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MultinomialTheorem

Topics
Algebra
Geometry

SandeepBhardwaj,LinoDemasi,PatrickCorn,and5otherscontributed

RelevantFor...

Themultinomialtheoremdescribeshowtoexpandthepowerofasumofmorethantwo

NumberTheory

terms.Itisageneralizationofthebinomialtheoremtopolynomialswithanynumberof

Calculus

terms.Itexpressesapower

Combinatorics

oftheform

Combinatorics

MultinomialTheorem

asaweightedsumofmonomials

wheretheweightsaregivenbygeneralizationsofbinomialcoefficientscalledmultinomialcoefficients.

Counting
SetsandPartitions

Contents

Data

Definitionsandstatementofthetheorem

Probability

Proof

RandomVariables

ExampleProblems

BinomialTheorem

SeeAlso

RecurrenceRelations
AdvancedCombinatorics

Definitionsandstatementofthetheorem

BasicMathematics

Thefirstimportantdefinitionisthemultinomialcoefficient:
ClassicalMechanics
DEFI NI TI ON

ElectricityandMagnetism
ComputerScience

Fornonnegativeintegers

suchthat

themultinomialcoefficientis

QuantitativeFinance
Chemistry
SATMath
JEEMath

Notethatwhen

thisisthebinomialcoefficient:

Nowthemultinomialtheoremcanbestatedasfollows:

THEOREM

MultinomialTheorem:
Forapositiveinteger andanonnegativeinteger ,

Thenumberoftermsofthissumaregivenbyastarsandbarsargument:itis

EXAMPLE

Howmanytermsareintheexpansionof

Solution:Thereisonetermforeachorderedtriple

with

.Onewaytocountthesetriplesistorepresentthemas

collectionsof barsand starsforinstance,


representsthetriple

https://brilliant.org/wiki/multinomialtheorem/

.Thenumberofsuchcollectionsis

,sothereare

termsintheexpansion.

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MultinomialTheorem|BrilliantMath&ScienceWiki
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TRY I T YOURSELF

Featured

n
Topics
Algebra

Howmanytermsarethereintheexpansionoftheabovetrinomial,whenexpandedindescending

2n+1

powersof ?

Geometry

n+1

NumberTheory

2n

Calculus
Combinatorics
Counting
SetsandPartitions
Data

Proof

Probability
RandomVariables

Therearetwoproofsofthemultinomialtheorem,analgebraicproofbyinductionandacombinatorialproofbycounting.Thealgebraicproofis
presentedfirst.

BinomialTheorem
RecurrenceRelations

PROOF

AdvancedCombinatorics

Proceedbyinductionon

BasicMathematics

When

theresultistrue,andwhen

theresultisthebinomialtheorem.Assumethat

andthattheresultistruefor

ClassicalMechanics
ElectricityandMagnetism
ComputerScience

Treating

asasingletermandusingtheinductionhypothesis,

QuantitativeFinance
Chemistry
SATMath

Bythebinomialtheorem,thisbecomes
JEEMath

Since

thiscanberewrittenas:

Hereisthecombinatorialproof,whichreliesonafactfromthemultinomialcoefficientswiki.

PROOF

Consideratermintheexpansionof

.Itmustbeoftheform

Sinceeachtermmustcomefromchoosingonesummandfrom
differentwaysthatwecangetthistermwillbethenumberofwaystochoose

forsomeinteger andnonnegativeintegers
wemusthave

copiesof

copiesof

Thenumbero
,andsoon.Byaresultfromthe

multinomialcoefficientswiki,thisisexactly

ExampleProblems
EXAMPLE

https://brilliant.org/wiki/multinomialtheorem/

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MultinomialTheorem|BrilliantMath&ScienceWiki
Determinethecoefficientof

intheexpansionofthepolynomial

Ageneraltermintheexpansionof
weneed

willbeoftheform

Tohavethetermwith

Thisgivesus

implyingtheansweris590625.

EXAMPLE

Findthecoefficientof

intheexpansionof

Ageneraltermoftheexpansionhastheform
and

Inordertohaveacoefficientof
Wecanwrite

wemusthave

and

Thus,thecoefficientwillbethesum

suchthat

and

Wecanevaluatethisas7654572342.

TRY I T YOURSELF

Ifthecoefficientof
thesumofthedigitsof

intheexpansionof

is

,thenwhatis

Submityouranswer

equalto?

TRY I T YOURSELF

Whatisthecoefficientof

intheexpansionof

Submityouranswer

TRY I T YOURSELF

Howmanytotaldistincttermsarethereintheexpansionof

Submityouranswer

EXAMPLE

Givenafixed and ,findthesumofallthemultinomialcoefficients

Solution:Expanding
givesthesumofallthemultinomialcoefficientswith terms.Sotheansweris

TRY I T YOURSELF

Findthetermthatdoesnotcontainthevariable inthecompleteexpansionof

Submityouranswer

Tobeclear,ifanexpressioniscompletelyexpanded,thenallliketermshavebeencombined
together,leavingunliketermsinthefinalanswer.Forexample,

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TRY I T YOURSELF

Findcoefficientof

in

5040
210
8730
960
2520
0

TRY I T YOURSELF

Findthecoefficientof intheexpansionof

Submityouranswer

SeeAlso
MultinomialCoefficients
RulesofExponentsAlgebraic

Citeas:MultinomialTheorem.Brilliant.org.Retrieved02:58,June2,2016,fromhttps://brilliant.org/wiki/multinomialtheorem/

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