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Pengertian Modal Auxiliary Verb

Modal Auxiliary verb adalah kata yang ditempatkan sebelum main verb (kata kerja utama)
untuk memodifikasi makna dari kata kerja utama tersebut. Fungsinya untuk mengekspresikan
willingness (kemauan) atau ability (kemampuan), necessity (kebutuhan), dan possibility
(kemungkinan).Kata kerja bantu ini antara
lain: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, dan ought to (phrasal modal
verb).

Fungsi dan Contoh Kalimat Modal Auxiliary Verb


Berikut beberapa fungsi dan contoh kalimat modal auxiliary verb.
Modal
Verb

Fungsi

You can buy anything with your money but


you can not buy love.
(Kamu dapat membeli apapun dengan
uangmu tapi kamu tidak dapat membeli cinta)
Can I borrow your car for one night?
Modal verb ini dapat digunakan
(Bisakah saya meminjam mobilmu selama
untuk meminta izin (permission)
satu malam?)
Could digunakan untuk menyatakan You could run faster than me two years ago.
ability (kemampuan) dimasa lalu
(Kamu dapat berlari lebih cepat dari saya dua
(past).
tahun lalu.)
Modal verb ini dapat digunakan
Could I use your computer to print and scan?
untuk meminta izin (permission)
(Bolehkah saya memakai komputermu untuk
untuk melakukan sesuatu dimasa lalu
print dan scan?)
(past) atau masa depan (future).
He may work out and consume healthy food
every day.
(Dia mungkin berlatih dan mengonsumsi
May untuk menyatakan possibility
makanan sehat setiap hari.)
(kemungkinan) dimasa sekarang
You may forget the embarassing incident
(present) dan masa depan (future).
tomorrow.
(Kamu mungkin melupakan insiden
memalukan itu besok.)
Modal verb ini untuk meminta izin
May I go home now?
(permission) yang lebih formal
(Bolehkah saya pulang sekarang?)
daripada modal verb can.
Sama seperti may, modal verb ini
You might forget the embarassing accident
digunakan untuk menyatakan
tomorrow.[1]
possibility (kemungkinan) dimasa
The doctor might have warned you not to eat
sekarang (present) dan masa depan red meat.[2]
(future)[1].
(Dikatakan setelah diketahui fakta: The doctor
Might dapat ditambahkan primary
has not warnedDokter belum melarang.)
auxiliary verb have untuk
The doctor may have warned you not to eat
Can digunakan untuk menyatakan
ability (kemampuan)

Can

Could

May

Might

Contoh Kalimat Modal Auxiliary Verb

menyatakan probability dimasa lalu


(past). Modal verb ini digunakan
untuk menyatakan hypothetical
Might merupakan bentuk past dari
may dimana digunakan untuk
meminta izin (permission) yang lebih
formal daripada modal verb could.
Dibanding may, Might lebih tentatif
(tidak pasti) kejadiannya.
Will untuk menyatakan willingness
(kemauan). Willingness dapat
diungkapkan dalam conditional
sentence type 1 maupun invitation
(undangan/ajakan).
Will

Modal verb ini untuk membuat


keputusan secara spontan/tanpa
rencana (simple future tense).
Will untuk membuat prediksi.

Sama seperti will, modal verb ini


dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan
willingness (kemauan), namun lebih
polite (sopan).
Modal verb ini menyatakan sense of
Would probability (kemungkinan).
Would dipadukan dengan auxiliary
have untuk membentuk conditional
sentence type 3. Would disini untuk
menyatakan tindakan yang ingin
dilakukan dimasa lalu.
Shall [British English][1] digunakan
untuk menyatakan simple future
seperti halnya will namun hanya
digunakan pada first person (orang
pertama) I dan we. Shall [US
English][2] jarang digunakan selain
untuk polite question untuk first
Shall person.
Modal verb ini untuk menyatakan
obligation (kewajiban) pada formal
situation (yang dapat berupa legal
document maupun pada saat meeting.
Pada situasi ini, baik second maupun
third person dapat digunakan dengan
modal verb ini.

red meat.[3]
(Faktanya: belum diketahui)

If I have cleaned the room, might I play with


my friend?
(Jika saya sudah membersihkan ruangan,
bolehkah saya main dengan teman?)
I will help you if you help yourself first.
(Saya akan membantumu jika kamu
membantu dirimu sendiri dulu.)
Will you marry me?
(Maukah kamu menikah dengan saya?)
Ill give you a glass of water.
(Saya akan memberimu segelas air.)
I think Ill change my appearance.
(Saya pikir saya akan merubah penampilan.)
The sandstorm will come tonight.
(Badai pasir akan datang nanti malam.)
Would you like to see my craft?
(Maukah kamu melihat kerajinan tanganku?)
He would be free tonight.
(Dia akan kosong nanti malam.)
If you had remembered to invite me, I would
have attended your party.
(Jika kamu ingat mengundang saya, saya
menghadiri pestamu.)
We shall overcome it someday.[1]
(Kita akan mengatasinya suatu hari nanti.)
Shall we pay a call him?[2]
(Haruskah kita menjenguknya?)
Shall I give you some advice?[2]
(Haruskah saya memberimu beberapa
nasehat?)
The Human Resource manager shall report
the employee performance.
(HR manager harus melaporkan performansi
karyawan.)

Should untuk memberi suggestion


Should
(saran) atau advice (nasehat).

You should see the doctor.


(Kamu harus ke dokter.)
We should meet more often.
(Kita harus bertemu lebih sering.)
You mustnt give up.
(Kamu tidak boleh menyerah.)

Must dipadukan dengan not untuk


menyatakan prohibition (larangan)
Must Modal verb ini mengekspresikan
We must go to bed now.
obligation (kewajiban) atau necessity
(Kita harus tidur sekarang.)
(kebutuhan).
I ought to wear high quality running shoes.
(Saya harus menggunakan sepatu lari
berkualitas tinggi.)
We ought to select the best candidate for the
job.
Ought Ought to digunakan untuk
(Kita harus memilih kandidat terbaik untuk
to menyatakan apa yang benar atau tepat
pekerjaan tsb.)

1. You seem to be having trouble there. _________ I help you?


Would
Will
Shall

2. I don't have enough money to buy lunch. __________ you lend me a couple of
dollars?
May
Could
Shall

3. That ice is dangerously thin now. You ________ go ice-skating today.


mustn't
might not
would mind not to

4. It's way past my bedtime and I'm really tired. I ________ go to bed.
should

ought
could

5. He ______________ have committed this crime. He wasn't even in the city that
night.
might
shouldn't
couldn't

6. John is over two hours late already, He ___________ missed the bus again.
should have
must have
will have

7. I'm really quite lost. _______________ showing me how to get out of here?
Would you mind
Would you be
Must you be

8. That bus is usually on time. It _________ to be here any time now.


might
has
ought

9. I read about your plane's near disaster. You ____________ terrified!


might have been
must have been
shall have been

10. It's the law. They ____________ have a blood test before they get married.
might
could
have to

11. Professor Villa, we've finished our work for today. _________ we leave now,

please?
May
Can
Must

Modal Auxiliaries
The modal auxiliaries (or modals) include the following:
can, could, may, might, must, should, will, would, . . .
Modals are always followed by the base form of a verb or auxiliary verb.

Modals are always the same form no matter what the subject is.

In standard American English, a predicate verb phrase cannot contain more than one modal.
correct
He will be able to go.
not correct
* He will can go.
Below are example sentences containing the modal may and the verb go. Notice that the form
of the modal does not change. Also notice that the base form of a verb or auxiliary verb
always follows the modal.
I may go.
You may go.
He may go.
It may go.
We may go.
They may go.
He may have gone.
They may have gone.
He may be going.
They may be going.

He may have been going.


They may have been going.
Modals and related verb phrases add meanings to verbs. Below are some of those meanings:
Ability/Availability
future: will be able to
present: can, am/is/are able to
past: could, was/were able to
Requests
present/future: can, could, will, would
Permission
future: will be allowed to
present/future: may, can, could, am/is/are allowed to
past: could, was/were allowed to
Possibility
present/future: may, might, could
past: may have, might have, could have
Impossibility
present/future: couldnt, cant
past: couldnt have
Advisability
present/future: should, ought to, had better
past: should have, ought to have, had better have
Expectation
present/future: should, ought to
past: should have, ought to have

Necessity
future: will have to
present/future: must, have to, has to
past: had to
Lack of Necessity
future: wont have to
present/future: dont have to, doesnt have to
past: didnt have to
Prohibition
present/future: must not, may not, cannot
past: could not
Logical Deduction (=Probability)
present: must, have to, has to
past: must have, have to have, has to have

SOCIAL MODALS
The choice of modal depends partly on the social situation.
We often use formal language with strangers (people we dont know) and superiors (people
with some power over us such as our employers, doctors, and teachers).
We often use informal language with our equals (our friends and family) and subordinates
(people we have some power over such as our employees or children).
General requests (present and/or future):
Will you help me? (Informal Are you willing?)
Would you help me (Formal Are you willing?)
Can you help me? (Informal Are you able?)
Could you help me (Formal Are you able?)
Requests for permission (present and/or future):
May I leave the room? (Formal)
Might I leave the room? (Formal rarely used)

Could I leave the room? (Less formal


Can I leave the room? (Informal)
Expressing suggestions, advice, warnings, necessity (present and/or future):
The choice of modal depends partly on the urgency of the message or the authority of the
speaker/writer or both.
Suggestions:
You could see the doctor.
You might see the doctor.
Advice:
You should see the doctor.
You ought to see the doctor.
Warning/strong advice:
You had better see the doctor.
Strong advice/necessity:
You have to see the doctor.
You have got to see the doctor.
You must see the doctor.
No choice:
You will see the doctor.
MODALS OF BELIEF (beliefs about present time)
The choice of modal depends partly on what the speaker or writer believes.
Someone is knocking at the door.
That could be Fred.
That might be Fred.
= Its possible. Im less than 50% sure.
That may be Fred.
= Its possible. Im less than 60% sure.
That should be Fred.
That ought to be Fred.
= Im expecting Fred and I think hes here.
That must be Fred.
That has to be Fred.
That has got to be Fred.
= Its probably Fred. I have a good reason to believe it is Fred.
That will be Fred.

= I believe it is Fred. Im about 99% sure.


That cant be Mary.
That couldnt be Mary.
= Its impossible. Im about 99% sure.
That is Fred.
= I know its Fred. Im 100% sure.
MODALS OF BELIEF (beliefs about past time)
The choice of modal depends partly on what the speaker or writer believes.
Someone was knocking at the door.
That could have been Fred.
That might have been Fred.
= Its possible. Im less than 50% sure.
That may have been Fred.
= Its possible. Im less than 60% sure.
That must have been Fred.
That has to have been Fred.
That has got to have been Fred.
= It was probably Fred. I have a good reason to believe it was Fred.
That couldnt have been Mary.
= Its impossible. Im about 99% sure.
That was Fred.
= I know it was Fred. Im 100% sure.
MODALS OF BELIEF (beliefs about future time) The choice of modal depends partly on
what the speaker or writer believes.
What will the weather be like tomorrow?
It could rain tomorrow.
It might rain tomorrow.
= Its possible. Im less than 50% sure.

It may rain tomorrow.


= Its possible. Im less than 60% sure.
It should rain tomorrow.
It ought to rain tomorrow.
= I expect it will rain.
It will rain tomorrow.
= I believe it is going to rain. Im about 99% sure.
It couldnt snow tomorrow.
= Its impossible. Im about 99% sure.
Pure modals

Semi-modals

can

ought to

could

has/have (got) to

may

be able to

might
shall
should
will
would
need ***
*** need is a special verb since as an auxiliary it is almost always negative and it is also a
lexical verb as in sentences like he needs to speak to you now, while it acts as a modal verb in
sentences such as you needn't come to work tomorrow where it has the same meaning as don't
have to.
The forms of pure modals

The main characteristics of the pure modals are:

they never change their form irrespective of the subject of the sentence
e.g. he can swim, not *he cans swim

following on from the above feature, they do not change to show past
tense
e.g. she had to leave not *she musted leave

they all carry the negative of the sentence by the addition of not/n't
e.g. I can't remember not *I don't can remember

they all form questions by inversion with the subject of the sentence.
e.g. should I stay?

they are all followed by the base form of the verb without the addition of
to
e.g. he can swim not *he can to swim

The forms of semi-modals

You will notice that this type of modal is made up of two or more separate words, the last one
invariably being to. They are all modal in meaning but not in form as they behave differently
in a sentence from the pure modals. It is perhaps best to think of the semi-modals in the form
with the to infinitive that is given in the table rather than thinking of them as modals that need
to + base form. We need to look at the form of each individual semi-modal separately.
Be able to

We use this semi-modal to express possibility or the ability to do something, but unlike the
pure modals, be able to has a full range of tenses and also needs to inflect to show agreement
with its subject. For example:

He is able to offer you the best price possible.

We were able to get in to see the film.

They haven't been able to find the missing document.

So, you aren't able to help.

Notice that the negative is carried either by the be element or the auxiliary verb that is closest
to the subject of the sentence. It can also be accompanied by any of the pure modals:

I will be able to see you after lunch.

They might not be able to put us up for the night.

Has/have (got) to

This is used to express necessity or obligation to do something and shares some of the
features of be able to discussed above. The have element of the form has to change to agree
with its subject. Although it is normally used in the present tense, it also has its own past (had
to) and can be used with pure modals to show the future or the attitude of the speaker:

They have to be more punctual.

He has to take responsibility for the accident.

I had to help my father repair his car.

We will have to put this off until tomorrow.

You shouldn't have to suffer in silence.

You don't have to come if you don't want to.

He didn't have to do all the shopping.

From these few examples it should be clear that the negative not again attaches itself to the
auxiliary verb (modal or main) that comes immediately after the subject of the sentence.
Ought to

It is usually claimed that the meaning of ought to is the same as should whether it refers to
giving advice or making a logical deduction. So, to most native speakers the following
sentences with ought to and should feel the same:

You ought to see a doctor.

You should see a doctor.

They ought to have got back home by now.

They should have got back home by now.

In practice, most speakers tend to prefer should for negatives and questions because the
ought to and oughtn't ... to forms can sound rather clumsy and awkward.

Ought you to be doing that?

They oughtn't to (ought not to) do that.

Oughtn't we to leave now?

Meanings of modal verbs

The main function of modal verbs is to allow the speaker or writer to express their opinion of,
or their attitude to, a proposition. These attitudes can cover a wide range of possibilities
including obligation, asking for and giving permission, disapproval, advising, logical
deduction, ability, possibility, necessity, absence of necessity and so on. The problem with
each modal verb is that it can have more that one meaning and the interpretation of a
particular modal will depend heavily on the context in which it is being used. The following
examples should help to illustrate this point.

It might take more than a week. (possibility)

You might have told me about it! (showing disapproval)

He must take his medicine three times a day. (obligation)

He must be French. (logical deduction)

I can't lift that suitcase by myself. (ability)

That can't be the right answer. (logical deduction)

May I look at the questions now? (asking for permission)

They say it may snow tomorrow. (possibility)

You probably also noticed from the examples that notions like permission and possibility can
be expressed using different modal verbs - this, of course, only serves to complicate matters
further since one modal verb can have more that one meaning, and one meaning can be
expressed by more than one modal verb. In the space that we have available here it would be
impossible to cover all the meanings of each of the modals, so as examples we will look at
some of the ways that obligation and logical deduction can be expressed.
Obligation

The two main modals here are must and have to. The difference between them is usually
given as follows: must is used to express an internal obligation that is imposed by the speaker,
while have to refers to rules and regulations that are imposed from outside the speaker. Again,
as with many points of grammar this is only intended as a rough guide.
To express a lack of obligation we cannot just automatically add not to the modal verbs
without thinking more carefully about it first. How do you feel about the following sentences
for instance?

He must sing loudly.

He mustn't sing loudly.

In the first sentence you would probably agree that this is obligation originating from, say, a
teacher or someone with authority. The second sentence, however, does not express a lack of
obligation but a prohibition to do something. The form that we use to express a lack of
obligation could be one of the following:

He doesn't have to get up early.

He doesn't need to get up early.

This lack of balance in the use of modals can cause many problems for people who are
learning English since it is quite illogical.
Logical deduction

This is another area of modal use that is fraught with difficulties for reasons similar to those
just discussed above. Look at the following sentences:
The telephone rings:

That'll be Frank.

That must be Frank.

That should be Frank.

That could be Frank.

That might be Frank.

That may be Frank.

The modal verbs used here have been listed in what many consider to be the order of
likelihood of something being true. You may or may not agree with this listing, but it gives
you some idea of some of the choices available for drawing logical conclusions from
situations. If we look at the negatives of these sentences, however, you can see just how much
more complex it can become:

That won't be Frank.

* That mustn't be Frank.


(To use musn't in this way as logical deduction is incorrect; we use can't
instead.)

That shouldn't be Frank.

That couldn't be Frank.

That mightn't be Frank.

Many of these sentences now denote completely different attitudes to the situation and you
may even agree that some of them are either not English or are only marginally acceptable.
The sentence which has probably moved furthest from its original intention is the second one
(mustn't) which sounds very odd. In fact, the negative of must when we talking about
deduction is can't - one more example of how complicated and counter-intuitive the system
of English modals can be.
Past time with modals

We noted earlier that the pure modals do not change to show tense. Most of these modals do
in fact have either present or future reference, but sometimes we need to refer back to the
past. With the semi-modals there is little problem, but how can we do this for pure modal
verbs? You may have picked up from some of the previous examples that one way to do this
is to insert have immediately after the pure modal. But this is not always the case since can
has its own past tense could when it refers to general ability. Some examples should help:

I can speak German.

I could speak German when I was seven years old.

You should see this film.

You should have seen this film.

Indonesia must be hot.

Indonesia must have been hot.

He could find his wallet.

He could have found his wallet.

Notice that in the third pair of sentences the meaning of must is logical deduction not
obligation. If we want to use must for obligation then the past tense is had to.

She must visit her mother.

She had to visit her mother.

3.07 Modal auxiliary verbs

What are "modal auxiliary verbs"?


The verbs can, could, will, would, should, may, might, must, ought and shall are verbs
which 'help' other verbs to express a meaning: it is important to realise that these "modal
verbs" have no meaning by themselves. A modal verb such as would has several varying
functions; it can be used, for example, to help verbs express ideas about the past, the
present and the future. It is therefore wrong to simply believe that "would is the past of
will": it is many other things.
A few basic grammatical rules applying to modal verbs
Modal verbs are NEVER used with other auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did etc. The
negative is formed simply by adding "not" after the verb; questions are formed by inversion
of the verb and subject:
You should not do that.
Could you pick me up when I've finished?

Modal verbs NEVER change form: you can never add an "-s" or "-ed", for example.

Modal verbs are NEVER followed by to, with the exception of ought to.

What sort of meanings do modals give to other verbs?

The meaning are usually connected with ideas of DOUBT, CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and
PROBABILITY, OBLIGATION and PERMISSION (or lack of these). You will see that they are not
used to talk about things that definitely exist, or events that definitely happened. These
meanings are sometimes divided into two groups:

DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: certainty; probability; possibility; impossibility


OBLIGATION/FREEDOM TO ACT: permission,lack of permission; ability; obligation.

Let's look at each modal verb separately, and the functions they help to express:

WILL

Making personal predictions

I don't think the Queen will ever abdicate.


I doubt if I'll stay here much longer.

Talking about the present with certainty (making deductions)


I'm sure you will understand that there is nothing the Department can do
There's a letter for you. It'll be from the bank: they said they'd be writing.

Talking about the future with certainty


I won't be in the office until 11; I've got a meeting.
Don't bother ringing: they'll have left for their 10 o'clock lecture.

Talking about the past with certainty


I'm sure you will have noticed that attendance has fallen sharply.

Reassuring someone
Don't worry! You'll settle down quickly, I'm sure.
It'll be all right! You won't have to speak by yourself.

Making a decision
For the main course I'll have grilled tuna.
I'm very tired. I think I'll stay at home tonight.

Making a semi-formal request


Will you open the window, please? It's very hot in here.
Sign this, will you?

Offering to do something
You stay there! I'll fetch the drinks.

Insistence; habitual behaviour


I'm not surprised you don't know what to do! You will keep talking in class.
Damn! My car won't start. I'll have to call the garage.

Making a promise or a threat


You can count on me! I'll be there at 8 o'clock sharp.
If you don't finish your dinner off, you'll go straight to bed!

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SHALL

Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person. Its use, however, is decreasing, and
in any case in spoken English it would be contracted to "-ll" and be indistinguishable from
will.
The only time you do need to use it is in questions, when:

Making offers
Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?

Making suggestions
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

MAY & MIGHT

May & might sometimes have virtually the same meaning; they are used to talk about
possibilities in the past, present or future. ("Could" is also sometimes used).
May is sometimes a little bit "more sure" (50% chance); whereas might expresses more
doubt (maybe only a 30% chance).
May & might are used, then, for:

Talking about the present or future with uncertainty


She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten minutes ago.
I may go shopping tonight, I haven't decided yet.
England might win the World Cup, you never know.

Talking about the past with uncertainty


I'm surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on the day of the exam.
They can also sometimes be used for talking about permission, but usually only in formal
situations. Instead of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all right/OK if I open
a window? or Can I open a window? for example. You might, however, see:
Students may not borrow equipment without written permission.

MAY

Talking about things that can happen in certain situations


If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may experience headaches.
Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.

With a similar meaning to although


The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a lot of work to be done. (=
Although it was a success, there is still ...)

MIGHT

Saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen
You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have stopped and given me a lift!

WOULD

As the past of will, for example in indirect speech


"The next meeting will be in a month's time" becomes
He said the next meeting would be in a month's time.

Polite requests and offers (a 'softer' form of will)


Would you like another cup of tea?
Would you give me a ring after lunch?
I'd like the roast duck, please.

In conditionals, to indicate 'distance from reality': imagined, unreal, impossible


situations
If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring.
It would have been better if you'd word processed your assignment.

After 'wish', to show regret or irritation over someone (or something's) refusal or
insistence on doing something (present or future)
I wish you wouldn't keep interrupting me.
I wish it would snow.
(This is a complicated area! Check in a good grammar book for full details!)

Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to)


When I was small, we would always visit relatives on Christmas Day.

Future in the past


The assassination would become one of the key events of the century.

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CAN & COULD

Talking about ability


Can you speak Mandarin? (present)
She could play the piano when she was five. (past)

Making requests
Can you give me a ring at about 10?
Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal, polite or 'softer')

Asking permission
Can I ask you a question?
Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal, polite or indirect)

Reported speech
Could is used as the past of can.

He asked me if I could pick him up after work.

General possibility
You can drive when you're 17. (present)
Women couldn't vote until just after the First World War.

Choice and opportunities


If you want some help with your writing, you can come to classes, or you can get some 1:1
help.
We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast's not brilliant. (less definite)

Future probability
Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way as might or may, often indicating
something less definite.
When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I might do an MA or I suppose I could
even get a job.

Present possibility
I think you could be right you know. (NOT can)
That can't be the right answer, it just doesn't make sense.
Past possibility
If I'd known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have stayed in bed longer.

MUST

Examples here refer to British English; there is some variation in American English.

Necessity and obligation

Must is often used to indicate 'personal' obligation; what you think you yourself or other
people/things must do. If the obligation comes from outside (eg a rule or law), then have
to is often (but not always) preferred:
I really must get some exercise.
People must try to be more tolerant of each other.
You musn't look - promise?
If you own a car, you have to pay an annual road tax.

Strong advice and invitations


I think you really must make more of an effort.
You must go and see the film - it's brilliant.
You must come and see me next time you're in town.

Saying you think something is certain


This must be the place - there's a white car parked outside.

You must be mad.


What a suntan! You must have had great weather.
The negative is expressed by can't:
You're going to sell your guitar! You can't be serious!
She didn't wave - she can't have seen me.

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SHOULD

Giving advice
I think you should go for the Alfa rather than the Audi.
You shouldn't be drinking if you're on antibiotics.
You shouldn't have ordered that chocolate dessert - you're not going to finish it.
Obligation: weak form of must
The university should provide more sports facilities.
The equipment should be inspected regularly.
Deduction
The letter should get to you tomorrow - I posted it first class.

Things which didn't or may/may not have happened


I should have renewed my TV licence last month, but I forgot.
You shouldn't have spent so much time on that first question.

Ought to
Ought to usually has the same meaning as should, particularly in affirmative statements in
the present:
You should/ought to get your hair cut.
Should is much more common (and easier to say!), so if you're not sure, use should.