Step 1: Calculate pseudo-critical properties and the
corrections to these properties for the presence of
nonhydrocarbon gases (CO2, H2S, N2)
Step 2: Obtain the (corrected) viscosity of the gas
mixture at one atmosphere and the temperature of
interest

=
1 + N + CO + H S
1
uc

Step 3: Calculate the pseudo-reduced pressure and


temperature, and obtain the viscosity ratio (g/1)
Step 4: Calculate the gas viscosity from 1 and the
viscosity ratio (g/1)
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53

Carrs Atmospheric Gas Viscosity


Correlation

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54

Gas Viscosity Ratio Correlation

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55

Standings Correlation for


Atmospheric Gas Viscosity
1 = 1.709 105 2.062 106 g (T 460 ) +
8.118 103 6.15 103 log ( g )
uc

N2
=

yCO2 9.08 103 log ( g ) + 6.24 103


y N 2 8.48 103 log( g ) + 9.59 103

=
H2S

yH 2 S 8.49 103 log( g ) + 3.73 103

=
CO2

=
1 + CO + N + H S
1
uc

3/18/2013

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56

Dempseys Correlation for Gas


Viscosity Ratio
g
ln Tpr =
a0 + a1 p pr + a2 p 2pr + a3 p 3pr +
1
Tpr a4 + a5 p pr + a6 p 2pr + a7 p 3pr +
Tpr2 a8 + a9 p pr + a10 p 2pr + a11 p 3pr +
Tpr3 a12 + a13 p pr + a14 p 2pr + a15 p 3pr

3/18/2013

a0 = 2.46211820
a1 = 2.970547414
a2 = 2.86264054 (101)
a3 = 8.05420522 (103)
a4 = 2.80860949
a5 = 3.49803305
a6 = 3.60373020 (101)
a7 = 1.044324 (102)
a8 = 7.93385648 (101)
a9 = 1.39643306
a10 = 1.49144925 (101)
a11 = 4.41015512 (103)
a12 = 8.39387178 (102)
a13 = 1.86408848 (101)
a14 = 2.03367881 (102)
a15 = 6.09579263 (104)

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57

Exercise 4
A gas well is producing at a rate of 15,000 ft3/day
from a gas reservoir at an average pressure of 2,000
psia and a temperature of 120F. The specific
gravity is 0.72.
Calculate the vicosity of the gas mixture using both
graphical and analytical methods.

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58

Properties of Crude Oil


Oil density and gravity
Gas solubility
Bubble-point pressure
Oil formation volume factor
Isothermal compressibility coefficient of
undersaturated crude oils
Oil viscosity
These fluid properties are usually determined by laboratory
experiments. When such experiments are not available,
empirical correlations are used
3/18/2013

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59

Crude Oil Density


The crude oil density is defined as the mass of a
unit volume of the crude oil at a specified
pressure and temperature.

mo
o =
Vo

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(lb/ft 3 )

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60

Crude Oil Gravity


The specific gravity of a crude oil is defined as the
ratio of the density of the oil to that of water.

o
; w 62.4 (lb/ft 3 )
o =
=
w

oAPI

is usually used to reprensent the gravity of


the crude oil as follow

API =

3/18/2013

141.5

-131.5

The API gravity of crude oils


usually ranges from 47 API for
the lighter crude oils to 10 API
for the heavier crude oils.

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61

Black Oil Model

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62

Gas Solubility Rs
Rs is defined as the number of standard cubic feet
of gas dissolved in one stock-tank barrel of crude
oil at certain pressure and temperature.
The solubility of a natural gas in a crude oil is a
strong function of the pressure, temperature, API
gravity, and gas gravity.

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63

Gas Solubility Rs

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64

Standings Correlation for Rs

1.2048

x
=
Rs g
+ 1.4 10

18.2

=
x 0.0125 API 0.0009 (T 460 )

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65

Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks


Porosity
Permeability
In-situ Saturation

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66

Porosity

V pore Vbulk Vmatrix


=
=
Vbulk
Vbulk

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67

Porosity
Porosity depends on grain packing, NOT grain size
Rocks with different grain sizes can have the same
porosity

Rhombohedral packing
Pore space = 26 % of total volume

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Cubic packing
Pore space = 47 % of total volume

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68

Rock Matrix and Pore Space

Rock matrix
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Pore space

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69

Pore-Space Classification
Total porosity

Total Pore Space V pore


=
Bulk Volume
Vbulk

Effective porosity

Interconnected Pore Space


e =
Bulk Volume
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70

Permeability
Permeability is a property of the porous

medium and is a measure of the capacity of


the medium to transmit fluids

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71

Absolute Permeability
When the medium is completely saturated
with one fluid, then the permeability

measurement is often referred to as specific


or absolute permeability

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Effective Permeability
Effective permeability is a measure of the
fluid conductance capacity of a

porous

medium to a particular fluid when the


medium is saturated with more than one
fluid

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Relative Permeability
Relative permeability is defined as the ratio
of the effective permeability to a fluid at a

given saturation to the effective permeability


to that fluid at 100% saturation

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Calculating Relative Permeabilities


Oil

Water

Gas

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k ro

k eo
=
k

k rw

k ew
=
k

k rg =

k eg
k

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Darcys Law

q
Direction of flow

q
k p
v
=

A
L

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v: Velocity
q: Flow rate
A: Cross-section area
k: Permeability
: Viscosity
L: Length increment
p: Pressure drop

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Fluid Saturation
Fluid saturation is defined as the fraction of pore
volume occupied by a given fluid

Saturation =

Vspecific fluid
Vpore

Phase saturations
Sw = water saturation
So = oil saturation
Sg = gas saturation
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In-Situ Saturation

Rock matrix
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Water

Oil and/or gas

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Exercise 5
Given the following reservoir data:
Bulk Volume Vb
Porosity
Water saturation Sw
Calculate:

1. Pore volume occuppied by water

2. Pore volume occupied by hydrocarbon

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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms


Solution Gas Drive
Gas Cap Drive
Water Drive

Gravity drainage drive


Combination drive

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Reservoir Energy Sources


Liberation, expansion of solution gas
Influx of aquifer water

Expansion of reservoir rock

Expansion of original reservoir fluids


Free gas

Connate water
Oil

Gravitational forces

Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Oil
producing
wells
Oil

A. Original Condition

Oil
producing
wells

B. 50% Depleted
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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Formation of a Secondary Gas Cap
Wellbore

Secondary
gas cap

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Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs

Oil producing well


Oil
zone

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Gas cap

Oil
zone

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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Edgewater Drive

Oil producing well

Oil

Zone

Water

Water
Cross Section

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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Bottomwater Drive

Oil producing well

Oil

Zone
Water

Cross Section
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Gravity Drainage Drive in Oil


Reservoirs
Gas
Gas
Oil
Gas

Point C

Oil
Point B

Oil
Point A

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Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs


Gas cap

Oil zone
Water

Cross Section

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Pressure and Gas/Oil Ratio Trends


100
Water drive

Reservoir pressure,
Percent of original

80
60

Gas-cap drive

40

20

Solution
-gas drive

0 0
20
40
60
80
100
Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place
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Exercise 6
1. How can we identify different reservoir drive
mechanisms?

2. Rank in descending order typical reservoir drive


mechanisms in terms of efficiency

3. How does knowledge about reservoir drive mechanisms


help us in designing an oil field development plan?

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