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1.

Problem Statement

1.1

Background

Waste materials have been burden earth since long time ago, the amount of solid waste are
enormously such as plastic bottles, papers, white goods, kitchen waste, and moreover the huge size of waste
like concrete waste from construction activities. This kind of material may affect the environment which
comes out with result of pollution.
Poor managing of waste like plastics may result huge bad effect to environment. Burning out of
plastics without any treatment may release a huge amount of gasses. It is not the only causes to
environmental pollution, but yet also to human health. Besides, non-dispose waste plastic that didnt
manage properly may clog drainage as it is non-carbonaceous material naturally. This is some factor that
causes flash flood, especially in rural area.
Other than plastics, construction waste materials also contributing a large factor of environmental
pollution. High demand of construction of material like aggregate, lime and some other materials that used
for concrete may result an environmental extinction. It is due to over harvesting of natural result. Rock is
taking a long time period to form from magma. But it consumes by human every day for construction
purpose. Besides, consuming natural resources need a lot amount of money to proceed. Usually,
construction waste such as concrete are used as backfilled soil on site. It is because the characteristic of
waste concrete is stronger than soil. However, it consumes lots of money compare than recycling it.
Therefore, in order to decrease or prevent this kind of problem, our group decided to do some
research and produce new product called 4R BRICK.
In this project, we are focusing on 4R concept which are Reduced, Recycle, Reuse and Recreate.
Our main concern is about the environmental pollution and extinction that rarely happen now days. So, in
order to fulfil that goal, we used to reduce that problem by recycling construction waste, then recreate it by
combining with plastic to form new brick to reuse it in the construction sector. This brick is made from
mixing plastics and waste concrete to form new brick that can be used in construction. Plastics are used as
bonding agent for the waste concrete and even makes brick are lighter than present clay and concrete brick
without affecting the strength of the brick.

2.2

Objectives

2.3

Decreased environmental pollution.


To decrease waste material in construction.
Decrease over harvesting of natural resources.
Changing waste material to the new product.
Making new brand of brick that using of 4R concept.
Saving money and generate some income from waste, construction materials.

Research

Approximately of 41% of the total solid waste was generated by the construction industry in
Malaysia (MHLG, 2012). 28.34% of construction are generated from Central and Southern part of
Malaysia. According to Fauziah and Agamuthu (2003), construction and demolition waste was estimated
to generate 161.19 tons per day by 2009, increasing to 299.69 tons per day by 2015. It is projected that
368.31 tons per day by 2023 (Fauziah & Agamuthu, 2003). Infrastructure in Malaysia has undergone a
rapid development over the last decade. Therefore, demolition of existing has to carry out to provide the
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site for construction of new buildings. A study compared between construction and refurbishment, and the
result was that construction activity generated more 80% of waste then refurbishment. More waste generates
from historical places. Besides that, total waste generated of data have been collected from several countries
and the results showed that construction and demolition waste have roughly taken up 20% to 30% of the
total waste in landfill. Construction wastes have become an issue that needs highly concern and cooperation
from everyone, especially in many developing countries because it has an adverse impact on environmental
health.

2.0

Idea Generation and Refinement (Innovation Process)

3.1

Idea Generation

The course, Creativity and Innovation assessment required students to form a team consisted of 5
persons. A team then created a suitable name with the tagline for the group. Besides, team members also
appointed a project manager and secretary. The command from our lecturer for each team to come out with
15 ideas (3 ideas for each member in the team) in the first session of our project. This process based on
Brainstorming technique. Brainstorming developed by Madison Avenue advertising executive, Alex
Osborn and published it in his book 1953 Applied Imagination.
Brainstorming blends up a relaxed, informal approach to problem solving with sidelong of thinking.
It boosts up people to come up with views and ideas, at first those ideas might seem a bit out of mind. But
further analysis of some of these ideas can be worked into original, creative solutions to a problem, while
others can spark even more ideas. This helps to get people think out of box. Therefore, during brainstorming
sessions, people should avoid criticizing or rewarding ideas because to open up possibilities and break down
incorrect assumptions about the problem's limits. Negative press and analysis at this stage stunts idea
generation and limit creativity. Ideas then only being evaluated at the end of the session.

3.2

Idea Screening

The Ideas came from the experiences of everyone, some to improve and some to invent. However,
the best idea has to contain its original to prevent any duplicates, even though some references from
outsourcing is allowed. Our ideas do not have limits, this to prevent the creativity blackout during the
process of Brainstorming. Brainstorming is conducted in a fun way, this is to encourage ideas production
of everyone and helped issuing the ideas besides tackling their stage fright. From the fifteen ideas, a
discussion had done in the class to choose only three best ideas based on the vote of members in the group.
Before the three ideas, every member will then have to introduce their ideas together with an explanation.
Each idea is chosen based on the possibility of local materials for the making process and economic along
with the originals of an idea. All ideas can refer to appendices attached together with this report. Lastly, the
group decided to create a new brick that made from 100% wasted materials.

3.3

Refinement
Few improvements can be made to our idea generation process as below:

Shut off the network such as Wi-Fi connection and browsing hand phone (browser) because
this will limit the way of students produce their creativity, also prevent plagiarism of idea.
Guide about the access of equipment for students use in their production because lack of
apparatus and equipment will affect the quality of product and safety of students.
Responding in the group is very important to arrange suitable schedule and gain more solutions.

Three sample of our products (4R Brick), each of their size are not standardized. This could
have been better if we do more research. The sample used for Compressive strength test is
175mm length, 105mm width, 58mm depth, and capable to withstand the load of 83.88 kN
with the strength of 4.8 MPa.

3.0

Solution

3.1

Existing Solution

Bricks are the only man-made building materials that testify to their use since the early human
civilization. With their attractive appearances and superior properties such as high compressive strength
and durability, excellent fire and weather resistance, good thermal and sound insulation, bricks are widely
used for building, civil engineering work, and landscape design. General Brick Specification as per
Malaysia Standard MS 7.6: 1972 / British Standard BS 3921: 1985

3.2

The Innovation

The block made from wasted materials is named 4R Brick. 4R defined as to reduce, reuse, recycle,
recreate. 4R brick is made from ashes of concrete block from demolished, project mixed with plastic bottles
that cooked in the wok at maximum temperature. The technique was being adopted from cooking technique,
where the stove heats fire up and the wok, then pour in the used cooking oil. When the wok gets heated up,
slowly add in plastic bottles and stirred until the plastic bottle melt. Lastly, add in ashes from concrete block
and continued stirring until the mixture blend into one. The mixture is ready when the texture looks same
as plasticine.
The concrete block chose for this project because of construction waste that commonly being used
as for reclamation at the back yard, else just throw in the landfill. This is not the best solution for bulky
solid waste, plus the solid waste cannot be decomposed by the microorganism and this will take a lot of
space without help from mechanical energy to degrade it.
Ashes from the concrete block are cohesive less material. To re-block the ashes, we used the plastic
bottle. Plastic bottles also are one of the major solid waste in this country. The property of plastic when at
high temperature, it behaves like cohesive and when temperature reduced, it becomes harder, which is why
we choose plastic as our binder. As for the used cooking oil, this is one of the solutions to melt the plastic
besides to use the chemical compound which is dangerous and costly for students like us. Cooking oil
usually throws away after several uses, also the boiler temperature of the cooking oil is higher than normal
water.

3.3

The Features

4R Bricks are made from wasted materials by stirred and boiled it at high temperatures. The action
of heat loosens up the plastic molecules and let the concrete ashes to interrupted in between. When the
temperature decreased, the process causes the plastic and concrete ashes to fuse and develops into strong
concrete block.

4.3.1

Strength

The sample used for Compressive strength test is 175mm length, 105mm width, 58mm depth, and
capable to withstand the load of 83.88 kN with the strength of 4.8 MPa. The strength is in average class.

4.3.2

Flexibility in Applications

4R brick greatly simply the construction process as to save materials, time and labour. Besides,
4R Brick can be made into agreeable shape and size to suit the construction work. It is very flexible and
handy in application almost everywhere.

4.3.3

Aesthetic Appeal

4R Brick possesses the natural and pleasant colors of concrete. 4R Brick color is permanent and
will not be faded during weathering process. By proper control of making process factors, bricks can be
made to exhibit endless variety of natural and attractive colors. Besides, proper control the ratio of plastic
in mixture during production could add shine surface to the 4R Brick. 4R brick is rich in grayish color, it
also can be made to various textures according to mold.

4.3.4

Porosity

To act as a wall, porosity is an important characteristic in the building. The molten plastic concealed
the void in the concrete block ashes, which gives it a shining surface. Alongside, the water resistant of
plastic also benefiting 4R brick.

3.4

The Functions

Our product targeting on brick wall. Consider the making process of this 4R brick and it
strength, where it can be easily mold into many shapes as wanted. Therefore, 4R brick can be
create not just only for brick, but also many usage:

4.0

Brick wall
Landscape pavement
Interior & exterior decoration
Block paving

Conclusion

Standard brick size is 210 x 100 x 65 mm compared with 4R brick size is 175 x 105 x 58 mm. The
4R brick sizes are not standardized as normal brick size on the market, however the strength we obtained
from the concrete cube compressive strength test is average class compared to normal bricks strength. The
4R brick strength obtained from the test is 4.8Mpa. The sizes of the brick are not standardized, this is due
to lack of equipment and insufficient of study. Therefore, some improvement can be made to the brick size.
The brick wall is a main member in a building in resisting the heat if the fire incident occurs. For 4R brick
to be fully functioning as a wall, a study to improve 4R bricks fire resistance is needed. 4R brick can be
used as an interior and exterior decoration, landscaping pavement and brick wall is all suitable, although
the material is from construction waste and solid waste (plastic bottle). The production of 4R brick is quite
successful, our aim of making a brick from wasted material also achieved. In future, 4R brick can be one
or another way of benefiting natural environmental and everyone. Besides that, this is also a good study for
someone wishes to making profit.
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5.0

References

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https://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html
Small SEO Tools | Plagiarism Checker | Check for Plagiarism | 2012-2016 |
http://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/
THE CONSTRUCTION CIVIL | Compressive / Crushing Strength of Bricks | 2015 |
http://www.theconstructioncivil.org/compressive-crushing-strength-of-bricks/
Yap Sie Horng | Compressive Strength Study of Brick Masonry Subjected to Axial Loading |
April 2010 |
https://www.academia.edu/9289032/Compressive_Strength_Analysisof_Brick_Masonry
Kia Lim Berhad, Malaysia | Clay Bricks - Technical Data | 2000 |
http://www.kialim.com.my/bricks-spec.php
Claybricks & Tiles Sdn. Bhd. | General Brick Specifications | 1998-2007 |
http://www.claybricks.com/more_info/brick-specifications.html
wikiHow | Mediawiki | How to Make Bricks from Concrete | N/A |
http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Bricks-from-Concrete