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Flexi Network Gateway, Rel.


3.2 1.0, Operating
Documentation, v1
LTE RAN and EPC System
Description
DN0991589
Issue 04
Approval Date 2014-03-24

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

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DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Table of Contents
Thisdocumenthas179pages

Summaryofchanges................................................................... 12

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem....................................18

2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2

Networkarchitecture.................................................................... 24
LTEoverview................................................................................24
NetworkelementsinLTE............................................................. 27
eNBfunction.................................................................................27
EPCarchitecture.......................................................................... 28
Portfolio........................................................................................ 30
FlexiMultiradioBTSLTE..............................................................31
FlexiLiteBTS750........................................................................34
FlexiNetworkServer.................................................................... 35
FlexiNetworkGateway(FlexiNG)............................................... 36
EPSoverallarchitecture...............................................................37
EPSarchitecturesfor3GPPaccesswithGTP-basedS5............ 38
EPSarchitecturesfor3GPPaccesswithPMIP-basedS5/S8
(IETFvariants)............................................................................. 38
EPCarchitectureforinterworkingwithGn/GpSGSN.................. 39
Non-roamingarchitecturesforEPSforNon-3GPPaccess..........40
RoamingarchitecturesforEPSfor3GPPaccess(GTPvariants)...
41
RoamingarchitecturesforEPSfornon-3GPPaccess.................43
Referencepoints.......................................................................... 45
LTE/SAEinterfaces...................................................................... 47
Radionetworkinterfaces..............................................................48
LTE-Uuinterface.......................................................................... 48
S1interface.................................................................................. 48
X2interface.................................................................................. 49
Corenetworkinterfaces............................................................... 50
Protocolstacks.............................................................................51
Radioprotocolarchitecture.......................................................... 51
EPSprotocolarchitecture............................................................ 56
Protocolarchitectureforinterfacesforlegacy3GPPinterworking...
60
LTEmultipleaccessradiointerface(TDD)...................................61
DifferencesbetweenTDDandFDD.............................................62
Beamforming................................................................................63
LTEmultipleaccessradiointerface(FDD)...................................64
OFDMconcept............................................................................. 66
OFDMAprinciples........................................................................ 67
SC-FDMAprinciples.....................................................................68
LTEradioprotocolarchitecture.................................................... 69

2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.1.1
2.6.1.2
2.6.1.3
2.6.2
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.9
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.9.3
2.10

Issue:04

DN0991589

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

2.11
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.3.1
2.11.3.2
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.15.1
2.15.2

Multi-antennatechniques............................................................. 70
Receivediversity.......................................................................... 71
Transmitdiversity......................................................................... 72
MIMOtechniques......................................................................... 72
DownlinkMIMOtechniques......................................................... 74
Multi-userMIMOtechniques........................................................ 74
Radionetworkoptimization.......................................................... 75
Interferencemitigation..................................................................76
RANsharing.................................................................................76
SingleRANintroduction............................................................... 78
NokiaSingleRANenablers..........................................................79
SingleRANfeatures.....................................................................80

3
3.1
3.2
3.3

Networkandservicemanagement...............................................82
Networkmanagementarchitecture.............................................. 82
ManagingtheLTE/EPCsystemwithNetAct................................ 83
Elementmanagementtools......................................................... 83

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Mobility......................................................................................... 85
Mobilityscenarios.........................................................................85
Mobilityanchors........................................................................... 86
Inter-eNBhandover......................................................................87
Inter-RAThandover(3GPP)......................................................... 89
Optimized3GPP2(HRPD)inter-RAThandover...........................91
Inter-frequencyhandover............................................................. 92
OpenAccessHomeeNBMobility................................................ 93
Roaming.......................................................................................93
Locationservices......................................................................... 96

5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.8

Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom.................................. 99
RRMfunctions..............................................................................99
Statetransitions......................................................................... 103
Connectionstatesforintra-RATmobility.................................... 105
TrackingAreas........................................................................... 107
TrackingAreaUpdate................................................................ 108
Paging........................................................................................ 110
PagingonS1.............................................................................. 111
PagingonUu/RRCpagingfunction............................................111
Pagingofsysteminformationchanges.......................................111
EPSbearers............................................................................... 112
Bearermanagement...................................................................113
Qualityofservice........................................................................ 114
Additionalservices......................................................................116

6
6.1
6.2

Transportandtransmission........................................................ 118
LTEtransportoverview...............................................................118
Transportinterfaceoptions.........................................................120

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Issue:04

6.3
6.4
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
6.6.5
6.7

TransportswitchingineNB........................................................ 122
IPtransportaddressing.............................................................. 123
Trafficengineering......................................................................124
Trafficprioritization..................................................................... 124
Trafficdifferentiation................................................................... 125
Trafficshaping............................................................................126
Synchronization..........................................................................126
SynchronizationfromGPS.........................................................127
Synchronizationfrom2.048MHzsignal.....................................127
SynchronousEthernet................................................................127
TimingoverPacket.....................................................................128
SynchronizationfromPDHinterface.......................................... 128
Transportadmissioncontrol....................................................... 129

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
7.4.5
7.4.6
7.4.7
7.4.8
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.5.4
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.2.1
7.6.2.2
7.7

Operability.................................................................................. 130
Operabilityarchitecture.............................................................. 130
NetActframework.......................................................................131
BTSSiteManager......................................................................133
FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEmanagementfunctions...................... 135
Faultmanagement..................................................................... 136
Configurationmanagement........................................................136
Softwaremanagement............................................................... 136
Performancemanagement.........................................................137
Hardware/inventorymanagement.............................................. 137
Feature/licensemanagement.....................................................138
Useraccountmanagement........................................................ 138
Usereventlogmanagement...................................................... 138
FlexiMultiradioBTSsupplementaryOAMfeatures................... 139
GPSlocationretrieval................................................................ 139
NTPclocktimesynchronization................................................. 139
AutomaticiOMSresiliency......................................................... 140
DHCPserverforBTSsiteequipment........................................ 140
FlexiMultiradioBTSdiagnosis...................................................140
Tracedatasupportforexternalusage....................................... 141
Tracing....................................................................................... 142
Celltraffictrace.......................................................................... 143
Subscriberandequipmenttrace................................................ 145
SelfOrganizingNetworksupport............................................... 147

8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.2

Security...................................................................................... 149
Securityrequirementsandmethods.......................................... 149
Securitycategories.....................................................................149
Securitythreats.......................................................................... 150
Securityareas............................................................................ 150
Securityfeatures........................................................................ 151
LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity...............................................152

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.7

C-planesecurity......................................................................... 154
U-planesecurity......................................................................... 155
M-planesecurity.........................................................................156
S-planesecurity......................................................................... 156
Usersecurity.............................................................................. 157
BTSsecurity...............................................................................157
NetActsecurity........................................................................... 159
Networksecurity.........................................................................160
Firewallsupport..........................................................................160
IPsecsupport............................................................................. 160
TransportLayerSecuritysupport............................................... 162
IP-basedfilteringforBTSSiteSupportEquipment.................... 163
Certificatemanagement............................................................. 163
SupportofaPublicKeyInfrastructure....................................... 164

9
9.1
9.2
9.3

AAAandcharging...................................................................... 165
LTE/EPCauthentication............................................................. 165
Authorization.............................................................................. 166
Accountingandcharging............................................................166

10

MigrationtoLTEVoIP.................................................................170

11

Nokiaservicesolutionskeybenefitsandcustomervalues..... 175

12

Nokiaenvironmentalissues....................................................... 177

DN0991589

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

List of Figures

Issue:04

Figure1

LTE/SAEhigh-levelarchitecture......................................................... 19

Figure2

LTEairinterfacetechnology............................................................... 20

Figure3

Architecturalevolutionofexisting2G/3GnetworkstoLTE.................22

Figure4

SmoothmigrationtowardsEPS..........................................................23

Figure5

LTE/EPCflatnetworkarchitectureanddirecttunnel.......................... 24

Figure6

Functionalsplitbetweenradioaccessandcorenetwork................... 25

Figure7

E-UTRANandEPCwithS1Flex........................................................26

Figure8

CRANfunctionality............................................................................. 27

Figure9

FlexiMultiradioBTSsitesolution....................................................... 31

Figure10

FlexiMultiradioBTSsitesolutionforthe2TXMIMOina3-sector
configuration....................................................................................... 32

Figure11

FlexiMultiradioRRH60W................................................................. 33

Figure12

ExternalinterfacesoftheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE........................... 34

Figure13

FlexiNetworkServer.......................................................................... 36

Figure14

FlexiNG..............................................................................................37

Figure15

Non-roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingGTPbasedS5............................................................................................ 38

Figure16

Non-roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingPMIPbasedS5............................................................................................ 38

Figure17

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingPMIP-based
S8....................................................................................................... 39

Figure18

Non-roamingarchitectureforinteroperationwithGn/GpSGSNs.......39

Figure19

Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2a,S2b....................40

Figure20

Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2c............................ 41

Figure21

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-homerouted....
41

Figure22

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-localbreakout
withhomeoperatorsapplicationfunctionsonly................................. 42

Figure23

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-localbreakout
withvisitedoperatorsapplicationfunctionsonly................................42

Figure24

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2a,S2b-homerouted.....43

Figure25

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingPMIP-basedS8,S2a,S2b
(chainedPMIP-basedS8-S2a/b)-homerouted................................ 43

Figure26

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2c-homerouted............. 44

Figure27

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS5,S2c-localbreakout........... 45

Figure28

EPSarchitecture.................................................................................48

Figure29

Uuuserplaneprotocolstack.............................................................. 51

Figure30

U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLC.................................................52

Figure31

U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLC.................................................53

Figure32

Uucontrolplaneprotocolstack.......................................................... 54

Figure33

C-planeoperationofPDCP................................................................ 55

DN0991589

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure34

S1-Uuserplaneprotocolstack.......................................................... 56

Figure35

X2userplaneprotocolstack.............................................................. 56

Figure36

S5/S8userplaneprotocolstack(GTPvariant).................................. 57

Figure37

S5/S8userplaneprotocolstack(IETFvariant)..................................57

Figure38

S1-MMEcontrolplaneprotocolstack.................................................57

Figure39

X2controlplaneprotocolstack.......................................................... 58

Figure40

S5/S8controlplaneprotocolstack(GTPvariant).............................. 58

Figure41

S5/S8controlplaneprotocolstack(IETFvariant).............................. 58

Figure42

S10controlplaneprotocolstack........................................................ 59

Figure43

S11controlplaneprotocolstack.........................................................59

Figure44

S6acontrolplaneprotocolstack........................................................ 59

Figure45

S13controlplaneprotocolstack........................................................ 59

Figure46

SBccontrolplaneprotocolstack........................................................ 60

Figure47

S4userplaneprotocolstack.............................................................. 60

Figure48

S12userplaneprotocolstack............................................................ 60

Figure49

S3controlplaneprotocolstack.......................................................... 60

Figure50

S4controlplaneprotocolstack.......................................................... 61

Figure51

Calculationofantennaweightsforbeamforming.............................. 63

Figure52

OFDMAandSC-FDMAmodulationschemes.................................... 65

Figure53

OFDMAandSC-FDMAsignalgenerationandreception(simplified
model).................................................................................................65

Figure54

Orthogonalfrequencydivisionmultiplexprinciple.............................. 67

Figure55

OFDMandOFDMAsubcarrierallocation...........................................68

Figure56

DFTpre-codingandprincipleofSC-FDMA........................................68

Figure57

Mappingofphysical,transportandlogicalchannels.......................... 70

Figure58

2x2MIMOconfiguration..................................................................... 73

Figure59

OperatormodulesinRANsharing......................................................77

Figure60

RANsharingarchitecture................................................................... 78

Figure61

LTE/EPCnetworkmanagementarchitecture..................................... 82

Figure62

MobilityscenariosforLTE/EPC.......................................................... 86

Figure63

Mobilityanchorpoint...........................................................................87

Figure64

Inter-eNBhandoverwithX2interface.................................................88

Figure65

Inter-eNBhandoverwithoutX2interface............................................89

Figure66

3GPPinter-RATmobility.....................................................................90

Figure67

ArchitectureforoptimizedLTE-HRPDmobility................................... 92

Figure68

Roamingscenariowithhomeroutedtraffic........................................ 94

Figure69

Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwithhomeoperator'sapplication
functions............................................................................................. 95

Figure70

Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwithvisitedoperator'sapplication
functions............................................................................................. 96

Figure71

EMMstatetransitions....................................................................... 103

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Issue:04

Figure72

ECMstatetransitions....................................................................... 104

Figure73

RRCstatetransitions........................................................................105

Figure74

Intra-RATmobilityinECM_IDLE...................................................... 106

Figure75

Intra-RATmobilityinECM_CONNECTED....................................... 107

Figure76

Multiple-TAregistrationconcept....................................................... 109

Figure77

LTE/EPCservicedataflows..............................................................112

Figure78

LTE/EPCEPShighlevelbearermodel.............................................113

Figure79

ArchitectureofLTEtransport............................................................ 118

Figure80

TransportProtocolStackOverview.................................................. 119

Figure81

TransportProtocolStackOverview.................................................. 119

Figure82

EthernetbackhaulforLTE/EPC........................................................121

Figure83

ExampleofE-UTRANtransporttopologies...................................... 123

Figure84

QoSdifferentiationbetweenuser,controlandmanagementplane
traffic................................................................................................. 124

Figure85

TrafficprioritizationontheEthernetlayer,usingpacketmarking
methods............................................................................................125

Figure86

M-planetrafficdifferentiationusingVLANoverEthernet..................126

Figure87

Synchronizationfrom2.048MHzsignal........................................... 127

Figure88

ToPbasedsynchronization...............................................................128

Figure89

LTE/EPCOperationandmaintenanceconcept................................ 130

Figure90

FunctionaloverviewoftheBTSSiteManager................................. 133

Figure91

Celltraceconcept.............................................................................145

Figure92

Cellsubscriberandequipmenttraceconcept.................................. 146

Figure93

SONarchitecture.............................................................................. 148

Figure94

LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity..................................................... 153

Figure95

LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity..................................................... 153

Figure96

C-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC....................................... 155

Figure97

U-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC....................................... 156

Figure98

M-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC...................................... 156

Figure99

S-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC....................................... 156

Figure100

LayeredsecurityassociationstructureoftheLTE/EPC................... 165

Figure101

LTE/EPCAKAprocedure................................................................. 166

Figure102

RetrievalofLTEauthorizationinformation........................................166

Figure103

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-nonroaming................................... 167

Figure104

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roaming,homeroutedtraffic.......... 168

Figure105

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roamingwithlocalbreakout........... 168

Figure106

LTE/EPCarchitecturewithPS&CSdomainscompletelyseparated.....
170

Figure107

LTE/EPCarchitectureCSfallback.................................................... 171

Figure108

Singleradiovoicecallcontinuity(SRVCC)principle........................ 171

Figure109

LTE/EPCSRVCCarchitecturefor3GPPaccesses..........................172

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

10

Figure110

LTE/EPCSRVCCarchitecturefor1xRTT.........................................172

Figure111

LTE/EPCarchitecturewithall-IPnetworkdeployingLTE................. 173

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

List of Tables

Issue:04

Table1

Summaryofcustomerbenefits...........................................................21

Table2

CRANcustomerbenefits.................................................................... 21

Table3

SubframeconfigurationsinTDD(examples)......................................61

Table4

BenefitsofOFDMAandSC-FDMA.................................................... 64

Table5

Multi-antennaoptionsinLTE.............................................................. 70

Table6

Mobilityscenariosandanchorpoints................................................. 87

Table7

LCSrequirements...............................................................................97

Table8

ScopeofRRMfunctions.....................................................................99

Table9

QoSschemeforLTE.........................................................................114

Table10

StandardQCIcharacteristics............................................................ 115

Table11

BTSSiteManagerlocalandremotefunctionality.............................135

Table12

Securityterminationpoints............................................................... 154

Table13

IPseccapabilities..............................................................................161

DN0991589

11

Summaryofchanges

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Summary of changes
Changes between issues 03 (2013-09-03, RL50) and 04 (2014-03-17, RL60)
Mobility scenarios (4.1)
InformationaboutLTE807: Idle Mode Mobility From LTE To CDMA/1xRTTandLTE870:
Idle Mode Mobility From LTE To CDMA/eHRPDfeaturehasbeenadded.
Inter-RAT handover (3GPP) (4.4)
InformationaboutLTE57: Inter RAT handover from UTRANhasbeenadded.
Optimized 3GPP2 (HRPD) inter-RAT handover (4.5)
InformationaboutLTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2hasbeenadded.
Quality of service (5.7.2)
InformationaboutLTE1231: Operator-specific GBR QCIsfeaturehasbeenadded.
LTE transport overview (6.1)
InformationaboutLTE125: IPv6 for U/C-Planefeaturehasbeenadded.
IPsec support (8.6.2)
InformationaboutLTE1390: IPSec Emergency Bypassfeaturehasbeenadded.
Migration to LTE VoIP (10)
InformationaboutLTE1441: Enhanced CS fallback to CDMA/1xRTT (e1xCSFB)and
LTE874: CSFB to CDMA/1xRTT for dual RX UEsfeaturehasbeenadded.
Changes between issues 02C (2013-07-09, RL40) and 03 (2013-09-03, RL50)
Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE (2.3.1)

SupportofLTE435: RF sharing WCDMA-LTEfeaturehasbeenadded.

Receive diversity (2.9.1)

InformationaboutInterferenceRejectionCombining(IRC)hasbeenadded.

RAN sharing (2.12)

ShortdescriptionofLTE505: Transport Separation for RAN Sharinghasbeenadded.

Single RAN features (2.13.2)

SupportofLTE435: RF Sharing WCDMA-LTEfeaturehasbeenadded.

Mobility (4)

ShortdescriptionaboutLTE487: Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancinghasbeenadded.


ShortdescriptionofLTE1060: TDD - FDD handoverhasbeenadded.
Shortdescriptionof LTE1170: Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancingfeaturehas
beenadded.
NewfeatureLTE1442: Open Access Home eNB Mobilityhasbeendescribed.

RRM functions (5.1)

12

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Summaryofchanges

Shortdescriptionof LTE907: TTI Bundlinghasbeenadded.


ShortdescriptionofLTE1089: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 20 MHz hasbeen
added.

State transitions (5.2)

ShortdescriptionofLTE585: Smart DRXhasbeenadded.

LTE transport overview (6.1)

ShortdescriptionofLTE505: Transport Separation for RAN Sharinghasbeenadded.

LTE/EPC M/C/U/S-plane security (8.2)

FigureLTE/EPC M/C/U/S-plane securityhasbeenupdated.


FigureC-plane security architecture for LTE/EPChasbeenupdated.
SectionS-plane securityhasbeenadded.

NetAct security (8.5)

SectionNetAct securityhasbeenupdated.

Certificate management (8.6.5)

DescriptionofLTE523: Multi-Layered Certificate Authoritiesfeaturehasbeen


updated.

Certificate management (8.6.5)

InformationaboutLTE523: Multi-Layered Certificate AuthoritiesandLTE1260: iOMS


Certificate Update and Revocation Support featureshasbeenadded.

Changes between issues 02B (2013-01-22, RL40) and 02C (2013-07-09, RL40)
Single RAN introduction (2.13)

Additionalexplanationaddedinthesection.

LTE multiple access radio interface (FDD) (2.7)

Sectionhasbeenupdated,figureOFDMA and SC-FDMA modulation schemeshas


beenupdated.

Changes between issues 02A (2012-10-12, RL40) and 02B (2013-01-22, RL40)
Single RAN introduction (2.13)

SectionSingle RAN introductionhasbeenadded.

Changes between issues 02 (2011-12-02, RL40) and 02A (2012-10-12, RL40)


NSN portfolio (2.3)

FlexiLiteisnotsupported.TheFlexiLitedescriptionhasbeenremoved.

LTE/SAE interfaces (2.5)

Issue:04

SectionLTE/SAE interfacesisnewandincludescontentoftheLTE/SAE Interfaces


documentwhichhasbeenremovedfromthelibrary.

DN0991589

13

Summaryofchanges

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

ThissectionreplacesalsosectionReference pointswhichwasvisibleintheprevious
release.
Mobility (4)

InformationaboutLTE48: Support of high speed usershasbeenadded.

Inter-RAT handover (3GPP) (4.4)

Informationabouttwonewfeatures:LTE1073: Measurement based redirect to


UTRANandLTE984: GSM redirect with system informationhasbeenadded.

RRM functions (5.1)

InformationaboutLTE979: IRC for 2 RX paths featurehasbeenadded.

Cell traffic trace (7.6.2.1)

InformationaboutLTE162: Cell Trace with IMSIfeaturehasbeenadded.

Changes between issues 01A (2011-09-21, RL30) and 02 (2011-12-02, RL40)


NSN portfolio (2.3)

FlexiLiteBTS750issupportedinRL40.

Radio protocol architecture (2.6.1)

S1overloadhandlingfunctionalityhasbeenadded.

EPS protocol architecture (2.6.2)

X2configurationupdatefunctionalityhasbeenshortlydescribed.

LTE multiple access radio interface (FDD) (2.7)

ShortdescriptionaboutLTE46: Channel Aware Scheduler (UL) featurehasbeen


added

Inter-RAT handover (3GPP) (4.4)

DescriptionoftheSingleRadioVoiceCallContinuity(SRVCC)toWCDMAandGSM
functionalityhasbeenadded.

Location services (4.8)

InformationaboutObservedTimeDifferenceofArrivallocationmethodhasbeen
added.

RRM functions (5.1)

InformationaboutsmartadmissioncontrolfunctionalityandARPbasedadmission
controlhavebeenadded.

EPS bearers (5.7)

InformationaboutnumberofsupportedEPSbearershasbeenupdated.
InformationaboutE-RABmodificationhasbeenadded.

Additional services (5.8)

14

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Summaryofchanges

ThesectionAdditionalserviceshasbeenadded.

Synchronization (6.6)

Informationaboutsynchronizationprioritieshasbeenadded.

LTE/EPC C/U/M-plane security (8.2)

CryptoAgentfunctionalityhasbeenshortlydescribed.

BTS security (8.4)

TheSWVerificationAgentfunctionalityhasbeenshortlydescribed.

Migration to LTE VoIP (10)

InformationaboutfeatureswhichsupportsSingleradioVoiceCallContinuity
(SRVCC)hasbeenadded.

Changes between issues 01 (2011-06-17, RL30) and 01A (2011-09-21, RL30)


Allchapters-editorialchanges.
Introduction to the NSN LTE/EPC system (1)

InformationaboutmigrationfromWiMAXtoLTEhasbeenadded.

Radio protocol architecture (2.6.1)

FigureU-plane operation of PDCP and RLC hasbeenupdated.

Transport admission control (6.7)

NotethatinRL30foradmissioncontrolonlyQCI=1issupportedhasbeenadded.

Changes between issues 01 DRAFT(2011-04-20, RL30) and 01 (2011-06-17, RL30)


Allchapters-editorialchanges.
Introduction to the NSN LTE/EPC system (1)

LTEisalsoRelease9,sothisinformationhasbeenadded.
InformationaboutWCDMAcorenetworkhasbeendeleted.Thereisnoneedfor
describingWCDMA.
InformationaboutFDDandTDDmodehasbeenadded.

Network architecture (2)

ShortdescriptionaboutSecurityGatewayhasbeenadded.

LTE overview (2.1)

ShortdescriptionthatmanagementsystemtrafficalwaysgoesthroughNetActhas
beenadded.

eNB function (2.2.1)

Issue:04

Headershasbeenchangedasfollows:RadioNetworkLayer1(PhysicalLayer),
RadioNetworkLayer2,RadioNetworkLayer3.

DN0991589

15

Summaryofchanges

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

EPC architecture for interworking with Gn/Gp SGSN (2.4.3)

Shortdescriptionaboutinteraccessmobilityhasbeenadded.

OFDMA principles (2.7.2)

AdditionalexplanationtofigureOFDMandOFDMAsubcarrierallocationhasbeen
added.

RAN sharing (2.12)

Sectionhasbeenmodified.

Network and service management (3)

ShortintroductioninNetwork and service managementsectionhasbeenadded.

Mobility scenarios (4.1)

ShortdescriptionofSubscriberProfileBasedMobilityfunctionalityhasbeenadded.

Inter-RAT handover (3GPP) (4.4)

DescriptionoftheNetworkAssistedCellChangetoGSMfunctionalityhasbeen
added.

Location services (4.8)

ShortdescriptionthatcellIDbasedlocationservicesupportemergencycallshas
beenadded.

State transitions (5.2)

ShortdescriptionthattheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsDRXwithlongDRXcycles
hasbeenadded.
RRCConnectionRe-establishmenthasbeenadded.

EPS bearers (5.7)

Thissectionhasbeenrearrangedinordertobemorereadable.
FigureLTE/EPCEPShighlevelbearermodelhasbeenupdated.

Bearer management (5.7.1)

Bearermanagementfunctionshasbeenmodified.

Transport and transmission (6)

ShortintroductioninTransport and transmissionsectionhasbeenadded.


MultipleS1-MMEinterfacesaresupported.

LTE transport overview (6.1)

Explanationthattransportsub-modulessupportbothLTEandWCDMASW
applications(multi-radio)withsinglemodeoperationhasbeenadded.

Transport interface options (6.2)

16

SentencethattheeNBsupportstheconfigurationofupto16BFDsessionshas
beenadded.

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Summaryofchanges

IthasbeenspecifiedthatBidirectionalForwardingDetection(BFD)isusedforL3
pathfailuredetection.

Transport switching in eNB (6.3)

TheheadinghasbeenchangedintoTraffic aggregation towards mobile backhaul


insteadofConcept of eNB chaining.Theheadingwasmisleading.

Traffic prioritization (6.5.1)

ClarificationthattheDSCP-to-PCP(PriorityCodePoints)mappingtableis
configurablehasbeenadded.

Traffic differentiation (6.5.2)

Descriptionofthetrafficdifferentiationhasbeenmodified.

Migration to LTE VoIP (10)

EmergencyCallHandlingfunctionalityhasbeenadded.

ThisisthefirstissueofthedocumentforRL30.
Thisdocumentisacombinedversionoftwodocuments,LTE/EPC System Overviewand
LTE RAN System Description,whichwereavailableinthepreviousreleases.

Issue:04

DN0991589

17

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

1 Introduction to the NSN LTE/EPC system

ThisdocumentprovidesanoverviewoftheLTE/EPC(LongTerm
Evolution/EvolvedPacketCore)system.Functionsandfeaturesaredescribed
withoutthereferencetothesystemreleases.Thisinformationcanbefoundin
theNSNLTEroadmap.
NSNexpectsfivebillionpeopletobeconnectedtotheInternetby2015.Wirelessaccess
playsamajorroleinrealizingthistarget.Wirelessnetworkswillbeusedtoextend
broadbandpenetrationbeyondthereachofwirelinenetworks.Evolutionofterminalsand
networkingtechnologycoupledwithInternetaccessasaglobalphenomenonallow
advancedoperatorstoreportdouble-digitgrowthinmobiledatausageinthismoment.
Withaviewtotakingthenextstepup,theevolutionaryladderbeyondHSPA,3GPP
Release8andRelease9hasstandardizedatechnologycalledLongTerm
Evolution/SystemArchitectureEvolution(LTE/SAE).TheRL50releaseisbasedon
3GPPRelease10andintroducesLTE-Advanced.TheRL35TDreleaseisbasedon
3GPPRelease10andintroducesLTE-Advanced.Itisdesignedto:

makethemostofscarcespectrumresources:
Deployablewithbandwidthsrangingfrom1.4MHzto20MHz,LTE/SAEprovidesup
tofourtimesthespectralefficiencyofHSDPARelease6.
affordusersanexperiencewithtodaysbestresidentialbroadbandaccess:
LTE/SAEdeliverstheoreticalpeakdataratesrangingupto173Mbpsandreduces
latencytoaslowas10ms.
leverageflatall-IPnetworkarchitectureandanewairinterfacetosignificantlycut
per-Mbytecosts,withlaterproductinnovationspotentiallyimprovingperformance
evenfurther:
Forinstance,a4x4MultipleInput/MultipleOutput(MIMO)schemewillboost
downlinkratesupto326Mbps.

CRAN
CentralizedRAN(CRAN)isNokiainnovativesolutionspecializedfor:mobileoperators
worldwideprovidingmobilebroadbandcoveragetostadiums,concerthalls,train
stations,festivalsinparks,conventioncenters.
Venueslikethat,bringalargeconcentrationofpeopleinasmallareas.Atthesametime
peopleinsuchplacesareusingthemobilebroadbandservicesinever-increasing
amountscausingdatatraffictoincreaseasneverbefore.

System approach
Basedontheseperformancetargets3GPPisdefiningtheairinterface,network
architecture,andsysteminterfaces.Allservicesarepacket-based;thisincludesvoice
serviceswhichareimplementedasvoiceoverIP(VoIP).Figure1:LTE/SAEhigh-level
architectureshowsanLTE/SAEnetworkshigh-levelarchitecture.
LTE/SAEdoesnotentailacircuit-switcheddomain.3GPPenvisagesfullyIP-based
transmission.TheIPbackbonenetworksupportsguaranteedQoSondemandwitha
verysimplified,butbackwardcompatibleQoSconcept.Carrier-gradeEthernetisused
wherepossible;inparticulartoconnecttheevolvednodeB(eNB),theLTEsbase
station.

18

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 1

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

LTE/SAEhigh-levelarchitecture
ServiceControlandDataBases

IMS

Access

PCRF

HSS/AAA

CoreSwitching& Transport

MME

Internet
eNodeB
S-GW

P-GW

Inthefollowing,theNSNsolutionoftheLTE/SAEarchitectureisreferredtoasNSN
LTE/EPCsystem.

Simplified network architecture


TheNSNLTE/EPCsystemisstreamlinedtooptimizenetworkperformance,maximize
datathroughput,andminimizelatency.Ratherthanfournodes(NB,RNC,SGSN,
GGSN),theLTE/EPCsystemcomprisesafarsimplerconfigurationofjusteNB,two
logicaluserplanegateways,ServingGatewayandPDNGateway,collectivelycalledthe
S-GW/P-GW,andonecontrolplanegateway(MME).Gatewayfunctionsmaybe
providedincommonorseparatephysicalnodes.Allentitiesareconnectedby
standardizedinterfacestosupportmulti-vendorconfigurations.TransportisfullyIPbased.Theaccessnetworkoperateswithoutacentralcontroller(BSC,RNC).All
functionsofcentralcontrollerhavebeenmovedtothebasestations(eNBs).TheeNBs
interconnectandconnectdirectlytotheS-GW/P-GWandMMEtoexchangecontroland
userinformation.

High-performance air interface


TheLTEairinterfacediffersmarkedlyfromlegacytechnology.Advancedapplied
OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiplexing(OFDM)technologiesachieveperformance
andsavingsgoalsbasedonlowtotalcostofownership.
Figure2:LTEairinterfacetechnologysummarizesthetechnologicalapproachtothe
projectedairinterface.ManyorthogonalOFDMsub-carriersmaybeallocatedaccording
tocarrierbandwidthavailableinthedownlink.TheuplinkemploysasinglecarrierFDMA
technology(SC-FDMA)toprecludehighpeak-to-averagepowerratios,thereby
streamliningtheRFdesignandextendingthebatterylifeoftheterminals.

Issue:04

DN0991589

19

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

Figure 2
scalable

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

LTEairinterfacetechnology
Hybrid ARQ
1

64QAM
Modulation

2
NACK

FastLink Adaptation

ACK

DL:OFDMA UL:SC-FDMA

Combined
decoding
Availablebandwidth

2
RXBuffer

Short TTI=1ms
Transmissiontimeinterval

Sub-carriers

OFDM
symbols

Frequency

Guard
intervals

TX

RX

MIMO
Channel
TX

RX

AdvancedScheduling
Time&Frequency
(FrequencySelectiveScheduling)

Time

OFDMallowsimprovedinterferencecontrol,advancedschedulingtechniquesandease
ofimplementationofMultipleInputMultipleOutput(MIMO)concepts.MIMOantenna
technologyandhigherordermodulation(64QAM),combinedwithfastlinkadaptation
methods,maximizethespectralefficiency.Inprinciple,operatorsdonotneedtoacquire
newspectrum.TheLTEairinterfaceisdesignedtooperateinthesamespectrumas,the
legacyWCDMA/HSPAairinterface.TheLTEradiointerfacefortheUEandfortheeNB,
supportsbothFDDandTDDmodes,eachwiththeirownframestructures.TheFDDLTE
multipleaccessisbasedonOFDMAinthedownlinkdirectionandSC-FDMAinthe
uplinkdirection.
Thesystemsflexiblespectrumallocation(includingscalablebandwidth)allowscarriers
tobespreadacrossanysuitablespectrumlicensedfor2Gor3Goperation.Deployable
inspectrumbandswithbandwidthsof1.4,3,5,10,15,and20MHz,LTEoffersunique
spectrumflexibility.Thesmall1.4and3.0MHzbandwidthsareoptimizedforGSMand
CDMAre-farming,whereoperatorsmightnotinitiallybeabletofreeupmorebandwidth.

Customer benefits
TheintroductionofLTEprovidesthefollowingkeybenefitstooperatorscomparedwith
existing3Gdeployments:

20

Maximized use of allocated frequency bands


LTEprovideshighaggregatedataratespercellandsupportsflexiblefrequency
bandwidthsandinparticularallowsre-farmingof2Gspectrum.
Reduced cost of ownership
LTEhasasimplerarchitecture:ithasfewernodesandfewernodetypes,andis
entirelyIP-based.ItalsousesIPtransportallowingtheuseofcheapequipmentand
infrastructure.Theabilitytorunvoiceanddataservicesonaunifiedinfrastructure
willalsohaveanimpactonreducingcosts.
Competitive mobile broadband packet access
LTEisoptimizedforbroadbandIPpacketaccessprovidinghighbandwidthandlow
latency.Itsupportsseamlessandlosslesslowlatencyhandoverandprovides
sophisticatedQoStosupportimportantreal-timeapplicationssuchasvoice,video
andreal-timegaming.LTEcansupportterminalspeedsof150to350km/handcell
rangesofupto100km.
Superior inter-technology mobility

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

TheLTE/EPCcombinationprovidesseamlessmobilitywithother3GPPaccess
systems(UMTS,GPRS),with3GPP2/cdma2000and,wherepossible,withnon3GPP(forexampleWLAN).
summarizesthemaincustomerbenefits.
Table 1

Summaryofcustomerbenefits

Operator benefits

Subscriber benefits

reducedcomplexity,flatIP-basedpacket-only
architectureloweroperatorCAPEXand
OPEX
interworkingwithlegacysystemsasan

integralpartofservicecontinuity

scalablebandwidthallowsflexible
deploymentwithlimitedspectrum
significantimprovementsinspectral
efficiencyanddataperformancefor
multimediaservices
economiesofscaleleveragingexisting
assetsmeaningrapidavailabilityforthemass
market

enricheduserexperiencewithrealtime,
interactiveservicesandseamless
connectivity
broadbandmobilityatadecreasingcost
widevarietyofdevicesandservices

Table2:CRANcustomerbenefitspresentstheCRANcustomerbenefits,whichcreate
theadd-onvaluetotheLTEbenefits.
Table 2

CRANcustomerbenefits

Operator benefits

Issue:04

Subscriber benefits

turninginterferenceintousableinterface

environment
reducinglimitationsofthethroughputthat
typicallymanifestthemselvesontheuplink
(ratherthandownlink)instadiumsand
othersportcomplexes
potentiallydoublingtheULaggregatedcell
throughputwithUL-CoMP
noadditionalHWormodificationofexisting
HWneeded,thatsavesadditional
hardwareinvestmentsandavoids
additionaloperationalcosts
flexibilityofthesystemprovidedbyits
unlimitedscalability

enhancementoftheLTEuserexperience
byincreaseofthroughputandservice
quality

Pleasenotethatthisisthesystemdescriptioncoveringallthefunctionalities
supportedbytheLTErelease.Notallofthefunctionalitiesdescribedhereare
supportedbytheCL10release.ForCL10featuredependency,seethe
LTE1724 CL10: Centralized RAN 10 MHz.

DN0991589

21

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Network evolution and migration


NSNiscommittedtoprovidingasmoothevolutionarypathforeveryoperator,followinga
roadmapthatfactorseachoperatorsinstalledbaseandstrategyintotheequation(see
Figure3:Architecturalevolutionofexisting2G/3GnetworkstoLTE):

3G operators with a deployed WCDMA/HSPAnetworkcanmigratedirectlyto


LTE/EPC.MigratingtotheflatnetworkarchitectureofInternetHighSpeedPacket
Access(I-HSPA)mayalsobebeneficialbecauseitaccommodatesLTE/EPCsflat
IP-basednetworkarchitecturewhilesupportinglegacyWCDMA/HSPAhandsets.The
operatorcanthusenjoythetransportandnetworkscalingbenefitsimmediately,and
easilyupgradethenetworktoLTE/EPClater.
3G operators who have deployed I-HSPAhaveflatnetworkarchitecturesimilarto
LTE/EPCinplace,andcanthuscost-efficientlyintroduceLTE/EPC.
Operators running 2G networks (GSM/GPRS)canintroduceLTE/EPCdirectlyor
viaoneoftheaboveWCDMA/HSPApaths,dependingontheirtimetablesfor
introducingmobilebroadbandservicesandthespectrumtheyhaveavailable.
BecauseLTEsupportsbandsassmallas1.4MHz,spectrummaybere-farmed
smoothlyandgraduallyfromGSMtoLTE.
CDMA operatorscanintroduceLTE/EPCnetworksdirectly,orfollowoneofthe
abovepaths.GSM/EDGEmaybeagoodchoiceforstrategiesmoreimmediately
focusedonvoicecentricbusiness.ThesameappliestoGreenfield operators.
OperatorsoptingtotaketheI-HSPApathcancapitalizeontheecosystemofHSPA
terminals,benefitfromtheflatarchitecturetoday,andquicklyoptimizemobile
broadbandperformance.
Operators with WiMAXcaneasilymigratetoLTE.Bothtechnologiessharecommon
characteristics,namely,aphysicallayerbasedonOrthogonalFrequencyDivision
Multiplexing(OFDM),aflatIParchitecture,anduseofmultipleantennasystem
techniques(MIMO)toachievehighdatarates.InLTE/EPCarchitecturethePDN
Gateway(P-GW)servesasamobilityanchorfornon-3GPPtechnologies.
OperatorswithTD-SCDMAnetworks,whicharecurrentlydeployedinChinaonly,
willprobablymigratedirectlytoLTE,preferablyusingtheTDDmodeofLTE.

Figure 3

Architecturalevolutionofexisting2G/3GnetworkstoLTE

Leverageexistinghandsetbase

Exploitcorenetworksynergies

GSM/WCDMA
handsetbase

Enablingflatbroadbandarchitecture

LTE
I-HSPA
WCDMA/
HSPA
GSM/
(E)GPRS

TD-SCDMA

CDMA

22

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

IntroductiontotheNSNLTE/EPCsystem

Network deployment
For3GPPoperators,theEvolvedPacketSystem(EPS)solutionenablesoptimizedsteps
from2G/3GlegacyinfrastructuretoreachthetargetEPSarchitectureasillustratedin
Figure4:SmoothmigrationtowardsEPS:
1. IntroductionofdirecttunnelbetweenRNCandGGSN(HSPAR7)
2. IntroductionofRNCfunctionalityanddirecttunnelbetweenNBandGGSN(I-HSPA
R7)
3. IntroductionofEPC(LTER8)
4. UpgradeabilityoflegacySGSNwithMMEfunctionality
5. UpgradeabilityoflegacyGGSNwithP-GWfunctionality
Figure 4

SmoothmigrationtowardsEPS
Directtunnel

InternetHSPA

HSPA R6

HSPA R7

HSPA R7

LTER8

GGSN

GGSN

GGSN

P-GW
S-GW

SGSN

Direct
tunnel

SGSN

RNC

RNC

NB

NB
Controlplane

SGSN

Direct
tunnel

NBwith
RNCfunct.
Userplane

Direct
tunnel

MME

eNB

Capacityexpansions

NSN LTE/EPC product portfolio


TheLTE/EPCsystemcomprisingthelogicalentitieseNB,S-GW,P-GW,andMMEis
implementedbythefollowingNSNproducts:

Issue:04

Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


TheLTEeNBisbasedontheFlexiMultiradioBTS.ThesameFlexiMultiradio
SystemandRFModulesareusedforWCDMA/HSPAandforLTE.With
downloadableLTESW,theFlexiMultiradioBTSoperatesinLTESWmode,to
becometheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE.ItispossibleforFlexiMultiradioRFmoduleto
operateinconcurrentGSMandLTEmode.FromaBTSsiteinstallationand
hardwarepointofview,FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEenablesoperatorstobuildBTS
sitesusingmodules,withouttherequirementforaspecificBTScabinet.
Flexi Network Server (Flexi NS)
TheMMEfunctionalityisprovidedbytheFlexiNetworkServer(Flexi NS)whichisa
hightransactioncapacityproductbasedonAdvancedTCA(ATCA)standard.Itis
optimizedforanall-IPflatarchitecture.
Flexi Network Gateway (Flexi NG)
S-GW/P-GWfunctionalityisprovidedbytheFlexi NGwhichisbasedonthe
AdvancedTCA(ATCA)hardwareplatformandFlexiPlatformoperatingsoftwareand
middleware.

DN0991589

23

Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

2 Network architecture
LongTermEvolution(LTE)isa3GPPprojectthatprovidesextensionsandmodifications
oftheUMTSsystemtoallowimplementingahighdatarate,lowlatency,andpacket
optimizedradioaccessnetworks.ServiceArchitectureEvolution(SAE)isanassociated
3GPPprojectworkingon3GPPcorenetworkevolution.Thefocusisonthepacket
switcheddomain,wheredataandvoiceservicesaresupportedoverthesamepacket
switchednetwork.
TheLTE/SAEsolution,knownastheLTE/EPCsystem,appliesflatnetworkarchitecture
asillustratedinFigure5:LTE/EPCflatnetworkarchitectureanddirecttunnel.Theradio
networkconsistsofasinglenode,theeNB.Inthecorenetwork,theMobility
ManagementEntity(MME)takestheroleofSGSNincurrentGPRSnetworks,itisa
controlplaneelement.DirecttunnelbetweeneNBandS-GW/P-GWallowsuserplane
traffictobypasstheMME.DifferentgatewayelementsinEPCtaketheroleofGGSN
providingconnectivitytooperatorservicenetworksandtheInternet.
Therearetwogatewayfunctionswhichmayormaynotco-existwithinasinglegateway
element:

ServingGateway(S-GW),theuserplane(U-plane)gatewaytotheE-UTRAN
PacketDataNetworkGateway(P-GW),theuserplane(U-plane)gatewaytothe
PDN(forexample,theInternetortheoperator'sIPMultimediaSubsystem(IMS))

Figure 5

LTE/EPCflatnetworkarchitectureanddirecttunnel
MME
eNB

S-GW/P-GW

Directtunnel

BetweentheeNBandcorenetworkentitiesthereisSecurityGateway(SEG),which
providessecurityforthecontrolplane,userplane,managementplane,and
synchronizationplane.
LTE/EPCprovidesdecreasedcostpertransmittedbit.Thisisachievedby:

advancedmodulationtechniquesthatallowoptimizeduseofradiofrequency
flatarchitecturethatminimizesthenumberofnetworkelementsandoptimizesthe
usageofthetransmissionnetwork
capabilitytoservehighquality,lowlatencyreal-timetraffic,allowingbothvoiceand
dataservicestobeprovidedoverasingleall-IPnetwork

2.1 LTE overview


TheLTEnetworkarchitectureiscalledflatarchitecture.FlatarchitecturemeansthatUE
isconnectedtotheeNB,andeNBisconnecteddirectlytothecorenetwork.Allradio
networkcontrollerfunctionalitiesarehandledbytheeNB.
ManagementsystemtraffictoandfromLTE/EPCnetworkelementsalwaysgoesthrough
NetAct.Formoreinformation,seeNetworkandservicemanagementsection.

24

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

Functional split in LTE


LTEfullyimplementsradiofunctionintheeNB,asillustratedinFigure6:Functionalsplit
betweenradioaccessandcorenetwork.CommunicationbetweeneNBandS-GW/MME
isdoneviatransportnetwork,seeFigure29:UuuserplaneprotocolstackandFigure
32:Uucontrolplaneprotocolstack.
Figure 6

Functionalsplitbetweenradioaccessandcorenetwork

eNB
InterCellRRM
RBControl
ConnectionMobilityCont.
Radio AdmissionControl

S-GW
eNBMeasurement
Configuration&Provision

S1-U

P-GW
S5/S8

UEIP Addressallocation

Mobility Anchoring

DynamicResource
Allocation(Scheduler)

PacketFiltering

RRC
PDCP

MME
NASSecurity

RLC

S1-MME

IdleState
MobilityHandling

MAC

ActiveState
MobilityHandling

PHY

SAEBearerControl

E-UTRAN

EPC

S1 flexibility in LTE
AsingleeNBcanconnecttomultipleMMEs.Thisabilityprovidesflexibilityandreliability
andisreferredtoasS1Flex.TheeNBconnectionoptionsareillustratedinFigure7:EUTRANandEPCwithS1Flex.

Issue:04

DN0991589

25

Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 7

E-UTRANandEPCwithS1Flex
LTE_Uu

S1

S5/S8a

EUTRAN

EPC
S1-U
S1-MME

eNB

S-GW

S11

X2

MME
S1-MME

S11

S1-MME

eNB

P-GW

S1-U

X2
S1-U

S10

S-GW
S11
S1-MME

eNB

MME

TheFlexiMultiradioBTScanbeconnectedsimultaneouslytothedifferentEvolved
PacketCores(EPCs)ofdifferentoperators.ThismeansthattheLTEE-UTRANcanbe
sharedbetweenmobilenetworkoperators.ThisisdoneviatheS1Flexmechanism
whichallowseNBestablishingmultipleS1links.Differentcorenetworkscanbe
connectedtothecommonlysharedeNBs.Theoperatorsareabletosharetheresources
ofasingleFlexiMultiradioBTS.ThismeansthattheoperatorscanreduceCAPEXand
OPEX.
CRAN functionality
TheCRANfunctionperfectlyservescustomers'needsthatoftenappearduringmegaevents,likeconcerts,sporteventsinplacessuchasstadiumswherethroughput
limitationsoftenappearontheuplink.Thesolutionisbasedonanextendedintra-eNB
uplinkCoMPfunctionality.TheindividualeNBsareinterconnectedinalinearchainto
exchangeuplinkdataforinter-eNBuplinkCoMP.AneNBcanbeconnectedtotwo
neighboreNBs(andobtainnineCoMPsetcombinations).Thisapproachcreatesasixcell-configuration(includingtheservingcell).TheCRANfunctionalityissupportedbythe
standardLTEHW.Thatiswhynoadditionalexpenditureontheinfrastructureisneeded.
CRANsupportsadedicatedeNBconfigurationwitheachFSMFcontainingtwoFBBAs
andwithpre-definedInter-FSMcablingrules.WiththeCRANfeature,uptothreeFSMFs
canbechained/looped(withRXoperatingontwo10MHzbands).Largerconfigurations
arebuiltwithgroupsof3FSMFs,andmaximumCoMPsizeupto12antennaswithtwo
RXpathsprocessedbyeNBIRCreceiver.Formoreinformation,seetheLTE1724 CL10:
Centralized RAN 10 MHzfeaturedescription.
TheCRANfunctionalityispresentedinthepicturebelow.TheFSMFseesallsixcells
with12receivers,andperformsDynamicUL-CoMP.

26

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 8

24A

FRxx

Networkarchitecture

CRANfunctionality

24B

25A

FRxx

25B

26A

26B

27A

FRxx

FRxx

FBBA

FBBA

27B

28A

28B

FRxx

29A

29B

FRxx

FSMF

2.2 Network elements in LTE


TheEvolvedPacketSystem(EPS)ismadeupoftheEvolvedUTRAN(E-UTRAN),
EvolvedPacketCore(EPC)andconnectivitytolegacy3GPPaccessandnon-3GPP
accesssystems.

2.2.1 eNB function


TheeNBincludesthemajorityoftheLTEsystemfunction.
TheeNBhoststhefollowingfunctions:
Radio Network Layer 1 (Physical Layer)

errordetectiononthetransportchannelandindicationtohigherlayers
FECencoding/decodingofthetransportchannel
hybridARQsoft-combining
ratematchingofthecodedtransportchanneltophysicalchannels
mappingofthecodedtransportchannelontophysicalchannels
powerweightingofphysicalchannels
modulationanddemodulationofphysicalchannels
frequencyandtimesynchronization
radiocharacteristicsmeasurementsandindicationtohigherlayers
multipleInputMultipleOutput(MIMO)antennaprocessing
transmitdiversity(TXdiversity)
beamforming
RFprocessing

Radio Network Layer 2

Issue:04

PDCP:robustheadercompression(RoHC);Ciphering
RLC:RLCsegmentation;AutomaticRepeatRequest(ARQ)
MAC:MACmultiplexing

DN0991589

27

Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

HybridAutomaticRepeatRequest(HARQ)
uplinktimingalignment
packetscheduling

Radio Network Layer 3


RadioResourceControl:

RadioBearerControl
RadioAdmissionControl
IdleandConnectedModeMobilityControl
Inter-cellInterferenceCoordination
LoadBalancing
Inter-RATRRM

Network related functions

routingofU-planetoS-GW
uplinkQoSsupportattransportandbearerlevel

2.2.2 EPC architecture


TheEPCnetworkarchitectureiscomposedofthefollowingmainelementscompliant
with3GPPRelease8specificationsandwithopeninterfaces:

MobilityManagementEntity(MME)
ServingGateway(S-GW)
PacketDataNetworkGateway(P-GW)
HomeSubscriberServer(HSS)
PolicyChargingandRulesFunction(PCRF)
Authentication,AuthorizationandAccountingfunction(AAA)

Mobility Management Entity (MME)


The2G/3GSGSNevolvesintotheLTEMME.Asapurecontrolplaneelement,it
handlesNon-AccessStratum(NAS)signalingandNASsignalingsecurity.TheMMEalso
handlesthesignalingbetweencorenetworknodestosupporthandoversbetweenLTE
andother3GPPaccessnetworks,suchasGSMorWCDMA.
TheMMEimplementsidlemodeuserequipmenttrackingandreachability.Itperforms:

PacketDataNetwork(PDN)gatewayandservinggatewayselection
MMEselectionforhandoversthatincludeachangeofMME
SGSNselectionforhandoversto2Gor3G3GPPaccessnetworks.

TheMMEsupportssubscriberroaming.ItimplementsaninterfacewiththeusersHome
SubscriberServer(HSS).Itauthenticatesthesubscribersrighttoaccessoperator
networkresources.Italsohandlesbearermanagementfunctions,includingdedicated
bearerestablishment.
MMEfunctionality:

28

authenticatesandauthorizestheuser
providesroamingsupportwiththeS6ainterface

DN0991589

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

managesandstoresUEcontext
generatestemporaryidentitiesandallocatesthemtoUEs
managesmobility(idleandactivemode)
managesIntra-LTEmobility
managesInter-RATmobility(betweenLTEand2G/3Gaccessnetworks)
providesoptimizedinter-systemsignalingformobilitybetweenLTEandHRPD
(applicableforPP2operators):SR-VCCsupportfor1XCS-voice(availableinfuture
releasesandapplicableforPP2operatorsonly),andSR-VCCfor3GPP
(UTRAN/GERAN)
providesCSFallback(CSFB)functionalitytowardsGERAN,UTRAN,orCDMA2000
providessupportforMMEandS-GWrelocation(availableinfuturereleases)
managesEPSbearers
terminatesforNon-AccessStratum(NAS)signaling
providesNASsignalingsecurityanddeliveryofsecuritykeystoeNB
supportslawfulinterceptionforthesignalingtraffic

Serving Gateway (S-GW)


TheS-GWterminatestheLTEcoreuserplaneinterfacewiththeE-UTRAN.User
Equipment(UE)isassignedtoasingleS-GWatagivenpointintime.TheS-GWactsas
auserplanegateway

fortheLTEradionetworkininter-eNBhandovers
forinter-3GPPmobility(relayingtrafficbetweenthe2G/3GsystemandthePDNGW)

TheS-GWtakescareofpacketroutingandforwarding.Ithandlesidlemodedownlink
packetbufferingandinitiatesthenetwork-triggeredservicerequestprocedure.In
roamingcases,theServingGWoffersroamingsupporttohomeroutedtrafficandlawful
interceptionandchargingcapabilityinthevisitednetwork.
S-GWfunctionality:

servesasananchorpointbothforinter-eNBhandoverandforintra-3GPPmobility
(thatishandovertoandfrom2Gor3G)
providesdefaultEPSbearertermination(applicableonlyfortheIETFvariant)
providesdedicatednon-GBR/GBREPSbearertermination(applicableonlyforIETF
variant)
providesroamingsupportwithS8interface
isresponsibleforpacketforwarding,routing,andbufferingofdownlinkdataforUEs
thatareinLTE-IDLEstate
isresponsiblefordataforwardingtoHSGWinthecaseofhandoverfromLTEto
HRPD(applicableonlyforpp2operatorsonlyandavailableinfuturereleases)
isresponsiblefordataforwardingfromsourceS-GWtotargetS-GWinthecase
indirectdataforwarding
provideslawfulinterceptionsupportinroamingcase

Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW)


TheP-GWactsasauserplaneanchor.ItallocatesanIPaddressfortheUE.TheP-GW
appliespolicyenforcementtosubscribertrafficandperformspacketfilteringatthelevel
ofindividualusers(forexample,bydeeppacketinspection).Thegatewayinterfacesthe

Issue:04

DN0991589

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Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

operatorsonlineandofflinechargingsystems.Italsoprovideshomeagentfunctionality
forinterworkingbetweennon-3GPPnetworksandwhentheinterfacebetweentheS-GW
andP-GWisimplementedusingamobileIP-basedprotocol.
P-GWfunctionality:

servesasaglobalmobilityanchorformobilitybetween

3GPPandnon-3GPPaccess
LTEandpre-release83GPPaccess

providesdefaultEPSbearerterminationandIPaddressallocation
providesdedicatednon-GBR/GBREPSbearertermination
providesroamingsupportwithS8interface
supportsS-GWrelocation
responsibleforpolicyenforcementandAMBR-basedbandwidthmanagement
providespolicyandchargingcontrolsupportwithrelevantPCRFinterfaces
provideschargingsupport

The legacy network elements of interest to LTE/EPC are the


following:

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)


TheHSSistheCoreNetworkentityresponsibleformanaginguserprofiles,
performingtheauthenticationandauthorizationofusers.Theuserprofilesmanaged
byHSSconsistofsubscriptionandsecurityinformationaswellasdetailsonthe
physicallocationoftheuser.
HSSfunctionality:

providingtheuserauthenticationandauthorizationinformationtotheMME
managinguserprofiles
preservinguserlocationatMMElevel
storingofmobilityandservicedataforeverysubscriber
permanentandcentralsubscriberdatabase

Policy Charging and Rules Function (PCRF)


ThePCRFisresponsibleforbrokeringQoSPolicyandChargingPolicyonaper-flow
basis.InroamingscenariositprovidesservicesashPCRFandasvPCRF.
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting function (AAA)
TheAAAisresponsibleforrelayingauthenticationandauthorizationinformationto
andfromnon-3GPPaccessnetworkconnectedtoEPC.
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
isresponsibleforthetransferofpacketdatabetweentheCoreNetworkandthe
legacy2G/3GRAN.ForLTE/EPCthisnodeisonlyofinterestfromtheperspectiveof
inter-systemmobilitymanagement.

2.3 Portfolio
TheLTE/EPCarchitectureportfoliocomprisesthefollowingnetworkelements:

30

FlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
FlexiNetworkServer

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

FlexiNetworkGateway(FlexiNG)

2.3.1 Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


TheLTEeNBisbasedontheFlexiMultiradioBTS.ThesameFlexiMultiradioSystem
andRFModulesareusedforWCDMA/HSPAandforLTE.WithdownloadableLTESW,
theFlexiMultiradioBTSisoperatinginLTESWmode.ItispossibleforFlexiMultiradio
RFModuletooperateinconcurrentGSMandLTEmode.FromaBTSsiteinstallation
andhardwarepointofview,FlexiMultiradioBTSenablesoperatorstobuildBTSsites
usingmodules,withoutaspecificBTScabinet.
WithLTE447: SW support for RF sharing GSM-LTEfeatureitispossibleforFlexi
MultiradioRFModuletooperateinconcurrentGSMandLTEmode.Thismeansthatone
FlexiMultiradioRFModuleistransmittingbothGSM/EDGERFcarriersandLTERF
carriersignalsatthesame3GPPfrequencyband.OperatorcanrunbothGSMandLTE
concurrentlybythesameFlexiMultiradioRFModule.
WithLTE435: RF sharing WCDMA-LTE featureitispossibleforFlexiMultiradioRF
ModuletooperateinconcurrentWCDMAandLTEmode.ThismeansthattheFlexi
MultiradioRFModuleistransmittingbothWCDMARFcarrierandLTERFcarriersignals
on2100MHzband.
RFsharingfeaturesbringOPEXsavingsonsparepartstock,logistics,and
maintenance.
Figure 9

FlexiMultiradioBTSsitesolution

MultiradioSystemModule
3-sectorRFModule
AC/DC+BatteryModule

AsshowninFigure9:FlexiMultiradioBTSsitesolution,thecompletemacrohighpower
outdoor1+1+1@60WFlexiMultiradioBTSconsistsof:

systemmodule
3-sectorRFmodulefor60Wpersector/cell
optionalAC/DCandbatterymodule

ThefullLTEBTS(DCpowered)isaslightandassmallasabout50kgand50liters.The
FlexiMultiradioBTSmodulescanbeusedveryflexiblywithdifferentBTSconfigurations,
withoptionalAC/DCandbatteryback-upmodule,andtheoperator'sownsiteequipment,
foranintegratedsitesolution.UltimateLTEcapacitycanbeachievedwithoptional2TX
MIMOconfiguration.
Acompletemacrohighpoweroutdoor1+1+1@60W+60WFlexiMultiradioBTS
consistsof:

Issue:04

systemmodule

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Networkarchitecture

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two3-sectorRFmodulesfor60W+60Wpersector/cell
optionalAC/DCandbatterymodule

TheFlexiMultiradioBTSprovidesveryhighradiodownlinkoutputpowerwhenusingthe
Flexi210W3-sectorRadioModule.Inthe3-sectorBTS,allRFfunctionsareintegrated
toonesingleoutdoorinstallable3Uhighmodule.Withtwo3-sectorRFModulesin2TX
MIMOconfiguration,TXpoweris120Wpersector/cell(60W+60W).
Figure 10

FlexiMultiradioBTSsitesolutionforthe2TXMIMOina3-sector
configuration
RX3
Tx1/RX1

RX4
Tx2/RX2

Sector1

Sector2

Sector3

Optional TMA/MHA

MultiradioSystemModule

Two3-sectorRFModule

Optional AC/DC+Battery

AnotheroptionespeciallyforfeederlessanddistributedLTEBTSsitesistheFlexi
MultiradioRemoteRadioHead(RRH)thatcansupportonesectorwiththefollowing
integratedfeatures:

32

twotransceiverstosupport2TXMIMO
40W+40Woutputpoweratantennaconnectors
twolinearpoweramplifiers
twoRFfiltersforTX/RX
2wayRXdiversity
widebandwidthsupport(upto20MHzdependingon3GPPbandRFvariant)
-48VDCinputpowersupply
nofans
OBSAIopticalinterfacetotheBTSsystemmodule
antennatiltsupport

DN0991589

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 11

Networkarchitecture

FlexiMultiradioRRH60W

TheFlexiMultiradioBTSprovidesthefollowinginstallationoptions:

wallinstallation
floorinstallation
anylegacycabinetinstallation
poleinstallation
insideconstructions

TheLTEeNBisbasedontheFlexiMultiradioBTS.ThemodulararchitectureofFlexi
MultiradioBTSenablesaflexibleevolutionfromtheinitialcost-effectiveroll-outcoverage
BTSsiteuptoahighcapacityBTSsitesolution.Themodulesareeasytoinstalland
move,andthemodularstructureallowsnetworkelementtobeinstalledanywhere.The
FlexiMultiradioBTSconsistsof:

SystemModuleFSMFcontainingbasebandprocessingandtransport.FSMF
containsanin-builtEthernettransportcapabilities
oneortwooptionalcapacityextensionsub-modules(FBBA)
onetothreeRFModules(FZHAorFZNC)
oneoptionaloutdoor-capableFlexiPowerModule(FPMA)

InRL35TDIRnewRemoteRadioHeadmodulesareintroduced.Formoreinformation
seefeaturedescriptionsunderBTS Site Solutioncategory.
TheFlexiMultiradioBTSisflexibleandeasytoconfigure.TheRL25TDreleaseoffers
variousconfigurations:

uptosixTD-LTEcellswithoptional2TXMIMO,theFlexiMultiradioBTSsupports2wayuplinkmaximumratiocombining(MRC)diversityasstandard
2x2MIMOsiteconfigurationswitheither6-pipeRFModules(FZNC)or8-pipeRF
Modules(FHZA)
FlexiMultiradioBTSalsosupportsbeamforming,bothsinglestreambeamforming
anddualstreambeamforming

TheFlexiMultiradioBTSisflexibleandeasytoconfigure.TheRL35TDIRrelease
supportslegacyRL25TDconfigurationsandoffersnewSingleandDualMode
configurations:

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Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

indoorandoutdoorconfigurations
uptosixTD-LTEsectorspersite
upto8x8MIMOsiteconfigurations
optionallyRRHChainingandCellCombinationavailable

Formoreinformationonsupportedconfigurations,seeCreating TD-LTE Configurations


document.LTE1483: RL35TD TD-LTE Site configuration with Ir interfacefeature
description.
All10MHzconfigurationaresameas20MHz,thereisnospecific10MHzconfiguration.

External interfaces of the Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


Theexternalinterfaces(seeFigure12:ExternalinterfacesoftheFlexiMultiradioBTS
LTE)oftheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEinclude:

LTE-UuinterfacebetweeneNBsandUEs,actingastheuserandcontrolplane
betweenE-UTRANandUEs.
S1-MMEinterfacebetweeneNBsandMME,carryingcontrolplanetrafficbetweenEUTRANandMME.
S1-UinterfacebetweeneNBsandS-GW,carryinguserplanetrafficbetweenEUTRANandS-GW.
O&MinterfacebetweeneNBsandNetActviaiOMS
O&MinterfacebetweeneNBandBTSSM
O&MinterfacebetweeneNBandPublicKeyInfrastructure(PKI)
X2interfacebetweeneNBs

Figure 12

ExternalinterfacesoftheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
PublicKey
Infrastructure

IntegratedOperation
MediationSystem

UserEquipment
O&M
LTE-Uu

ServingGateway

O&M

O&M

S1-U

S1-MME

BTS
SiteManager

X2

othereNBs

MobilityManagement
Entity

2.3.2 Flexi Lite BTS 750


FlexiLiteBTS750iscompactstandaloneoneboxMicroBTSforcoverageandcapacity
enhancements.ItiscalledMiniorPicoBTSaswell.ThisFlexiLiteBTSRFvariant
supports3GPPband13thatisknownalsoasupper700MHzor750MHz.

34

DN0991589

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

SmallcompleteminiBTScanbeinstalledindoorsoroutdoorstogiveextracapacityfor
hotspotslikeofficearea,campusandshoppingmalls.Withhighoutputpowerand2TX
MIMOsupportitcanbeusedasfillinandextensionofnetworktocoveragee.g.suburbanareas.
FlexiLiteBTS750operatesatupper700MHz3GPPband13withLTEsupportand
comprisesthefollowingintegratedfeatures:

750MHzmax10MHzbandwidthforonecell
5+5Woutputpower,2TXMIMOsupport
canbeinstalledindoorsandoutdoors(IP65)
ACpowerfeed100...240VAC
transport:Ethernet(opticalfiberorwireline)
twoN-typeRFconnectorsforexternalantenna
optionalintegratedcrosspolarizedantenna

2.3.3 Flexi Network Server


FlexiNetworkServer(FlexiNS)isahightransactioncapacityproductontopof
AdvancedTCA(ATCA)hardware(seeFigure13:FlexiNetworkServer).Itisoptimized
forall-IPflatarchitecture,andisusedforcontrolplane-onlymobilitymanagemententity
(MME)functionality.
TheFlexiNSisanessentialpartoftheLTEandEPSend-to-endoffering.TheMMEhas
asimilarroleinLTEas2G/3GSGSNhasin2G/3Gnetworks.
FlexiNSimplementshightransactionandconnectivitycapacitytoaccommodatethe
increasedsignalingloadandhigherservicepenetrationinanoperatorssubscriberbase.
Theproductfootprintissmall,soyoucaninstalluptothreehighcapacityunitsina
standard19rack.FlexiNSispowerefficient,offeringreductioninenergyconsumption.
Innovativecontrolplane-onlyarchitectureofFlexiNSallowsimplementingsession
redundancywithinasingleFlexiNSnetworkelement.Incaseofafailureofanysingle
hardwareunit,thesubscribersessioncanbepreserved.
TheSGSNhasdemonstratedmarketleadingreliabilitylevelsinlivenetworksoveratime
periodofseveralyears.ThesameDMXsoftwareplatformisappliedalsoasabasisfor
theFlexiNS.
FlexiNScanbeusedasanSGSN,asanMME,orasanSGSN/MMEinthenetworks.

Issue:04

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Networkarchitecture

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 13

FlexiNetworkServer

External interfaces of the Flexi Network Server


TheexternalinterfacesoftheFlexiNetworkServerarefullydescribedinFlexiNetwork
ServerOperatingDocumentation(seeFlexi Network Server,OperatingDocumentation
inNOLS).

2.3.4 Flexi Network Gateway (Flexi NG)


TheFlexiNGproducttargetscurrentandfuturemobilenetworks.Itsupportsavarietyof
accessnetworktypes,includinglong-termevolution(LTE),high-speedpacketaccess
(HSPA),evolvedhigh-speedpacketaccess(HSPA+),2G/3GGPRSaccess,WLAN
access,Internethigh-speedpacketaccess(I-HSPA),andadirecttunnel.Different
applications,suchastheservinggateway(S-GW),packetdatanetworkgateway(PGW),orthegatewayGPRSsupportnode(GGSN),canbeinstalledonthesame
hardware,usingthesamesoftware.
FlexiNGprovidesexcellentthroughputandsignalingcapacitytoaccommodatethe
trafficgrowthinthenextgenerationnetworks.ThekeytoFlexiNG'sperformanceisin
theuseofmulti-corepacketprocessor(MPP)technologyinthecontrolplaneandthe
userplane.MPPsaredesignedforfastnetworkingapplicationsandcontainseveral
hardwareunitsthatacceleratepacketdataprocessing.TheMPPtechnologyishighly
flexibleandscalable,andenablesfasterdevelopmentcycles.TheuseoftheMPP
technologyalsoallows,forexample,changesbetweensignalingandtheuserplane's
processingcapacity.
Thehighavailabilityoptions,availableinFlexiNG,enable99.999%reliabilityatdifferent
redundancylevels,includingsessioncontinuitythroughtheuseofsessionreplicationin
active-standbyservicebladepairs.

36

DN0991589

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Networkarchitecture

FlexiNGisbasedontheAdvancedTCA(ATCA)hardwareplatform(seeFigure14:Flexi
NG)andFlexiPlatformoperatingsoftwareandmiddleware.FlexiPlatformisarobust,
carriergradeLinuxbasedplatform,offeringversatileservicesforoperationand
maintenance(O&M),networkingandplatformservicesusingthelatesttechnologies
available.
Figure 14

FlexiNG

External interfaces of the Flexi NG


TheexternalinterfacesofFlexiNGarefullydescribedinFlexiNetworkGateway
OperatingDocumentation(seeFlexi NG,OperatingDocumentationinNOLS).

2.4 EPS overall architecture


EPSsolutionsfor3GPPaccessaretypicallyselectedbyoperatorswhowantto
introduceEPSassmoothevolutiontotheirexisting2G/3Ginfrastructure.EPSsolutions
fornon-3GPPaccessaretypicallyselectedbyoperatorswhowanttomaximizethe
deploymentofgeneric,non-3GPPprotocolsandtominimizethedeploymentof3GPP
specificprotocols.
TheEPSarchitecturehasthreekeyaspectswhichaddresstheperformance
requirementsforLTE/EPC:

reductionofthenumberofnetworkelementsonthedatapath,comparedto
GPRS/UMTS
streamliningofRANfunction,byprovidingitinasinglenode
separationofthecontrolanduserplanenetworkelements(MMEandS-GW).

Therearevariousarchitecturereferencemodelsspecifiedin3GPPTS23.402:

Issue:04

EPSarchitecturesfor3GPPaccesswithGTP-basedS5
EPSarchitecturesfor3GPPaccesswithPMIP-basedS5/S8(IETFvariants)

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Networkarchitecture

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EPCarchitectureforinterworkingwithGn/GpSGSN
Non-roamingarchitecturesforEPSforNon-3GPPaccess
RoamingarchitecturesforEPSfor3GPPaccess(GTPvariants)
RoamingarchitecturesforEPSfornon-3GPPaccess

2.4.1 EPS architectures for 3GPP access with GTP-based S5


TheGTP-based(withGTPS5referencepoint)EPSsolutionfor3GPPaccessistypically
selectedbytheoperatorswhowanttointroduceEPSassmoothevolutiontotheir
existing2G/3Ginfrastructure.
Figure 15

Non-roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingGTP-based
S5

3GPP Access

HSS
SGSN

2G/3G

PCRF

S3
S6a

S1-MME
MME
S11

Gx

Rx

S12
S4

S10

Serving
Gateway

E-UTRAN

S1-U

S5
GTP

PDN
Gateway

SGi

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

2.4.2 EPS architectures for 3GPP access with PMIP-based S5/S8


(IETF variants)
TheIETFbased(withPMIPv6S5/S8referencepoint)EPSsolutionfor3GPPaccessis
typicallyselectedbytheoperatorswhowanttomaximizethedeploymentofgeneric,
IETFdefinedprotocolsandtominimizethedeploymentof3GPP-specific(forexample,
GTP)protocols.
TheIETFvariantcanbedeployedforboth3GPPandnon-3GPPaccess.
Figure 16

Non-roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingPMIP-based
S5

3GPP Access

HSS
SGSN

2G/3G

PCRF

S3
S1-MME

S6a
MME
S11
S10

E-UTRAN

S1-U

38

S12

Gxc

Gx

Rx

S4
Serving
Gateway

DN0991589

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GTP

PDN
Gateway

SGi

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 17

Networkarchitecture

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccesswithinEPSusingPMIP-basedS8
hPCRF

Gx

Rx

HSS
PDN
Gateway

SGi

HPLMN

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

VPLMN

S9
3GPP Access

SGSN

2G/3G

vPCRF

S3
S6a

S1-MME
MME
S11

S12
S4

S10

S8

Serving
Gateway

E-UTRAN

S1-U

Gxc

2.4.3 EPC architecture for interworking with Gn/Gp SGSN


IntraPLMNroamingandinteraccessmobilitybetweenGn/Gp2Gand/or3GSGSNsand
anMME/SGWareenabledby:

GnfunctionasspecifiedbetweentwoGn/GpSGSNs,whichisprovidedbytheMME
GnfunctionasspecifiedbetweenGn/GpSGSNandGn/GpGGSNthatisprovided
bythePGW

AllthisGnfunctionisbasedonGTPversion1only.Thearchitectureforinteroperation
withGn/GpSGSNsinthenon-roamingcaseisillustratedinFigure18:Non-roaming
architectureforinteroperationwithGn/GpSGSNs.
InteraccessmobilitycanbebuildintroducingoverlaytoexistingPacketCoreelements
viaGninterfaces.Thebenefitisthatthereisnoneedtochangetheexisting2G/3Glive
deploymentwhenintroducingLTE.
Figure 18

Non-roamingarchitectureforinteroperationwithGn/GpSGSNs

GERAN
Gn/Gp
SGSN

UTRAN

Gr
HSS

Gn

Gn

PCRF
S6a

S1-MME
MME

Rx

Gx

S11
S10
E-UTRAN
S1-U

Serving
Gateway

S5

UE

Issue:04

DN0991589

PDN
Gateway

SGi

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

39

Networkarchitecture

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2.4.4 Non-roaming architectures for EPS for Non-3GPP access


ThefollowingconsiderationsapplytointerfaceswheretheyoccurinFigure19:NonroamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2a,S2b,Figure20:Non-roamingarchitecture
withEPSusingS5,S2c,Figure24:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2a,S2bhomerouted,Figure25:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingPMIP-basedS8,S2a,S2b
(chainedPMIP-basedS8-S2a/b)-homerouted,Figure26:Roamingarchitecturefor
EPSusingS8,S2c-homerouted,andFigure27:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusing
S5,S2c-localbreakout:

S5canbeGTP-basedorPMIP-based.
GxcisusedonlyinthecaseofPMIPvariantofS5orS8.
GxaisusedwhentheTrustednon-3GPPAccessnetworkisownedbythesame
operator.
GxaisterminatedintheTrustednon-3GPPaccessifsupported.
S2cisusedonlyforDSMIPv6bootstrappingandDSMIPv6De-Registration(Binding
UpdatewithLifetimeequalszero)whentheUEisconnectedvia3GPPaccess.
DashedlinesareusedinFigure20:Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,
S2c,Figure25:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingPMIP-basedS8,S2a,S2b
(chainedPMIP-basedS8-S2a/b)-homeroutedandFigure27:Roamingarchitecture
forEPSusingS5,S2c-localbreakouttoindicatethiscase.

SWushownin
Figure19:Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2a,S2balsoapplies
toarchitecturalreferencemodelsin
Figure20:Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2cand
Figure24:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2a,S2b-homeroutedto
Figure27:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS5,S2c-localbreakout,butis
notshownforsimplicity.
Figure 19

Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2a,S2b
HSS

S6a

SWx

Rx
PCRF

Gxc

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Gx

SGi
3GPP
Access

Serving
Gateway

PDN
Gateway

S5

S6b

Gxb
Gxa

S2b

SWm
3GPP AAA
Server

ePDG
HPLMN

S2a

SWn

Non-3GPP
Networks

SWu
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

UE

40

DN0991589

SWa
STa

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 20

Networkarchitecture

Non-roamingarchitecturewithEPSusingS5,S2c
HSS

S6a

SWx

Rx
Gxc

PCRF

Gxa

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Gx

SGi
Serving
3GPP
Access Gateway

S5

PDN
Gateway

S6b

Gxb
S2c

Gxa

S2c

SWm
3GPP AAA
Server

ePDG

S2c

HPLMN

SWn

Non-3GPP
Networks
Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

S2c

Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

SWa

UE

S2c

STa

2.4.5 Roaming architectures for EPS for 3GPP access (GTP


variants)
Figure 21

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-homerouted
Gx

Rx
PCRF

HSS

PDN
Gateway

SGi

Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

HPLMN
VPLMN

3GPP Access

SGSN

2G/3G

S3
S6a

S1-MME
MME
S11
S10
E-UTRAN

S1-U

Issue:04

S12
S4
Serving
Gateway

S8

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Figure 22

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-localbreakoutwith
homeoperatorsapplicationfunctionsonly
Rx
HSS

HomeOperator's IP
Services

hPCRF

HPLMN
VPLMN

S9
3GPP Access

SGSN

2G/3G

vPCRF

S3
S6a

S1-MME
MME
S11

S12

S10

Serving
Gateway

E-UTRAN

S1-U

Figure 23

Gx

S4

S5
GTP

PDN
Gateway

VisitedOperator
PDN

SGi

Roamingarchitecturefor3GPPaccess(GTP-based)-localbreakoutwith
visitedoperatorsapplicationfunctionsonly
hPCRF

HSS

HPLMN
VPLMN

S9
3GPP Access

SGSN

2G/3G

vPCRF

S3
S6a

S1-MME
MME
S11
S10
E-UTRAN

S1-U

42

S12

Gx

Rx

S4
Serving
Gateway

S5
GTP

DN0991589

PDN
Gateway

SGi

Visited
Operator'sIP
Services

Issue:04

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

2.4.6 Roaming architectures for EPS for non-3GPP access


Figure 24

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2a,S2b-homerouted
HSS

S6a

SWx
Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Rx
hPCRF

Gx

SGi
S8

PDN
Gateway

HPLMN

3GPP
Access

Serving
Gateway

S9

S6b

3GPP AAA
Server

Gxc
vPCRF

S2b

SWd

Gxb

SWm
ePDG

3GPP AAA
PROXY

S2a
VPLMN
Non-3GPP
Networks

Gxa

STa

SWn

Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

Figure 25

Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

SWa

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingPMIP-basedS8,S2a,S2b(chained
PMIP-basedS8-S2a/b)-homerouted
HSS

S6a

SWx
Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Rx
hPCRF

Gx

SGi
PDN
Gateway

S8

HPLMN

S9

S6b

3GPP AAA
Server

Gxc
vPCRF

SWd

Gxb
3GPP
Access

Serving
Gateway

SWm

S2b
ePDG

3GPP AAA
PROXY

VPLMN
Non-3GPP
Networks

S2a-PMIP

Gxa
Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

STa

SWn
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

SWa

ChainedS2a/S2bandS8areusedwhenVPLMNhasbusinessrelationship
withNon-3GPPNetworksandS-GWinVPLMNincludeslocalnon-3GPP
Anchor.
ThefollowingaresomeadditionalconsiderationsfortheuseofGxc:

Issue:04

GxcisusedonlyinthecaseofPMIP-basedS8andfor3GPPaccess.

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

GxcisnotrequiredforTrustedNon-3GPPIPAccess;Gxaisusedinsteadtosignal
theQoSpolicyandeventreporting.

Figure 26

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2c-homerouted
HSS

S6a

SWx
Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Rx
hPCRF

Gx

SGi
PDN
Gateway

S8

HPLMN

3GPP
Access

S9

3GPP AAA
Server

S6b

Gxc

Serving
Gateway

vPCRF

SWd

Gxb

SWm

S2c

3GPP AAA
PROXY

ePDG

VPLMN
Non-3GPP
Networks

Gxa

STa

SWn

Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

SWa

S2c
S2c

UE

44

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 27

Networkarchitecture

RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS5,S2c-localbreakout
HSS

S6a

SWx
Operator's IP
Services
(forexampleIMS,
PSSand
soon)

Rx
hPCRF

S9

3GPP AAA
Server

HPLMN

Rx
Gxc

vPCRF

SGi

3GPP Serving
Access Gateway

S5

PDN
Gateway

S2c

SWd

S6b

Gxb
Gxa

VisitednetworkIP
servicesorproxies
tohomenetwork
servicesorPDN

SWm
3GPP AAA
PROXY

ePDG

S2c

SWn

VPLMN
Non-3GPP
Networks

S2c

Trusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

Untrusted
Non-3GPP
IP Access

UE

SWa
STa

ThetwoRxinstancesin
Figure26:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS8,S2c-homeroutedand
Figure27:RoamingarchitectureforEPSusingS5,S2c-localbreakoutapplyto
differentapplicationfunctionsintheHPLMNandVPLMN.

2.5 Reference points


TheEPSreferencepointsasspecifiedin[TS36.300],[TS23.401]and[TS23.402]
include:

Issue:04

S1-MME

ControlplanereferencepointbetweenE-UTRANand
MME

S1-U

UserplanereferencepointbetweenE-UTRANandtheSGW

X2

ControlanduserplanereferencepointbetweentwoEUTRANnodes

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46

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

S2

GroupofreferencepointsbetweenP-GWandnon-3GPP
accessnetwork(forexample,WLAN,cdma2000),usedfor
controlandmobilitysupportfornon-3GPPaccess
interworking

S3

ReferencepointbetweenMMEandSGSN,usedforuser
andbearerinformationexchangeforinter-3GPPaccess
networkmobility

Gn

Referencepointbetweenpre-release8SGSNand
MME/P-GW

Gp

Referencepointbetweenpre-release8SGSNandP-GW
inroamingscenario

S4

ReferencepointbetweenS-GWandrelease8SGSN,
usedforUplanetunnellingandrelatedmobilitysupportas
SGWisanchorpointfor3GPPhandover

S5

ReferencepointbetweenS-GWandP-GWbutnot
crossingaPLMNboundary,usedforUplanetunnelingand
tunnelmanagementandforS-GWrelocation.S5includes
bothGTPandIETFvariants

S6a

ReferencepointbetweenMMEandHSS,usedfortransfer
ofsubscriptionandauthenticationdata

S6b

ReferencepointbetweenP-GWand3GPPAAA
Server/proxyformobilityrelatedauthenticationand
retrievalofmobility/QoSrelatedparameters

Gx

ReferencepointbetweenP-GWandthePCRF,usedto
transferQoSpolicyandchargingrules:NotethatGxcis
referencepointbetweenS-GWandPCRFtotransferQoS
policyandchargingrules,ifIETFvariantisusedforS5/S8

S8

RoamingreferencepointbetweenS-GWandP-GW
acrossaPLMNboundary,usedforU-planetunnelingand
tunnelmanagementandS-GWrelocation;similartoS5

S9

ReferencepointbetweenthevPCRFandthehPCRF,used
totransferQoSpolicyandchargingrules;similartoS7

S10

ReferencepointbetweenMMEs,usedforinformation
transferforexampleduringMMErelocation

S11

ReferencepointbetweenMMEandS-GW,usedforcontrol
informationsuchasEPSbearermanagement

S12

ReferencepointbetweenS-GWandtheUTRAN,usedfor
U-planetunnellingwhenDirectTunnelisestablished

S13

ReferencepointbetweenMMEandEIRtoenableUE
identitycheck

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

SGi

ReferencepointbetweenP-GWandPDN,basedonthe
UMTSGi

STa

Referencepointbetweentrustednon-3GPPaccessand
3GPPAAAServer/ProxytocarryoutAAAprocedures

SWa

Referencepointbetweenuntrustednon-3GPPaccessand
3GPPAAAServer/ProxytocarryoutAAAprocedures

SWd

Referencepointbetween3GPPAAAServerand3GPP
AAAProxy

SWx

Referencepointbetween3GPPAAAServerandHSSfor
transferofauthenticationdata

Rx

ReferencepointbetweenPCRFandAFinthePDN,based
ontheRxinterfaceofUMTS

ThereareseveralvariantsoftheS2referencepoint.TheS2aisfortrustednon3GPPaccessnetworksandtheS2bisforun-trustedones.TheS2cextendsto
theUEforbothtypesofaccessnetwork.TherearealsomultiplevariantsofGx
referencepoint.
GxisusedfortransferofpolicyandcharginginformationfromPCRFtoP-GW.
GxaisusedfortransferofpolicyandcharginginformationfromPCRFtotrusted
non-3GPPaccess.Gxcisusedfortransferofpolicyandcharginginformation
fromPCRFtoS-GWincaseIETFvariantofS5/S8isused.
Thereare3GPP(GTP)andIETF(PMIP)variantsoftheS5andS8reference
points.
TheprotocolusedovertheS1-UisGTP-U.
TheprotocolsusedovertheS3,S4,S5referencepointsarebasedonGTP.
TheprotocolusedovertheS5-PMIPreferencepointisbasedonProxyMobile
IPversion6(PMIPv6).
FordetailsaboutthecorrespondinginterfacesseeLTE/EPC Interfaces.

2.6 LTE/SAE interfaces


Figure28:EPSarchitectureshowstheoverallEvolvedPacketSystem(EPS)
architecture,notonlyincludingtheEvolvedPacketCore(EPC)andEvolvedUMTS
TerrestrialRadioAccessNetwork(E-UTRAN),butalsootherelements,toshowthe
relationshipbetweenthem.

Issue:04

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 28

EPSarchitecture

LTE_Uu

S1

S5/S8a

EUTRAN

EPC
S1-U
S1-MME

MME

eNB
S11
X2

S10
S11

S-GW
S1-MME

eNB

P-GW

MME

S1-U

InterfacesshowninFigure28:EPSarchitecturearelogicalinterfaces,theyhaveno
closerelationwiththephysicalnetworkstructureandtransmission.Theconnectivity
betweennodesishandledbyIPnetwork.
Interfacesaredividedintoradionetworkinterfaces(includingLTE-Uu,S1andX2
interfaces)andcorenetworkinterfaces.

2.6.1 Radio network interfaces


2.6.1.1

LTE-Uu interface
TheLTEUMTSairinterface(thatisLTE-Uuinterface)istheradiointerfacebetweenthe
EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccessNetwork(E-UTRAN)andtheUser
Equipment(UE).TheUuinterfaceadoptsthecommunicationbetweeneNBandtheUE.
ItcomprisestheControlPlane(C-plane)forsignalingandtheUserPlane(U-plane)for
thetransferofuserdata.TheUuinterfaceisneededtosetup,reconfigure,andrelease
radiobearerservicesincludingtheLTEFrequencyDivisionDuplex(FDD)andLTETime
DivisionDuplex(TDD)services.SectionProtocolstacksdescribestheUuinterface
protocolstack.

2.6.1.2

S1 interface
TheS1interfaceconnectstheE-UTRANtotheCoreNetwork(CN).Itisspecifiedasan
openinterfacethatdividesthesystemintoradio-specificE-UTRANandEvolvedPacket
Core(EPC)whichhandlesswitching,routingandservicecontrol.
TheS1interfacehastwodifferentinstances:

S1-U(S1userplane)forconnectingtheeNBandtheServingGateway(S-GW)
S1-MME(S1controlplane)forconnectingtheeNBandtheMobilityManagement
Entity(MME)

ThefollowingfunctionsaresupportedoverS1-MMEandS1-UtofulfilltheS1interface
capabilities:

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

S1UEcontextmanagementfunctionwhichsupportstheestablishmentofthe
necessaryoverallinitialUEcontextincludingE-RABcontext,securitycontext,
roamingrestriction,UES1signalingconnectionIds),intheeNBtoenablefastidleto-activetransition.
E-RABmanagementfunctionsareresponsibleforestablishing,modifyingand
releasingE-UTRANresourcesforuserdatatransportonceaUEcontextisavailable
intheeNB.TheestablishmentandmodificationofE-UTRANresourcesistriggered
bytheMMEandrequiresrespectiveQoSinformationtobeprovidedtotheeNB.The
releaseofE-UTRANresourcesistriggeredbytheMMEeitherdirectlyorfollowinga
requestreceivedfromtheeNB(optional).
S1linkmanagementfunction

GTP-Utunnelsmanagementfunction
ThisfunctionisusedtoestablishandreleaseGTP-UtunnelsbetweentheEPC
andtheE-UTRANuponanE-RABservicerequest.Thisinvolvesassigninga
tunnelidentifierforeachdirection.
S1signalinglinkmanagementfunction
TheS1signalinglinkmanagementfunctionprovidesareliabletransferofthe
radionetworksignalingbetweenE-UTRANandEPC.

MobilityfunctionsforUEsinLTE_Active

Networkarchitecture

Intra-LTEhandover
ThisfunctionsupportsmobilityforUEsinLTE_ACTIVEandcomprisesthe
preparation,execution,andcompletionofhandoverviatheX2andS1interfaces.
TheInter-3GPP-RAThandover
Thisfunctionsupportsmobilitytoandfromother3GPP-RATsforUEsin
LTE_ACTIVEandcomprisesthepreparation,execution,andcompletionof
handoverviatheS1interface.
MobilitytoCDMA2000System
Thisfunctionsupportsmobilitytoandfromothernon-3GPPradiotechnologies
forUEsinLTE_ACTIVE,namelytoandfromCDMA2000systems.

PagingfunctionsupportsthesendingofpagingrequeststotheeNBshavingoneor
morecellswhichcorrespondtooneoftheTAsinwhichtheUEisregistered.
Roamingandarearestrictionsupportfunctions
TheS1interfacesupportsthetransferofrestrictioninformationfromtheEPCtothe
eNBintermsofrestrictedTrackingAreasfortheUEinthenetwork.
S1interfacemanagementfunction
Coordinationfunctions
Securityfunction
Serviceandnetworkaccessfunction
UEtracingfunctionwhichallowstracingofvariouseventsrelatedtotheUEandits
activities.ThisisanO&Mfunctionality
RANInformationManagementfunction

SectionProtocolstacksdescribestheUuinterfaceprotocolstack.

2.6.1.3

X2 interface
TheX2interfaceisusedtologicallyconnecttwoeNBswithintheE-UTRAN.Itis
specifiedasanopeninterfaceinordertofacilitate:

Issue:04

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Inter-connectionofeNBssuppliedbydifferentmanufacturers
SupportofcontinuationbetweeneNBsoftheE-UTRANservicesofferedviathe
S1interface
SeparationofX2interfaceradionetworkfunctionalityandtransportnetwork
functionalitytofacilitatetheintroductionoffuturetechnologies

ThemainfunctionsoftheX2interfaceare:

IntraLTE-Access-SystemmobilitysupportforUEinLTE_ACTIVEallowstheeNBto
handoverthecontrolofacertainUEtoanothereNB.

Loadmanagementallowsexchangingoverloadandtrafficloadinformationbetween
eNBs,suchthattheeNBscancontrolthetrafficloadappropriately.
Inter-cellinterferencecoordinationallowskeepinginter-cellinterferenceunder
control.ForthisneighboringeNBsexchangeappropriateinformationallowingthose
eNBstomakeradioresourceassignmentssothatinterferenceismitigated.

ContexttransferfromsourceeNBtotargeteNBallowstransferringinformation
requiredtomaintaintheE-UTRANservicesforanUEinLTE_ACTIVEfrom
sourcetotargeteNB.
ControlofuserplanetunnelsbetweensourceeNBandtargeteNBallows
establishingandreleasingtunnelsbetweensourceandtargeteNBtoallowfor
dataforwarding.
HandovercancellationallowsinforminganalreadypreparedtargeteNBthata
preparedhandoverwillnottakeplace.Itallowsreleasingtheresourcesallocated
duringapreparation.

Uplinkinterferenceloadmanagementallowsindicatinganuplinkinterference
overloadandresourceblocksespeciallysensitivetointer-cellinterference
betweenneighboringeNBs,suchthatneighboreNBscanco-ordinatewitheach
othersuchthatthemutualinterferencecausedbytheiruplinkradioresource
allocationsismitigated.
DownlinkinterferenceavoidanceallowsaneNBtoinformitsneighboreNBs
aboutdownlinkpowerrestrictionsinitsowncells,perresourceblockfor
interferenceawareschedulingbytheneighboreNBs.

GeneralX2managementanderrorhandlingfunctionsallowformanagingof
signalingassociationsbetweeneNBs,surveyingX2interfaceandrecoveringfrom
errors.Errorindicationallowsthereportingofgeneralerrorsituationsonapplication
level.
TracerecordingsessionsonE-UTRANinterfacesforaparticularUEareinitiatedby
theEPC.ThetraceinitiationinformationisalsopropagatedtotheTargeteNBduring
handover,attachedtocertainhandovermessagesonX2.
ApplicationleveldataexchangebetweeneNBs.ThisfunctionallowstwoeNBsto
exchangeapplicationleveldatawhenanX2connectionissetup,andtoupdatethis
informationatanytime.

SectionProtocolstacksdescribestheUuinterfaceprotocolstack.

2.6.2 Core network interfaces


TheEvolvedPacketCore(EPC)architectureiscompliantwith3GPPspecifications
[TS23.401]and[TS23.402].TheEPCnetworkarchitectureiscomposedofthefollowing
mainelementscompliantwith3GPPRelease8specificationsandwithopeninterfaces:

50

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Networkarchitecture

MobilityManagementEntity(MME)
ServingGateway(S-GW)
PacketDataNetworkGateway(P-GW)

TheLTE/EPCarchitectureportfoliocomprisesthefollowingnetworkelements:

FlexiNetworkServer-MME
FlexiNetworkGateway(FlexiNG)

AllcoreinterfacesaresupportedeitherbyFlexiNetworkServer-MMEorFlexiNG.For
adetaileddescriptionofallsupportedinterfaces,seeFlexi Network Server - MMEor
Flexi NGinNOLS.

2.7 Protocol stacks


Thissectiondescribestheprotocolstacksforthecontrolanduserplaneofthemost
importantreferencepointsoftheLTE/EPCsystem.

2.7.1 Radio protocol architecture


Uu user plane protocol stack
Figure 29

Uuuserplaneprotocolstack

UE

eNB

S-GW

IP

IP

PDCP

PDCP

GTP-U

GTP-U

RLC

RLC

UDP

UDP

MAC

MAC

IP

IP

PHY

PHY

L1/L2

L1/L2

LTE-Uu

S1-U

TheRadioBearerisresponsiblefortransportofdatabetweenUEandeNBoverthe
LTE-UuinterfaceusingthePDCPprotocol(seeFigure29:Uuuserplaneprotocolstack).
UserdatatransportovertheRadioBearerismanagedbyPacketDataConvergence
Protocol(PDCP)[TS36.323]andRadioLinkControl(RLC)[TS36.322]intheUEand
eNB.Figure30:U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLCillustratestheprocessing
performedonpacketswithinPDCPandRLC.

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Figure 30

U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLC

UE/E-UTRAN

RadioInterface(Uu)

Transmitting
PDCP entity
PDCP

E-UTRAN/UE

Receiving
PDCP entity
Sequencenumbering

PDCP

Inorderdeliveryandduplicatedetection

HeaderCompression(u-planeonly)

HeaderDecompression(u-planeonly)

U-PlaneSecurity

U-PlaneSecurity

Ciphering

Deciphering

AddPDCP header
Transmitting
RLCentity

RLC

SAP

RemovePDCP header
Receiving
RLCentity

RLC

TransmissionBuffer

SDUreassembly

SegmentationandConcatenation

RemoveRLCheader

AddRLCheader

ReceptionbufferandHARQreordering

ToMACLayer

52

SAP

FromMACLayer

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Figure 31

Networkarchitecture

U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLC
To/From
S1-U
Data

PDCP

Header

Header Compression (RoHC)


Data

Header

U-Plane Security
Encrypted Data with Compressed Header
PDCP Packet Reordering
RLCSDU(Encrypted Data with Compressed Header &PDCP SN)

RLC

Segmentation and Re-assembly

RLC PDU
RLC PDU

RANPacketRe-ordering

RLC PDU

Outer Assured Delivery


To/From
MACLayer

ForU-planetraffic,thePDCPlayerisresponsiblefor:

managementandassignmentofPDCPsequencenumbersthatareattachedto
packets
in-sequencedeliveryofupperlayerSDUsduringinter-eNBhandoverviatheX2
interfaceusingthePDCP
detectionandeliminationofduplicatelowerlayerSDUsduringinter-eNBhandover
viatheX2interface
IPheadercompressionanddecompressionfordatatransferredovertheLTE-Uu,
usingRoHCv2[RFC4995]
applicationofU-planesecurity(ifrequired),whichencryptsordecryptsU-planedata
transferredovertheLTE-Uu
forwardingofPDCPSDUsatinter-eNBhandoverviatheX2interface

TheRLClayerisresponsiblefor:

Issue:04

segmentationandre-assemblyofRLCSDUsintoRLCPDUswhosesizematchthe
blocksizeusedbythephysicalradiolayer.Thismayinvolvetheconcatenationof
smallRLCSDUsintolargerblocks.
RANPacketReorderingofpacketsthatarereceivedoutofsequencesothatRLC
PDUsareconcatenatedinthecorrectorderbeforedeliveringtheSDUtoPDCP.
OuterAssuredDelivery,whichprovidesahighlevelofconfidencethatRLCPDUs
havebeensuccessfullydeliveredtothereceiver.

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The S1-U BearerisusedfortransportofuserdatabetweeneNBandS-GWoverthe


S1-UusingGTP-Uprotocol(seeFigure29:Uuuserplaneprotocolstack).EachS1BearerconsistsofapairofGTP-Utunnels(oneforuplinkandonefordownlink).The
eNBperformsmappingbetweenRadioBearerIDs(RBID)andGTP-Utunnelendpoints.

Uu control plane protocol stack


Figure 32

Uucontrolplaneprotocolstack

UE

eNB

MME
NAS

NAS
RRC

RRC

PDCP

PDCP

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

IP

IP

PHY

PHY

L1/L2

L1/L2

S1-AP

S1-AP

SCTP

SCTP

LTE-Uu

S1-MME

The RRC protocol (eNB <> UE)[TS36.331]isresponsibleforthetransferofsignaling


informationbetweentheeNBandUE.Itconsistsofcommoncellwidebroadcast
informationanddedicatedsignalingspecifictoanindividualUE.Itisusedfor:

54

ASSignalingConnectionControl
RadioBearerControlSignaling
MobilityHandling
UEMeasurement
UEPowerControl
UESecuritySignaling
TransportofNASMessages
DistributionofCellandSystemInformationBroadcast
DistributionofPagingSignaling

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 33

Networkarchitecture

C-planeoperationofPDCP

To/From
RRC
RRCMessage
Sequence
Numbering/Packet
Reordering

PDCP
PDCP SN

RRCMessage

IntegrityProtection
PDCP SN

RRCMessage

MAC*
C-PlaneCiphering

RLCSDU(Ciphered+IntegrityProtected)
To/from
MAC
RRCsignalingistransportedovertheLTE-UuinterfaceusingthePacketData
ConvergenceProtocol(PDCP)andtheRadioLinkControl(RLC)protocolinasimilar
waytoU-planedata.ThisisillustratedinFigure33:C-planeoperationofPDCP.Note
thatMAC*istheMessageAuthenticationCodeaddedbyintegrityprotectioninPDCP
andcipheringisoptional.
FormoredetailsonRLC,seeFigure30:U-planeoperationofPDCPandRLC.
ForC-planesignalingthePDCPlayerisresponsiblefor:

maintenanceandassignmentofPDCPsequencenumbersthatareattachedto
packets
applicationofC-planeintegrityprotection
applicationofC-planeciphering

The S1AP protocol (eNB <> MME)[TS36.413]isresponsiblefortransferringsignaling


informationbetweentheeNBandMMEovertheS1-MMEinterface.
TheLTE440: S1 Overload Handlingfeatureintroducesamechanismdesignedtoavoid
networkcongestionincaseofS1-MMElinkoverload.IfanMMEisinoverloadstateit
indicatesitsconditiontoeitherallorarandomlyselectednumberofitseNBs.These
eNBsareinstructedtorejectconnectionestablishmentrequeststhatrequireinteraction
withtheMME.SuchbehaviorallowstolowerthepacketrateontheoverloadedS1-MME
link.
S1APiscarriedusingtheStreamControlTransmissionProtocol(SCTP)[RFC4960].It
isusedfor:

Issue:04

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

QoSBearerManagement(Activation,Modification,andDeactivationofEPS
Bearers)
UEContextManagement(Release,Modification)
PagingDistributionSignaling
MobilitySignaling
SecurityModeSignaling
S1InterfaceManagement(Setup,Reset,ResetResource,OverloadandError
Indication)
TrackingAreaControlSignaling
TraceConfigurationSignaling
TransportofNASMessages

NAS Signaling Protocols (MME <> UE)provideC-planesignalingbetweentheUEand


MMEwhichisnotprocessedbytheeNB.NASmessagesareencapsulatedintotheRRC
andS1APprotocolstoprovidedirecttransportofNASsignalingbetweentheMMEand
UE.TheeNBisresponsibleformappingNASmessagesbetweentheRRCandS1AP
protocols.NASmessagesareinvolvedduringthefollowingprocedures:

AllocationofS-TMSI
Identification
Authentication
Attach,Detach,TrackingAreaUpdate
BearerHandling
ServiceRequest
Paging
Handover

2.7.2 EPS protocol architecture


S1-U user plane protocol stack
Figure 34

S1-Uuserplaneprotocolstack

UE

eNB

S-GW

IP

IP

PDCP

PDCP

GTP-U

GTP-U

RLC

RLC

UDP

UDP

MAC

MAC

IP

IP

PHY

PHY

L1/L2

L1/L2

LTE-Uu

S1-U

X2 user plane protocol stack


Figure 35

X2userplaneprotocolstack

eNB

eNB

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
X2

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Networkarchitecture

FromaU-planeperspective,theX2interfaceisusedforforwardinguserdatabetween
thesourceeNBandtargeteNBduringlosslessinter-eNBhandover.AGTP-Utunnelis
establishedacrosstheX2interfacebetweenthesourceeNBandthetargeteNB.Thus,
theprotocolstackisthesameasthatovertheS1-U.
ThesourceeNBforwardsalloutstandingdownlinkPDCPSDUsandstillincomingS1
downlinkSDUsinoriginalsequencetothetargeteNBviatheX2GTP-Utunnel.The
targeteNBwillstarttotransmitdownlinkuserdatareceivedatS1intheusualwayafter
allforwardeddatawastransmitted.AnyuplinkPDCPSDUsreceivedinsequencebythe
sourceeNBareforwardeddirectlytotheS-GWinthenormalmanner,butanyuplink
PDCPSDUsreceivedbythesourceeNBoutofsequencewillbediscarded(theUEwill
retransmitthem).

S5/S8 user plane protocol stack (GTP variant)


Figure 36

S5/S8userplaneprotocolstack(GTPvariant)

S-GW

P-GW

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S5/S8

S5/S8 user plane protocol stack (IETF variant)


Figure 37

S5/S8userplaneprotocolstack(IETFvariant)

S-GW

P-GW

Tunneling
layer

Tunneling
layer

IPv4/IPv6

IPv4/IPv6

L1/L2

L1/L2
S5/S8

S1-MME control plane protocol stack


Figure 38

S1-MMEcontrolplaneprotocolstack

UE

eNB

MME
NAS

NAS
RRC

RRC

PDCP

PDCP

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

IP

IP

PHY

PHY

L1/L2

L1/L2

S1-AP

S1-AP

SCTP

SCTP

LTE-Uu

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X2 control plane protocol stack


Figure 39

X2controlplaneprotocolstack

eNB

eNB

X2-AP

X2-AP

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
X2

TheX2interfaceisusedduringhandoversandtoexchangecell/eNBspecificinformation
betweentheeNBs.IPSeciscontainedwithintheIPpartoftheprotocolstack.LTEuses
IPSectunnelmode.ForQoSprovisioninIPSectunnelmode,theDiffServCodePoint
(DSCP)isavailableinplaintextintheouterIPheader.
NASmessagesarenottransferredbetweeneNBsduringhandover;therefore,thereis
noneedforNASintheX2protocolstack.
TheX2APprotocol(eNB<>eNB)[TS36.423]isresponsiblefortransferringsignaling
informationbetweenneighboringeNBsovertheX2interface.X2APiscarriedusing
SCTP.ThissignalingisusedforHandoverSignaling,Inter-cellRRMSignalingandX2
InterfaceManagement(Setup,Reset,ResetResourceandErrorIndication).
TheX2eNBConfigurationUpdatefunctionalityallowstheeNBtosendandreceive
updatedconfigurationinformationwithouttheneedforX2linkre-establishmentwhen
application-levelconfigurationinformationtransmittedduringtheestablishmentofX2link
haschanged.

S5/S8 control plane protocol stack (GTP variant)


Figure 40

S5/S8controlplaneprotocolstack(GTPvariant)

S-GW

P-GW

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S5/S8

S5/S8 control plane protocol stack (IETF variant)


Figure 41

S5/S8controlplaneprotocolstack(IETFvariant)

S-GW

P-GW

PMIPv6

PMIPv6

IPv4/IPv6

IPv4/IPv6

L1/L2

L1/L2
S5/S8

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Networkarchitecture

S10 control plane protocol stack


Figure 42

S10controlplaneprotocolstack

MME

MME

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S10

S11 control plane protocol stack


Figure 43

S11controlplaneprotocolstack

S-GW

MME

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S11

S6a control plane protocol stack


Figure 44

S6acontrolplaneprotocolstack

MME

HSS

DIAMETER

DIAMETER

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S6a

S13 control plane protocol stack


Figure 45

S13controlplaneprotocolstack

MME

EIR

DIAMETER

DIAMETER

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S13

Issue:04

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

SBc control plane protocol stack


Figure 46

SBccontrolplaneprotocolstack

eNB

MME

CBC

Interworking
S1-AP

S1-AP

SBc-AP

SBc-AP

STCP

STCP

STCP

STCP

IP

IP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2

L1/L2

L1/L2

S1-MME

SBc

2.7.3 Protocol architecture for interfaces for legacy 3GPP


interworking
S4 user plane protocol stack
Figure 47

S4userplaneprotocolstack

S-GW

SGSN

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S4

S12 user plane protocol stack


Figure 48

S12userplaneprotocolstack

S-GW

UTRAN

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S12

S3 control plane protocol stack


Figure 49

S3controlplaneprotocolstack

MME

SGSN

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S3

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Networkarchitecture

S4 control plane protocol stack


Figure 50

S4controlplaneprotocolstack

S-GW

SGSN

GTP-C

GTP-C

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L1/L2

L1/L2
S4

2.8 LTE multiple access radio interface (TDD)


TheLTEradiointerface,asspecifiedin[3GPPTS36.101]fortheUEandin[3GPPTS
36.104]fortheeNB,supportsbothFDDandTDDmodes,eachwiththeirownframe
structures.
InanFDDsystem,uplinkanddownlinkareseparatedinfrequency:therearedifferent
frequencybandsallocatedtouplinkanddownlink.InaTDDsystem,uplinkanddownlink
aredoneonthesamefrequencybandbutseparatedintime:therearetimeslots
allocatedtouplinkanddownlinktransmissionontheairinterface.Thisseparationis
doneonthelevelofthesubframesoftheradioframe.
AsinFDD,theradioframe(10msduration)isdividedinto10subframesof1mseach.
Table3:SubframeconfigurationsinTDD(examples)showsarangeofframestructures
thatarepossibleinLTETDD.Notallofthesearesupportedinthecurrentrelease.In
RL15TDreleaseonlyconfiguration1andconfiguration2aresupported.Withinaradio
frame,thedirection(UL/DL)canchangeonce(configurations3,4,5)ortwice
(configurations0,1,2,6).DLandULperiodsareseparatedbyasubframe(S)whichis
notusedandprovidesaguardwindowtoensurethatULtransmissionfromaUEdoes
notinterferewithDLtransmissionfromtheeNB.
Table 3

SubframeconfigurationsinTDD(examples)

UL/DL
configuration

Switch-point
periodicity

Subframe number

Configuration0

5ms

DL

UL

UL

UL

DL

UL

UL

UL

Configuration1

5ms

DL

UL

UL

DL

DL

UL

UL

DL

Configuration2

5ms

DL

UL

DL

DL

DL

UL

DL

DL

Configuration3

10ms

DL

UL

UL

UL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

Configuration4

10ms

DL

UL

UL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

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Table 3

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

SubframeconfigurationsinTDD(examples)(Cont.)

UL/DL
configuration

Switch-point
periodicity

Subframe number

Configuration5

10ms

DL

UL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

DL

Configuration6

10ms

DL

UL

UL

UL

DL

UL

UL

DL

AchosenTDDframeconfigurationmustbeappliedtothewholeTDDnetworkasfaras
coverageareasoftheeNBstouchoroverlap.AlleNBsofthisnetworkthenneedto
operatein+/-1.5sphasesynchronizedmode,ontopoffrequencysynchronizedmode
requiredbytheFDDsystem.TheserequirementscanonlybeachievedbyGPS-based
synchronization.
AlleNBsofthisnetworkthenneedtooperatein+/-1.5sphasesynchronizedmode,on
topoffrequencysynchronizedmoderequiredbytheFDDsystem.Theserequirements
canbeachievedbyGPSbasedsynchronizationorTimingoverPacketwithPhaseSync.

2.8.1 Differences between TDD and FDD


ThedifferentphysicallayerbetweenTDDandFDDsystemaffectsO&Mandboththe
UEsandeNBs.TowardstheCoreNetwork,theFDD-TDDdifferencesarenotvisible.
ThesubframesforDLandULaredefinedmostlyidenticaltothesubframesinFDD
mode.Asexceptions,thereareadditionalRACHmodes(format#4)anditispossibleto
havemorethanone(uptosix)PRACHperULsubframe.
As3GPPLTEstandardsattempttokeepFDDandTDDmodesaligned,differenceson
higherlayers(suchasRRC)aremainlyconsequencesofthismodificationinthephysical
layer.Schedulersneedtotakethedifferenttransmissionandreceptionpatternsinto
accountandneedtoadapttodifferenttimebehavior.Inconsequence,thenumberof
HARQprocessesmaydifferdependingonscenarioandconfiguration,aswellasthe
varianceandthevalueofroundtriptime(RTT).ThisalsoentailsmorelooseHARQRTT
latencyrequirements.SmalladditionaloptionssuchasACK/NACKbundlingallowto
counteractthedifferenttimingbehaviorinTDDmode,toavoidexcessivedelays.
ThesedifferencesinthephysicaloperationleadtodifferencesintheControlplaneand
O&Mwhichneedtosupportdifferentconfigurationparametersandperformance
managementcounters.
Owingtothereciprocalnatureofthechannel,TDDhasdistinctiveadvantageswhen
deployingtheBeamFormingfeature.BeamFormingcanboostspectrumefficiency,in
particularatthecelledge.
Ingeneral,systemcapacityandperformanceinTDDexhibitlowervaluesthaninFDD,
asaconsequenceofsharingasingle(maximum)20MHzbandforuplinkanddownlink
operation.AnadvantageofTDDoverFDDisthatFDDcanadapttopermanent(orlongduration)asymmetricUL/DLtrafficdemandsbychoosingUL/DLconfigurationmodes
withasymmetriccapacityallocationforULandDL.

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Networkarchitecture

2.8.2 Beamforming
Beamforming(BF)isanewtechniqueinLTE,andisfirstintroducedintheRL15TD
release.Atypicaldeploymentwillusea4+4cross-polarizeddirectionalantennaforeach
sector.BFisverydemandingwithrespecttophysicallayerprocessingcapacity.
Theradiationpatternofanantennaarrayisobtainedastheproductoftheradiation
patternoftheantennaelements,timesthepatternofthewholegroup.Theresulting
radiationpatterncanfurtherbemodifiedbymultiplyingtheantennainputsignalswith
antenna-specificweightingfactors.Theseweightsarecalculatedasavectorwithone
elementperantenna.EachUErequiresitsownweightvector.Thevectordependson
theUEslocationinthecellandfurtherwavepropagationconditions.Itiscalculatedfrom
theSoundingReferenceSignal(SRS)uplinktransmission,wheretheco-variance
betweentheRXantennasignalsisobserved.Figure51:Calculationofantennaweights
forbeamformingillustratestheprocessofcalculatingtheantennaweights.
Figure 51

Calculationofantennaweightsforbeamforming
DL-PHY

DRSinsertion

UE-1 TB
fromMAC
DL-Scheduling&
Link Adaptation

UE-N TB
fromMAC

Scrambler,
FEC/RM,
Interleaver,
Modulation

Resource
Mapping

Scrambler,
FEC/RM,
Interleaver,
Modulation

Resource
Mapping

BFvectors
forUE-1

Storemost
recent
updatesof
BFvectors

UE-1
symbol

Tx Ant#1
IFFT

UE-1
symbol

Beam
Weights
Application

Tx Ant#T
IFFT

UL channelestimate
UE-1(8x1)perRB

SRSReceiverUE-1
Beamweights
computation
BFvectors persubband UL channelestimate
forUE-N foreachUE UE-N(8x1)perRB
SRSReceiverUE-N

MAC

CPT

CPT

SRSUE-1

SRSUE-N

UL-PHY

Calculatingthedownlink(TX)vectorfromRXdataisbasedontheassumptionof
reciprocitybetweendownlinkanduplink,thatis,theassumptionthatmeasurements
derivedfromonesignaldirectionyieldvalidresultsfortheother.Sincewavepropagation
andmultipathconditionsarefrequency-dependent,thisassumptionismuchmore
justifiedinaTDDsystemwhich,incontrasttoFDD,usesthesamefrequencyforuplink
anddownlink.
Commonchannelsarehandledintheconventionalway,thatis,withoutbeamforming:
theyareradiatedtothewholesectorusingthesectorbeam.

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OnlydedicatedcommunicationtowardsaBF-capableUEiscarriedoutinBFmode.UEs
whichsupportBFprocessthededicatedreferencesymbols(DRS)transmittedfromthe
eNB,andprovidethesoundingreferencesignal(SRS)inuplink.Non-BF-capableUEs
areservedthroughthesectorbeam.
TheFlexibleSoundingConfigurationfunctionalityallowscustomersflexibleconfiguring
thesoundingbandwidthunderdifferentscenariostooptimizethebeamforming
performance.
ThebenefitsofBeamFormingareboughtattheexpenseofhighereffortinvarious
areasofthesystem,suchas:highernumberofantennas,precisecalibrationneeds,
moreantennacarrierstoproceed,userspecificreferencesignals,BeamFormingspecial
precodingindownlink,EigenValuecalculation,andDirection-Of-Arrival(DOA)
estimation.

2.9 LTE multiple access radio interface (FDD)


TheLTEradiointerface,asspecifiedin[3GPPTS36.101]fortheUEandin[3GPPTS
36.104]fortheeNB,supportsbothFDDandTDDmodes,eachwiththeirownframe
structures.TheFDDLTEmultipleaccessisbasedonOFDMAinthedownlinkdirection
(seeOFDMAprinciples)andSC-FDMAintheuplinkdirection(seeSC-FDMAprinciples).

Different technologies for uplink and downlink


ThemainbenefitsofeachtechnologyaresummarizedinTable4:BenefitsofOFDMA
andSC-FDMA.
Table 4

BenefitsofOFDMAandSC-FDMA

Downlink: OFDMA

Uplink: SC-FDMA

improvedspectralefficiency

reducedinterference

verywellsuitedforMIMO

powerefficientuplinkwhichincreases
batterylifetime
improvedcelledgeperformance

reducedterminalcomplexity

Modulation schemes for uplink and downlink


ThedifferentmodulationschemesofOFDMAandSC-FDMAareillustratedinFigure52:
OFDMAandSC-FDMAmodulationschemes.Forclarity,thisexampleusesonlyfour(M)
subcarriersovertwosymbolperiodswiththepayloaddatarepresentedbyquadrature
phaseshiftkeying(QPSK)modulation.However,realLTEsignalsareallocatedinunits
of12adjacentsubcarriers.
Themostobviousdifferencebetweenthetwoschemesisthat,theOFDMAtransmitsthe
fourQPSKdatasymbolsinparallel,onepersubcarrier,whileSC-FDMAtransmitsthe
fourQPSKdatasymbolsseriesatfourtimestherate,witheachdatasymboloccupying
Mx15kHzbandwidth.
Visually,theOFDMAsignalisclearlymulti-carrierwithonedatasymbolpersubcarrier,
whereastheSC-FDMAsignalappearstobemorelikeasingle-carrierwitheachdata
symbolbeingrepresentedbyonewidesignal.

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Figure 52
Q

-1,1

Networkarchitecture

OFDMAandSC-FDMAmodulationschemes
1,1

1,1

-1,-1

-1,1

1,-1

-1,-1

1,-1

1,1

-1,1

I
SequenceofQPSKdatasymbolstobetransmitted
1,-1

-1,-1

er
ow
rp MA
rr ie FD
ca C- d
ub S rio
s h
nt ac pe
ta g e bol
s
n in m
Co dur sy

QPSKmodulating
datasymbols

SC
sy -F
m DM
bo A
l

O
sy FD
m M
bo A
l

e
Ti
m

Ti
m
fc

Frequency

15kHz

SC
sy -F
m DM
bo A
l

CP

O
sy FD
m M
bo A
l

CP

Frequency

60kHz

fc

OFDMA

SC-FDMA
DatasymbolsoccupyM*15kHzfor
1/MSC-FDMA symbolperiods

Datasymbolsoccupy15kHzfor
oneOFDMA symbolperiod

Signal generation and reception


OFDMAandSC-FDMApartlysharethesamesignalgenerationandreceptionsteps.
DifferenttoOFDMA,SC-FDMAbeginswithaspecialpre-codingprocessfromthetime
domaintothefrequencydomainbutthencontinuesinamannersimilartoOFDMA,as
illustratedinFigure53:OFDMAandSC-FDMAsignalgenerationandreception
(simplifiedmodel).Afterthat,anIDFTisperformedtoconvertthefrequency-shifted
signaltothetimedomainandCP(CyclicPrefix)isinsertedtoprovidefundamental
robustnessofOFDMAagainstthemultipath.
Figure 53

OFDMAandSC-FDMAsignalgenerationandreception(simplifiedmodel)

UniquetoSC-FDMA

Mdata
bitsin

Mapdatato
constellation

Generate
timedomain
waveform

Timedomain

Mdata
bits out

De-map
constellation
todata

Generate
constellation

CommonwithOFDMA

Perform
M-pointDFT
(timetofreq)

Map
symbolsto
subcarriers

Perform
N-pointIFFT
N>M

Frequencydomain
Perform
M-pointIDFT
(freqtotime)

De-map
subcarriers
tosymbols

Upconvert
andtransmit

Timedomain
Perform
N-pointDFT
N>M

Receiveand
downconvert

Key components of the LTE radio interface


InadditiontotheOFDMAandSC-FDMAconceptstherearethefollowingkey
componentsoftheLTEradiointerface:

Issue:04

Thehighestavailablemodulationschemeof64QAM(mandatoryintheDownlink
andoptionalinUplink)providesasignificantadvantageoverHSPARel-6.
Theturboconvolutionalcoderimprovescodinggainby1to2dBcomparedtoa
conventionalconvolutionalcoder.
LTERel-8supportsmultiantennaschemesforMIMOandTXdiversity.Fordetails,
seeMulti-antennatechniques.

DN0991589

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Inter-cellinterferencecoordinationandinterferencecancellationenableexploiting
multiantennaconfigurations.FordetailsseeInterferencemitigation.
Thefrequency-selectivePacketScheduler(PS)ischannel-awareanddynamically
allocatestotheUEacertainnumberofPRBsinaccordancetoQoScriteria.
WithLTE46: Channel Aware Scheduler (UL)feature,theschedulingcriterioninthe
frequencydomainisdefinedbytherelativesignalstrength.AdditionallytheUL
schedulertakesintoaccountthenumberofassignedPRBsforthecalculationofthe
schedulingcriterion.
TheHybridAutomaticRepeatRequest(HARQ)schemecanmovetheoperating
pointforlinkadaptationtoaBlockErrorRate(BLER)of10%upto20%.

2.9.1 OFDM concept


OFDMmakesuseofalargenumberofcloselyspacedorthogonalsubcarriersthatare
transmittedinparallel,ratherthantotransmitahigh-ratestreamofdatawithasingle
carrier.Eachsubcarrierismodulatedwithaconventionalmodulationscheme(suchas
QPSK,16QAM,or64QAM)atalowsymbolrate.Thecombinationofhundredsor
thousandsofsubcarriersenablesdataratessimilartoconventionalsingle-carrier
modulationschemesinthesamebandwidth.
Orthogonalityinthefrequencydomain:

ideallyeliminatesintra-cellinterference
allowsaveryhighspectralefficiency
allowsrathersmallguardbandswithinthenominalbandwidth

ThesecharacteristicsenablemuchmoreflexiblespectrumusagethaninCDMA-based
systemslikeUTRA.LTE(forFDD)supportscarrierbandwidthsof1.4MHz,3MHz,5
MHz,10MHz,15MHz,and20MHz(notethat1.4MHzand3MHzcarrierbandwidthwill
besupportedinfuturerelease).LTE(forTDD)supportscarrierbandwidthsof10MHz
and20MHz.
OrthogonalityisalsothereasonwhyMultiple-InputMultiple-Output(MIMO)techniques
arebettersupportedinOrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiplex(OFDM)systemsthan
inCDMA-basedsystems.Onthetimeaxis,anOFDMtransmittersendsasequenceof
OFDMsymbolsseparatedbyguardtimeintervals.AkeyprincipleistheCyclicPrefix
(CP)whichistransmittedduringsuchaguardtimeintervalandwhichconsistsofacopy
ofthesucceedingOFDMsymbol'stail.
ThankstotheintermittedCPs,thereceivercan:

eliminateinter-symbolinterferencecausedbymultipathpropagation(thereby
establishingorthogonalityinthetimedomain)
benefitfromsimplifiedequalizationandsimplifiedchannelestimationinthe
frequencydomain

OFDMreceiverandtransmitterarebasedontheDiscreteorFastFourierTransform
(FFT)algorithm.Inthefrequencydomain,multipleadjacenttonesorsubcarriersare
eachindependentlymodulatedwithdata.Theninthetimedomain,guardintervalsare
insertedbetweeneachofthesymbolstopreventinter-symbolinterferenceatthe
receivercausedbymultipathdelayspreadintheradiochannel.

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Figure 54

Networkarchitecture

Orthogonalfrequencydivisionmultiplexprinciple
Availablebandwidth
Sub-carriers

...
OFDM
symbols

Frequency

...

Guard
intervals

Time

DisadvantagesoftheOFDMconceptare:

Thesubcarriersarecloselyspaced,makingOFDMsensitivetofrequencyerrorsand
phasenoise.Forthesamereason,OFDMisalsosensitivetoDopplershift,which
causesinterferencebetweenthesubcarriers.
PureOFDMalsocreateshighPeak-to-AveragePowerRatio(PAPR),andthatiswhy
amodificationofthetechnologycalledSC-FDMAisusedintheuplink.

2.9.2 OFDMA principles


TheE-UTRAsystemusesOrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess(OFDMA)for
theDownlink,whichdividestheavailablebandwidthintomanynarrow,mutually
orthogonalsub-carriers.OFDMAisavariantoforthogonalfrequencydivision
multiplexing(OFDM),adigitalmulti-carriermodulationschemethatiswidelyusedin
wirelesssystemsbutrelativelynewtocellular.
WithstandardOFDM,verynarrowUE-specifictransmissionscansufferfromnarrowband
fadingandinterference.IncontrasttoanOFDMtransmissionscheme,OFDMAallows
theaccessofmultipleusersontheavailablebandwidth.ThatiswhyforLTEthe
downlinkOFDMAisused,whichincorporateselementsoftimedivisionmultipleaccess
(TDMA).Eachuserisassignedaspecifictime-frequencyresource.OFDMAallows
subsetsofthesubcarrierstobeallocateddynamicallyamongthedifferentusersonthe
channel,asshowninFigure55:OFDMandOFDMAsubcarrierallocation.Asa
fundamentalprincipleofE-UTRA,thedatachannelsaresharedchannels,thatis,for
eachtransmissiontimeinterval,anewschedulingdecisionistakenregardingwhich
usersareassignedtowhichtime/frequencyresourcesduringthistransmissiontime
interval.Theresultisamorerobustsystemwithincreasedcapacity.Thisisbecauseof
thetrunkingefficiencyofmultiplexinglowrateusersandtheabilitytoscheduleusersby
frequency,whichprovidesresistancetomultipathfading.

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Figure 55

OFDMandOFDMAsubcarrierallocation
Subcarriers

Subcarriers

User2
User3

OFDM

Symbols(Time)

Symbols(Time)

User1

OFDMA

NotethatnotallofPhysicalResourceBlocks(PRBs)canbeallocatedtousers,because
someofPRBsarereservedforsynchronizationandcommonchannels.

2.9.3 SC-FDMA principles


TheE-UTRAsystemusesSingleCarrierFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess(SCFDMA)fortheUplink,whichcombinesthelowPeak-to-AveragePowerRatio(PAPR)
techniquesofsingle-carriertransmissionsystems,suchasGSMandCDMA,withthe
multipathresistanceandflexiblefrequencyallocationofOFDMA.Thesinglecarrier
signalhasaPAPRthatisabout4dBlowerthanacorrespondingOFDMsignal;this
extendstheUEbatterylifetime.Thankstotransformprecoding,eachUEcreatesa
singlecarriersignal.
AsillustratedinFigure56:DFTpre-codingandprincipleofSC-FDMA,datasymbolsin
thetimedomainareconvertedtothefrequencydomainusingadiscreteFourier
transform(DFT).Inthefrequencydomain,theyaremappedtothedesiredlocationinthe
overallchannelbandwidthbeforebeingconvertedbacktothetimedomainusingan
inverseFFT(IFFT).Finally,theCPisinserted.
Figure 56

UEdata after
modulation
mapping

DFTpre-codingandprincipleofSC-FDMA

Q-point
DFT
Q

Add
0s

NFTT-point
IFFT
(NFTT Q)

CP
Add

RF
Gen

Q-pointDFT
(TransformPre-coding)
ResultsinSingle-CarrierFDMA:
SystemBW

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2.10 LTE radio protocol architecture


TheLTEUMTSairinterface(LTE-Uuinterface)istheradiointerfacebetweenthe
EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccessNetwork(E-UTRAN)andtheUser
Equipment(UE).TheUuinterfaceadoptsthecommunicationbetweeneNBandtheUE.
ItcomprisestheControlPlane(C-plane)forsignalingandtheUserPlane(U-plane)for
thetransferofuserdata.TheUuinterfaceisneededtosetup,reconfigure,andrelease
radiobearerservicesincludingtheLTEFrequencyDivisionDuplex(FDD)service.

Downlink physical channels

Physical broadcast channel(PBCH)


ThecodedBCHtransportblockismappedtofoursubframeswithina40mstime
interval.
Physical control format indicator channel(PCFICH)
InformstheUEaboutthenumberofOFDMsymbolsusedforthePDCCHsandmust
betransmittedineverysubframe.
Physical downlink control channel(PDCCH)
InformstheUEabouttheresourceallocationandHybrid-ARQinformation.Italso
containstheUplinkschedulinggrant.
Physical downlink shared channel(PDSCH)
CarriestheDownlinksharedchannel(DL-SCH)andthePagingChannel(PCH).
Physical hybrid ARQ indicator channel(PHICH)
CarriesHybridARQACK/NACKsinresponsetoUplinktransmission.
Synchronization channels(PrimarySCHandSecondarySCH)

Uplink physical channels

Physical uplink control channel (PUCCH)


CarriesACK/NACKsinresponsetoDownlinktransmissionaswellasCQIreports,
andschedulingrequests.
Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH)
CarriestheUL-SCH.
Physical random access channel(PRACH)
Carriestherandomaccesspreamble.

Themappingofphysical,transportandlogicalchannelsisillustratedinFigure57:
Mappingofphysical,transportandlogicalchannels.

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Figure 57

Mappingofphysical,transportandlogicalchannels

DL LogicalChannel

BCCH CCCH DTCH

DL TransportChannel

BCH

DL PhysicalChannel

DL-SCH

PACH

DCCH

PCH

PDSCH

UL LogicalChannel

PCCH

DTCH

UL TransportChannel

RACH

UL-SCH

UL PhysicalChannel

PRACH

PUSCH

PDCCH

DCCH

PCFICH

PHICH

CCCH

PUCCH

FormoreinformationseeLTE/EPC interfaces.

2.11 Multi-antenna techniques


AkeyingredientoftheLTEairinterfaceistheMultiple-InputMultiple-Output(MIMO)
supporttoachievetheambitiousrequirementsforthroughputandspectralefficiency.
MIMOreferstotheuseofmultipleantennasattransmitterandreceiverside.FortheLTE
downlink,a2x2configurationforMIMOisassumedasthebaselineconfiguration,thatis,
twotransmitantennasatthebasestationandtworeceiveantennasattheterminalside.
ConfigurationswithfourtransmitorreceiveantennasarealsosupportedbyLTERel-8.
DifferentgainscanbeachieveddependingontheMIMOmodeused.Table5:MultiantennaoptionsinLTEgivesanoverviewonthetypicalLTEmultiantenna
configurations.
Table 5

Multi-antennaoptionsinLTE

DL

UL

BS

UE

TX

RX

1x2

2x2

Gain to smaller
configuration

+4...5dBDLlinkbudget

Configuration type

UE

BS

Gain to smaller
configuration

TX

RX

1x2

minimum

1x2

standard

+100%peakdatarate
+userexperience

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Table 5

Networkarchitecture

Multi-antennaoptionsinLTE(Cont.)

DL

UL

BS

UE

TX

RX

Gain to smaller
configuration

Configuration type

UE

BS

TX

RX

Gain to smaller
configuration

+20%spectrumefficiency
4x2

+3...4dBDLlinkbudget

1x4

+moderatecapacitygains

+3..4dBULlinkbudget

high-performance

+userexperience
+50%spectrumefficiency

4x4

+100%peakdatarate

1x4

future

+userexperience
+50%spectrumefficiency

ThestandardconfigurationattheLTEbasestationisstronglyrecommended.In
additiontotwoRXantennas(RXdiversity),italsoprovidestwoTXchainsattheLTE
basestations,whichishighlybeneficialwithoutextraantennaandfeedereffortandcost
comparedtotheminimumconfigurationwithoneTX.Inahighperformancescenario,
oneRXantennasattheLTEbasestationsubstantiallyenhancetheLTEUplinkbut
requireadditionalantennaandfeedereffortandcost.Thisconfigurationisjustifiedina
re-farmingscenariotoavoidcombinglosses.Typically,theLTEUEhastwoRXantennas
andoneTXchain.
TheCentralizedRANcanbeusedtomitigateULinterferencesimpactonUL
performanceandfinallytoimproveULaveragecellthroughputpotentiallyupto100%
(comparedto2-RxsinglecellMRC)incaseofstadiumtypemasseventanddense
RRH/RFMdeployments.

2.11.1 Receive diversity


Two-branch(2Rx)andfour-branch(4Rx)receivediversityissupportedandbasedon
MaximumRatioCombining(MRC).MRCmeanstocombinethetwo(orfour)receive
signalssuchthatthewantedsignal'spowerismaximizedcomparedtotheinterference
andthenoisepower-theSignal-to-Interference-and-Noise-Ratio(SINR)isenhanced.
MRCoutperformsreceiveantennaselection.
Receivediversitywithtworeceivebranchesrequirestwouncorrelatedreceiveantennas
usingasinglecross-polarantennaortwoverticallypolarizedspatiallyseparated
antennas;four-branchreceivediversityrequiresfouruncorrelatedreceiveantennas
usingforexampletwospatiallyseparatedcross-polarantennas.
Alternatively,4partiallyuncorrelatingreceiverantennasmaybeapplied,forexample,
twocloselyspacedcross-polarantennas.Suchachoicemaybemotivatedforexample
becauseofdesiredfour-transmit-antennabehavior,orbecauseofmechanicalintegration
insideoneradome.

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ReceivediversityiscompliantwithLTERel-8terminalsandsupportedonallUplink
channels.
BesidestraditionalMRC,InterferenceRejectionCombining(IRC)receiverisalso
implementedinUL.TheIRCreceiverprovidesabetterperformancethananMRC-based
receiverincaseofmediumorhighinterference.TheIRCalgorithmsupportsdifferentRX
configurations:twoRX,fourRX,oreightRX(infuture).

2.11.2 Transmit diversity


LTEsolutionsupportsfour-branchSingleStreamDownlinkTransmitDiversity.
Dependingonchannelconditions,therearetwoschemestobedistinguishedfortransmit
diversity:

MIMO Transmit Diversity


TransmitdiversityisbasedonSpaceFrequencyBlockCoding.
Zero-delay CDD MIMO Spatial Multiplexing
Transmitdiversityisbasedontransmittingasinglecodewordovermultipletransmit
antennas.

AllowinganincreaseoftotaleNBtransmitpowerbykeepingthetransmitpowerper
transmitbranchashighasforthesingletransmitantennacaseimprovesthelinkbudget
by3dBfortwobranchesandby6dBforfourbranches.Thisyieldsbothcoverageand
capacityenhancements.
OnlyifthetotaleNBtransmitpoweriskeptequal(comparedtothesingletransmit
branchcase)transmitdiversityleadstomorerobustlinksatthecelledgewhilereducing
cellcapacityslightly.IncaseofDRXVoIPusers,however,transmitdiversityslightly
enhancescellcapacitybyapproximately5%fortwotransmitbranches.
TransmitdiversitywithuptofourbranchesissupportedforallDownlinkchannels.
Transmitdiversitymaybesemi-staticallyconfiguredpercell,whileforUECategory1
transmitdiversityforPDSCHisautomaticallyselected.

2.11.3 MIMO techniques


ThetypicalMIMOconfigurationencompassingDual-Codeword2x2DLSingle-User(SU)
MIMOSpatialMultiplexingisillustratedinFigure58:2x2MIMOconfiguration.ThisMIMO
schemetargetsataduplicationoftheDownlinkpeakuserdataratebyallowingtwo
independentparalleldatastreamstoasingleUE.ThisisalsocalledSpatialMultiplexing.
Thetwobasestationtransmitsignals,twoUEreceivesignals,andfourchannelsform
(foreachandeverysubcarrier)asystemoftwoequationswithtwounknowntransmit
signals.Thetwounknowntransmitsignalscanbecalculatedfromtheestimatedfour
channels,thepossibletransmitalphabet(s),andthetworeceivesignals.

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Figure 58

Networkarchitecture

2x2MIMOconfiguration

TXantennas

Channel(s)

RXantennas

H1,1
X1
Data

H2,1

Y1

TX

RX

Data

H1,2
X2

Y2
H2,2
A

k:
kkkkk

Y 11,111,22
=HX+HX

kkkkk

Y 22,112,22
=HX+HX

Whetherornottwoindependentdatastreamscanbetransmittedefficientlyatthesame
timedependsonthechannelsaswellasonhowwellthechannelsofthetwodata
streamsdecorrelate.Decorrelationofthechannelsstronglydependsontheantenna
characteristics.
Antennasareuncorrelatedifthey:

arespatiallyseparatedbyabouttenormorewavelengths
useorthogonalpolarizationplanes(cross-polarity)
seeadiffuseenvironment

Uncorrelatedantennasprovidepotentialfordiversityandspatialmultiplexinggain,and
onlypartlyforcoherencegain.
Antennaelementsarecorrelatedifthey:

arephasedbywavelengthspacing
havealowangularspread
seeanon-diffuseenvironment(forexample,ontheroof-top)

Correlatedantennasproviderobustcoherencegaineasily(theclassicalbeamforming
gain)butnospatialmultiplexingand/ordiversitygain.
IncaseofOpen Loop SU-MIMO Spatial Multiplexing, thereisnoUEfeedback
required.Mappingofdatatothetransmitantennaportsisfixedandthesystemcannot
beinfluenced.IftheconditionsforSpatialMultiplexingaretoobad,however,theUEmay
requesttolowerthetransmissionrankandultimatelytofallbacktoTransmitDiversity.
IncaseofClosed Loop SU-MIMO Spatial Multiplexing,UEfeedbackisrequired.
MappingofdatatothetransmitantennaportsfollowstheCodebookentryrecommended
bytheUE.TheloopbetweenbasestationandUEisclosed,andthesystemcanbe
influencedtobetterenableSpatialMultiplexing.Again,iftheconditionsforSpatial
Multiplexingaretoobad,theUEmayrequestafallbacktoTransmitDiversity.
MIMOtechniquescomprisethefollowing:

Issue:04

DownlinkMIMOtechniques
Multi-userMIMOtechniques

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2.11.3.1

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Downlink MIMO techniques


Forinteroperabilityreasons,theOpenLoopSU-MIMOschememustbebasedonthe
Large-delayCyclicDelayDiversity(Large-delayCDD)precoding.Operatorsmay
(statically)configureTransmitDiversity,MIMOSpatialMultiplexing,oradaptivemode.In
adaptivemode,OpenLoop2x2SU-MIMOfallbackisSpaceFrequencyBlockCoding
(SFBC)transmitdiversity.
Codebook-based(ClosedLoop)SU-MIMOusesno-CDDprecoding.Operatorsmay
(statically)configureTransmitDiversity,MIMOSpatialMultiplexing,oradaptivemode.In
adaptivemode,ClosedLoop2x2SU-MIMOfallbackis2x2MIMOSpatialMultiplexing
withasinglecodeword.
Underoptimalconditions,2x2SU-MIMOdoublesthepeakuserdatarate.Underrealistic
conditions,2x2SU-MIMOresultsinacellcapacityenhancementof10%formacrocellularto40%formicro-cellulardeploymentscenarios.ClosedLoopSU-MIMOiswellsuitedforUEvelocitiesbelow30km/h,whileOpenLoopSU-MIMOisnaturallypreferred
forhigherUEvelocities.Hence,anadaptationalgorithmbetweenOpenLoopandClosed
LoopMIMOcouldbebasedonUEvelocity.
ThecurrentFlexiMultiradioBTSHardwaremeetsthephasenoiseorminimumjitter
requirements(<60ns)betweenLTEbasebandprocessingandantennaconnectors
requiredforMIMOschemeswithuncorrelatedantennas.Whetherornotasitecanbe
upgradedfromtwotofourantennaspercellwithlittletonovisibleimpactdependson
thecharacteristicsofthesiteandwhetherdeployeddual-bandcross-polarantennascan
bereusedoreasilysubstitutedwithanantennaofsimilargeometry.

2.11.3.2

Multi-user MIMO techniques


TheuplinkMulti-UserMIMOmeansthattwodifferentUEsexploitthesamephysical
Uplinkairinterfaceresources.UplinkMU-MIMOissupportedinthe3GPPstandardLTE
Rel-8.TheuplinkMUMIMOisacapacityenhancementfeatureeffectiveforloaded
networks.
ThereisanimplementationoftheUplinkMUMIMO8Rxinalignmentwiththefour
receiveantennaconfigurationssupportedattheeNB.TheuplinkMUMIMOusesthetwo
basestationreceiveandfourbasestationreceiveantennasdependingontheactual
antennadeployment.
Forevaluationpurposes,aProportionalFairschedulerandafrequency-selectiveMIMO
schedulerhavebeencompared,indicatingvariousperformancegainsachievablewith
twoorfourreceiveantennas.Resultsarebetterforhighersystemloads,asanadvanced
eNBreceivercanexploitbestUplinkMUMIMOiftherearesufficientappropriatepairings
ofUEs.AninitialimplementationoftheUplinkMUMIMOschedulerstartsfromsemistaticpairingofUEstoallowforsmoothintegrationwithHybridAutomaticRepeat
Request(HARQ)processing.
TheULMUMIMO8RxfeatureallowscreationofavirtualULMIMObyspatial
multiplexingofUEs.TheULMIMOusesTxsofmultipleUEssothattheycanbeseenas
avirtualUEwith2TxfromtheeNB'sperspective.ThemechanismiscalledULMUMIMO
becauseofthefactthatmultipleusersaremultiplexed.TheULMUMIMOistransparent
fortheUEs,thatis,theUEsarenotawareofULmultiplexing.
Theuplinkmulti-userMIMOfunctionalityimprovesthespectralefficiencybyupto
10~20%.

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2.12 Radio network optimization


NokiahasextensiveexperienceindevelopingGSM/EGPRS,3G/HSPA,I-HSPA,and
WiMaxandprovidingallnecessaryparametersforoptimization,andsimilarkindof
documentationwillbeavailableforLTEsystemaswell.
ManyoftheRFparametersforoptimizationaresimilartoothertechnologies(thatis
AntennaTilting/Azimuth,TxPower,FrequencyReuse),plusspecificparametersrelated
toadvancedfeatureslikePFScheduler,InterferenceCoordination.Nokiaplanning
guidelinesandavailableparameterswillbesimilartotheWiMAXsystem,asitsOFDMA
andtightRFreusewillbeverysimilartoLTEplanning.LTEplanningguidelinescover
specificaspectoftraditionalRFplanningandoptimizationwhichmaydifferinOFDM
systemascomparedwithCDMAorWCDMA.
Themainaspectsaffectingcoverageandcapacityoptimizationare:

Optimizationusingazimuthadjustments
Antennatilting
SINRoptimizationbydowntilting
FlexiBTSconfigurationparameters

TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsanuplinkcoverageimprovementalgorithmasan
extensiontotheuplinklinkadaptation.
Thecoverageextensionisachievedbycontrollingtheuplinkpacketsegmentation.This
leadstoanimprovementofthecoveragethroughput;alsoPDCCHismoreoptimally
utilizedasaresultofbalancingnewtransmissionsandretransmissions.The
enhancementincoveragethroughputcomesatthecostofcellthroughput.Foragiven
modulationcodescheme(MCS)asdeterminedbytheuplinklinkadaptationand
configuredtransportblocksize(TBS),theuplinkschedulerdeterminesthePRB
allocation.

Optimization using azimuth adjustments


SincetheSINRistolerantagainstazimuthdeviationfromtheidealdirection,itisuseful
asatoolforRFoptimization,providedthatthereisareasonableoverlapbetween
sectorsofthesamesite.Theoverlapisachievedbyusingarelativelywidehorizontal
antennabeamwidth.Thistechniqueneedstobeusedinconjunctionwithdowntilting
sincetheirregularsitelocationswouldmeandifferenteffectivecellradiiforvarious
sectors.

Antenna tilting
Antennatiltingisveryeffectiveincontrollingco-channelinterferencebysuppressing
signalspillage.Theverticalantennapatternisalsousedtocompensatethenear-far
effectbecauseofpropagation,whichinturncanenhancethesignaldistributioninthe
cell.Therearetwowaysofantennatilting:

Issue:04

Electrical tiltingcanbecontrolledremotelyandmaybeintegratedintothe
OperationsSupportSystem(OSS).Thechoiceofantennabecomesveryimportant
sinceelectricalandmechanicaldowntiltinghavedifferenteffectstotheeffective
shapeofthehorizontalandverticalpatterns.

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Mechanical tiltingisrelativelycheaptoimplementsincetheantennaalwaysallows
themountingtobeadjustedvertically.Themaindrawbackofmechanicaltiltisits
distortioninthehorizontalpatternsinceitprovideshigherattenuationatthemain
lobe'sazimuthdirection.Thisisacceptableonlyifsmalltiltsarerequired.

Forlargerdowntilts,electricaltiltingismoreeffectiveinreducingtheeffectivecoverage
acrosstheantenna'sentirehorizontalmainlobe.

SINR optimization by downtilting


ThedowntiltanglesettinginOFDMsystemdiffersslightlyfromtheconventionaltilt
anglecalculation.Thisisbecausethetraditionaldowntiltformulaisbasedon
maximizingthesignalstrengthatthereceiverwithouttakingintoaccountthestrongcochannelinterferencethatresultsfromtightfrequencyreuse.
Whendealingwithco-channelinterference,thesuppressionoftheupperverticalside
lobeisessentialafteracertaindistancefromthecelledge.

Flexi BTS configuration parameters


TherewillbestandardFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEparametersusedtocontrolRFaspects
suchastheAntennaRoundTripDelay,whichwillbeconfiguredwhencommissioning
theBTSbasedonspecificsiteinformation.

2.13 Interference mitigation


InterferencemitigationforuptofourreceiveantennasmustbeconsideredinLTE.In
contrasttoWCDMAorHSPA,however,intra-cellinterferencedoesnot(oratleastonly
inhighmobilityscenarios)occurinLTE.
Indenseradiodeploymentitisdifficulttomanageinterference.TheUEs'antennas
radiate360degrees,causinginterferenceinneighborcells.WhentheCRANisinuse,
theharmfulinterferenceistransferredintotheusefultrafficbyintroducingintelligent
cooperativecellsthatareformedacrosstheinterconnectedeNBs.TheeNBwiththe
servingcellusesIRCalgorithmtocombinethePhysicalUplinkSharedChannel
(PUSCH)signalsinsuchawaythattheoverallpost-equalizersignaltointerferenceand
noiseratioismaximized.BasedontheIRCalgorithm,thefeatureselectseightpaths
(outof12)fortheULjointPUSCHreception.Inthisprocedurethepathshavingthebest
SINRratiosareselected,togettheoptimalULtransmissionpath.Formoreinformation
ontheCRANfunctionalityandtheinterference,seetheLTE1724 CL10: Centralized
RAN 10 MHzfeaturedescription.

2.14 RAN sharing


TheoperatorsareabletosharetheresourcesofasingleFlexiMultiradioBTS.This
meansthattheoperatorscanreduceCAPEXandOPEX.Inthissolutionbothoperators
share:

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transportI/F:physicalS1andX2interface
RFfeederline

TheFlexiMultiradioBTScanbeconnectedsimultaneouslytodifferentEPCsofdifferent
operators-PublicLandMobileNetworks(PLMNs).ThisisdoneviatheS1Flex
mechanismwhichallowseNBestablishingmultipleS1links.ForeacheNBcell,the
operatorprovidesalistofPLMNidentitiesthataresupportedbythiseNBcell.Thefirst
elementofthislistisalwaysequaltotheeNBprimaryPLMNID.TheeNBisableto
provideservicestoUEsonlyiftheconfiguredPLMNIDisalsosupportedbyatleastone
MMEwithanavailableS1link.IftheS1linkbecomesunavailable(forexample,because
oftransportnetworklayerproblems),itmighthappenthatnotallPLMNIDsconfigured
bytheoperatorforaneNBcellarealsosupportedontheS1interface.TheeNB
broadcastsonlythosePLMNIDs,whicharesupportedalsoonS1interface(listofPLMN
IDssupportedbyEPC)toavoidservicedegradationforthesubscriber.
DuringtheUEconnectionestablishment,eNBselectsMMEfromthesetofactiveMMEs.
Thechoiceisbasedon:

PLMNIDs(MMEsupportofPLMNs,whichUEwantstoconnectto)
registeredMMEvalue(availableiftheUEhasalreadyregisteredwithaMME)
S-TemporaryMobileSubscriberIdentity(S-TMSI)

Figure 59

OperatormodulesinRANsharing
RFFeederLine A +B

PLM

NA

,B

RFModuleOperator A+B
RFModuleOperator A+B
SystemModuleOperator A+B

S1Operator A
S1OperatorB

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Figure 60

RANsharingarchitecture
SGi
S1

MME

IMS
Operator A

S-GW

X2

P-GW

PDN
PublicIP
Services

MME
OperatorB
S-GW

P-GW

IMS

X2

MME
OperatorC
S-GW

P-GW

IMS

ForInter-RATmobility,itisassumedthateachoperatorhasitsownnetwork.Therefore,
operator-specificInter-RATneighborlistsareplannedtobesupported.
FromO&Mperspective,thewholeeNBissharedandalsotheconfiguration,parameter
settings,andfeatureactivationsareshared.Theonlynecessarydistinctionin
configurationforthetwooperatorswillbevisibleinthedifferentconfigurationoftheS1
interfaces.
WithLTE505: Transport Separation for RAN Sharing,operatorswhichsharetheRAN
candistinguishwithinthetransportnetworktheS1traffic(U-planeandC-plane)ofthe
differentoperators.Inotherwords,independenttransportnetworkconfigurationis
possible.TheeNBsupportstwoU-planeIPaddressesandtwoC-planeIPaddresses.
TheLTE4: RAN Sharingfeatureallowstheconfigurationofmulti-operatorcorenetwork
(MOCN)andmulti-operatorRAN(MORAN)sharingbetweenuptosixoperators.The
MOCNsolutionallows

2.15 Single RAN introduction


SingleRANsolutionconsistsofmultipurposehardware.ItisabletosupportGSM,
WCDMA,LTEFDDandTDDjustbySWupdate.
TheSingleRANsolutionaimsatreducingtheamountofequipmentandeffortrequired
tooperateonesite.Toachievethis,uniformequipmentisusedthroughoutthelargest
networkareapossibleandtheusedradioaccesstechnologiesaredefinedbythe
softwarepackagesinstalled.Large,quantifiableoperatorsavingsonhardware
equipment,power,installation,maintenance,andoperationalcostsarethemain
advantagesofintroducingSingleRAN.Additionally,theintroductionoftheSingleRAN

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resultsinanincreaseofcapacityandrangepersite.Becauseofashortcommissioning
phase,commonmanagementinterface,andeasyupgradeprocedures,thenetwork
becomesflexibleandisabletorespondtotherapidlychangingtrafficdemandofthe
market.SingleRANfeatures,suchasRF sharing,introduceadditionalCAPEXand
OPEXsavingsforoperators,thankstotheuseofsharedhardware.

2.15.1 Nokia Single RAN enablers


Flexi Multiradio 10 BTS
FlexiMultiradio10BTSisapartofNokiamacroBTSsitesolution.FromaBTSsite
installationandhardwarepointofview,FlexiMultiradio10BTSproceedswiththeNokia
uniquewaytobuildBTSsitesusingmodules,withoutaspecificBTScabinet.Because
itssmallweightandsize,modulardesign,andfullfrontalaccessibility,FlexiMultiradio10
BTSiseasytoinstallinvariouslocations.
FlexiMultiradio10BTSiscompact,highcapacity,andsoftware-definedbasestationfor
GSM,WCDMA,andLTE(TDDandFDD)technologiessupportingCDMAmigrationto
LTE.ItcanbesharedbetweentwoormoretechnologiesbysimpleSWreinstallation.
FlexiMultiradio10BTSmodulescanbeusedwithdifferentBTSconfigurationsforan
integratedandsmallsitesolution.Theexistingsitesupportandauxiliarycabinetscanbe
usedtohouseFlexiMultiradio10BTSmodules,ormodulescanbeinstalled,for
example,onawall.Thesamemultiradiomodulesareusedinbothindoorandoutdoor
sites.

Flexi Multiradio System Module


FlexiMultiradio10BTSSystemModuleisresponsiblefordatatransmission,baseband
processing,systemoperationandmaintenance,andpowerdistribution.AnyRadio
AccessTechnologyissupportedbyinstallingtherespectivesoftwarepackage.
DependingontheSystemModulevariant,variouscapacityofbasebandprocessingis
offered.
FlexiMultiradio10BTSSystemModulehardwarehasbeenpreparedtosupportthe
SystemSharingfunctionality,whichmakesithighlyfuture-proof.SystemModulewill
supportconcurrentoperationoftworadioaccesstechnologies(RATs)onthesame
SystemModule,whichalsomeansmorespaceefficientsites.Smoothmigrationfrom
onetechnologytoanotherwillbeprovided.

Flexi RF Modules/Remote Radio Heads


FlexiRFModulessupportallthethreeradioaccesstechnologies(RAT)
(GSM/WCDMA/LTE)servingonetothreesectorsatatime.OneFlexiRFModulecan
serveuptotwoRATSystemModules.Thatbringsoperatorssignificantsavingsas
operatingtwoRFModulesisnolongerneeded.ThehardwarearchitectureofFlexiRF
Modules/RRHdiffersinthefiltersusedandtheinputpowerrequiredbythemodule.The
choiceofthefilterdependsontheoperatingbandwidthfrequency.Thepowerrequired
bythemoduledependsonsitecharacteristicsandtheoperatorneeds.TheSystem
ModulesareinstalledclosetotheRFModules,sothatthereisnoneedtousefeeders.
Therefore,additionalcostsavingsareintroduced.

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Active Antenna System


TheFlexiMultiradioAntennaSystemisthenextstepintheevolutionofradionetworks,
providinghighercapacityandcoveragewhilereducingsitecosts.TheNokiaMultiradio
AntennaSystemenhancesmobilenetworkperformancebyintegrationofthebase
station'sradiofrequencyelementsintotheantenna.ItprovidesanalternativetoFlexiRF
ModulesandRRHsorcanbeusedincombinationwithtraditionalFlexiRFunits.
TheFlexiMultiradioAntennaSystemisacompleteradiounitwithintegratedantenna
arrays,transceivers,poweramplifiers,andfiltermodules,includingtheintegrated
CommonModule(CM)forprocessingtheActiveAntennaSystem(AAS)specific
functions.Theintegratedantennaarraysupportsactiveandpassivecombinations.

Box Controller Node


BothmcBSCandmcRNCproductscanbehostedonthesameBoxControllerNode
(BCN)hardwareplatform.Usingthesamehardwareunitsallowstohost2Gand3G
controllermodulesinthesamecabinet,reducingthesitecosts.Thenetworkelement
typedependsonthesoftwarepackageinstalledontheBCN.Therefore,theupgrade
from2Gto3Gnetworkiseasy,requiringonlysoftwareupdate.BCNsmodular
architectureallowsincreaseofcapacitybyconnectingseveralnodesinastack.Such
scalabilityallowstoexpandthenetworkonlywhenthenumberofusersincreasesandto
activelyreacttogrowingtrafficdemands.
TheBCNisageneric,scalablehardwareplatformsuitableforimplementingawide
rangeofprocessing-intensiveproductsservingascontroller-,gateway-orserver-type
entitiesintelecommunicationnetworks.Althoughthenetworkcontextvaries,the
productshavemuchincommonsothatacommonhardwareplatformisviable.
NetworkelementscanconsistofoneBCNmodule(smallnetworkelements)orseveral
BCNmodules(largenetworkelementswithlargeprocessingpowerrequirements).
AvailabilityrequirementshavestrongimpactontheBCNmodulehardwareconfiguration
andinterconnectionsolutions.Thepowerfeedoperatesinload-sharingmodeandthe
BCNmoduleisoperationalevenifoneofthepowersupplymodulesbreaksdown.
ProcessorswithinaBCNmoduleareindependentofeachothersothatafaulty
processorhasnoeffectontheperformanceoftherestofthemodule.

Formoreinformation,seeMulticontroller RNC Hardware Descriptionin


WCDMA RAN Operating Documentationand
Multicontroller BSC and Multicontroller TC Hardware Descriptionin
GSM/EDGE BSS Operating Documentation.

2.15.2 Single RAN features


ThecurrentsharedSingleRANfeaturesarethefollowing:

80

QoS aware Ethernet Switching (BSS101417,RAN1769,LTE649)


Synchronization Hub(BSS21439,BSS30450,RAN1707,LTE612)
RX Diversity Sharing GSM-WCDMA (BSS21403,RAN2514)
RF Sharing GSM-WCDMA(BSS21403,RAN1770)
RF Sharing GSM-LTE(BSS21520,LTE447)
RF Sharing WCDMA-LTE(RAN2126,LTE435)

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Formoreinformationonthefeatures,seetheFeature Descriptionsdocumentationin
WCDMA RAN Operating Documentation,GSM/EDGE BSS Operating Documentation
andLTE Radio Access Operating Documentation.

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

3 Network and service management


Thischapterprovidesinformationaboutthefollowingissues:

Networkmanagementarchitecture
ManagingtheLTE/EPCsystemwithNetAct
Elementmanagementtools

3.1 Network management architecture


TheLTE/EPCnetworkmanagementsystemiseasilyscalable;allnetworksizesare
supported.Fromuserperspective,managingbytheNetActissimilarintheWCDMAand
inLTE/EPCnetwork.
TheLTE/EPCnetworkmanagementarchitectureisdescribedinFigure61:LTE/EPC
networkmanagementarchitecture.
Figure 61

LTE/EPCnetworkmanagementarchitecture

ManagementsystemtraffictoandfromLTE/EPCnetworkelementsalwaysgoesthrough
NetAct.TheLTERANElementManagerhasitsowndirectinterface.Theinterface
betweentheFlexiMultiradioBaseStationandNetActisbasedontheBTSOMprotocol.
Itcarriesallthenecessarydataandcommands(forexample,alarms,measurements,
configurationandnewsoftwaredata)tocontrolthenetworkelementbehaviorremotely.
TheinterfacebetweentheElementManagersforMMEandEPC-GWisbasedonthe
NES3/SNMPprotocol.
NetActoffersanopennorthboundinterfaceforothermanagementsystemsandprovides
advancedtoolsforfull-scalemanagementfunctionality(FCAPS).Textualandgraphic
presentationofmeasurementdatareportingisbasedon3GPPformats.

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TheLTE/EPCElementManagerscanpresentalarmandmeasurementinformation,for
example,activealarms.However,thesecapabilitiesarenotonthesamelevelasthe
NetActcapabilities.TheNetActsouthboundinterfacecanbeusedtointegrateothercore
andaccessnetworkelementsundercommonmanagement.
Formoredetails,seeOperability.

3.2 Managing the LTE/EPC system with NetAct


NetAct,thenetworkmanagementapplicationfortheLTE/EPCsystem,isanetworkand
servicemanagementsolutionthatconsistsofnumeroustoolsforhandlinganumberof
networkelementsandexpandingnetworks.Itisdesignedtobeabletohandlean
increaseinbothcomplexityofthenetworkandvolumeoftrafficanddata.
WithNetAct,boththenetworkandserviceswithinthenetworkaremanagedcentrally,
thatis,theoperatorcanviewthenetworkelementfailures,servicequalityindicators,and
trafficfromonescreen.
NetActprovidesfullFCAPS(Fault,Configuration,Accounting,Performance,Security)
functionalitycomprising:

faultmanagement
performancemanagement
configurationmanagement
accountingmanagement
topologymanagement
basicadministrationandaccesstolocalnode/elementmanagers
centralizedsoftwaremanagement
alarmfilteringandreclassification,modifiablealarmmanual

NetActfaultmanagementandperformancemanagementfunctionstogethercanhelp
operatorsguaranteeenduseraccesstotheservicesthroughLTE,thusimproving
subscriberperceptionoftheservicequality.Problemswith,forexample,hardware
modules,physicalchannelsorprioritysettings,orinhandovers(HOs),packet
transmissionorservingcellchangescanbedetectedandcorrectedwithoutdelay.
NetActperformancemanagementfunctionalityprovidesanalysisdatathatindicatesthe
geographicalareaswherehighspeeddataaccessismostneededandused.NetActKey
PerformanceIndicators(KPIs)enabletheoperatortoanalyzetheuseofLTE/EPCin
theirnetwork.
TheNetActfunctionalityforLTE/EPCisimplementedinOSS5.2.

3.3 Element management tools


Networkelement(NE)levelmanagementishandledbyindividualelementmanagers
whichcanbeoperatedremotelyfromNetActorfromlocalterminals.Theoperatorcan
accesstheseNEmanagementfunctionsviaagraphicaluserinterface(GUI)thatis
providedbytheElementManager(EM)orbytheBTSSiteManager(BTSSM).

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Graphicaluserinterfacesofferonlinehelp.Thishelpstheusertoperformoperationand
maintenancetasksfastandwithouterrors.GUIsarebuiltontopoftheservicesoffered
bythenetworkelements.Networkelementlevelservicesaremanagedusingalocal
GUI.NetActhandlesserviceswithbroaderfocus,forexample,network-wide
managementorservicemanagement.LocalGUIsarealsoavailableinNetAct.

Radio network rollout and troubleshooting


UsuallyEMsareusedlocallyforcommissioningorsettinguptheequipmentatthesite.
However,theyarealsoavailableinNetActforremoteoperationswhen,forexample,
configuringortroubleshootingasinglenetworkelement.TheEMinstallationpackage
canbeinstalledtoaclientworkstationthatisconnectedtotheoperator'snetwork(O&M
DCN).

eNB management
TheBTSSiteManagerisusedforbothlocalandremotemanagement.Forlocal
management,aPCwiththeBTSSiteManagerisconnectedtotheLocalManagement
Port(LMP)oftheBTSwithanEthernetcable.TheFlexiMultiradioBaseStationsitecan
alsobecontrolledremotelybyopeningaBTSSiteManagersessionataNetActsite.
TheBTSSiteManagercomprisesthefollowingmainfeatures:

84

integratedBTSandTRSmanagerfunctionality
BTSsiteCommissioningWizard
configurationofBTSunits,cablingandcells
downloadingBTSsoftwarereleases
auto-detectingandpresentingBTShardwareinagraphicalEquipmentView
monitoringandmanagingBTS,cellandunitstates
alarmmonitoring

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Mobility

4 Mobility
EPSmobilitymanagementcomprisesfunctionsandproceduresthatmaintainthe
connectivitybetweenUEandEPSastheUEmovesbetweenthecoverageareasof
differentbasestationsoraccessnetworks.Asfaraspossible,seamlessmobilityis
providedsothatthemobilityistransparenttoUEsandtheapplicationstheyuse.For
applicationsthatrequireit,themobilityislossless.Inotherwords,thepacketloss
probabilityisverylow.
ThankstoLTE48: Support of high speed usersfeature,theeNBisabletohandlethe
UE'smovementspeedofupto350km/hinanopenspaceandupto300km/hin
tunnels.

4.1 Mobility scenarios


AnumberofmobilityscenariosissupportedasillustratedinFigure62:Mobilityscenarios
forLTE/EPC.

LTEIntra-RATmobilitycomprises:

Intra-eNBmobility(handoverbetweenthecellswithinacertaineNB)
Inter-eNBmobility(handoverbetweentheadjacenteNBs).

Inter-RATmobilitycomprises:

mobilitybetweenLTEandother3GPPRATs(GERANorUTRAN)
mobilitybetweenLTEandnon-3GPPRATs(3GPP2accessnetwork(HRPD))

WithLTE490: Subscriber Profile Based Mobilityfeatureitispossibletoassignsubscriber


profileIDs(SPID)tomobilityprofiles.AmobilityprofileisasetofO&Mconfiguredtarget
frequencylayersforenabledinter-frequencyandinter-RATmobilityfunctions,for
examplehandover,NACC,RRCconnectionreleasewithredirect,SRVCC,orCSFB.Up
toeightmobilityprofilescanbedefinedpereNBbyO&Msettings.
ThisfunctionalityismostlyusedduringnationalroamingwheretheSPIDprovidedbythe
MMEisusedtoidentifyownsubscribersandnationalroamingsubscribers.
TheLTE487: Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancingfeatureenhancesmobilityprofileswith
idlemodemobilitytargetsandSPIDrangewithnew3GPPreservedvalues(254,255,
and256).
WithLTE807: Idle Mode Mobility from LTE to CDMA/1xRTT feature,theeNBsends
informationaboutCDMA2000frequenciesandneighboringcellstoallUEsinRRC-IDLE
andRRC-CONNECTEDstates.Onthebasisofthisinformation,theUEisabletomake
aninter-RATcellre-selectionfromLTEtoCDMA/1xRTT.
WithLTE807: Idle Mode Mobility from LTE to CDMA/1xRTT feature,theeNBsupports
thecellreselectionfromLTEtoCDMA/1xRTT.TheeNBbroadcaststheinformation
aboutCDMA2000/1xRTTfrequenciesandCDMA2000/1xRTTneighboringcellsonSIB8.
Basedonthatinformation,theUEisabletomakeaninter-RATcellre-selectionfrom
LTEtoCDMA/1xRTT.

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WithLTE870: Idle Mode Mobility from LTE to CDMA/eHRPDfeature,theeNBsends


informationaboutCDMA2000frequenciesandneighboringcellstoallUEsinRRC-IDLE
andRRC-CONNECTEDstatesinthebroadcast.Thisinformationisneededforinter-RAT
cellre-selectionfromLTEtoCDMAevolvedHighRatePacketData(eHRPD).
WithLTE870: Idle Mode Mobility from LTE to CDMA/eHRPDfeature,theeNBsupports
thecellreselectionfromLTEtoCDMA/eHRPD.TheeNBbroadcaststheinformation
aboutCDMA2000/eHRPDfrequenciesandCDMA2000/eHRPDneighboringcellson
SIB8.Basedonthatinformation,theUEisabletomakeaninter-RATcellre-selection
fromLTEtoCDMA/eHRPD.
Figure 62

MobilityscenariosforLTE/EPC

WiththeLTE1060: TDD - FDD handover feature,handoverbetweenTDDandFDDis


possible.Theoperatorcanofferservicecontinuitybetweentwotechnologies.
ThefollowingTDD/FDDhandoverscenariosaresupportedbytheFlexiMultiradioBTS:

inter-eNB,inter-frequencybandviaX2
inter-eNB,inter-frequencybandviaS1(ifenabled)
inter-eNBinter-frequencyLoadBalancing

BothhandoverdirectionsFDD-TDDandTDD-FDDaresupported.
WiththeLTE2050: Load triggered Idle Mode Load Balancingfeature,theeNBtriggers
theIdleModeLoadBalancingalgorithmonlywhenloadconditionsaremet.Inlowload
conditions,theIdleModeLoadBalancingisnottriggered.Thisallowstheoperatorto
avoidfrequentcellreselectionsunderlowloadconditions.

4.2 Mobility anchors


Duringmobility,theU-planedatapathcontinuitytothePDNismaintainedusingmobility
anchorsasillustratedinFigure63:Mobilityanchorpoint.Thesearenetworkelement
instanceswhicharepermanentmembersoftheU-planepathandlocatedsuchthatthe
pathfromtheanchortothePDNdoesnotchange.

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Figure 63

Mobility

Mobilityanchorpoint

ThemobilityanchorsforeachmobilityscenarioaresummarizedinTable6:Mobility
scenariosandanchorpoints.
Table 6

Mobilityscenariosandanchorpoints

Mobility scenario

Anchor point location

intra-LTEintra-eNB

eNB

intra-LTEinter-eNB

S-GW,orP-GWifS-GWischanged.

3GPPInter-RAT(Rel-8SGSN)

S-GWistheanchorifS4interfaceissupportedbythe
SGSN.IftheSGSNonlysupportsGninterface,the
anchorisinGGSNfunctionalityofP-GW.

4.3 Inter-eNB handover


Inter-eNBhandoversaretypicallyhandoversthataimtominimizeserviceinterruption
andpacketloss.BasedonmeasurementsreceivedfromtheUE,thesourceeNBselects
atargeteNBandinitiatesthehandover.ThesignalingtakesplaceovertheX2interface.
IfthereisnoX2connectivitybetweenthebasestations,thesignalingmusttakeplace
viatheMMEandviatheS1-MMEinterface.Thesetwoalternativesareillustratedin
Figure64:Inter-eNBhandoverwithX2interfaceandFigure65:Inter-eNBhandover
withoutX2interface.

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TheUEcanaccessthetargeteNBaftertheresourceshavebeenreservedandthe
bearersaresetup.Toavoidpacketloss,thesourceeNBforwardsalldownlinkpackets
thatarenotyetacknowledgedbytheUEviatheX2interfacetothetargeteNB.Inuplink,
theUEwillswitchtothetargetcellandthenre-transmitallpacketswhichwerenot
acknowledgedinthesequencebeforethehandover.
TheServingGatewayperformslatepathswitching.Thismeansthatthedownlinkpathis
notswitchedtothetargeteNBbeforethehandoveriscompleted.Thisavoidspacketbicasting.
Figure 64

Inter-eNBhandoverwithX2interface

Figure65:Inter-eNBhandoverwithoutX2interfacedepictshowdataforwardingbetween
sourceandtargeteNBtakesplaceviaS-GW,ifdirectdataforwardingisnotpossiblevia
X2interface.

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Figure 65

Mobility

Inter-eNBhandoverwithoutX2interface

Handover via S1
WithS1-basedhandover,aUEcanbehandedoverfromoneLTEcelltoanotherLTE
cell(ofanothereNB)withouttheusageofanX2interface.X2interfacebetweenSource
andTargeteNBmaybenotexisting,notoperableoritsuseforhandovermaybe
forbiddenbyO&M.S1-basedhandoverisroutedviatheCoreNetworkandtherefore
providesthepossibilityfortheCoretochangetheservingMMEand/ortheservingSGW.

Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsload-basedinter-frequencyhandoverbetween
differenteNBsconnectedviaX2orS1.TheeNBmonitorsthesourcecellloadtoinitiate
aload-basedhandover.WithLTE1170: Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
feature,itispossibletoavoidoverloadsituationsforspecificcellsbysteeringthetraffic
intolessloadedcellsatadifferentfrequencylayerorbalanceloadbetweenfrequency
layers.

Mobility Robustness Optimization


MobilityRobustnessOptimization(MRO)alsoconsiderstheradiohandoversituations
whichproducePingPongsbetweentwocells.TheLTE1768: Ping Pong MROfeature
allowstoreducethenumberofunnecessaryhandovers,alsoknownasPingPong
events,andensuretheeNBMobilityRobustnessperformance.

4.4 Inter-RAT handover (3GPP)


3GPPinter-radio-access-technology(inter-RAT)handoversdifferfromintra-LTEintereNBhandoversinthatthereisnocontrolplane(signaling)interfacebetweentheeNB
andthenon-LTEradioaccessnetwork.Therefore,signalingbetweentheaccess
systemsalwaystakesplaceviaMMEandSGSN.

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Inter-RAThandoversapplytoUEsinRRC_CONNECTEDmodeonly.UEsinidlemode
applycellreselectionprocedures,alsotowardstheotherRATs.
Likeinter-eNBhandovers,3GPPinter-RAThandoversaretypicallybackwardhandovers.
Inotherwords,radioresourcesarepreparedinthetargetaccesssystembeforetheUE
iscommandedbythesourceaccesssystemtoswitchovertothetargetaccesssystem.
Anotherpossibilityforhandling3GPPinter-RATmobilityisredirection:toforcetheUEto
idlestateandtoperformatrackingareaupdate(TAU)ifthetargetnetworkistheLTE
network,orroutingareaupdate(RAU)ifthetargetnetworkisthenon-LTEnetwork,as
illustratedinFigure66:3GPPinter-RATmobility.
Figure 66

3GPPinter-RATmobility

InteraccessmobilitycanbebuildintroducingoverlaytoexistingPacketCoreelements
viaGninterfaces.Thebenefitisthatthereisnoneedtochangetheexisting2G/3Glive
deploymentwhenintroducingLTE.
Togetherwithsomenewfeaturesitispossibletoenhanceinter-RAThandover
performance.
WithLTE1073: Measurement based redirect to UTRANfeature,theeNBsupportsa
measurement-basedredirecttoUTRANasanextensionofthePShandoverfunction.
TheeNBusesthesameneighborcellsasconfiguredforthePShandovertoUTRAN.
ThemeasurementconfigurationsarecommonfortheredirectandthePShandover.This
resultsinhigherreliabilityforLTEtoUTRANservicecontinuity.
TheRRC:RRCCONNECTIONRELEASEmessagewithredirecttoUTRANistriggered
bytheUEmeasurementreportincasethat:

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theUEdoesnotsupporttheFGI8
thehandoverisdeactivatedbyanO&Mflag

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Mobility

WithLTE984: GSM redirect with system informationfeature,redirectionmessageto


GSMisenhancedwithsysteminformation.Newfunctionalityreducestimeneededto
accesstargetGERANcell,astheUEwillnotneedtoreadSIBsfromairinterfaceto
accessthetargetcell.

Network Assisted Cell Change to GSM


TheLTEtoGSMNetworkAssistedCellChange(NACC)functionalityoftheFlexi
MultiradioBTSallowsforaservicecontinuityofdataserviceswhenchangingfroman
LTEcelltoaGSMcell.NACCisonlyapplicabletoNACCcapablemultimodedevices
supportingbothLTEandGSMattheaccordingfrequencyband.TheUEcapabilitiesare
providedtotheeNBbythefeaturegroupindicator.

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) to WCDMA


TheLTEtoWCDMASingleRadioVoiceCallContinuity(SRVCC)functionalityofthe
FlexiMultiradioBTSallowsforaservicecontinuityofvoiceservicestotheCSdomain
whenchangingfromanLTEcelltoaWCDMAcell.Allnon-voiceserviceswillbehanded
overtothePSdomain.
ThefunctionalityisonlyapplicableforSRVCC-capablemultimodedevicessupporting
bothLTEandWCDMAatthecorrespondingfrequencyband.
TheeNBwilltriggerSRVCConlyiftheUEhasanEPSbearerwithQCI=1established
andtheMMEandUEareSRVCC-capable.

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) to GSM


TheLTEtoGSMSingleRadioVoiceCallContinuity(SRVCC)functionalityoftheFlexi
MultiradioBTSallowsforaservicecontinuityofvoiceservicestotheCSdomainwhen
changingfromaLTEcelltoaGSMcell.
TheSRVCCfunctionalitydoesnotsupportDTM/PSHO,thatisestablishednon-voice
bearersarenothandedovertoGSM.Anoperator-configurableswitchissupported,
whichdetermineswhethertosuspendthedatasessionornot.
ThefunctionalityisonlyapplicableforSRVCCcapablemultimodedevicessupporting
bothLTEandGSMattheaccordingfrequencyband.

Inter RAT handover from UTRAN


TheLTE57: Inter RAT handover from UTRANfeatureprovidesabetterservicequality
experiencefortheenduser,forexamplepeakratesandlatency,inLTEasinUTRAN.
Aninter-RAThandoverforanUEfromUTRAN(WCDMAandTD-SCDMA)toLTEis
possible.

4.5 Optimized 3GPP2 (HRPD) inter-RAT handover


Inprinciple,thehandoverbetweenLTEandHRPDcanberealizedbyfollowingthe
genericprinciplesspecifiedformobilitybetweenLTEandnon-3GPPaccesses,thatis,
bycarryingoutIPmobilitysignaling((P)MIPprocedure)withoutoptimizationsatradio
accessnetworkleveltoimprovetheperformanceofthehandover.However,some
3GPP2operatorsarerequiring3GPP2inter-RAThandoverperformancethatis
comparableto3GPPinter-RAThandoverperformanceandforthatpurpose3GPPis
specifyinganoptimizedLTE-HRPDmobilitysolutioncomprisingofS101referencepoint

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betweenMMEandHRPDaccessnodeandS103referencepointbetweenS-GWand
HRPDServingGateway(HSGW)andtheassociatedadditionalfunctionalityinMME.
ThearchitectureforoptimizedLTE-HRPDmobilityisillustratedinFigure67:Architecture
foroptimizedLTE-HRPDmobility.
WithLTE60: Inter RAT handover to eHRPD/3GPP2featuretheFlexiMultiradioBTS
allowsforaservicecontinuityofdataserviceswithminimalinterruptiontimewhen
changingfromanLTEcelltoaCDMA2000eHRPDcell.Thefunctionalityisonly
applicableformultimodedevicessupportingbothLTEandCDMA2000eHRPDforthe
accordingfrequencybandandtheaccordingfeaturesupport.
S101enablespreregistrationandHOpreparationwithEV-DORev-Asignificantly
reducingtheHOdelay(from3sto300-500ms).S103enablesdataforwardingfromSGWtoHSGWreducingthenumberoflostpacketsfordatatraffic,thusalsoimpacting
VoIPISHOperformancebyminimizingbreaksinVoIPtraffic.
Figure 67

ArchitectureforoptimizedLTE-HRPDmobility

4.6 Inter-frequency handover


TheeNBsupportsinter-frequencyhandoverinwhichthehandoverdecisionisbasedon
referencesymbolreceivedpower(RSRP)orreferencesignalreceivedquality(RSRQ)
(DLmeasurement).Triggerscanbe"coverageHO"and"BetterCellHO".TypicallyUE
requiresmeasurementgapsfordoinginter-frequencymeasurements,dependingonthe
UEcapability.

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Mobility

Typically,theUEperformancemeasurementsaredonewhiledatatransmissionbetween
theUEandsourceeNBarestillperformed.Therefore,KPIslikeU-planebreakduration
orC-planebreakdurationdonotdependontheseUEperformancemeasurementsand
thesystemperformanceofinter-frequencyHOisexpectedtobethesameasforintrafrequencyHO.
Inter-frequencyhandoverallowsservicecontinuityforLTEdeploymentindifferent
frequencybandsaswellasforLTEdeploymentswithinonefrequencybandbutwith
differentcenterfrequencies.Thesecenterfrequenciescanalsocovercaseswith
differentbandwidths,forexample5MHzand10MHzand20MHz.
TheLTE1127: Service Based Mobility Triggerfeatureintroducesamechanismfora
service-triggeredinter-frequencyhandover.Withthisfeature,itispossibletoconfigure
specificVoLTEservicestargetfrequencylayerswithinmobilityprofiles.Theoperatorcan
deployandconfigurehisnetworkwiththeLTE1127: Service Based Mobility Trigger
featuresothatcertainspecificfrequencylayersarepreferredoverotherlayersforVoLTE
calls,andtheeNBwilltrytosteertheUEwithVoLTEcallstothosepreferredlayerswith
ServiceBasedHandover.Becauseoftheirpriority,voicecallsarenotblocked;thelower
prioritynon-GBRtrafficwilldecrease.

4.7 Open Access Home eNB Mobility


AHomeeNB(HeNB)isaconsumer-orenterprise-deployedeNBwithlowtransmit
power(roundabout23dBm).HeNBisalsocalledfemtocell.TheaccesstoanHeNB
mightbeopenorclosed,whenonlyselecteduserscanconnecttoit.TheLTE1442:
Open Access Home eNB MobilityfeaturesupportsonlyOpenAccessHeNBs.The
LTE1442: Open Access Home eNB MobilityfeatureallowstoredirectaUEtoaforeign
vendor'sHeNB.IfanHeNBPhysicalCellIdentity(PCI)isselectedasahandovertarget,
aUEContextReleasewithRedirecttowardsthemeasuredfrequencyistriggered
(insteadofperformingthepreparedhandover).Thesupportedmobilitydirectionisfrom
theMacroeNBtowardsaforeignvendorHeNB.

4.8 Roaming
Roamingsupportwillnotberequiredforinitialnetworklaunch,butonlyinalaterphase
withwiderscaleofEPSdeployment.ThreemainroamingscenarioscanbebuiltonEPS
architecturedependingonwhichservicesareaccessed:

Roamingforhomeroutedtraffic
Roamingarchitectureforlocalbreakoutwithhomeoperator'sapplicationfunctions
Roamingarchitectureforlocalbreakoutwithvisitedoperator'sapplicationfunctions

Roaming for home routed traffic


InthisscenarioalltrafficisroutedfromVPLMNtoHPLMNtogetaccesstoanyofthe
services(seeFigure68:Roamingscenariowithhomeroutedtraffic).TheVPLMNEPC
entitiesincludeMMEandS-GW.TheMMEfetchessubscriptioninformationviaS6a
roamingreferencepointfromtheHSSlocatedinHPLMN.TheS-GWperforms
accountingonuserandQCIgranularityforinter-operatorchargingpurposes.This

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scenariomandatesthesplitofEPCGWfunctionalityintoS-GWandP-GWwithanS8
referencepointbetweenthem.IfDynamicPCRFfunctionalityisdeployed,itisfully
controlledbyHPLMN.
Figure 68

Roamingscenariowithhomeroutedtraffic

Roaming architecture for local breakout with home operator's


application functions
InthisscenarioalltrafficbreaksoutlocallyfromVPLMN,buttheApplicationFunction
(AF)islocatedinHPLMN(seeFigure69:Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwith
homeoperator'sapplicationfunctions).TheVPLMNincludesallEPCentitiesexceptfor
HSSandH-PCRF(andAFinalsolocatedinHPLMN).TheMMEfetchessubscription
informationviaS6aroamingreferencepointfromHSSlocatedinHPLMN.TheEPC-GW
getsdynamicPCRFpoliciesrelatedtoAFviaGxreferencepointfromV-PCRF,which
hasreceivedpoliciesfromH-PCRFviaS9referencepoint.Thisscenarioenablesthe
combinedEPC-GWfunctionality(S-GWandP-GW)withoutneedforS8referencepoint.
IfAF/PRCFinfrastructureisnotdeployedforlocalbreakouttraffic,S6aremainstheonly
roamingreferencepointforthisscenario.

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Figure 69

Mobility

Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwithhomeoperator'sapplication
functions

Roaming architecture for local breakout with visited operator's


application functions
InthisscenarioalltrafficbreaksoutlocallyfromVPLMN,buttheApplicationFunction
(AF)locatedinVPLMNgetsdynamicpolicyinformationfrombothVPLMNandHPLMN
(seeFigure70:Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwithvisitedoperator'sapplication
functions).TheVPLMNincludesallEPCentitiesexceptforHSSandH-PCRF.TheMME
fetchessubscriptioninformationviaS6aroamingreferencepointfromtheHSSlocatedin
theHPLMN.TheEPC-GWgetsdynamicPCRFpoliciesrelatedtoAFfrombothV-PCRF
andH-PCRFviaGxreferencepoint.V-PCRFreceivespoliciesfromH-PCRFviaS9
referencepoint.ThisscenarioenablesthecombinedEPC-GWfunctionality(S-GWand
P-GW)withouttheneedforanS8referencepoint.Asintheabovescenario,ifAF/PRCF
infrastructureisnotdeployedforlocalbreakouttraffic,S6aremainstheonlyroaming
referencepointforthisscenario.Thus,thisscenarioandthescenariowithhome
operator'sapplicationfunctionsbecomeidentical.

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Figure 70

Roamingscenarioforlocalbreakoutwithvisitedoperator'sapplication
functions

Anotherdimensiontotheroamingsupportisbroughtbytheexistenceoftwovariantsfor
theS8roaminginterface:S8bIETFvariant(PMIPbased)usingthenewlyspecified
[GSMAIR.34]IRXroaminginfrastructure(IRXisanevolutionofGPRSroaming
exchange(GRX)supportingend-to-endQoS,multi-lateralinterconnectagreementsand
advancedbillingmodels)atpre-commercialtrialphaseandS8aGTPvariantusingthe
well-establishedGRXroaminginfrastructure.IRXroaminginfrastructurehasmainly
attractedoperatorswith3GPP2background,whereasoperatorswith3GPPhave
preferencefortheGRXinfrastructure,whichtheyhavealreadyinplace.GRXbased
roaminginfrastructurewilldominatestillforsometime,asittakestimetofullysetup
workingroaminginfrastructureandduetoroamingarrangementwith3GPPoperators.
Therefore,3GPP2operatorsneedtosupportS8areferencepointutilizingGRXroaming
infrastructureinanycase.However,inthelongtermtheevolutionofGRXisrequiredfor
supportingend-to-endQoSandnewbillingmodelstoprovideroamingsupportfor
applicationssuchasVoIP.

4.9 Location services


Locationservices(LCS)supportinEPSismainlydrivenbyregulatoryservices(locating
emergencycalls,lawfulinterception,etc.).Somecountriesrequirelocationinformationto
beavailableonlywhilethecallisup,whileothersmayallowPSAPs(PublicSafety
AnsweringPoint)todecidehowlongthelocationmustbemadeavailable.
Locationinformationisneededfortwomainreasonsinemergencyservices.Itservesto
enable:

96

theselectionofwhichPSAPservestheareawhereaUEiscurrentlylocated,sothat
theemergencysessioncanberoutedtothecorrectPSAP
thePSAPtogetmoreaccurateorupdatedlocationinformationfortheterminal
duringoraftertheemergencysession

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Table7:LCSrequirementsliststheLCSrequirementsperservicecategoryasagreedby
3GPP(TS22.071)forlegacy3GPPaccessesandalsoapplicableforLTE:
Table 7

LCSrequirements

Location-independent

Mostexistingcellularservices,stockprices,sportsreports

PLMNorcountry

ServicesthatarerestrictedtoonecountryoronePLMN

Regional(upto200km)

Weatherreports,localizedweatherwarnings,trafficinformation
(pre-trip)

District(upto20km)

Localnews,trafficreports

Upto1km

Vehicleassetmanagement,targetedcongestionavoidance
advice

500mto1km

Ruralandsuburbanemergencyservices,manpowerplanning,
informationservices

100m(67%)1),300m
(95%)2)

U.S.FCCmandate(99-245)forwirelessemergencycallsusing
networkbasedpositioningmethods

75m-125m

UrbanSOS,localizedadvertising,homezonepricing,network
maintenance,networkdemandmonitoring,assettracking,
informationservices

50m(67%)150m(95%)

U.S.FCCmandate(99-245)forwirelessemergencycallsusing
handsetbasedpositioningmethods

10m-50m

AssetLocation,routeguidance,navigation

CurrentlytherearetwohighlevelalternativestosupportLocationServicesinEPS:

User-planebasedsolutiontransparenttoeNB
Control-planebasedsolutionimpactingEPSfunctionality

FromtheEPSpointofview,thesimplestwaywouldbetohaveauser-planebased
solutiononly,whichwouldbeagenericsolutionapplicableforallaccesstechnologies,
butsomeoperatorsclaimthatonlythecontrol-planebasedsolutionisabletomeet
regulatoryrequirementsinallcircumstances.Therefore,theoutcomeisthatcontrolplaneLCSsolutionsarespecifiedforEPSinthe3GPPRelease9timeframe(U-plane
solutioncanbetransparentforEPS).For3GPPRelease8ithasbeenalreadyagreed
thatforLawfulInterceptionandLocationdependentchargingpurposes,theeNBreports
theUE'scurrentCellIDtotheMME(includedineachS1APmessage).ThecellID
basedlocationservicefunctionalityalsosupportsemergencycalls.Whentheend-user
initiatesanemergencycall,hecanbeeasilylocated.

1)
2)

Issue:04

InUEbasedmethod50m(67%)
InUEbasedmethod150m(95%)

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Observed Time Difference of Arrival


ThelocationmethodObservedTimeDifferenceofArrival(OTDOA),whichisintroduced
withLTE495: OTDOAfeature,providesanimprovedlocationaccuracy.Theoperatoris
abletoprovidelocationservicesbetterthancellIDwhereGPSisnotworking.Additional
positioningreferencesymbols(PRS)areinsertedinthedownlinktoincreasethe
hearabilityfortheOTDOAmeasurements.

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Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom

5 Radio resource management and telecom


RRMisresponsibleforthemanagementoftheavailableradioresourcestoenable
provisioningofhighqualityservicestouserswithoutcompromisingoverallradionetwork
capacityandperformance.Inordertomeetuserandsystemrequirements,RRM
functionshaveanimpactonL2andL3functionsandproceduresaswellascooperating
withU-planeandC-planefunctions.

5.1 RRM functions


RadioResourceManagement(RRM)providesthefollowingLayer3(L3)andabove
(L3+)functionstothesystem:
RadioBearerControl(RBC)
RadioAdmissionControl(RAC)
ConnectionMobilityControl(CMC)
DynamicResourceAllocation(DRA)
Inter-cellinterferenceRRM&loadmanagement(ICR)
RadioConfiguration(RC)
Inter-RATRRM(IRR)

Inaddition,RRML3functionsusethefollowinglowerlayerfunctionsdefinedinL1/L2to
alterthebehaviorofthesystem:
UL/DLPowerControl
CongestionControl
DTX/DRXControl
LinkAdaptation(AdaptiveModulationandCoding)
LinkQualityControl
HARQControl
MIMOandAerialControl

ThedifferencebetweenL3RRMandL1/L2functionsreflectsthescopeoffunctions
(moreglobalorlocal),interactionswithotherlayers(C-planeandO&MasopposedtoUplaneandRLC/MAC/PHYlayers)andresponsiveness(relativelysloworfastin
comparisontoTTIlevels).
RRMfunctionshaveanimpactonsystembehaviorwhichrangesinitsscopefromUEto
Inter-RAT.ThisissummarizedinTable8:ScopeofRRMfunctions.
Table 8

Issue:04

ScopeofRRMfunctions

System Aspect

L3+ RRM functions

L1/L2 functions

UE

ConnectionMobilityControl

UL/DLPowerControlLinkAdaptation
LinkQualityControlMIMO/Aerial
ControlDRX/DTXControl

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Table 8

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

ScopeofRRMfunctions(Cont.)

System Aspect

L3+ RRM functions

L1/L2 functions

Cell

RadioBearerControlRadio
AdmissionControlRadio
Configuration

DynamicResourceAllocation(for
example,PacketScheduling)
CongestionControl

EUTRAN

LoadBalancingInterCell
Coordination

Inter-RAT

InterRATHandover

Incomparisonwiththepre-LTEUMTSsystem,themaindifferencereflectsdecentralized
RRMcontrolmovedtotheedgeofE-UTRAN(RRMresidesintheeNB)asopposedto
thecentralizedRRMcontrolinUMTS(RNCentityperformsmostRRMfunctions).
SofterandSofthandoversarenotsupportedbytheLTEsystem,andrequirementson
powercontrolaremuchlessstringentbecauseofthedifferentnatureofLTEradio
interface(WCDMArequiresfastpowercontroltoaddresstheNear-Farproblemand
intra-frequencyinterference).Ontheotherhand,theLTEsystemrequiresmuchmore
stringenttimingsynchronizationforOFDMAsignals.

RRM functions for unicast transmission


RRMfunctions,includinginter-cellRRMfunctions,areimplementedattheeNB.Thereis
nocentralRRMserverentitycoordinatingRRMtasks.Thefunctionsare:

RadioBearerControl(RBC)
RadioAdmissionControl(RAC)
ConnectionMobilityControl(CMC)
DynamicResourceAllocation(DRA)
Inter-cellinterferenceRRM&loadmanagement(ICR)
RadioConfiguration(RC)
Inter-RATRRM(IRR)

TheRadio Bearer Control (RBC)functionisresponsiblefortheestablishment,


maintenance,andreleaseofradiobearers.Theradiobearerestablishmentprocedure
withtheaidoftheRACfunctionensuresthatsystemresourcescanbeallocatedtothe
newbearerwithoutcompromisingin-progresssessions.RBCalsosupervisesbearers,
makingsuretheydonotsufferbecauseofchangesintheradioresourcesituation
causedby,forexample,themobilityofotherusers.Thereleaseofradioresources
associatedwithradiobearerscausedbysessionterminationorhandoverisalso
controlledbyRBC.
TheRadio Admission Control (RAC)functionisinvokedeverytimeanewradiobearer
istobesetup.RACadmitsorrejectsrequeststocreatebearers,dependingonwhether
thesystemcanorcannotmeetanewbearer'sQoSrequirementswithoutcompromising
ongoingsessions.

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RadioAdmissionControlsupportsemergencycallhandlingfeature.Foremergencycalls
RACusesanewthreshold,whichisnearthesystemlimitsinordertoallowasmany
emergencycallsaspossible,butwhichislowenoughtopreventthesystemfromreload
inburstingsituations.
FeatureLTE497: Smart Admission ControlenhancestheresourceuseoftheFlexi
MultiradioBTSandkeepstheradiointerfaceinabalancedstatewhencongestion
happens.Theradioadmissioncontrolcheckstheuplinkanddownlinkresourcesituation
fortheadmissionofnewGBRbearers.Atadmissioncontrol,anindividualcheckper
resourcearea(forexample,PDSCHorPUSCH)isperformedbyconsideringthecurrent
resourceusage,theexpectedadditionalresourceneedofthenewEPSGBRbearerand
theoperator-configurableresourcelimitforGBR.
WithLTE534: ARP-based Admission Control for E-RABsfeature,theFlexiMultiradio
BTSsupportsARPhandlingduringadmissioncontrolofGBRandnon-GBRbearers.
TheeNBadmissioncontrolconsidersthefollowingARPparametersprovidedduring
bearerestablishmentorhandoverviaS1APandX2AP:

prioritylevel
pre-emptioncapability
pre-emptionvulnerability

TheConnection Mobility Control (CMC)functionprovidessupportforECM_IDLEand


ECM_CONNECTEDmobilitycontrol.InECM_IDLEstate,CMCisresponsibleforsetting
upcell-reselectioncriteria,measurementconfiguration,andrestrictingaccesstothecell
becauseofheavyload.InECM_CONNECTEDstate,CMCconfiguresintra/interRAT
measurementsandprovidesloadandtrafficdistributioninformationtoentities
responsibleformakinghandoverdecisions.
TheDynamic Resource Allocation (DRA)functioncoordinatestransmissionpower
levelsandfrequenciesusedinacell.DRAprovidesinputforthepacketscheduler,
whoseaimistomeettheQoSrequirementsofthetrafficanduseresourcesefficiently
undervaryingloadandradioconditions(packetschedulingisnotapartoftheRRM
functions).
TheLTE1042: Nominal Bitrate for non-GBR bearersfeatureintroducesnominalbitrate
(NBR)valuesthatcanbeassignedtonon-GBRbearers.Thenon-GBRbearerswith
NBRaretreatedsimilarlytoGBRbearersuntiltheyhavereachedtheNBRthroughput
valueandcanhaveadditionalthroughputonbest-effortbasis(likenon-GBRbearers).
However,thepackedschedulerallocatesresourcesfirsttoGBRandthentonon-GBR
bearerswithNBR.Non-GBRbearerswithNBRdonothaveanupperthroughputlimit(in
contrasttoGBRbearers).UEsatacellbordergetthebiggestbenefitsfromNBR,but
thishappensattheexpenseofalowercellthroughput.
TheInter-cell interference RRM & load management (ICR)functionprovides
coordinationofresourceallocationbetweeneNBstominimizeinter-cellinterference.ICR
maybepartofO&MoritmaybeperformedinadistributednetworkamongeNBs.ICR
candealwithsituationswheretheloadbetweencellsisuneven,andinformstheRRM
entityoftheinterferencelevelofneighboringcells.Thishelpsoptimizingradioresources
andguaranteesthatahighlevelofQoScanbeprovided.Loaddistributioncanbe
enforcedbynetworktriggeredhandoversorcellre-selectionstoredistributetrafficfrom
heavilyloadedcellstounderusedcells.

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TheLTE1140: Intra-Frequency Load Balancingfeaturesupportsloadbalancing


capabilitiestootherintra-eNB/inter-eNBcells.Basedupontheloadreportedbythe
othercell,theloadbalancingalgorithmcalculatesanadjustmenttotheCellIndividual
Offset(CIO),whichshiftsthehandoverthresholdsbetweenselected(intra-eNBand
inter-eNB)neighborcells,thatis,shrinksloadedcellsandexpandsunloadedcells.
TheLTE2210: Intra-frequency Load Balancing Extensionsfeatureenhancesthe
LTE1140: Intra-frequency Load Balancingfeaturebyprovingoperator-controlledoption
fordeltaCIObeingsettozeroduringcertainscenariosforinter-operabilitywithother
vendors'eNBs.Italsohandlesinteractionsbetweenenhancedinter-cellinterference
coordination(eICIC)andMobilityLoadBalancing(MLB).
Theenhanced inter-cell interference coordinationfunctionisintroducedbythe
LTE1113: eICIC macroandtheLTE1496: eICIC - microfeatures.Thisfunctionisintercellinterferencemitigationtechniqueforapplicationsinheterogeneousnetworks
(HetNets),wheremicroeNBs'cellsaredeployedonthesamefrequencyasmacroeNBs
cellthatcontainsthem.Thesefeaturesenabletrafficoffloadingfromamacrocellto
microcells,andinterferencereductionatthemicrocellsbycoordinatedtimedomain
resourceusagebetweenthemacrocellandmicrocells(thatisoneoutof6ABSmuting
patternsischosen).ThesepatternscontrolwhenthemacrosDLschedulerisnot
allowedtosenddatatoitsUEsandwhenasaconsequencethesmallcellcanreach
UEsatbiggerdistance.Trafficoffloadingfromthemacrotothemicrocellsis
accompaniedbythesettingoftheHOthresholdsbetweenthecellsintheeICICarea,
resultingincellrangeexpansion(CRE)ofthemicrocells.DynamicHOthresholdchange
isintroducedinalaterrelease.
TheLTE1113: eICIC - macroandLTE1496: eICIC - microfeaturessupporttheeICIC
betweenmacroandmicro(FZM)cells.
TheRadio Configuration (RC)functionconfiguresglobalparametersinthecellthat
provideinformationnecessaryforidleandactivemodemobilitybydefiningpoolsof
resourcesavailablefordynamicallocations.RCenablesoperatorstosetuptheir
networkinaconsistentmanner,providingglobalstrategiesandpoliciestobeappliedin
amoredynamicmannertoRRMalgorithms.Inthisway,operatorscanachievedynamic
capacityandcoveragecontrolofthecellsaccordingtotrafficdemands.
TheInter-RAT RRM (IRR)functionaidsthemanagementofresourcesduringinter-RAT
handover.HandoverdecisionsmaytakeintoaccountUEcapabilities,operatorpolicies,
availabilityofresources,andtrafficloadconditioninthetargetsystem.Loadbalancing
functionsmayalsouseIRRtoobtaininformation,enablingthemtoredistributeusersto
otherRATs.
WiththenewLTE979: IRC for 2 RX pathsfeature,theInterferenceRejectionCombining
(IRC)functionimprovestheuplinkperformanceofcelledgeusersforhighlyloadedand
interferencelimitedcellsandslightlyincreasestheuplinkcellcapacity.
UEslocatedatthecelledgeoftenhitthemaximumtransmissionpower;nevertheless,
becauseofpoorradioconditions,thesignalreceivedbytheeNBisgettingworse.The
LTE907: TTI Bundlingfeatureallowstransmittingthesametransportblockinfour
consecutiveULsubframes,whichleadstoincreasedenergypertransmittedbitand
improveduplinklinkbudget.Themorerobusttransmissionschemeleadstoreductionof
PDCCHtraffic.
AnULgrantforaTTIbundlecausestheautomatictransmissionoffourredundancy
versionstakenfromoneMACPDU,whichconstituteoneinitialandthreeHARQ
retransmissions.ThefourtransmissionsofaTTIbundlearesentinfourconsecutiveUL

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subframes.Theautomaticinclusionofretransmissions(withouttheneedforfurtherUL
grantstocollectretransmissionsthatarerequiredfordecodinginpoorradioconditions)
leadstoamorerobusttransmissionandreducedPDCCHusage.
TheLTE1089: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 20 MHz featureallowstheoperatorto
providehigherUEpeakdataratesbyaggregationoftwocellsof10MHzeachoroftwo
cellof5MHzeach(or5MHz+10MHz)indifferentbands.Tousethisbandwidth
extensionandtoaggregatefragmentedspectrum,theoperatorneedstoenableand
configurethefeatureinthesectorswhichsupportinterbandcarrieraggregation.Onlycolocatedcellswhichhaveantennaspointedtothesamegeographicalareacanbe
aggregatedwiththisfeature.
ForaneNBthathasmorethantwocellsatdifferentfrequenciespersector,theUEscan
supportdownlink(DL)carrieraggregation(CA)inamultitudeoftwo-cellcombinationsby
meansoftheLTE 1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bsfeature.However,
theUEisstillconfiguredwithonlyoneSCell.

5.2 State transitions


TherearethreesetsofstatesdefinedfortheUEbasedontheinformationheldbythe
MME.Theseare:

EPSMobilityManagement(EMM)states
EPSConnectionManagement(ECM)States
RadioResourceControl(RRC)States

EPS Mobility Management (EMM) states


EMM-DEREGISTERED:inthisstatetheMMEholdsnovalidlocationinformationabout
theUE,thoughitmaymaintainsomeUEcontextwhentheUEmovestothisstate,for
exampletoavoidtheneedforAuthenticationandKeyAgreement(AKA)duringevery
attachprocedure.SuccessfulAttachandTrackingAreaUpdate(TAU)procedureslead
totransitiontoEMM-REGISTERED.
EMM-REGISTERED: inthisstatetheMMEholdslocationinformationfortheUEatleast
totheaccuracyofatrackingareaandtheUEcanreceiveservicesthatrequire
registrationintheEPS.InthisstatetheUEperformsTAUprocedures,respondsto
pagingmessagesandperformstheservicerequestprocedureifthereisuplinkdatato
besent.
ThestatetransitiondiagramfortheEMMstatesisthesamefortheUEandfortheMME
andisshowninFigure71:EMMstatetransitions.
Figure 71

Issue:04

EMMstatetransitions

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EPS Connection Management (ECM) States


ECM_IDLE: inthisstatethereisnoNASsignalingconnectionbetweentheUEandthe
networkandthereisnocontextfortheUEheldintheE-UTRAN.ThelocationoftheUE
isknownwithintheaccuracyofatrackingareaandmobilityismanagedbytrackingarea
updates.
ECM_CONNECTED: inthisstatethereisasignalingconnectionbetweentheUEand
theMMEwhichisprovidedintheformofaRadioResourceControl(RRC)connection
betweentheUEandtheE-UTRANandanS1connectionfortheUEbetweentheEUTRANandtheMME.ThelocationoftheUEisknownwithintheaccuracyofacelland
mobilityismanagedbyhandovers.

IntheE-UTRANtheUEcanbeseentobeintransitionalstates,forexample
withanRRCConnection(RRC_CONNECTED)butwithnoS1connection.
ThestatetransitiondiagramsfortheECMstatesaredifferentattheUEandtheMMEas
showninFigure72:ECMstatetransitions.
Figure 72

ECMstatetransitions

Radio Resource Control (RRC) States


RRC_IDLE:InthisstatenosignalingconnectionbetweenUEandnetworkexists.UE
performscellreselections.Pagingisneededwhenthereisdataindownlinkdirection.
RACHprocedureisusedonRRCconnectionestablishment.
RRC_CONNECTED:InthisstateasignalingconnectionexistsbetweenUEand
network.ThemobilityofUEishandledbythehandoverprocedure.TheUEperformsthe
trackingareaupdateprocedure.

UEsRRCconnectioncanbemaintainedevenifUEisinactive.RRCconnection
maybereleasedbecauseofthefollowingreasons:

104

UEisinactiveforalongtime
highmobility
WhenthemaximumnumberofRRCconnectedUEsisreached,thelongest
inactiveUEisreleased.

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TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsdiscontinuousreception(DRX)instatusRRCCONNECTEDwithlongDRXcycles.TheDRXfunctionalitycanconsiderablyreducethe
UEpowerconsumption.FurthermoretheeNBsupportsanextendedrangeof3GPP
settingsforthelongDRXcycle,twoadditionaloperator-configurableDRXprofiles,and
uplinkOut-of-Synchandling.
TheLTE585: Smart DRXfeatureisanextensiontotheexistingLTE42: Support of DRX
in RRC Connected ModeandLTE473: Extended DRX Settings,whichimprovespower
savingforalways-onusersbyintroductionofashortDRXcycle.Insteadofkeepingthe
UEDRXactiveforthedurationofSTITandremainingDRXInactivityTimer,theshort
DRXcycleisusedtoprovideenoughmeasurementstoestimateTimingAlignments(TA).
ThenewconceptprovidesbetterbatterysavingsascomparedtolegacyDRX.
RRCConnectionRe-establishmentissupportedaspreferredresolutionfortemporary
Radiolinkfailureorduetophysicallinkfailureduringhandoverexecution.The
ConnectionRe-establishmentprocedureisinitiatedbytheUEinRRCconnectedincase
ofradiolinkfailuredetectionduetoforexample:

handoverfailure
integritycheckfailureindicationfromlowerlayers
RRCconnectionreconfigurationfailure

ThestatetransitiondiagramsfortheRRCstatesisshowninFigure73:RRCstate
transitions.
Figure 73

RRCstatetransitions

5.3 Connection states for intra-RAT mobility


Therearetwostatestobeconsideredforintra-RATmobility:

ECM_IDLEConnectionState
ECM_CONNECTEDConnectionState

ECM_IDLE Connection State


InECM_IDLE,thelocationoftheUEisknownonlytothelevelofoneorasmallnumber
ofTrackingAreas(TAs),asillustratedinFigure74:Intra-RATmobilityinECM_IDLE.The
UEwillcamponacellandperformmeasurementsofthisandothercellsinthe
neighborhood.Whenitchoosestocamponanewcell,ifitdetectsthatthecellbelongs
toanewTA,itsendsaTrackingAreaUpdate(TAU)totheMMEviathecell'seNB.If
datafromthePDNarrivesattheS-GW,itsignalstheMMEtopagetheUE.TheUEis
pagedinallcellsbelongingtotheTAsinwhichitisknown.TheUEisallowedtobe
registeredinmorethanoneTAinordertoavoidfrequentTAUswhenitismovinginthe
regionofTAboundaries.

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Figure 74

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Intra-RATmobilityinECM_IDLE

ECM_CONNECTED Connection State


InECM_CONNECTED,theprincipalformofmobilitymanagementisbackwards
handoverasillustratedinFigure75:Intra-RATmobilityinECM_CONNECTEDwhich
aimstominimizeserviceinterruptionandpacketloss.Basedonmeasurementsreceived
fromtheUE,thecurrenteNB(thesourceeNB)selectsatargeteNBandinitiatesthe
handover.TheeNBsperformdirectsignalingovertheX2interface.TheUEcanaccess
thetargeteNBaftertheresourcesarereservedandthebearersaresetup.Inorderto
avoidpacketloss,forthoseapplicationsthatrequireit,thesourceeNBwillforwardunreceivedDLpackets(thosewhichhaveyettobesenttotheUEoryetbeacknowledged
bytheUE)tothetargeteNBdirectlyoverX2.Thetargetwillnotdeliverpacketsreceived
fromtheS-GWuntilithasdeliveredallforwardedpackets.Betweendetachingfromthe
sourceeNBandattachingtothetarget,theUEwillbufferULpackets.
TheServingGatewayperformslatepathswitching.Thismeansthatthedownlinkpathis
notswitchedtothetargeteNBbeforethehandoveriscompleted.Thisavoidspacketbicasting.
IfthereisnoX2connectivitybetweentheeNBs,signalingisperformedviatheMME(s)
usingS1.

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Figure 75

Intra-RATmobilityinECM_CONNECTED
b)

eNB

source

Measurement
Report

target

eNB

S-GW

source

eNB

UEcontext

a)

Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom

IntereNB
Signaling
overX2

S-GW
target

c)

source

eNB

Handover
Preparation

d)

eNB

eNB

source

S-GW
DL packets
forwarded
overX2
target

S-GW
Hardcover
Complete

eNB
target

BufferUL
packetswhile
detachingfrom
sourceeNBand
attachingto
targeteNB

e)

eNB
Hardcover
Complete

source

MME

f)

eNB

source

eNB
S-GW
Release
Resources

target

eNB

S-GW
target

eNB

5.4 Tracking Areas


IfthenetworkwishestocommunicatewithaUEthatisinEMM-REGISTEREDand
ECM_IDLEstatesthenitneedstohavesomeinformationaboutwheretheUEis.Thisis
handledusingthetrackingareaconceptasillustratedinFigure76:Multiple-TA
registrationconcept.Eachcellbelongstoasingletrackingarea(TA).

DifferentcellsinasingleeNBcanbelongtodifferenttrackingareas;however,
eachcellcanonlybelongtoonetrackingarea.
AUEregisterswithaTAandtheinformationofwhichTAtheUEisregisteredwithisheld
intheMMEwhichservestheTAs.AnMMEallocatestheUEaGloballyUnique
TemporaryUEIdentifier(GUTI)whichincludesanidentifierfortheMMEthatallocatedit
andanidentifierfortheUEthatisuniquewithintheMME(andwithinthepoolofMMEs).
AshortenedformoftheGUTIistheS-TMSIwhichuniquelyidentifiestheUEwithina
givenTA.ThuswhenaUEisinECM_IDLEstate,theMMEcanrequestwithinaTAthat
theUEwiththerequiredS-TMSI(orIMSI)movesintoECM_CONNECTEDstate.Thisis
donebyPaging.WhenaUEmovesTAsithastoperformtheTrackingAreaUpdate
(TAU)procedure.

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5.5 Tracking Area Update


TheTrackingAreaUpdate(TAU)procedureenablestheEPCtotrackthelocationof
movingUEswhiletheyareintheECM_IDLEstate.IttakesplacewhenaUEthatis
registeredwithanMMEand/oraSGSNselectsanE-UTRANcell.
TheprocedureisinitiatedbytheUEiftheUEchangestherebytoaTrackingAreathat
theUEhasnotyetregisteredwiththenetworkoriftheP-TMSIupdatestatusisnot
updatedbecauseofbearerconfigurationmodificationsperformedbetweenUEand
SGSNwhenIdle-modeSignalingReduction(ISR)isactivated.Thisprocedureisinitiated
byanECM_IDLEstateUEandmayalsobeinitiatediftheUEisinECM_CONNECTED
state.
TheprocedureismanagedbytheMME,whichtrackstheUElocations.NASsignalingis
usedherewithASsupportlimitedtoconveyingNASsignalingmessagesbetweenthe
UEandMME.TheUEneedstobeattachedtothenetwork(beinEMM-REGISTERED
state)beforetheTAUprocedure,sothattheUEisauthenticatedandNASsecurity
contextisestablished.

ISR Concept
TheIdle-modeSignalingReductionmechanismallowstheUEremainingsimultaneously
registeredinanUTRAN/GERANRoutingArea(RA)andanE-UTRANTrackingArea
(TA)list.ThisallowstheUEtomakecellreselectionsbetweenE-UTRANand
UTRAN/GERANwithoutaneedtosendanyTAUorRAUrequest,aslongasitremains
withintheregisteredRAandTAlist.Consequently,ISRisafeaturethatreducesthe
mobilitysignalingandimprovesthebatterylifeofUEs.Thisisimportantespeciallyin
initialdeploymentswhenE-UTRANcoveragewillbelimitedandinter-RATchangeswill
befrequent.ThecostofISRismorecomplexpagingproceduresforUEsinISR,which
needtobepagedonboththeregisteredRAandallregisteredTAs.TheHSSneedsalso
tomaintaintwoPSregistrations(onefromtheMMEandanotherfromtheSGSN).

Multiple-TA Concept
TheLTEsystemsupportstheconceptofmultiTAregistrationwhichissimilartothepreLTE3GPProutingareaconcept,withtheextensionthattheUEcanberegisteredin
morethanoneTA.TheMMEisawareoftheUElocationtothegranularityofoneor
moretrackingareas(TAset).ThisisillustratedinFigure76:Multiple-TAregistration
concept.

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Figure 76

Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom

Multiple-TAregistrationconcept

Triggers
TheTAUprocedureisnottriggeredaslongastheUEstaysinanyofitsassigned
trackingareas.AssoonastheUEentersatrackingareawhichisnotintheassigned
set,theTAUprocedureisinitiated.Asaresult,theUE'ssetofTAsisupdatedorreassigned.TheMMEisresponsiblefortheassignmentwhichmayvaryonper-UEbasis.
ThisflexibilityisbeneficialinthesensethattheTAloadcanbedistributedwithinthe
network,andTAUsignalingcanbereducedattheTAborders(becauseofreductionof
theso-called'ping-pong'effect).TheTAUprocedureisalsotriggeredperiodicallyafter
expirationoftheUE'sinternaltimer.
TheUEdiscoverswhichtrackingareaitisinbylisteningtothebroadcastchannel.The
cellbroadcastsonlyoneTrackingAreaIdentifier(TAI).Itshouldbenotedthatacellcan
belongtoonlyoneTA,buttheeNBcansupportseveralcells,someofwhichcouldbein
differentTAs.TheTAIconsistsofMCC,MNCandTACidentifierswhichuniquelyidentify
country,operatorandUElocation.
TheUEcanalsore-selectacellwhichbelongstoUTRAN.InthiscasetheUEis
registeredinLTEbutnotinUTRAN.WhentheUEselectsaUTRANcell,therouting
areaupdateprocedurefromE-UTRANisalsoinitiated.
AnMMEcanalsoforcetheUEtoinitiatetheTAUprocedureinordertore-allocatethe
GUTI,performre-authentication,ortore-distributeloadbetweenMMEsbytriggeringthe
MMErelocationprocedure.Thesesub-proceduresareoptionalpartsoftheTAU
procedure.
TheTAUprocedureinvolvingMMErelocationmayalsoresultinS-GWrelocation;this
decisionismadebythetargetMME.

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5.6 Paging
AUEattachedtothesystemandinECM_IDLEstateistraceableonlytoitsregistered
TAs.EverytimetheEPCneedstocontactsuchaUE,apagingprocedureisinitiated.
ThisactionprovidestheEPCwithknowledgeofthewhereaboutsoftheUE(thatis,
whichcellitbelongsto).Pagingconsistsof:

pagingonS1[3GPP-36.413]
pagingonUu/RRCpagingfunction[3GPP-36.331]

includingschedulingofPagingmessagesinthetimedomain
basedonUE-specificandcell-specificDRXsettings

PagingisalsousedtoindicateSystemInformationchangestoidleUEs.

Control
ByusingthecasewherethereisdownlinkdatawaitingattheS-GWtobedeliveredtoa
UEasanexample,theS-GWrequeststheMMEtopagetheUE.TheMMEthentriggers
apagingprocedureasitisresponsibleforUEtracking.Itsroleinvolvescontrol,
executionandsupervisionoftheprocedure.Thesefunctionsarerealizedusingthe
S1APprotocol.
TheMMEstartspagingbydistributingapagingrequestmessagetoeacheNB
supportingcellscorrespondingtotheUE'sregisteredtrackingareas.TheMMEalso
coordinatespagingresponsesandsupervisestheprocessbyscheduling
retransmissions.
OncetheUEdetectsthatitisbeingpaged,astandardrandomaccessprocedureisused
andtheUEentersRRC_CONNECTEDstateallowingtheUEtosendaNASService
Requestmessagewhich,oncecompleted,enablestheUEtoreceiveU-planedataand
toexecuteC-planeprocedures.
TheeNBisentirelyresponsiblefortheschedulingandtransmissionofpagingmessages
andforconveyingapagingresponsetotheMME.Duringsuchaprocedure,theeNB
allocatesresourcesandschedulesatwo-stagepagingprocess.Initially,apaging
indicationmessageistransmittedtoalertallUEsinapaginggroup,andthenaUE
specificpagingmessageissent.

Paging groups
UEsareallocatedtopaginggroupsbasedontheUEidentifier(IMSIorS-TMSI).UEs
readL1pagingindicationmessagesassignedtotheirpaginggroup.Apaginggroupis
definedbyanallocationofpagingoccasions.TheUEsbelongingtothegroupare
requiredtolistentothem.IfaUEdiscoversthatitsgroupisbeingpaged,itreadsthe
pagingmessage.ThismeansthataUEonlyneedstolistentothefullpagingmessageif
itsgroupisbeingpaged.
Pagingindicationmessagesincludeinformationabouthowthepagingmessagecanbe
readandwhichphysicalresourceshavebeenallocatedforit.Thepagingindicationis
repeateduntiltheUEresponds,oruntilthenumberofretriesreachesalimit.

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UEsareconfiguredwithPagingChannel(PCH)DRXtoenableperiodiclisteningofthe
DLL1/L2controlchannels.PCHDRXisUEspecific,whichmeansthatDRXcanvary
perUE.

UE paging
AllUEsreadingthepagingindicationassignedtotheirgroupreadthepagingmessage
aswell.IftheUE'sNASIdentitymatchestheonefoundinthepagingmessage,theUE
initiatesthetransitiontoECM_CONNECTED.

5.6.1 Paging on S1
ThepagingfunctionsupportsthedeliveryofpagingrequeststoallcellsofallTAsto
whichtheUEisregistered.PagingrequestsaresenttotherelevanteNBsaccordingto
themobilityinformationkeptintheUE'scontextintheservingMME.TheMMEinitiates
thepagingprocedurebysendingtheS1AP:PAGINGREQUESTmessagetoeacheNB
belongingtooneoftheTAstowhichtheUEisregistered.
TheMMEinitiatespagingwhenitwantsaUEtoperformatransitionfromECM_IDLEto
ECM_CONNECTED.Usually,thisistriggeredbythearrivalofdownlinkdataforanidle
UEattheServingGateway(S-GW).AnotherreasoncouldbethattheMMEwantsto
establishC-planeconnectivityforotherreasons,forexamplethenetwork-initiatedTAU
procedure,orforlocationservices.
WhentheeNBreceivesanS1AP:PAGINGREQUESTmessage,itforwardsthepaging
requesttoeachofitscellsthatsupporttheUE'sTAandPLMNID.
Ineachcell,theeNBcollectsallpagingrequestsbelongingtoasinglepagingoccasion
andtriggerstheRRCpagingfunctionforthatpagingoccasion.

5.6.2 Paging on Uu/RRC paging function


Ineachpagingoccasion(ineachcell),theeNBsendsanRRC:PAGINGmessageifat
leastoneUEisscheduledforpaginginthatpagingoccasion.
TheRRC:PAGINGmessageissentviathePCCHlogicalchannelusingTMRLC.The
pagingoccasion(scheduleintime)ofthepagingmessagesiscalculated,accordingto
thefollowingdata:

UE-specificinformationprovidedviaS1AP
cell-specificinformationconfiguredbyO&MandprovidedtotheUEinSystem
Information)
currenttiminginformationintheeNB(thatis,currentSystemFrameNumber)

IneachcelltheRRCpagingfunctionisexecutedindependentlyoftheothercells.CellspecificandUE-specificsettingsofpagingDRXaresupported.

5.6.3 Paging of system information changes


TheeNBinformsallUEsinRRC_IDLEandRRC_CONNECTEDstateaboutchangesof
SystemInformation.ItsendsanRRC:PAGINGmessageineachpagingoccasionduring
aSystemInformationmodificationperiodN.ThelengthofthemodificationperiodNis
providedbySystemInformationparameters.Themodificationperiodstartsatthenext

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SFNwith(SFNmodN)=0.Thepagingoccasionsarederivedbythecell-specificPaging
DRXsettings.Inthesepagingoccasions,theeNBprovidestheoptional
sysInfoModificationIEintheRRC:PAGINGmessage.
Inasinglepagingoccasion,theRRC:PAGINGmessagecontainsboththe
sysInfoModificationIEandregularpagingRecords(ifpagingwastriggeredbyS1AP);
thatis,theIEsarecombinedinoneRRCmessageandarenotsentinseparateones.

5.7 EPS bearers


TheEPSprovidesIPconnectivitybetweenaUEandaPLMN-externalPDN.Thisis
referredtoasaPDNConnectivityService.ThePDNConnectivityServicesupportsthe
transportofoneormoreServiceDataFlows(SDFs).ForaGTP-basedS5/S8reference
pointitisprovidedsimplybyanEPSbearerrunningbetweentheUEandtheP-GW.
Figure77:LTE/EPCservicedataflowsillustratestheLTE/EPCservicedataflowinmore
detail.
Figure 77

LTE/EPCservicedataflows
Application / Service Layer

UL Service Data Flows

DL Service Data Flows

UL-TFT

DL-TFT

UL-TFT RB-ID

DL-TFF

RB-ID S1-TEID

S1-TEID S5/S8a-TEID
GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

S-GW

eNB

UE
Radio
Bearers

S5/S8a TEID

S1
Bearers

P-GW
S5 /S8
Bearers

TheEPSbearerscorrespondtothePDPcontextin2G/3Gnetworks,beingcomposedof
thesub-bearersasillustratedinFigure78:LTE/EPCEPShighlevelbearermodel.The
EPSbearerisusedtotransportuserdatabetweentheUEandtheP-GW/S-GW.

AradiobearertransportsthepacketsofanEPSbearerbetweentheUEandthe
eNB.Ifaradiobearerexists,thereisaone-to-onemappingbetweenanEPSbearer
andthisradiobearer.
AnS1bearertransportsthepacketsofanEPSbearerbetweentheeNBandthe
Serving-Gateway(S-GW).
AnS5/S8abearertransportsthepacketsofanEPSbearerbetweentheServingGW
andthePDNGateway(P-GW).

AnE-UTRANRadioAccessBearer(E-RAB)referstotheconcatenationofanS1bearer
andthecorrespondingradiobearer.Whenadataradiobearerexists,thereisaone-toonemappingbetweenthedataradiobearerandtheEPSbearer/E-RAB.
Figure78:LTE/EPCEPShighlevelbearermodelshowstheEPSbearerservices
layeredarchitecture.

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Figure 78

Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom

LTE/EPCEPShighlevelbearermodel

WhentheUEisactive,allsub-bearersexistfortheUE,butwhenitmovestoidlestate,
S1andradiobearersarereleased.However,EPSbearerandassociatedcontextsinUE
andEPSremaineventhoughtheUEisinidlestate.
Adefault EPS bearerissetupwhenUEattachestotheEPSnetwork.Therewillbeone
defaultEPSbearersetupperPDN.ThedefaultEPSbearerisaNon-GBRbearerandit
isalways-on,thatis,itisnotreleaseduntiltheUEdetachesfromthePDN.Thedefault
EPSbearer'sTrafficFlowTemplate(TFT)matchesallpackets,thatis,itcanbeusedfor
anykindoftraffic.
InadditiontodefaulttheEPSbearer,dedicated EPS bearerscanbesetupfortheUE.
ThededicatedEPSbearercanbeeitheraGBRoraNon-GBRbearerandtheyareset
uponnetworkcontrol,forexampleforVoIPcalls.
TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsuptothreeGBREPSradiobearersperUE.Uptosix
dataradiobearers(DRB)canbeestablishedperUE.MultipleDRBcanbeeithermultiple
defaultEPSbearersoracombinationofdefaultanddedicatedEPSbearers.The
differentEPSbearersperUEcanhavethesameoradifferentQCI.Theoperatorisable
toofferadditionalservicecombinations.

5.7.1 Bearer management


BearermanagementprovidesthebasicprocedurestoestablishthedefaultEPSbearer
thatprovidesanalways-onservicetotheuser.
BearermanagementispartoftheLTEcontrolplaneandhandlestheestablishment,
modification,andreleaseofbearers.
Bearermanagementincludes:

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establishmentandreleaseofS1bearersontheS1interface
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translationofS1APQoSparameterstoconfigurationparametersoftheU-Planein
eNBandUE,takingintoaccounttheUEcapabilitiesandtheQoSrequirementsof
alreadyestablishedEPSbearersoftheUE
radiolayer2configurationofSRB1andSRB2

Bearermanagementsupports:

establishmentofonenon-GBREPSbeareruponAttachanduponUEorEPC
initiatedServiceRequest
preparationofonenon-GBREPSbearerandSRBsduringhandover
provisioningofUEradiocapabilitiesforradiobearerconfiguration
activationofASsecurity(allsecurityalgorithms)
servicedifferentiationfornon-GBREPSbearers
establishmentandreleaseformultipledefaultanddedicatedEPSbearers
supportoftheconversationalvoiceEPSbearerthatismappedtoaGBRwithRLC
UM
controlofrobustheadercompression(ROHC)
ratecapping-supportoftheUEAMBRbytheS1APInitialUEContextSetup
procedure

5.7.2 Quality of service


LTE/EPCprovidessubstantiallyoptimizedbearerhandlingandQoSmodelcomparedto
3Gnetworks.InLTE/EPC,asinglescalarlabelpointer,thatis,theQualityClass
Indicator(QCI),isusedtoasetofQoSparametersashighlightedinTable9:QoS
schemeforLTE.
Table 9

QoSschemeforLTE

3G (QoS aware)

LTE (Non-QoS aware)

ResidualBER

QualityClassIndicator(QCI)

SDUerrorrate
DeliveryoferroneousSDUs
Max.SDUsize
Deliveryorder
Transferdelay
Trafficclass
Trafficpriorityhandling
ARP
Max.bitrate

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Table 9

Radioresourcemanagementandtelecom

QoSschemeforLTE(Cont.)

3G (QoS aware)

LTE (Non-QoS aware)

Guaranteedbitrate
Aggregatemax.bitrate(AMBR)

ThefollowingsummarizesthemainfeaturesoftheLTE/EPCQoSmodel:
network-centricQoSschemedeployedinLTEreducescomplexityofUE
implementations
alwaysondefaultEPSbeareravailableafterinitialaccess
furtherdedicatedEPSbearersetuponnetworkcontrol(e.g.forVoIPcalls)
noneedtorequiresupportfromterminalapplicationclientsordeviceoperating
system

Table10:StandardQCIcharacteristicsshowssomeexamplestandardQCI
characteristics,identifyingthepossiblepacketdelaybudgets,packetlossrates,and
appropriateservices.
Table 10

QCI

Resource
Type

Priority

Packet
Delay
Budget

Packet
Loss
Rate

Example Services

GBR

100ms

10-2

ConversationalVoice(VoIP)

150ms

10-3

ConversationalVideo(LiveStreaming)

50ms

10-3

RealTimeGaming

300ms

10-6

Non-ConversationalVideo(Buffered
Streaming)

100ms

10-6

IMSSignaling

300ms

10-6

Video(BufferedStreaming)TCP-based
(forexample,www,e-mail,chat,ftp,p2p
filesharing,progressivevideo,etc.)

100ms

10-3

Voice,Video(LiveStreaming)
InteractiveGaming

300ms

10-6

Video(BufferedStreaming)TCP-based
(forexample,www,e-mail,chat,ftp,p2p
filesharing,progressivevideo,etc.)

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StandardQCIcharacteristics

Non-GBR

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Thestandardizedcharacteristicsarenotsignaledonanyinterface.Theyshould
beunderstoodasguidelinesforthepre-configurationofnode-specific
parametersforeachQCI.ThegoalofstandardizingaQCIwithcorresponding
characteristicsistoensurethatapplications/servicesmappedtothatQCI
receivethesameminimumlevelofQoSinmulti-vendornetworkdeployments
andincaseofroaming.AstandardizedQCIandcorrespondingcharacteristics
isindependentoftheUE'scurrentaccess(3GPPorNon-3GPP).

Operator specific QCI


Theoperatorcandefineupto21additionalQCIsfornon-GBREPSbearers.TheFlexi
MultiradioBTSsupportsnon-GBRQCIgroupstocombineQCIspecificperformance
counters.ThemappingfromthestandardQCIsandtheoperatorspecificQCIsontothe
QCIgroupperformancecountersisoperatorconfigurable.
WiththeLTE1231: Operator-specific GBR QCIsfeatureupto21operator-specificQCIs
forGBREPSbearersaresupportedpereNB.ThetotalmaximumnumberofoperatorspecificQCIs(GBRandnonGBR)is21.
Thesupportofoperator-specificQCIscanbeenabled/disabledpereNBbyO&M
settings.

eRAB Modification
WithLTE519: eRAB Modificationfeatureitispossibletochangethefollowing:

theQCI(QoSclassindicator)valueofnon-GBR(guaranteedbitrate)QCIs
theARP(allocationandretentionpriority)valueofallQCIs
theUE-AMBR(aggregatemaximumbitrate)ofanUE

WiththisfeatureitispossibletochangetheQoSofaeRABdynamically.
TheQCIofanEPSbearerwithQCI=5cannotbechangedifitisusedforsignaling.

5.8 Additional services


Thefollowingadditionalservicesarevaluablefortheend-userexperience.
Thefollowingadditionalserviceisvaluablefortheenduserexperience.

Commercial Mobile Alert System


WithLTE494: Commercial Mobile Alert SystemfeaturetheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupports
CommercialMobileAlertSystem(CMAS).TheCMASnotificationsaresentbytheMME
totheeNBviatheS1AP:WRITE-REPLACEWARNINGREQUEST.UEsinRRC_IDLE
andinRRC_CONNECTEDareinformedviapagingaboutthepresenceofCMAS
notifications.Withthisfunctionalitytheoperatorisabletosupportpublicwarningservice.

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Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupportsEarthquakeandTsunamiWarningSystem(ETWS)by
awarningdeliveryprocedure.Broadcastofprimaryandsecondarynotificationsare
supported.Broadcastofprimarynotificationisanimmediatewarningaboutthreat,like
earthquakeand/ortsunami,secondarynotificationsisfordeliveringadditional
information,likewheretogethelp.

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6 Transport and transmission


Thischapterprovidesinformationaboutthefollowingtransportandtransmissionissues:

LTEtransportoverview
Transportinterfaceoptions
TransportswitchingineNB
IPtransportaddressing
Trafficengineering
Synchronization
Transportadmissioncontrol

6.1 LTE transport overview


Thelogicalinterfacessharethephysicaltransportinterface(s)attheeNB.Typically,
severalinstancesoftheX2interfacearepresent,oneperadjacenteNB.TheeNB
supportsmultipleS1-MMEandmultipleS1-Uinterfaces.
Therelevantlogicalinterfacesare:

X2-U,eNBtoeNBforuserplanetraffic(GTP-Utunneling)
X2-C,eNBtoeNBforcontrolplanetraffic(X2APprotocol)
S1-U,eNBtoS-GWforuserplanetraffic(GTP-Utunneling)
S1-MME,eNBtoMMEforcontrolplanetraffic(S1APprotocol)
O&Mi/f,eNBtoO&MsystemforO&Mdata

Figure79:ArchitectureofLTEtransportbelowshowstheSAE/LTEnetworkarchitecture
andthelogicalinterfacesestablishedinthetransportlayer.
Figure 79

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ArchitectureofLTEtransport

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ProtocolstacksforUser(U),Control(C),Synchronization(S),andManagement(M)
planesarebasedonIPv4.TheLTE125: IPv6 for U/C-Planefeatureintroducesoptionto
useIPv6intheprotocolstackforUser(U)andControl(C)planes.Fromamobile
backhaulperspective,theFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEactsasanIPhost.UserIPpackets
aretunneledbetweenBTS(eNB)andS-GWusingGTP-U.
Figure80:TransportProtocolStackOverviewFigure81:TransportProtocolStack
OverviewgivesanoverviewontheeNBprotocolstacksusedontheS1,X2andO&M
interfaces.Layer3isalwaysbasedontheIPprotocol.OnlyEthernetinterfacesare
supported,includingelectricalandopticallayer1variants.
Figure 80

TransportProtocolStackOverview

Figure 81

TransportProtocolStackOverview

Transport

S1_U

S1_MME

X2_U

X2_C

GTP-U

S1AP/X2AP

Mgmt. Appl.

UDP

SCTP

UDP/TCP

IPv4/IPv6

IPv4/IPv6

IPv4

EthernetLayer2

EthernetLayer2

EthernetLayer2

EthernetLayer1

EthernetLayer1

EthernetLayer1

O&Mi/f

IPbasedprotocolstacksenablelowertransportcostandeasierplanningand
configuration.Ontheotherhand,RANtrafficbecomesmorevulnerabletohacker
attacks,sosecurityfeaturesaremandatory.Consequently,theFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
supportsIPSecauthenticationandencryptionforalltrafficinM-,C-,S-andU-plane.The
IPSecthroughputperformanceissufficientforeventhelargestpossibleeNB
configurationevenifverystrongencryptionandintegrityprotectionalgorithmsareused.
FlexiMultiradioBTSinterfacestothebackhaulconnectionareprovidedbyfieldreplaceableFlexiTransportsub-moduleswhicharemountedontopoftheFlexiSystem
Modulecore.SelectedFlexiTransportsub-modulessupportbothLTEandWCDMASW
applications(multi-radio)withsinglemodeoperation.

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Inthebasicconfiguration,FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEsupportsasingleIPaddressfor
combinedM-planeandU/C-plane.Whilethisfeaturesimplifiesnetworkconfiguration,
morecomplexaddressingoptionsarealsosupported.Itispossibletoconfigureupto
fourapplicationaddressesanduptofourinterfaceIPaddressesindependently.
TheeNBmustsupportatleastonepeerIPaddressperMME.WiththeSCTPMultihomingfeature,theeNBsupportstwoseparateC-planeIPaddressesoftheMME.
TheeNBsupportmultipleS1-MMEinterfacestowardsupto16MMEnodes(S1Flex
feature).
WithLTE505: Transport Separation for RAN Sharing,operatorswhichsharetheRAN
candistinguishwithinthetransportnetworktheS1traffic(U-planeandC-plane)ofthe
differentoperators.Inotherwords:independenttransportnetworkconfigurationis
possible.TheeNBsupportstwoU-planeIPaddressesandtwoC-planeIPaddresses.
FormoreinformationaboutRANsharing,seeRANsharingsection.
TheFlexiPacketRadioConnectivityfeatureintroducestheeNBcapabilitytomanagea
FlexiPacketRadio(FPR)systemconnectedtoaneNBEthernetinterface.The
FlexiPacketRadioisamicrowavepoint-to-pointradioforconnecting:

eNBtothetransportnetwork
eNBtoothereNBs

FlexiPacketRadiocanbeinstalledattheFlexiMultiradioBTSsitewithoutindoorunit.
Localcommissioningandmanagementdoesnotrequireinterruptingbackhaultrafficor
touchingcablingbetweentheBTSandFlexiPacketRadio.

6.2 Transport interface options


TheLTE/EPCarchitecturesupportsawiderangeofphysicalinterfacesandwillnot
precludetheuseofanyphysicalmediumwithwhichitisefficienttobuildatransport
network.
TheNetworkElements(NEs)supportEthernetInterfaces.Othertransporttechnologies
suchasDSLandMicrowavearesupportedbytheuseofexternalequipment.

Link Supervision with Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) and


Fast IP Rerouting
TheLinkSupervisionwithBFDfeatureimplementssingle-hopBidirectionalForwarding
Detection(BFD)andmultihopBFDsupport.BFDestablishesasessionbetweentheeNB
andanRouter.BothBFDpeerssendBFDcontrolpackets.IfnoBFDcontrolpacketis
receivedfromthepeerwithinanegotiatedBFDinterval,BFDnotifiesalinkfailure.Only
asynchronousmodeofBFDissupported.BFDestablishesasessionbetweenthetwo
endpointsoveralink.ThedirectroutetoaneNBissupervisedbyBFD.TheeNB
supportstheconfigurationofupto16BFDsessions.
TheFastIPReroutingfeatureintroducespathswitchovermechanismthatisableto:

120

definePrimaryPath(preferred)andAlternativePath(redundant)intheL2network
reroutetrafficfromfailedpathoverworkingpath(withswitchovertimetolerablefor
anenduser

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BidirectionalForwardingDetection(BFD)isusedforL3pathfailuredetection.

IP Transport Network Measurements


TheIPTransportNetworkMeasurementsfeatureintroducesapossibilitytoactively
measureandsupervisetheconditionsthroughthemobilebackhaultransportnetwork
betweentwopoints,usingRFC863UDPEchoandRFC5357TWAMPprotocols.
Measurementscanbeperformed,forexample,betweentheeNBandSEG,betweenthe
eNBandothersiterouterormeasuringequipmentorbetweentwoeNBs(X2interface
measuring).
Thepurposeofthemeasurementistohaveanestimationofthequalityandperformance
oftheIP-basedmobilebackhaul.Ifthemeasuredvaluesfallunderconfigurable
thresholds,analarmisraised.Withthisfeatureitispossibletocarryoutthe
measurementswithdifferent,configurableDiffServCodepointsandpacketsizes.All
measurementsareperformedonIPlayer.

Ethernet
InLTE,thebackhaultransportnetworkiscomposedofanEthernettransportnetworkas
illustratedinFigure82:EthernetbackhaulforLTE/EPC.Commonly,anetwork
terminatingdevice(leasedlinetermination,MWRIDU,xDSLCPE)ispresentattheeNB
site,soanelectricalconnectionismosteconomical.Iffiberaccessisavailableatthe
site,theFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEcanbeconnecteddirectly.
Thefollowinginterfacetypesaresupported:

FastEthernet(FE)100Base-TX,electrical
GigabitEthernet(GE)1000Base-T,electrical
GigabitEthernet(GE)1000Base-SX/LX/ZXthroughoptionalSFPmodule,optical

Figure 82

EthernetbackhaulforLTE/EPC

TheEthernetinterfaces,basedontheIEEE802.3-2002standard(withtype
interpretationofthetypelengthfield,EthernetII/DIXframe),supportthefollowing
features:

Issue:04

full-duplextransmissionmode
auto-negotiationandforcedmodeforthedatarate
MDI/MDIX
VLANtaggingaccordingtoIEEE802.1q

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Ethernetprioritybits(p-bits)accordingtoIEEE802.1p
IPv4overEthernet
ICMPv4
AddressResolutionProtocol(ARP)

U-planeIPpacketsmayexceedthemaximumMTUsizeoftheEthernetbackhaullink
becauseofadditionalpacketoverhead(GTP-U,UDP,IP/IPSec).TheFlexiMultiradio
BTSLTEsupportsIPfragmentationandreassembly.WiththeEthernetJumboFrames
feature,thevaluefortransportIPpacketssizeisconfigurableupto1608bytes.Thus,if
thesizeofuserIPpacketsisnotlargerthan1500bytes,therewouldnotbeaneedto
fragmenttransportlayerIPpackets.TheLTE931: Ethernet Jumbo Framesfeature
enablesMTUsizesupto1608fortheFSMr2andupto1644fortheFSMr3.

Ethernet OAM
TherearetwocomplementaryEthernetOAM(E-OAM)protocols:

LinkLayerOAM(IEEE802.3clause57,L-OAM)offerspoint-to-pointlinkmonitoring.
WhenL-OAMisactive,theoperatorcancheckinstantlyifthelinktothepeeris
workingorfaulty.Afterconnectivityisestablished,remainingsupportedL-OAM
capabilitiesarechecked.L-OAMprotocolcanbeusedformonitoringanypoint-topointlink.Forexample,alinkbetweentwodirectlyconnected(chained)eNBs.
ServiceOAM(IEEE802.1ag,ITU-TY.1731,S-OAM)offers:

end-to-endEthernetconnectivitymonitoring
networksegmentconnectivitymonitoring
Ethernetfaultlocalization
possibilitytomonitorthenetworkforcompliancewithserviceguarantees

OnceLTE140: Ethernet OAMfeatureisactivated,andS-OAMprotocolisinuse,


particularserviceinstancescanbemonitoredwithinapureL2network.ThefollowingSOAMcapabilitiesareavailable:

EthernetContinuityCheck(ETH-CC)
EthernetAlarmIndicationSignal(ETH-AIS)
EthernetRemoteDefectIndication(RDI)
EthernetLinkTrace
EthernetLoopback

6.3 Transport switching in eNB


TheeNBsupportsanEthernetswitchingfunctionwhichallowsminimizingthetransport
costsintheE-UTRANbysupporting:

122

localeNBtopologiessuchaschainsandtreesattheperipheryoftheE-UTRAN,
minimizingthenumberandlengthoftransportlinksemployed.
transportsharingatamulti-radiosite,allowingthesharingofthetransportnetwork
betweentheeNBandbasestationsbelongingtootherRATs.TheEthernetswitching
functionintegratedintheeNBallowsnon-LTEequipmentwithEthernetinterfacesto
shareacommontransport.

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IfanIProutingfunctionisrequired,thismustbeprovidedbyseparate
equipment.Similarly,equipmentthatusesnon-Ethernetinterfacesmustbe
supportedbyseparateequipment.Inparticular,anIProutercanbeusedto
performprotocolconversionandinterworkingbetweendifferenttechnologies
whererequired.
AnexampleofE-UTRANtransporttopologiesisillustratedinFigure83:ExampleofEUTRANtransporttopologies.
Figure 83

ExampleofE-UTRANtransporttopologies

Traffic aggregation towards mobile backhaul


TheLTE649: QoS aware Ethernet switchingfeatureintroducesintegrated,QoSaware
EthernetswitchingbetweentheexternaleNBEthernetports,orbetweentheexternal
portsandlocaleNBfunctions.TheeNBtransportsub-modulehasmultipleEthernet
ports(FTLBsupportinguptothreeports,FTIBsupportinguptotwoports),connected
throughanintegratedEthernetswitch.Oneportistypicallyusedforthebackhaul
connection,whileotherportsmaybeconnectedtootherradioequipment.TheEthernet
switchingcanbeusedforaggregationoftrafficfromothereNBs,NBsor2GBTSswhich
couldbelocatedatthesameorothersites.Itisalsopossibletodaisy-chainseveral
networkdevicesifchaineddevicessupportEthernetswitchingaswell.Thisfeature
eliminatestheneedforaseparateswitchdevicefordaisy-chainingattheeNBsite.For
moreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionLTE Transport.

6.4 IP transport addressing


TheeNBsupportsflexibleaddressing,whichallowsseparateaddressingofitsnetwork
interfaces(transportinterfaces)andeNBapplications.Addressingschemesupportsuse
caseswithandwithoutIPsecandwithandwithoutVLANs.
Networkconfigurationsarebasedontheassumptions:

Issue:04

eacheNBapplicationisusinganownaddresses
separatedcorenodes

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separatedSEGandVLANGWnodes

IPaddressingintheeNBisbasedontwoparts:addressingattheeNBside,and
addressingexternalpeernodesfromtheeNBside.
Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionLTE Transport.

6.5 Traffic engineering


Thefollowingtrafficengineeringconceptsareconsidered:

Trafficprioritization
Trafficdifferentiation
Trafficshaping

6.5.1 Traffic prioritization


Traffic prioritization on IP layer
Toavoidover-dimensioninginthebackhaulnetwork,FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEsupports
QoSdifferentiationbetweenuser,synchronization,controlandmanagementplanetraffic
asoutlinedinFigure84:QoSdifferentiationbetweenuser,controlandmanagement
planetraffic.DiffServisthemostcommonwayoftrafficprioritizationontheIPlayer.
DSCPvaluesfordifferentU/C/S/M-planetraffictypesareconfigurableandcanbe
appliedbasedonanoperatorspecificIPnetworkplan.Trafficendpoints(eNB,S-GW,
MME,O&M/NetAct)settheDSCPvalues,whileintermediatenetworkelementshaveto
handlethepacketsaccordingly.
TheFlexiTransportsub-moduleperformspacketschedulingusing6queueswithStrict
PriorityQueuing(SPQ)andWeightedFairQueuing(WFQ).EachServiceDataFlow
(SDF)isassociatedwithaQoSClassIdentifier(QCI).ThemappingbetweenQCIand
DSCPvaluesisconfigurable.
Figure 84

124

QoSdifferentiationbetweenuser,controlandmanagementplanetraffic

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Traffic prioritization on the Ethernet layer


IftrafficaggregationisperformedbyEthernetswitchingratherthanbyIProuting,the
transportnetworkmaynotbeIPQoS(DiffServ)aware.Inthiscase,FlexiMultiradioBTS
LTEsupportstrafficprioritizationontheEthernetlayer,usingpacketmarkingmethods
(codepoints)applicabletoEthernetasillustratedinFigure85:Trafficprioritizationonthe
Ethernetlayer,usingpacketmarkingmethods.Ethernetprioritybits(IEEE802.1p)
and/orVLANIDs(IEEE802.1q)canbesetperpacket,basedontheDiffServCodePoint
(DSCP).TheDSCP-to-PCP(PriorityCodePoints)mappingtableisconfigurable.
Figure 85

TrafficprioritizationontheEthernetlayer,usingpacketmarkingmethods

6.5.2 Traffic differentiation


ItiscommonpracticethatM-planeandU/C/S-planenetworksarelogically(andinthe
corenetworkalsophysically)separated.ThisconceptsupportsasecurityorientedIP
networkdesign(differentroutingdomains).WithFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEeach
applicationmaybeseparatedviaVLANs.Figure86:M-planetrafficdifferentiationusing
VLANoverEthernetillustratesoneexample,thatM-plane(O&M)trafficcanbe
separatedfromU/C-planetraffic,usinganotherIPaddressfromadifferentsubnet.

Issue:04

Layer2trafficdifferentiationisnotrestrictedtothedifferentiationbetweenUplaneandM-planetraffic,butmayalsobeappliedinaflexiblemanner,for
examplebetweenU-planeandC-planetraffic.

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Figure 86

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

M-planetrafficdifferentiationusingVLANoverEthernet

6.5.3 Traffic shaping


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEEthernetinterface(FEorGE)mayattimesgenerate
burstsoftrafficwhichcanexceedthecapacityoftheEthernetbackhaullink.Inparticular
inEthernetleasedlineswherethelinkcapacityisgovernedbyaServiceLevel
Agreement(SLA),suchburstsmaynotbeacceptedandtheexcessivepacketsarethen
droppedbyequipmentofthelinesoperator.
TrafficshapingintheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEisrequiredtoensureconformancetothe
linkcapacityinordertominimizepacketlossinthenetwork.Itreducestheburstinessof
outgoingEthernetorIPtrafficinconformancewithagiven:

maximumaverageoutputrateonEthernetorIPlayer
maximumburstsizeonEthernetorIPlayer

Ifpacketsneedtobedroppeddespitetrafficshaping,thisisdonebasedonpriorities
(QoSaware).FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEperformssingle-stageshapingaccordingtoMEF
10.1.TrafficshapingcanbeperformedperVLANorattheEthernetportlevel.

6.6 Synchronization
Asper3GPPrequirement,theairinterfaceataneNB(inFDDorTDDmode)needsto
befrequencysynchronizedwithanaccuracyof50ppb,TDDalsorequiresphase
synchronizationaccuracyat+/-1.5us.InaTDDsystemonlysynchronizationfromGPS
ispossible.InFDDmode,theFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEofferstheconfigurationof
severalclockreferencesourcesandapriorityorderamongthem.
Bymeansoftheairinterfacesynchronization,theeNBkeepsthefrequencyaccuracy
andthephaseaccuracyofitsairinterfacewithinthespecifiedbounds.TheeNB
supportssynchronizationofthebasestationsystemclock(generatedbyanOven
ControlledQuartzOscillatorOXCO),tothereferencesignals.TheeNBisabletorecover
thesystemclockfromtiminginterfaces.TheexternalsynchronizationsourceisGlobal
PositioningSystem(GPS)/PulsePerSecond(PPS)externalreferenceclock.
WiththefeatureLTE612: Synchronization Hub,aneNBcanprovidefrequencyand
phasesynchronizedsignalatthe1ppssynchronizationoutput.
Synchronizationsourceselectionrunsintwoways:

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Withinputatthesystemcontrolmodule.TheeNBsystemcontrolmodule(FCM)
supportstwoexternalsynchronizationsources:

Transportandtransmission

GlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)/PulsePerSecond(PPS)externalreference
clock
2.048MHzexternalreferenceclock;thissignalisprovidedfortheSYNCinputat
theeNBsystemcontrolmodule,ithasaccuracyaccordingto[ITU-TG.812]

WhenbothGPS/PPSand2.048MHzclocksignalarepresentattheexternal
synchronizationinputsofFCM,theeNBlockstoGPS/PPSreferencesignal.When
eitherGPS/PPSor2.048MHzclocksignalispresentattheexternalsynchronization
inputsoftheFCM,theeNBclockgeneratorlockstothesesynchronizationsignals.
WhennovalidclocksignalispresentatthesynchronizationinputsoftheFCM,the
eNBlockstosynchronizationsourcescarriedviatheeNBtransportsubsystem
(FTM).
Withinputatthetransportsubsystem.TheeNBsupportsselectionoftwo
synchronizationsourcesoutofthefollowingsources,whichareassignedtothe
differentprioritylevels:

SynchronousEthernet
TimingoverPacket
SynchronizationfromPDHinterface

Synchronization in CRAN
TheCRANsupportssynchronizationbyeitherGPSorTimingoverPacket(ToP).

6.6.1 Synchronization from GPS


SynchronizationfromGPSinterfaceisafield-proventechnology.

6.6.2 Synchronization from 2.048 MHz signal


InsteadofforwardingthesynchronizationsignalthroughanE1/T1/JT1line,co-located
legacyequipmentmayprovidea2.048MHzsignalforsynchronizingFlexiMultiradio
BTSLTE,asillustratedinFigure87:Synchronizationfrom2.048MHzsignal.
Figure 87

Synchronizationfrom2.048MHzsignal

6.6.3 Synchronous Ethernet


IncontrasttoToP,whichisessentiallyaL3technology,frequencysynchronizationcan
alsobeextracteddirectlyfromtheEthernetinterfaceattheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE,
providedthatallintermediateEthernetnodesandtheotherendsupportthe
SynchronousEthernetfeatureasperG.8261.

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6.6.4 Timing over Packet


TimingoverPacket(ToP),basedonIEEE1588-2008,isanothermethodtosupport
synchronizationifFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEisconnectedthroughEthernet/IPbackhaul,
asillustratedinFigure88:ToPbasedsynchronization.ToPprovidesCAPEXandOPEX
savings,asseparatePDHlinksorGPSareGPSisnotneeded.However,theEthernet/IP
networkhastobeofsufficientqualityintermsoflowframe/packetdelayvariation.
TheTimingoverPacket(ToP)solutionconsistsofaTimingMasteratthecoresiteand
TimingSlavesimplementedintheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE.Themasterandtheslaves
communicatethroughtheIEEE1588-2008protocol.Themastersendssynchronization
messagesviatheEthernet/IPnetworktotheslaves.Theslavesrecoverthe
synchronizationreferencefromthesynchronizationmessagessentbythemaster.All
synchronizationtrafficistransportedwithintheSynchronizationplane,orS-plane.
Figure 88

ToPbasedsynchronization

TheLTE891: Timing over Packet with phase synchronizationfeatureissupported.This


featureprovidesphasesynchronizationofBTSthroughthepacketnetworkbasedon
IEEE1588-2008.TheTimingoverPacket(ToP)solutionforphasesynchronization
consistsofaPTPGrandMasteratthecoresite,PTPBoundaryClocks(BC)onatleast
someselectednodesonthebackhaulnetworkandaPTPSlaveimplementedinthe
eNB.TheusageofBCinthebackhaulnetworkisneededinordertoachievethe
requiredphasesynchronizationaccuracy.

6.6.5 Synchronization from PDH interface


SynchronizationfromPDHinterfaceistheconventionalmethodappliedatlegacybase
stations(2G,3G).ThesynchronizationsignalisrecoveredfromaselectedE1/T1/JT1
line,theclockofwhichistraceabletoaPrimaryReferenceClock(PRC).PRC
synchronizationisusuallyimplementedatthecoresite.
WithrespecttotheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE,thePDHlineisusedforsynchronization
purposesonly.

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Transportandtransmission

6.7 Transport admission control


Apartofthealreadydescribedtrafficprioritization,whichprovidesrelativeQoS(see
sectionTrafficprioritization),theLTEsystemreliesinadditionontheefficientuseof
systemresourcestoprovideend-to-endqualityofservice(QoS).Thisactuallyreferstoa
numberofresourcecontrolmechanismslikeflowcontrol,congestioncontrol,and
admissioncontrol.WiththeConnectionAdmissionControl(CAC)functiontheeNBcan
acceptorrejectaconnectionrequestbasedonthecurrentloadsituation.Whereasair
interfaceresourcesarebeingcheckedwithRadioAdmissionControl(RAC),the
TransportAdmissionControl(TAC)addscheckingofavailabletransportresourcesto
acceptingabearerrequest.Basically,admittancetothesystemisgrantedif,attimeof
connectionrequest,bothRACandTACexpecttohavetheresourcesavailableforthe
timetheconnectionwillbeactive.

InRL30foradmissioncontrolonlyonetypeofrealtimetrafficissupported(QCI
class1).

InRL25TDforadmissioncontrolonlyonetypeofrealtimetrafficissupported
(QCIclass1).
Thisisespeciallyimportantforreal-timeapplicationslikevoice(VoIP),videostreaming,
onlinegames,orIP-TV,whicharedelaysensitiveandmayrequireaguaranteedfixedbit
rate.ItisassumedthatGuaranteedBitRate(GBR)trafficishandledonthetransport
networkwithhigherprioritythanotherkindsoftraffic,andmaypre-emptlower-priority
traffic.Inordertosupportaguaranteedbitrate,itiscommonpracticetopermitGBR
connections(traffic)onlyuptoacertaincommittedbitrate.
TheLTE1401: Measurement based TACfeaturegrantsorrejectsrequestsbasedon
measurementoftheactuallyusedtransportbandwidth.Itisafunctionalenhancementof
theLTE144: Transport Admission Controlfeaturewhichisbasedonbook-keepingof
estimatedtransportbearerbandwidths.ThisTransportAdmissionControlisdonefor
GuaranteedBitRate(GBR)trafficonly.

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7 Operability
Thischapterprovidesinformationaboutthefollowingoperabilityissues:

Operabilityarchitecture
NetActframework
BTSSiteManager
FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEmanagementfunctions
FlexiMultiradioBTSsupplementaryOAMfeatures
FlexiMultiradioBTSdiagnosis
SelfOrganizingNetworksupport

7.1 Operability architecture


TheLTE/EPCnetworkmanagementsystembasedontheNetActOSSframeworkhas
beendesignedforscalability,supportingdifferentnetworksizes.Fromauserspointof
view,managingtheLTE/EPCnetworkisverysimilartothatofWCDMAwhenNetActis
inuse.ForanoverviewseeFigure89:LTE/EPCOperationandmaintenanceconcept.
Figure 89

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Flat operability architecture


Inalegacy2Gand3Gnetwork,relevantpartsoftheBTSoperationandmaintenance
taskarelocatedintheBSCortheRNC.WiththenewLTE/EPCcontrolplaneanduser
planearchitecture,theOAMtaskneedstobesplitandallocatedbetweeneNBandthe
element-andnetworkmanagementlayer.Nokiadecidedtogoforaflatintegrated
NetActsolutionfortheeNBelementmanagementinsteadofaremainingstand-alone
solution.
AstheNetActframeisamulti-vendormanagementsystembynature,itprovidesvarious
mediationinterfacestowardsnodestobemanaged.FortheFlexiMultiradioBTS,thisis
donebytheintegratedOperationMediationSystem(iOMS)asanintegralpartofNetAct.
WiththeintegratedOperation&MediationFunction,NetActcan:

handlethousandsofeNB-IPrelationships
performhighlyefficientparallelfiletransferhandlingfor:

PMcounterupload
(Bulk)filedownload(forexample,SWdistribution)

doahighlyefficientPMcounteraggregation
(absolutedatavolumeisapproximatelythesameasindistributedArchitecturebut
thenumberoffilesmultipliesbyafactor>700to1000comparedwithWCDMA)
maintainthousandsofSecurityAssociations(TLSsessions)
mediatethousandsofBTSOMsessions(BaseStationOAMprotocol)

7.2 NetAct framework


NetActprovidesadvancedapplicationsandservicesformultitechnologyandmulti
vendornetworkandservicemanagement;forexamplemonitoring,reporting,configuring
andoptimizing.NetActprovidesseamlessmanagementnotonlyofLTEaccess
networks,butalsoofdifferentnetworktechnologieswithintegratedandinterworking
tools,whichenablestheoperatortocontrolcostswhileredeployingcompetenciesand
resourcesfrom2Gto3G,HSPA,I-HSPAandLTE.Textualandgraphicalpresentationof
measurementdatareportingcanbebasedondefaultNokiaformatsoraformat
customizedbytheoperator.
AccordingtotheLTE653: LTE Operability Architecturefeature,theeNBcanbemanaged
ondifferentlevels:

onsinglesitelevel
bytheBTSSiteManager(BTSSM)providingtheeNBelementmanagement
application(BTSEM)fortheradiopart,andthetransportelementmanager
application(TRSEM)forthetransmissionpartforasingleeNB.TheBTSSMprovides
FCAPSfunctionalityrequiredforlocalelementmanagement.TheBTSSMSW
applicationisinstalledeitheronaPC/Notebook-namedLocalMaintenanceTerminal
(LMT)forsitelocalusage,and/oronaNetActGUIserverforremoteaccesstothe
eNB.
onregionalandnationallevel
wheretheNetActOSSframeworkprovidesthefollowingcapabilities:

Issue:04

Itcanactaselementmanagementsystem(EMS)/domainmanager(DM)fora
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Itcanbeconfiguredasnetworkmanagementsystem(NMS)forthewhole
network(access,core,transport,etc.)withthehelpofseveralunderlyingEMS.

Anintegratedoperationmediationsystem(iOMS)mediatesbetweenthetransportoptimizedeNBmanagementinterfacesandtheCorbaNWI3managementinterface
usedbyseveralNetActapplications.Further,iOMSsupportstheFCAPSapplications
withconcentrationandaggregationfunctionsforSWdistributionandPMdata
collection.Itcarriesallthenecessarydataandcommands(forexamplealarms,
measurements,configurationandnewsoftwaredata)tocontrolthenetworkelement
behaviorremotely.
TheNetActOSSframeworkprovidesboththecapabilitytoactastheElement
ManagementSystem(EMS)/DomainManager(DM)foracertainnumberofFlexi
MultiradioBTSLTEsandthecapabilitytobeconfiguredasaNetworkManagement
System(NMS)forthewholenetwork(access,core,transport,etc.)onregionaland
nationallevels(withthehelpofseveralunderlyingEMS).
AnintegratedOperationMediationSystem(iOMS)mediatesbetweenthetransport
optimizedmultipleFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEmanagementinterfacesandtheCORBA
NW3IManagementInterfaceusedbyseveralNetActApplications.Inaddition,iOMS
supportstheFCAPSapplicationswithconcentrationandaggregationfunctionsforSW
distributionandPMdatacollection.
TheinterfacebetweentheFlexiMultiradioBaseStationandiOMSisbasedonthe
BTSOMprotocol.Itcarriesallthenecessarydataandcommands(forexample,alarms,
measurements,configurationandnewsoftwaredata)tocontrolthenetworkelement
behaviorremotely.
Examples of functionality provided by NetAct for LTE:

132

graphictopologypresentation
basicadministration,timemanagementandaccesstolocalnode/elementmanagers
centralizedsoftwaremanagement
collectionandstorageofalarmandmeasurementdata
alarmfilteringandreclassification,modifiablealarmmanual
performancemanagementtoolsandadministrationofmeasurements
networkconfigurationvisualization
thecurrentradionetworkconfigurationaswellastheplannedconfigurationofthe
radionetworkcanbeviewed,searchedandmodified
exportingtheactualconfigurationtoanexternaltoolandimportingplansfrom
externaltools
planprovisioning,planandtemplatemanagement,operationsscheduling
uploadingradionetworkconfigurationfromeNBandcorenetworkintoNetAct
database
possibilitytocompareactualplans-forreviewingchangeswhatisexpectedwhen
theplanisprovisionedtothenetworkorforverifyingthatplannedchangeswere
implementedcorrectlyinthenetwork
siteconfigurationtool-forprovidinganeasy-to-accessstorageforeNBsite
configurationfilesandothercommissioningdata.Theapplicationsupportsnetwork
rolloutbyenablingeffectivecommissioningofeNB.
graphicaluserinterface:

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AllO&Mservicesaremanagedbyusingagraphicaluserinterface(GUI),eithervia
localaccessorfromaremotelocation.TheNetActcomprisesthefunctionalityto
launchaBTSSiteManager.GUIsareprovidedby:

theNetActOSSframework
theBTSSiteManager(BTSSM)forBTSelementmanager(BTSEM)andthe
transportmanager(TRSEM)

astheNetActframeisamultivendormanagementsystemitprovidesvarious
mediationinterfacesonthesouthsidetowardsnodestobemanaged

7.3 BTS Site Manager


TheBTSSiteManager(BTSSM)istheElementManagerforasingleFlexiMultiradio
BTSLTE,featuringasingleSWapplicationthatisusedformanagingoneormore
networkelementsintheBTSsite.AsillustratedinFigure90:Functionaloverviewofthe
BTSSiteManager,theapplicationintegratesTransmissionandBTSManagementinto
onesite-levelmanagementtool.
Figure 90

FunctionaloverviewoftheBTSSiteManager

TheBTSManagementprovidesallSWfunctionalityneededtomanage,configure,and
monitortheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE.TheTRSManagementprovidesallSW
functionalitytomanage,configure,andmonitorthetransmissionconfigurationsbetween
theFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEandotherBTSsandthepeercoreandmanagementnodes.
TheBTSSiteManager(BTSSM)SWapplicationisinstalledonacomputerwhichis
connectedtotheeNBeitherlocally(throughEthernet)orremotely(viatheIPbackhaul
network).
TheBTSSMSWapplicationhoststwomanagementapplications:

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TheeNBelementmanager(BTSEM)includingantennalineandantennaequipment
monitoringandremoteelectricaltiltmanagement
Thetransportmanager(TRSEM)fortransmissionmanagement

Anewlydownloadedfiledoesnotimmediatelyoverwritethesoftwareortheactive
settingsoftheradioortransmissiondatabases.ThisisdonewhentheeNBreceivesthe
activationcommandandperformsarestart.BTSSMsendsthisactivationcommand
whenfinalizingtheeNBcommissioning.
Afterinitialcommissioning,furtherSWandplanupdatescanalsobeexecutedfroma
remotelyconnectedBTSSM.AneNBrestartisnotrequiredifchangesintheeNB
configurationarerestrictedtoparametersthatcanbemodifiedon-line.

Local host requirements

Windows7,2000,XP,WindowsServer2003orLinux(RedHatEnterprise)
recommendedprocessorspeed800MHzormore
recommendedmemory512Mbyteormore
recommendedharddiskspace260Mbyte
1024x768displayresolutionforoptimumviewing
mouseortrackballforbestuserinterfaceinteraction
Ethernetconnection(10/100/1000Mbit/sEthernetcard)
communicationcable(10/100/1000Base-TEthernetcablewithanRJ-45connector)
CD-ROM(optional)
printer(optional)

Basic BTS Site Manager functionality


TheBTSSMsupportsthefollowingbasicfunctionality(seealsoTable11:BTSSite
Managerlocalandremotefunctionality):

134

integrationandcommissioningofBTSandTRS
supervisionofBTS(alarmandperformancemonitoring,systemdiagnostics)
transmissionmanagement(alarmandperformancemonitoring)
maintenanceofBTS(SWupgrades,BTSsiteparametersmodification)
testingandmonitoringofLTEBTSandTRS

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Table 11

Operability

BTSSiteManagerlocalandremotefunctionality

Manager Functionality

Local

Remote

Filebasedcommissioning

Manualsitecommissioning

DetailedSiteInformationretrieval

SiteConfigurationPlanningFile(SCF)creation

SystemSnapshotcreation/saving&analysis

TraceLogging

UserandAccessControlManagement

SWUpdate,DownloadandManagement

PerformanceMonitoring

AlarmManagement

NetActLaunchandIntegration

N/A

LicenseManagement

TheCRANfunctionalityisactivated,configured,managed,anddeactivatedbythe
BTSSM.Formoreinformationonactivation,deactivationandconfigurationoftheCRAN,
seetheLTE1724 CL10: Centralized RAN 10 MHzfeaturedescription.

7.4 Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE management functions


FlexiMultiradioBTSLTEmanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions,whichare
describedinthefollowingsectionsinmoredetail:

Issue:04

Faultmanagement
Configurationmanagement
Softwaremanagement
Performancemanagement
Hardware/inventorymanagement
Feature/licensemanagement
Useraccountmanagement
Usereventlogmanagement

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7.4.1 Fault management


Alarmsarereportedtothemanagementsystems,includingthecauseoftheserviceloss.
Thealarmsthemselvesaresupplementedwiththealarmmanualpagestodescribethe
conditionsinmoredetails.Thefaultdetectionalsoleadsifneededtoautomaticrecovery
actions.TheFlexiMultiradioBTSalarmsystemgathersalarmreportsfromthe
applicationsoftwareintheFlexiMultiradioBTSandreportsthemtoNetAct.OnNetAct,a
graphicaluserinterfaceprovidesaviewforactivealarmsandaccordingreportsaswell
asanalarmhistory,andenablestheoperatormodificationofalarmparameters.
Faultmanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions:

generalalarmmanagementfunctions
alarmfilteringinBTS
alarmseveritychangeinBTS
alarmmanagementfortransportmodules
alarmmanagementforantennalinemanagement

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionFault Management.

7.4.2 Configuration management


Planningtoolsprovidethesiteconfiguration,theradioconfiguration,andthe
transmissionconfigurationdatafortheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE.Theseconfigurations
aredownloaded,stored,andactivatedtosingleFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEviaNetActor
BTSSM.Inaddition,managementofstatesandfeaturesisprovided.
Configurationmanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions:

configurationhandling
parameterchangeswithdirectactivation
directparameteroperationsontransportconfigurations
consistencychecks
featuremanagement
statemanagement
planfiledatauploadanddownload
configurationdatabackupandsynchronization
SON-initiatedconfigurations

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionConfiguration Management.

7.4.3 Software management


TheSWManagementprovidedbyNetActSWManagementServicesorbytheBTSSite
ManagerconsistsofsoftwaremanagementfunctionsfocusedtotheFlexiMultiradio
BTS.ThosefunctionsaredownloadingSWbuilds,activatingSWbuilds,anduploading
SWconfigurations.SeveraldownloadsanduploadsmayruninparallelformultipleFlexi
MultiradioBTSs.ASWbuildconsistsofseveralfiles.AlsoChangeDeliveriesare
handledasbuildsconsistingofoneormorefilesthatupdatetheimpactedSW
segments.

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WhenaSWbuildisdownloaded,itcanbeactivatedimmediately,orlaterbyadedicated
activationrequest.TheSWconfigurationuploadfunctionisusedtokeeptheNetAct
back-updatabaseup-to-date.
Softwaremanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions:

SWdownload/updateprocedure
SWfiledownload
SWfallback/rollbackpossibility
SWdownloadProgressIndicator/supervision
SWactivation
SWInventory/ChangeNotification
combinedSWmanagementfortheFlexiMultiradioBTSModulesandAntennaLine
Devices
SWintegrityprotection

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionSoftware Management.

7.4.4 Performance management


TheRadioNetworkPerformanceManagementprovidestheoperatorwithcontinuousupto-dateinformation,enablingthemtomaintainahighstandardofnetworkoperabilityfor
theircustomers.WithThresholdBasedPMAlarming,itmakesiteasiertodetectfaults,
identifybottlenecks,andoptimizethenetwork.FlexibleKPIsprovideaquickviewonthe
actualnetworkperformance.
Performancemanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions:

radionetworkmonitoringstatistics
fastreportingforselectedPMcounters
threshold-basedPMalarming
KPIcalculations
PMdatatransferandsupervisionbyNetAct
PMcounterlicenses
performancedatafileformats

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionPerformance Management.

7.4.5 Hardware/inventory management


TheHardwareManagementoftheFlexiMultiradioBTSconsistsofanautomaticHW
detectionandnotification/uploadfunctiontoNetActortheNetActHardwareBrowser.
Hardware/inventorymanagementcomprisesthefollowingfunctions:

HWinstallationandconfiguration
inventorymanagement

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionNetwork Inventory.

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7.4.6 Feature/license management


Usinghardwarecapacityfeaturesandoptionalsoftwarefeaturesrequirelicensestobe
purchased.TheRL20releaseusestrust-baselicensecontrol.Licensemanagementis
notsupportedinRL15,itwillbesupportedinfuturereleases.

License types
ThereareOn/Offtypelicenses(useofafeatureisallowedornot)orvaluelicenses
(forexample,capacity).Somefeatureswithcapacitylicensemayhavebasiccapacity
thatisavailablewithoutalicense.Capacityexpansionisdonebyinstallinganother
capacitylicenseintotheelement.Capacityisexpandedincrementally,thatis,previous
licensefilesarestillvalidandthecapacityvaluesaresummedup.Ifacapacitybased
licenseexceedstheinstalledHWcapability,analarmisissued.

7.4.7 User account management


ThisfeatureenablesthecentralizeduseraccountmanagementfortheFlexiMultiradio
BTSfromNetActtogetherwiththeRemoteUserInformationManagementapplication
(RUIM)application.Italsoprovidesamassupdatingfunctionoflocaluserpasswords.
ThesystemadministratorcanmanagetheaccesstotheFlexiMultiradioBTSwitha
centralizedauthenticationandauthorizationserverinNetAct.Intheloginphase,the
networkcheckstheuseraccessrightsfromanLDAPserver,whichprovidesthe
authenticationandauthorizationinformation.Theaccessrightscanbemanaged
separatelyforeachgrouporindividualofthemaintenancepersonnel.IntheUser
InformationManagementsystem,theoperatorcandefinedifferentaccessclassesfor
differentusergroupsandnetworkelements.Useraccountmanagementenablesalsothe
possibilityforloggingtheuseractionsintheNWwiththesameuserID(peruser)ineach
NWentity(theLTE667: User Event Log Managementfeature).Securityalarmsare
raisedifanillegalaccessattemptusingwrongcredentialsismadetoFlexiMultiradio
BTS.

Mass update
Updatingthelocalpasswordsinthenetworkelementsisatimeconsumingoperation,
whichneedstobeperformedfrequently.Massupdatingfunctionalityhelpskeepthe
networkelementlocalpasswordsuptodate.Withthisfeature,itispossibletoupdatethe
localuseraccountpasswordsforFlexiBTSremotelyfromNetAct.

Password aging
Withthisfunction,theOperatorcanselectifpasswordagingandaccountlockingshould
beenabled.TheFlexiMultiradioBTSinformsusersaboutanexpiredpasswordandthe
userscanchangetheirowncentralaccountpasswordsduringloginiftheirpasswordis
lockedbecauseofexpiration.

7.4.8 User event log management


UsereventlogmanagementenablesauditingofuseractionsintheFlexiMultiradioBTS
andenablesfastmeanstostartcorrectiveactionsandpreventionofpossible
configurationdamages.

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UsereventlogsfromalltheFlexiMultiradioBTScanbecentrallyaggregatedwiththe
NetActAuditTrailtool.TheoperatorcantraceandcorrelatechangesforaFlexiBTS
createdbytheBTSSiteManager(uploadedfromFlexiMultiradioBTS)andfromnetwork
managementlevel(logfilesstoredonmanagementnodes).
TheuploadofFlexiMultiradioBTSlogfilesistriggeredfromNetAct.AnXMLfileformat
isusedasthelogfileformat.NetActcanalsoproducethedataintheUserEvent
CollectioninthesameXMLformat.TheXMLcodingismadeavailableforthirdparty
applications.AsecureFileTransferProtocolisappliedforthelogfilecollectionfromthe
FlexiMultiradioBTS,andNetActprovidestoolsforprocessingthecollectedlogfiles.
WiththeNetActapplications,theoperatorcancreatereportsfromthedatacollection,for
example,basedontheuserorFlexiMultiradioBTSidentity.Centralizeduserauditing
increasesthesystemsecurity.

7.5 Flexi Multiradio BTS supplementary OAM features


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSsupplementaryfeaturescomprisethefollowing:

GPSlocationretrieval
NTPclocktimesynchronization
AutomaticiOMSresiliency
DHCPserverforBTSsiteequipment

7.5.1 GPS location retrieval


TheGPSmoduleintheFlexiMultiradioBTSprovidesaninterfacetofetchgeographical
coordinatesand,optionally,theUTCTimeinformation.
IfafixedmountedGPSmoduleisavailableonsite,theFlexiMultiradioBTScanbe
configuredtousethecontrolinterface(SWmanagementinterface)toaccesstheGPS
information:

fetchtheGPScoordinatesintermsofLongitude,LatitudeandAltitudevalues
fetchtheaccurateGPStime

ThisGPStimeiscalculatedtoUTCtime.Thetimeinformationmaybeusedto
synchronizetheBTSinternalclocks(timeofday,notintendedtobeusedasfrequency
referenceforoscillators)orusedforexampleastimestampsinmessages,alarms,
notifications,tracerecords,andsoon.TheexternalGPSdeviceisconnectedina
MDR26connectorwhichacceptsNMEA0183data.

TheconfigurationoftimezoneandSummerandWintertimecanbederivedvia
GPSandisdoneduringsitecommissioning.

7.5.2 NTP clock time synchronization


TheNetworkTimeProtocol(NTP)isastandardthatmakesitpossibletosynchronizethe
clocks/timestampsbetweenNetworkManagementnodesandtheFlexiMultiradioBTS
overanIPbackhaulnetwork.

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NTPServer(s)areintroducedtoprovidethesettingandadjustmentoftheinternalclocks
viatheNTPprotocolwithoutdegradationoftheloadprocessingbyFlexiMultiradioBTS.
TheNTPserver(s)usedfortheFlexiMultiradioBTSmustbeofstratumlevel2orbetter
(higherstratumlevelsareoffsetfromaStratum-1serveroveranetworkpath.Assuch,a
Stratum-2servergetsitstimeoveranNTPlinkfromaStratum-1serverwhichprovides
theUniversalCoordinatedTime(UTC)).
Thederivedtimeisused,forexample,inO&Mtimestampstoallowalarmcorrelationor
forlogentriesandtheirevaluation.

TheconfigurationoftimezoneandSummerandWintertimeisdoneduringsite
commissioning.

7.5.3 Automatic iOMS resiliency


Thisfeatureintroducesamechanismwhichsupportscontinuousoperability,evenifan
iOMSfailsoraconnectionbetweentheiOMSandtheeNBisinterruptedbecauseof
transportnetworkproblems.
Thisfeatureworksbyintroducingaredundancyconcept,whichallowstheusageofa
backupiOMS,calledsecondaryiOMS,ifthenormallyservingiOMS,calledprimary
iOMS,cannotbeused.IncaseofproblemswiththeconnectiontotheprimaryiOMS,the
eNBtriestosetupaconnectionwiththesecondaryiOMS.Whentheconnectionis
establishedsuccessfully,theeNBidentity,topologyandalarmsaretransferredtothe
newiOMS.Multipleredundancyarchitecturesaresupportedwiththisfeature.One
secondaryiOMScanbackuponeprimaryiOMSoragroupofiOMSs.Also,theone-tooneconfigurationispossible.

7.5.4 DHCP server for BTS site equipment


AninternalDHCPserverenablesadynamicIPhostconfigurationforIPdevices
connectedtotheFlexiMultiradioBTSsubnetattheFlexiMultiradioBTSsite.
DeviceslikeantennatiltcontrollersorlocalmanagementtoolssuchastheBTSSM
receiveanIPconfigurationfromtheDHCPserverlocatedintheFlexiTransportModule
(FTM).AlongwiththeIPaddress,othernetworkparametersarealsogiven.The
meaningfulparametersare:DefaultgatewayIP-address,leasetimeandsubnetmask.
TheDHCPserverintheFTMisconfiguredwiththeTransportElementManager
(TRSEM)orwiththesitecommissioningfileduringinstallation.
DHCPfunctionalityissupportedaccordingto[RFC2131]and[RFC2132].PortsUDP#67
and#68arereservedforDHCP.TheDHCPleasetimeisoneweek.TheDHCPleaseis
renewedbeforeleasetimeends.

7.6 Flexi Multiradio BTS diagnosis


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSdiagnosiswillalsocomprisethefollowingapplications:

140

Tracedatasupportforexternalusage
Celltraffictrace
Subscriberandequipmenttrace

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ItispossibletosaveaFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEsnapshotfilefortroubleshooting
purposes.Thisproceduredescribeshowyoucansaveasnapshotfilethatcanbeused
fortroubleshooting.Thesnapshotfilecanbesavedintheconnectedmode.Itcontains
thecurrentstatusofelementsandBTSSiteManager:usedHWconfiguration,logs,
alarms,HWandSWversioninformation,forexample.

7.6.1 Trace data support for external usage


Ifoperatorsapplynetworkdomainsecuritywithintheirownor3rdpartybackhaul
networkthenprotocoltestersasusedin2G/3Gnetworkcannolongerbeusedbecause
allcommunicationoncontrol,userandmanagementplaneisencrypted.Withthis
feature,operatorsgainaccesstouncipheredprotocoltraceinformationwithinthesecure
environmentoftheFlexiMultiradioBTS.Thisfeatureprovidesanewinterfacefortrace
dataprovisioningforexternalaccess,forexampletoprotocolanalyzers.
Tracedatasupportforexternalusagecoversthefollowingusecases:

requestexternalspecifictraceinformationtoFlexiMultiradioBTSondemand
checkaspecificFlexiMultiradioBTS(incaseofproblems)

ThefollowingfunctionsaresupportedbyFlexiMultiradioBTS:

ThetraceinformationistakeninternallyinFlexiMultiradioBTS,basedontheNokia
specificinternalinterfacetracerequest.Thetracecontentrequestisasubsetofthe
tracesinthecurrentlyprovidedinternaltrace.
Differenttracelevelsaresupported.Thetracelevelsarealignedwiththeinternal
interfacetrace,butonlyasubsetofthefullinformationoftheinternaltraceis
providedtotheexternalinterface.

Tracelevelsfollowthe3GPPRS32.421/32.422definition:

Maximum: allsignalingmessagesonthedifferentinterfacesareretrieved
Medium: dataofminimumlevelplusaselectedsetofdecodedradiomeasurement
IEsisretrieved
Minimum: aselectedsubsetofIEsfromthesignalinginterfacemessagesis
retrievedwhichcoversmostofthecommonusecases.

Thefollowingprotocolsaresupported:

PHY
MAC
RLC
PDCP
RRC

Thefollowinginterfacescanbetraced:

LTE-Uu
X2
S1

Dependingontherequest,dataforexternalusearefilteredintheFlexiMultiradioBTS
forthedifferentprotocols,oronlytherequesteddataiscollected.
Possibleparametersfortherequestare:

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Cellidentifier
Protocollayers
MeasurementID
MeasurementType(whichmeasurementsarereported)
MeasurementPeriodicity(howoftenreportsaresent)
TraceLevel

Trace configuration
Traceactivation/deactivationandprotocoltesterIPaddress/portconfigurationaredone
viaNetActandBTSSM.ThereceivingprotocoltesterhasnoBTSconfiguration
capabilitiesormanagementinterfacetotheFlexiMultiradioBTS.

Transport interface and security


ThetracedataisputtotheexternalEthernetinterfaceontopofatransportprotocol/port
likeTCPandissenttoagivenIPaddressoftheexternalprotocolanalyzerwithinthe
operator'sdomain.ThetracedataissentviaanIPsecsecurityassociationtothedefined
VPN/SEGGateway.IfIPsecisnotappliedthenthedataissentviaplainIP.
Thetracedatecontentmayalsobecipheredend-to-endindependentlyofIPsec.Inthis
case,theprotocoltesterneedstoknowthepre-sharedkeytosupporttheciphering.

7.6.2 Tracing
Generaltracingfunctionscomprisethefollowing:

Tracemanagement
Tracedatacollectionandreporting
Reportingmodes

Tracingapplicationsprovidespecificfunctionalityfor:

Traceconfiguration
Traceactivation
Tracedatasupport

Trace management
Oursolutionfollowsthegeneraldefinitionsrecommendedby3GPPTS32.421and
32.422.Itisassembledbyfourbuildingblocks(seeFigure91:Celltraceconceptand
Figure92:Cellsubscriberandequipmenttraceconcept):

142

TraceVieweristhecentraltoolwithintheNetActapplicationfortraceactivationand
traceresultevaluation.NetActTraceVieweralsoofferscentralizedadministrative
functionsforthetracedatareportingmode(realtimeandnon-realtime).
CentralTraceControlisthecentralgenerictracemanagementfunctionblockacross
thenetwork.Itsupportstheforwardingofadministrativecommandstotheaffected
NetworkEntities(NE)liketheFlexiMultiradioBTSandisthecentralpartforhandling
oftracedatacollectedfromdifferentNEs.
FlexiMultiradioBTSLocalTraceControlisthelocalgenerictracemanagement
functioninsidetheBTS.Itisresponsibleforstoringthetraceparameterslocallyand
forinformingtheTraceDataProducertostartthetracedatacollectionofthespecific
callbasedonthetraceparameters.Itisalsoresponsibleforhandlingthetracedata

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sentfromtheTraceDataProducer,temporarilystoringitinthespecifictracelogfile
(incaseofnon-realtimetracereportingmode,filebasedtrace)orforgeneratingthe
tracereportsandsendingthemtotheCentralTraceControlatNetAct(incaseof
realtimetracereportingmode).
FlexiMultiradioBTSTraceDataProduceristheBTSspecifictracedatacollection
functionalitylocatedoneachcallprocessingfunctionblockthatdeliversthetrace
data.Itisresponsibleforcollectingthetracedataofthespecificcall,basedonthe
LocalTraceControlrequests.

Trace data collection and reporting


ThetracerecordsaregeneratedineachFlexiMultiradioBTSwhereatracesessionhas
beenstarted,andaresenttotheNetActnetworkdatastorage.TheNetActTraceViewer
hasaccesstoallcollecteddataoftheentirenetworknodes.
Tracerecordscanbesentoverthenorthboundinterfacetofurthernetworkmanagement
traceevaluationtools.ThefileformatisXMLbased,followingtheschemadefinedinTS
32.423.ThetransfergoesfromFlexiMultiradioBTStotheNetActelementmanagerand
fromthereviathenorthboundinterfacetoanothernetworkmanagementsystem.
IfthereceivedtracecontrolandconfigurationparametersincludeanexternalIPaddress,
NetActretrievestheIPaddressfromthetracerecordsandtransfersthemtothegivenIP
addressorbasedontheconfiguredexternalIPaddressforthistracesession.

DirecttransferoftracerecordsfromFlexiMultiradioBTStoanothernetwork
managementsystemorexternalIPaddressisnotsupported.

Reporting modes
Non-realtimeandrealtimereportingissupported.Incaseofthenon-realtimetrace
reportingmode,therecordsarecollectedintofilesthatareuploadedeitherondemand,
ortime-controlled,totheCentralTraceControlatNetAct.Inrealtimereportingmode,
eachrecordissentimmediatelytotheCentralTraceControl.

7.6.2.1

Cell traffic trace


Celltraffictracingprovidesdetailedresourceorientedinformationatcalllevelofa
definednumberofcallsinoneormorecells.Theoperatorcanactivatecelltraffictracing
foralimitedperiodoftimeforspecificanalysispurposes,forexample,advanced
troubleshooting,optimizationofresourceusageandquality,RFcoveragecontrol,
capacityimprovement,ordroppedcallanalysisinspecificcells.Thecelltraceconceptis
illustratedinFigure91:Celltraceconcept.
WithLTE162: Cell Trace with IMSIadditionalfeature,theexistingcelltracedatareports
canbemappedwiththeIMSI/IMEInumbersofUEslocatedinthetracedcell.

Trace configuration
UsingtheNetActTraceViewertheoperatorcanconfigure:

Issue:04

numberoftracedconnections
listoftracedcells
tracedepth(min,med,max)
traceschedule
triggeringevents(thatis,proceduressuchascallsetup,HOetc)

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listoftracedinterfaces(S1-MME,X2,Uu)
reportingtype(filebased,realtime)
externalIPaddressforreporting(optional)

Trace activation
Tracesessionscanbeactivatedforallcallsthatareactiveinoneormorecellswithout
knowledgeofthesubscribers'identification(IMSI,IMEIorIMEISV).Theoperator
activatesthetraceviatheNetActTraceViewerbysendingthetracecontroland
configurationparametersdirectlytotheFlexiMultiradioBTS.TheNetAct
CentralTraceControlstartsthecelltraffictraceattheBTSbasedontheconfigured
traceschedule.
ThefollowingparametersareforwardedtotheBTS:

tracereference
numberoftracedconnections
listoftracedcells
tracedepthineNB(min,med,max)
triggeringevents(thatis,proceduressuchascallsetup,HO,etc)
listoftracedinterfacesineNB(S1-MME,X2,Uu)
externalIPaddressforreporting(optional)

Inreal-timereportmode,theLocalTraceControlintheFlexiMultiradioBTS
alwayssendsthetracereportstoNetAct.NetActforwardsthetracereportsto
theexternalIPaddress.Thisapproachisrecommendedtofittoapossible
requesthavingIMEI/IMSItoeachtracedcallsinthetracereports,bywhichthe
IMEI/IMSIinformationissentfromMMEtoNetActbutnottoFlexiMultiradio
BTS.NetActaddstheIMEIinfotothetracereportsbasedonthecallidand
IMEI/IMSInumberdeliveredfromMME.
ThereceivedcontrolandconfigurationparametersaresavedintheFlexiMultiradioBTS.
Itstartscollectingthetracedataforadefinednumberof(orall)activeconnectionswithin
thedefinedcell(s)basedontheconfiguredtracedepth.

Trace data support


Differentlayersoftracedatacanbesupportedbasedontheconfiguredtracedepth
(tracedepthminimum,mediumandmaximum).Maximumwillcontaincomplete
signalingandcontrolmessages(encodedrawmessages)ofFlexiMultiradioBTS
(incoming/outgoing).Alltracerecordscontaintimestampandidentification(callID).
ThetracerecordsincludethemeasurementsavailablefromFlexiMultiradioBTS
measurementsandtheevents.

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Figure 91

7.6.2.2

Operability

Celltraceconcept

Subscriber and equipment trace


Subscriberandequipmenttracingprovidesdetailedsubscriberorientedinformationat
calllevelforoneormorespecificUE(s).Theoperatorcanactivatesubscriberand
equipmenttracingforalimitedperiodoftimeforspecificanalysispurposes,forexample,
forrootcausedeterminationofamalfunctioningUE,advancedtroubleshooting,
optimizationofresourceusageandquality,RFcoveragecontrolandcapacity
improvement,droppedcallanalysisorend-to-endprocedurevalidation.Thesubscriber
andequipmenttraceconceptisillustratedinFigure92:Cellsubscriberandequipment
traceconcept.

Trace configuring
UsingtheNetActTraceViewertheoperatorcanconfigure:

IMSI(s)/EMEI(s)oftracedsubscriber(s)
tracedepth(min,med,max)
traceschedule
triggeringevents(thatis,proceduressuchascallsetup,HOetc)
listoftracedinterfaces
reportingtype(filebased,realtime)
externalIPaddressforreporting(optional)

TheNetActCentralTraceControlsendsthetracecontrolparameterstotheCore
Network,wheretheMMEactivatesthesubscribertracewithintheFlexiMultiradioBTS.

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Trace activation
BecausetheFlexiMultiradioBTSdoesnotknowtheIMSI/IMEIofasubscriber,onlythe
SignalingBasedApproachcanbeappliedfortraceactivation;themanagementbased
approachisnotpossible.TheoperatoractivatesthetraceviatheNetActTraceViewerby
sendingthetracecontrolandconfigurationparameterstothecorenetwork(forexample,
theHSS).Thecorenetworkforwardstheactivationtotheselectedbasestationsviathe
MMEbysendinginvoketracemessageswhichcontainthetraceparameters.
TheMMEsendsthefollowinginformationintheTraceSessionActivationmessageto
theFlexiMultiradioBTS:

tracedepthineNB(min,med,max)
listoftracedinterfacesineNB(S1-MME,X2,Uu)
externalIPaddressforreporting(optional)
tracereferenceandtracerecordingsessionreference

TheMMEactivatestherecordingsessionintheFlexiMultiradioBTS,basedonthe
operatorconfiguredtriggeringevents.TheBTSstartsthetracesessionafterreceiving
thetraceinvokemessagefortherelatedconnection.

Trace data support


Differentlayersoftracedatacanbesupportedbasedontheconfiguredtracedepth
(tracedepthminimum,mediumandmaximum).Maximumcontainscomplete
messagesofFlexiMultiradioBTS(incoming/outgoing).Alltracerecordscontaintime
stampandidentification(IMSI/IMEI).Thetracerecordsincludethemeasurements
availablefromUE,theFlexiMultiradioBTSmeasurements,andtheevents.Ifavailable,
thelocationinformationofUEsisincludedaswell.
Figure 92

146

Cellsubscriberandequipmenttraceconcept

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7.7 Self Organizing Network support


TheSelfOrganizingNetworksupportcomprisesfeaturessuchas:

FlexiMultiradioBTSautoconnectivity
FlexiMultiradioBTSautoconfiguration
neighborcellconfigurationforLTEwithpre-plannedidentities
automatedneighborrelationconfiguration(ANR)forLTE
automatedneighborrelationconfiguration(ANR)forUTRAN
automatedneighborrelationconfiguration(ANR)forGERAN

ThefollowingfeaturessupportANRinamulti-layerheterogeneousnetwork(HetNet)
environment:

LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet


LTE1822: PCI Assignment Optimization for HetNet
LTE1823: Neighbor Prioritization Optimization for HetNet

Additionally,theLTE908: ANR Inter-RAT UTRAN - Fully UE-basedfeatureintroducesa


newmechanismforneighborrelations(NRs)betweenLTEandUTRANcells,which
allowseNBstoraiseallneededUTRAcelldatafromtheUEconnectedtotheseUTRA
cells.
Theintroductionof3GLTE/EPC,itsconcurrentoperationwith2Gand3Gnetworks
togetherwiththegeneralcostpressure,forcesthemobilenetworkoperators(MNO)to
significantlyreducetheiroperationalexpenses(OPEX).Animportantbuildingblockfor
OPEXreductionistheareaofself-management(seeFigure93:SONarchitecture)which
includes:

Issue:04

Self-configuration:'plugandplay'behaviorofnewinstallednetworkelementsto
reducecostsandsimplifyinstallationprocedure
Self-optimization:parameteroptimizationbasedonnetworkmonitoringand
measurementdatafromterminalstominimizeoperationaleffort,andtoincrease
qualityandperformance
Self-healing:thesystemdetectsproblemsbyitselfandmitigatesorsolvestheseto
avoiduserimpactandtosignificantlyreducemaintenancecosts
Self-planning:derivationofinitialnetworkparameters(forexamplesub-channel,
antennaparameters,neighborlist,IPconfigurationetc.)asinputforselfconfiguration

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Figure 93

SONarchitecture

Thegoalsaretoreducenecessaryhumaninteractionandeffortduringnetworkbuildand
operation/maintenancephases,toacceleratetheoperationalprocessesduringthese
phases,andtoclearlydecoupletheprocessesbetweenmanufacturer,fieldservice,and
operator.
Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionSON Management.

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8 Security
Securityformsavitalpartofanyapplicationornetworkinallend-usersegments.Itisa
keyaspectofthesystemarchitecture.Inparticular,securityisneededtoprotectthe
confidentialityoftheuserdataandtomitigatetheeffectsofattacksonthenetwork.
Thetechnologyusedbringstogetherthebestofmobiletelephonyandthebestofthe
Internet,integratingthemintoahighlyreliableandtransparentservicevehicle,butitalso
highlightstheimportanceofsecurityissues.
Thischapterprovidesinformationonthefollowingissues:

Securityrequirementsandmethods
LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity
Usersecurity
BTSsecurity
NetActsecurity
Networksecurity
SupportofaPublicKeyInfrastructure

Fordetailedinformationonrelatedsecurityissues,seeLTE RAN O&M Security.

8.1 Security requirements and methods


Thischapterprovidesinformationon:

Securitycategories
Securitythreats
Securityareas
Securityfeatures

8.1.1 Security categories


Securityrequirementscanbecategorizedinthefollowingway:

Issue:04

Confidentiality and privacy


Confidential(ciphered)dataisnotinterpretablewithouthavingthesecrets(keys)to
decrypt.
Integrity
Integrityprotectionensuresdatahavenotbeenalteredduringtransmission.
Authentication and identification
Thepersonorsystemistheonetheyclaimtobe.
Non-repudiation
Proofofintegrityandoriginofdata.
Access control
Accesstoasystemhasbeenrestrictedonlytothosepersontowhichaccess
permissionhasbeengranted.

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8.1.2 Security threats


IntroductionofIParchitectureintoanLTEnetworkbringsalongbenefits,butalsoseveral
securitythreatsthatneedtobeaddressedtoensurehighqualityservicedelivery.There
aremanywaystoattackmobilenetworksecurity.
Herearesomeofthemostcommonsecuritythreats:

Password attacks
Withthisaction,apersontriestodeterminevalidusernamesandpasswords
throughrepeatedtrial-and-erroruserloginattempts.Apersoncanblockaccessto
thenetworkthroughrapidlyrepeatedloginattempts.
Sniffing
Sniffingiselectroniceavesdropping.Withsniffing,apersonaimstocollect,for
example,userIDandpasswordinformation.Oneoftheproblemsrelatedtosniffing
isthatsniffingprogramsarepubliclyavailableontheInternet.
IP address spoofing
Spoofingmeansthatapersonusessomeoneelse'sIPaddresstoaccessanetwork.
Inotherwords,theintruderreplacestheirownIPaddresswithsomeoneelse'sIP
address.
Man-in-the-middle attacks
Thistypeofattackisusedtocorrupt,modify,ordeleteinformationbeingsentovera
network.Thisattackcanalsobeusedfortakingovertheexistingconnectionorfor
denyingservicetoserversorawholenetwork.
Denial of service attacks
Theaimofthistypeofattackisnottocollectinformation,butrathertocauseharm
andinconveniencetousersandserviceproviders.Thisisdonethroughexhaustinga
network'sresourcelimitation.

8.1.3 Security areas


Thefollowingsecurityareasarecovered:

150

Network security
ThebasicsecurityphilosophyoftheLTEsolutionisbasedontheconceptofviewing
sitesandthebackbonenetworkasseparateentities.Eachentityformsitsown
securitydomainandsecurityissuesareresolvedwithinthatdomain.Eachentityalso
viewsotherentitiesasinherentlyinsecure.Withinthesecuresites,individualnetwork
elementsprovideanadditionallevelofsecurity.Thenetworkelementsincludetools
formanagingresponsibilitieswithintheoperator'sorganization.Theoperatorcanuse
themtoprotectnetworkelementsagainstaccidentalmodifications.
NetActprovidescapabilitiesformanagingandimprovingsecurityacrossthewhole
network.Security-relatedeventscanbemonitoredandpreventiveandcorrective
actionscanbestarted.NetActcanalsobeusedforbackingupnetworkelement
informationandrestoringitremotely,ifnecessary.
UP/AS Security
TheUP/ASsecurityisseparatedinUPsecuritywhichhandlesuserdatawhichare
transferred/exchangedviaU-planepathbetweeneNBandUE.TheASsecurityisfor
thecontrol/signalingprotection,i.e.RRC(RadioLayer3)messageinformationwhich
istransferred/exchangedbetweeneNBandUE.
Terminal security

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Securityoftheenduserterminalismostlydependentontheactivitiesoftheend
user.Thenetworkcanprotecttheenduserfromattackscomingfromthenetwork,
buttheenduserisprimarilyresponsibleforensuringterminalsecurity.Forexample,
thePINcodeisoneofthekeymethodstohelpprotectingenduser.
Physical security
Afundamentalpreconditionforaneffectivesecuritysolutionisphysicalsecurityof
premisesandphysicalnetworkelementsecurity.
Theoperatorisresponsibleforthephysicalsecurityofthepremiseswherenetwork
elementsarelocated.Onlyauthorizedandtrustedpersonsshouldbegrantedaccess
tosuchpremises.
Application security
Applicationsecurityisakeyissueinmobileenvironment.Itcanbefurtherdivided
intosecuringtelephonyapplicationsandserver-basedapplications.
Telephonyapplicationssecurityismostlycoveredinnetworksecurity,withconcepts
likeauthentication,subscriberdatasecurity,andauthenticationfailurenotificationto
thehomenetwork.
InadditiontoIP-levelsecurity,service-basedapplicationssecuritycontainstrust,
transactionandcommunicationssecurity,authentication,authorization,nonrepudiation,andvirusprotection.

8.1.4 Security features


ThemostimportantsecurityfeaturesinLTE/EPCnetworkarethefollowing:

NEauthentication
Temporaryidentities
Cipherprotection
Integrityprotection
Informationsecurity

NE authentication
TheNEauthenticationisverifyingtheauthenticityoftheNEbeforeitcanconnectto
operatorsRAN.
TheNEauthenticationisbasedonapublickeyinfrastructure(PKI)usingdigital
certificatesinX.509format.

Temporary identities
AsinGSMandWCDMA,aninternationalmobilesubscriberidentity(IMSI)isusedin
LTERANasthepermanentidentityofasubscriber.However,useridentificationinLTE
RANismostlyperformedbytemporaryidentities,TMSIandP-TMSI.Thisindicatesthat
userconfidentialityisalmostalwaysprotectedagainstpassiveeavesdroppers.Before
thetemporaryidentitycanbeused,thenetworkmustfirstidentifytheuser'spermanent
identity.
AftertheservingnetworkhasidentifiedtheuserbymeansoftheIMSI,theserving
networkallocatesatemporaryidentityfortheuserandpreservestheassociation
betweenIMSIand(P-)TMSI.Temporaryidentitiesaresignificantonlylocally,andthe
networkmakessurethatthesametemporaryidentityisnotallocatedtotwousers
simultaneously.Thetemporaryidentityisusedbothinuplinkanddownlinkdirectionuntil
anewtemporaryidentityisallocatedbythenetwork.

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Cipher protection
Cipheringhasasignificantpartinprotectionagainstattackerswithmoreadvanced
capabilities,anditisalsoaneffectiveprotectionfromeavesdropping.
Thecoreofthecipheringmechanismontheairinterfaceisthemaskgeneration
algorithmwhichisaone-wayhashfunctionbasedontheKASUMIalgorithm,whichis
publiclyavailableandapprovedby3GPP.

Integrity protection
Thepurposeofintegrityprotectionistoauthenticateindividualcontrolmessages.Thisis
importantsinceaseparateauthenticationproceduregivesanassuranceofthe
communicatingparties'identitiesatthetimeofauthentication.

Information security
Informationsecurityconsistsof:

User IDs and passwords


Usersmustknowtheirusernameandcorrespondingpasswordtologintonetwork
elements.
Authentication
Usernamesareauthenticatedwiththeappropriatepassword.
User rights and authority
Usernamescanbegivencertainaccessrightsorauthoritytoperformcertaintasks,
butnotothers.This,forexample,canpreventpeoplefromexecutingMML
commandswhichcouldharmthesystemwhenusedimproperly.
User profiles and user groups
Userprofilesandusergroupscanbeusedtoassignuserstopreviouslydesigned
accessrightssets,insteadofsettingallthenecessaryaccessrightstoeachuser
nameindividually.
User logs
Alogiskeptofallactionscarriedoutbyeachuser.Thelogscanbeusedfor
troubleshootingintheeventofafailure.Thelogscanalsobeusedtotrackthe
actionsofanunauthorizeduser.
Centralized User Authentication and Authorization (CUAA)
CUAAenablescentralizedusermanagementandauthorization.Itisbasedonthe
useofadedicatedauthenticationserveronwhichallnecessaryuserinformationis
stored.
Remote User Event Log Management
Thisfeatureenablestheoperatortotraceoperationsandeventsdoneinthenetwork
elementsbydifferentusers.
O&M, user and control plane traffic protection with IPSec

8.2 LTE/EPC M/C/U/S-plane security


Asspecifiedby3GPP(seeFigure94:LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity)theLTE/EPC
securityarchitectureprovidessecurityfortheM-,C-,U-plane.TheprotectionofS-plane
isnotrecommended

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Differentplanesaredefinedtodifferentiatethedifferenttypeoftraffic.Thefollowing
planesexist:U-plane(userdata),C-plane(controldata),M-plane(managementdata)
andS-plane(FrequencyandTime/Phasesynchronization).
Figure 94
UE

LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity
eUu

S1-MME

eNB

MME

eNB

X2C

eNB

NASsignaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotectedusingNASsignalingsecurity)
C-plane

S1-AP signaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

RRCsignaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected)

S1-U

U-plane

O&M

X2U

SAE-GW

U-planedata
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

U-planedata
(cipheredusingPDCP)

X2-AP signaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

U-planedata
packetsforwardedoverX2
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

EMS/
NMS

M-planedata
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIpsec& TLS)

M-plane

Figure 95
UE

LTE/EPCM/C/U/S-planesecurity
eUu

S1-MME

eNB

MME

eNB

X2C

eNB

NASsignaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotectedusingNASsignalingsecurity)
C-plane
RRCsignaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected)

S1-AP signaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

S1-U

U-plane

U-planedata
(cipheredusingPDCP)

U-planedata
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

O&M
M-plane

SAE-GW

X2-AP signaling
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

X2U
U-planedata
packetsforwardedoverX2
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIPsec)

EMS/
NMS

M-planedata
(cipheredandintegrityprotected
withIpsec& TLS)

ToP
S-plane

Synch-packets(IEEE1588v2)
(ciphered(optional)andintegrity
protectedwithIpsec)

U-planesecurityprotectsthetransferofuserdataovertheLTE-Uu,S1-UandX2
referencepoints.SecureenvironmentoftheeNBprovidesaSecureEnvironmentforUplaneandC-planetraffic.SecurityforeNBsetupandconfigurationprovidesprotection
fromrogueorinvalidmodifications.

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Table12:Securityterminationpointssummarizesthesecurityterminationpoints.
Table 12

Securityterminationpoints

Ciphering

Integrity protection

Required and terminated in


NASSignaling

MME

MME

U-PlaneData

eNB

S-GW3)

RRCSignaling

eNB

eNB

SecurityassociationsforC-planeNASsecurityandsecurityoftheLTE-Uuinterface(CplaneandU-planetraffic)areprovidedonaper-UEbasisandareestablished/refreshed
whentheUEchangesstates(initialattach,transferfromECM_IDLEto
ECM_CONNECTED,handoveretc.).

Crypto Agent
Radionetworksevolvingtoall-IParchitectureoftenrequiresecuretransport
communicationchannelstoprotectuser-,control-andmanagementplanetraffic.Flexi
MultiradiomoduleprovideswiththeLTE623: Crypto Agent(CRA)featureapersonal
secureenvironment(PSE)toguaranteethesecurestorageofmid-andlong-term
securitycredentialslikeRSAkeysandpasswords.

8.2.1 C-plane security


C-planesecurityprotectsNASsignaling,RRCsignalingovertheLTE-Uu.C-Plane
securityassociationsfortheprotectionofNASandRRCsignalingareprovidedonaperUEbasis.C-PlanesignalingbetweentheMMEandeNBisprotectedusingNDS,with
thesecurityassociationsbeingestablishedonaper-interfacebasis.
TheC-planesecurityarchitectureasillustratedinFigure96:C-planesecurity
architectureforLTE/EPCcomprisesintegrityprotectionandcipheringaccordingtothe
following:

NASsignalingprotectionistransparentfortheeNB.
NASsignalingiscipheredandintegrityprotectedbetweentheUEandMME.
RRCsignalingisalwaysintegrityprotectedbyPDCPintheeNBandUE.
RRCsignalingiscipheredbyPDCPinUEandeNB.
RRCsecurity(integrityprotectionandciphering)isappliedtoNASmessagescarried
byRRCinadditiontotheNASsignalingsecuritybetweentheMMEandUE.This
resultsindoubleprotectionofNASsignaling.
S1-APsignalingiscipheredandintegrityprotectedbetweentheeNBandMMEbyan
underlyingtransportnetworkmechanismwhichisNDS/IPsec.
X2-APsignalingisprotectedinthesamewayasS1-APsignaling.

3)

154

IntegrityprotectionforU-Planeisnotrequired,andthusitisnotsupportedbetweentheUEandtheeNBon
theUuinterface,butitisrequiredforthetransportofuserplanedatabetweentheeNBandtheServing
GatewayontheS1interface.

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Figure 96

Security

C-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC

UE

MME
NASSignallingSecurity(authenticated,integrityprotectedandencrypted)

NAS

NAS

eNB
RRC

C-PlaneSecurity
(authenticated,
integrityprotectedand
encrypted)

RRC

S1-AP
X2-AP

S1-MME

S1-AP

NDS/IPSec,
authenticated,
integrityprotectedand
encrypted)

X2C-PlaneSecurity
asS1-MME
eNB
X2-AP

8.2.2 U-plane security


U-planesecurityprotectsthetransferofuserdataovertheLTE-Uu,S1-UandX2
referencepoints.U-PlanesecurityovertheLTE-Uuisprovidedonper-UEbasis.U-Plane
securityovertheS1-UisprovidedusingNDS/IPsec,establishedonper-interfacebasis.
TheU-planesecurityarchitectureasillustratedinFigure97:U-planesecurity
architectureforLTE/EPCcomprisesintegrityprotectionandcipheringaccordingtothe
following:

U-planedataisciphered.
Cipheringisperformedona'hop-by-hop'basis(UEeNB,eNBS-GWandeNB
eNB).
CipheringovertheLTE-UuisperformedbyPDCPintheeNBandUE.
S1-UtrafficiscipheredbetweentheeNBandS-GWbyanunderlyingtransport
networkmechanismwhichisNDS/IPsec.
X2-UplanetrafficisprotectedinthesamewayastheS1-Ureferencepoint.

NotethatintegrityprotectionofU-planedataisnotsupportedbetweentheUE
andtheeNBontheUuinterfacebecausetheoverheadsinvolved(additional
processingandnetworktraffic)outweighthebenefitsthatwouldbeprovided.
Integrityprotectionisrequiredforthetransportofuserplanedatabetweenthe
eNBandtheServingGatewayontheS1interface.
Insomecountries,encryptionofuserdataisillegaland/ortherearerestrictions
onexport/importofsecuredata/securityalgorithms.Thismeansthatthe
networkoperatorscanoptionallyuseorratherdisableU-planeciphering.

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Figure 97

U-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC

8.2.3 M-plane security


M-planesecurity(seeFigure98:M-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC)protects
O&MoperationsfortheconfigurationandmonitoringoftheeNBovertheBTS-OM
interface.
Figure 98

M-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC

8.2.4 S-plane security


TheS-planesecurity(seeFigure99:S-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC)protects
thetimingpacketstransferredbetweenToPmasterandeNB(bi-directional).Thetiming
packetsincludetimestampsthatareusedforfrequencyandtime/phasesynchronization.
Figure 99

S-planesecurityarchitectureforLTE/EPC

eNB

ToP Master

IEEE1588PTP v2

IEEE1588PTP v2
S1Interface
NDS/IPsec
(intregrityprotectedand
encrypted(optional))

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8.3 User security


Useraccountmanagementcanbedividedbythelocationofperforminguser
authenticationandauthorization.Therearetwoscenariosofmanaginguseraccounts:
centralizeduseraccountmanagement,andlocaluseraccountmanagement.
CentralizeduseraccountsofnetworkelementsaremanagedwithNetAct.Itallowsusers
tologintodifferentnetworkelementswiththesameuserIDandpassword.
InlocaluseraccountmanagementthereisnocentralentitylikeNetActtoadministerthe
user-relevantinformation,thatis,usernameandpassword.Theuser-relevant
informationisadministeredlocallyinthenetworkelements.
InbothcasestheusercanconnecttoanetworkelementeitherlocallyviaLocal
ManagementPort(LMP)orfromaremotelocation.
FormoreinformationseeUser securitysectioninLTE RAN O&M SecurityFunctional
AreaDescription.

8.4 BTS security


ThekeyintheBTSsecuritysolutionistobuildallsitesasseparatesecureentities.
Securinginter-sitetrafficinvolvestrafficseparationandauthenticatingand/orencrypting
thetrafficbetweenthesites.Trafficseparationcanbeestablishedbymeansofphysically
separatednetworks,orbyestablishingsecurevirtualnetworks(VLANs)withinasingle
backbonenetworksharedamongvarioustypesoftraffic.
TheBTSsecuritycomprisesthefollowingfeatures:

Physicalsecurity
SecurityforEthernetports
LocallystoreduserIDandpassword
CentralizedUserAuthenticationandAuthorization
LTEUsereventlogmanagement
SecurefiletransferforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
NetworkelementcertificatemanagementforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
SecuremanagementinterfaceforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
SWVerificationAgent

Physical security
TheBTSunitsmightbeinlockedcabinetstosecurethemphysicallyagainstabreak-in.
ThecabinetsalsoprotecttheBTSunitsfromrainandotherhazardousweather
conditions.Therearealsofanunitsfittedintothecabinettoprotecttheunitsfrom
overheating.

Security for Ethernet ports


TheBTSprovidesLMPandSSEEthernetportswhichareaccessibleBTS-externally.To
accessBTSyoumustknowuserIDandpassword.OpenportswithoutanyuserIDand
passwordprotectioncancauseinterceptionofUser,ControlandManagementtraffic.
Thesefeatureprotectagainst:

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eavesdropping,interceptionormodificationBTSinternaltraffic
misuseBTSservicesliketelnet,ftp,R&Dservices
implementationofmaliciouspacketstowardsthecorenetwork

Locally stored user ID and password


TheBTSunitscanbeaccessedfromBTSSMorremotelyfromNetAct.Aconfigurable
userIDandpasswordcanbeusedforaccessingthenetworkelementsviaBTSSM.This
useraccounthasfulladministratorrights.ThepasswordHASH-fileisstoredintheflash
(non-volatile)memoryoftheBTS.ToaccesstheBTS,theusermustknowboththeuser
IDandthepassword.ThelocaluseraccountsoftheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEcanbe
mass-changedremotely.

Centralized User Authentication and Authorization


CentralizedUserAuthenticationandAuthorization(CUAA)providescentralizeduser
authenticationandauthorizationforNetActandBTSSMusers.Withthisfeature,theLTE
RANadministratorcanmanageaccesstothenetworkandBTSSMwithacentralized
authenticationandauthorizationserver.Inthelog-inphase,thenetworkentitychecks
theuseraccessrightsfromtheauthenticationandauthorizationserver.Theaccess
rightscanbemanagedseparatelyforeachgrouporindividualofthemaintenance
personnel.IntheCUAAsystem,theoperatorcandefinedifferentaccessclassesfor
differentusergroupsandnetworkelements(notfortheBTS,thereisonlyoneaccess
classsupported).Thisfeatureenablesalsothepossibilityforloggingtheuseractionsin
thenetworkwiththesameuserID(peruser)ineachnetworkentity(theLTE667: LTE
user event log managementfeature).

LTE User event log management


TheLTE667: LTE user event log managementfeatureenablesthecentralized
aggregationofusereventlogsfromtheBTSsinNetAct.Theoperatorcantracechanges
inthenetwork,basedonuserornetworkelementinformation.Theuploadistriggered
fromNetAct.AnXMLfileformatisusedforthelogfile.NetActcanalsoproducethedata
intheUserEventCollectioninthesameXMLformat.TheXMLcodingismadeavailable
forthird-partyapplications.SecureFileTransferforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEisusedfor
thelogfilecollectionfromnetworkelements.NetActprovidestoolsforprocessingthe
collectedlogfiles.TheoperatorcancollectusereventdatafromallBTSs.WithNetAct
applications,theoperatorcancreatereportsfromthedatacollection,forexample,
reportsbasedontheuserornetworkelementidentity.

Secure file transfer for Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


TheLTE150: OAM Transport Layer Security (TLS) Supportfeatureenablesprotected
transferoftheO&MdatafilesbetweenBTSandNetAct.O&Mdatafilestransmitted
usingsecurefiletransferfeatureareencryptedandintegrityprotected.Contentofthe
transferredfilescannotbeeavesdroppedormodified,forexample,noman-in-the-middle
attacksarepossible.
TheLTE150: OAM Transport Layer Security (TLS) Supportfeatureenhancedby
LTE1076: Support of TLS 1.2enablesprotectedtransferoftheO&Mdatafilesbetween
BTS,iOMS/NetAct,andSyslogServersaswellastheprotectionofmanagement
protocolcommunicationbetweenBTSandiOMS.O&Mdatafilesandmanagement
planeprotocolmessages,whicharetransmittedusingsecureTLS1.2areencryptedand
integrityprotected.Thecontentofthetransferredpayloadcannotbeeavesdroppedonor
modified;forexample,noman-in-the-middleattacksarepossible.TheeNBusesHTTP

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forfiletransfer,FTPisnotsupported.Inasecuretransportmode,HTTPSuses
TransportLayerSecurity(TLS1.2)fordataprotection.TouseTLS1.2,theuserneeds
validX.509certificates,whicharecrucialforestablishingTLS1.2connectionswhichare
thenusedbyHTTP.
TheeNBusesHTTPS.HTTPSusesTransportLayerSecurity(TLS)fordataprotection.
TouseTLS,theuserneedsvalidX.509certificates.Certificatesarecrucialfor
establishingTLSconnectionswhicharethenusedbyHTTP.

Network element certificate management for Flexi Multiradio BTS


LTE
TheLTE665: Network element certificate managementforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
featuredefinestheusageofCertificateManagementProtocol(CMP).Digitalcertificates
areusedtoauthenticatecommunicatingpeersandtoencryptsensitivedata.Theyare
essentialforTransportLayerSecurity(TLS)operationusedinsecureBTSManagement
Interfaceandsecurefiletransferfunctions.AlsotheIPSecfeatureusescertificates.

Secure management interface for Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


ThesecuremanagementinterfaceforFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEfunctionalityenables
protectedO&McommunicationbetweenFlexiBTS,NetActandBTSSiteManager.

SW Verification Agent
TheFlexiMultiradioBTSmodulesprovideasecuredbootstrap.Onlyintegrity-checked
codeisallowedtogointotheservice.Securebootenforcesverificationandexecutionof
trustedSWinapredefinedsequentialorder.Itguaranteesthatasystembootsonlyinto
aspecificstateandassuresthatintegrity-violatedcodeisrefused.TheLTE940: SW
Verification Agentfeaturetakecarethatnomaliciouscodecanbeinserted.

8.5 NetAct security


NetActisthesecuritycenterforuseraccountmanagementoftheLTE/EPCsystem.It
canmonitorsecurity-relatedissuesand,ifneeded,initiatepreventiveandcorrective
actions.NetActcontrolsandprovidessecureuseraccesstonetworkelements.
TheNetActsecuritysolutionisdividedintothefollowingareas:

Issue:04

User management
TheNetActusermanagementisbasedontheconceptofCentralizedUser
Management.Itinvolvesthemanagementofuseraccounts,passwords,
permissions,groups,androles.
User security
Usersecurityinvolvesuserauthenticationandauthorization.
Security administration
Securityadministrationinvolvesthemanagementofdigitalcertificates,SSHusage,
andtheIPSecmanagement.
Security monitoring
TheNetActsecuritymonitoringishandledwithNetActMonitorandAuditTrail.
Network security

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Networksecurityinvolvesprinciplesonhowapplicationscommunicatesecurelywith
otherapplicationsoverthenetwork.Networksecurityisdividedintotrafficencryption
andintegrityprotection(viaSSHandTLS/SSLprotocols),trafficfiltering,andtraffic
separationareas.
Data security
Datasecurityinvolvesprinciplesonhowinformationcanbestoredsecurelyinthe
clusterusingdifferentstoragetechnologies.Datasecuritycoversfilesystemsecurity,
databasesecurity,andsecurekeystorage.
Software security
Softwaresecurityinvolvesprinciplesonhowsoftwaremanagementmustbe
designedtomeetthenecessarysecuritylevel.Softwaresecuritycoverssecure
softwareupgradeandpatching,andfileintegritychecking.

FormoreinformationonNetActsecurity,seeNetAct System Administration Principles


documentinNetAct Operating Documentation.

8.6 Network security


SystemsecurityfortheLTERANcomprises:

Firewallsupport
IPsecsupport
TransportLayerSecuritysupport
IP-basedfilteringforBTSSiteSupportEquipment
Certificatemanagement

8.6.1 Firewall support


TheFlexiLTEBTSincludesinhostfirewall/packetfilteringfunctionalitytopreventtraffic,
servicesandapplicationsfromunwantedsources.Thefirewallexaminesalldatatoseeif
itmeetscertaincriteria.Ifitdoes,itisroutedbetweenthenetworks,otherwiseitis
dropped.
Thefirewallfilterspacketsbasedontheirsourceanddestinationaddresses,sourcesand
destinationportnumbers,andprotocols.Italsoblocksnetwork-levelattackssuchas
DoS,oversizedpackets,SYNfloods,andfragmentationattacks.Theimplementationis
fullysoftware-based.Thepacketsaretreatedwithfixed,non-configurablerules.These
rulesarecreatedautomaticallybasedontheconfigurationandarepermanentlyactive.
TherateofICMPmessagesislimitedtoprotectagainstDenialofService(DoS)attacks
usingfakedICMPmessages.
ItispossibletoenableanddisabletheeNBtorespondtopingandtracerouteviathe
BTSSiteManagerorviaNetActConfigurator.

8.6.2 IPsec support


SecureeNBcontrolandbulkdatacommunicationbetweentheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
andothereNBsandCoreNodesisenabledbyusingIPsectosecuretransportand
applicationprotocols.WithIPsec,thereisalsosupportforseparationbetweendifferent
typesoftraffic,likecontrolplanetrafficanduserplanetrafficfrommanagementtraffic,by
dedicatedtransporttunnels.ThesecurityofFlexiMultiradioBTSLTEcontrol,user,

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synchronizationandmanagementplaneinterfacesisincreasedbyprovidingencryption,
integrityprotectionandcommunicationpeerauthenticationwithIPsecaccordingRFC
4301.Itispossibletoenable/disableIPSecperconnection,forexample,perneighbor
eNB,orpercoresecuritygateway,andtoconfigureeachconnectionindependentlyin
termsofsecuritysettingsforeachremoteIPsecpeer.
ThesupportedIPseccapabilitiesfollow3GPP'srecommendationTS33.210for
interworkingpurposesandfurtherappliancerulesgivenbyTS33.401andTR33.821.
SinceIPSecstandardsincludehighnumbersofselectablesecurityparametersand
options,3GPPhasrecommendedtocutdownthenumberoftheseoptions,toguarantee
interoperabilitybetweendifferentsecuritydomains.
Table13:IPseccapabilitiessummarizesthesupportedIPseccapabilities:
Table 13

IPseccapabilities

Services

Dataintegrityprotection,originauthenticationandanti-replay
protection,confidentiality

Protocol

ESP(RFC4303)

IPsecmode

Tunnelmode

Encryption/Ciphering

AES-128-CBC

3DES-192-CBC

NULL

Integrityprotection
algorithm

HMAC-SHA-1-96

Identification

IPaddresses

FullyQualifiedDomainNames(FQDN)

distinguishednameID_DER_ASN1_DN

Authentication

DigitalcertificatesinX.509v3format

Keyexchange

DualstackIKEv1andIKEv2

Diffie-Hellman:Group2(1024-bitMODP)

Diffie-Hellman:Group14(2048-bitMODP)

IPsec configuration
IPSecimplementationisoptimizedtoprovidebestthroughputandstrongestsecurity
levelswhenusingESPencapsulationwithAES-128-CBCencryptionalongwithHMACSHA-1-96integrityprotectionalgorithm.

IPsec for traffic separation


C-,M,S-,U-planetrafficcanbeseparatedwithIPsecVPNtunnelsfromeachotherand
fromanyotheroperator'strafficifanypartofthetransportnetworkisshared.The
separationalsoensuresthatfloodingattacksatthecontrol/signalingnetworkwillhaveno
impactontheseparateddatapaths.FortrafficseparationinLTE,IPSecVPNtunnelsas
per3GPPNDS/IParesupported.

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Ifsomeotherexternaltransporttechnologyisinuseprovidingalso
authenticationandencryptionend-to-endbetweentheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTE
andothersites,theIPsecbasedcipheringfeatureinLTEmaybedisabled,
sincecipheringtwicedoesnotcreateadditionalsecuritybutsignificantly
increasesoverhead.ButifIPsecisusedfortunnelprovisioning,multiple
encryptionmayoccuranyway.

Parallel usage of IPsec and other secure transport protocols


Dependingonthetransportnetworkconfiguration,thenumberofnetworkmanagement
locationsandapplicationstobeaddressed,IPsec(oneormorededicatedconnections)
aloneortogetherwithothersecuretransportprotocolslikeTLScanbeusedand
configuredinparallel.Forinstance,itispossibletorunTLSconnectionswithina
commonIPsectunnelorinparalleltoIPsectunnel(s).

IPsec Emergency Bypass


IncasetheBTSdetectsasevereIPsecfailure,theIPsecattheBTScanbeswitchedoff
inanoperator-controlledway,notrequiringanysitevisit.SwitchingbackfromIPsec
EmergencybypassmodetoIPSecmodeisexclusivelycontrolledbyoperator.Formore
information,seeLTE1390: Emergency Bypass functional description.

8.6.3 Transport Layer Security support


SecureFlexiLTEBTSO&McontrolandbulkdatacommunicationbetweenBTSand
NetActrelatedothermanagementsystemsincludingPKIinfrastructureisenabledby
usingsecureprotocolsusingTransportLayerSecurity(TLS1.2).
ThesecurityofFlexiLTEBTSelementmanagerinterfacesandthenetwork
managementsystemsisincreasedbyprovidingencryption,integrityprotection,and
serverauthenticationwiththeTransportLayerSecurityProtocol(TLS1.2)andHTTPS
ontopofit.UnsecuredprotocolslikeFTParenolongerused.
Transportlayersecuritysupportcomprisesthefollowing:

DigitalcertificatesaccordingtoX.509v3formatareusedtoauthenticatemutually
FlexiLTEBTSandnetworkservers.
Dataencryptionisusedtoprohibitagainstinternalandexternalhostileattacks.
OAMmessagesandcommandsareencryptedandintegrityprotectedbyTLS1.2,for
example,usernamesandpasswordsarenotdeliveredasplaintext.
Bulkdatatransferisencryptedandintegrityisprotected.
TheLDAPinterfacetoauthenticateuserandfetchpermissioninformationforauser
issecured.

TheTransportLayerSecurityProtocol(TLS1.2)providesbothencryptionand
authenticationfeaturesandconsistsoftwolayers:

162

TheTLS record protocoltakescareofencryptionandintegrityprotectionofthe


messageexchange.
TheTLS handshake protocolprovidesthemutualauthenticationofthe
communicationpeersusingdigitalcertificates.

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8.6.4 IP-based filtering for BTS Site Support Equipment


ItispossibletoaccessselectivelytheIPDCNtowardssitesupportequipmentandvice
versa.FilteringisdonebasedonIPaddressesandimprovestheprotectionof:

sitesupportequipmentfromharmfulIPDCNtraffic
IPDCNfromharmfulIPtrafficoriginatedfromsitesupportequipment

IPbasedfilteringforBTSsitesupportequipmentisanextensiontotheinternalfirewall,
basedonastaticfilterforBTSSiteSupportEquipment(SSE).Examplesforsuch
externalsystemsaresolarpowerandbatterybackupsystems.SSEcanbeconnectedto
theSSportoftheFlexiSystemModule.
ItispossibletodefineIPaddressesorIPsubnetsthathaveaccesstoanysitesupport
equipment.IPpacketsfrom/toanysitesupportequipmentwhicharenottargeted
to/originatedfromanyoftheconfiguredIPaddresseswillbedropped.
UsetheSiteElementManagertosetuptheconfigurationfromalocalorremotesite,or
viatheplanfilemanagedbyNetAct.

8.6.5 Certificate management


TheFlexiMultiradioBTSLTECertificateManagementfunctionalityprovidesthehandling
oftheprivateandpublickeypairandrelateddigitalcertificatesinX.509v3format.Keys
andcertificatesareusedformutualauthenticationbetweenIPsecand/orTransportLayer
Security(TLS)protocolpeersandcipheringbutmaybealsousedfortheverificationof
SWloads,configurationdataandlicensevalidity.
TheCertificateManagementfunctionalityisneededforenrollments,update,and
revocationofoperatorcertificateswhenpublicoperatorcertificatesareusedinthe
network.
Itcomprisesthefollowing:

factory(vendor)certificateprovisioning
remoteoperatorcertificateenrollmentaccording3GPP
localoperatorcertificateenrollment
certificaterevocation
certificaterenewal/keyupdate

Formoreinformation,seeFunctionalAreaDescriptionLTE RAN O&M Security.

Multi-layered Certificate Authorities


TheLTE523: Multi-Layered Certificate Authoritiesfeaturesupportsoperatorcertificate
managementformulti-layerhierarchicalPKIstructuresbyFlexiMultiradioBTS.
Multi-layerPKIisanextensionofsingle-layerPKI.Itoffersbetterflexibilitybyintroducing
theconceptofmultiplelayers.Inthismodel,therootCAisthehighestcertification
authorityintheoperatorsnetwork.TherootCAisrepresentedbyaself-signed
certificate(operatorrootCAcertificate)thatisusedastrustanchorfortheentiredomain
ofPKIentities.Themulti-layerPKIintroducesthepossibilitytodeployupto3further
certificateauthoritiesasasubordinatetotherootCA.

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iOMS Certificate update and revocation support


WithLTE1260: iOMS Certificate Update and Revocation Support featuretheiOMS
supportsautomaticcertificatelifecyclemanagementbyautonomousupdateofthe
operatorcertificates.ThechainoftrustcomprisingofuptothreesubordinateCA
certificatesandtherootCAcertificateontop,increaseflexibilityinchoosingarchitecture
ofPublicKeyInfrastructure.Revocationlistsupportprovidesbettercertificate
examinationbeforeasecureconnectionestablishment.

8.7 Support of a Public Key Infrastructure


Anevolvedpacketsystem(EPS)isanIPbasednetworkwitharchitectureconsiderably
moreflatthanforexampleaUMTSorGPRSnetwork.Whilethismakesthenetworkvery
efficient,italsorequiresverywelldesignedsecuritymeasuresforprotectionagainstthe
varietyofthreatsthatendangermobilenetworks,inparticularIPrelatedattacks.
ToprotecttheEPSagainstsuchthreats,sophisticatednetworksecurityarchitecturehas
beenspecifiedby3GPP,whichenhancestheconceptsusedalreadywithinUMTS.
Naturally,the3GPPsecurityarchitecturefocusesonaspectswhichrequire
standardization(forexampleforinteroperabilityofdevices).However,completesecurity
architectureforanEPSmustalsocoveraspectsthataremostlynotstandardized,likefor
exampleperimeterprotectionwithfirewalls.

Certificate Authority
Acertificateauthority(CA)isanentitythatissuesdigitalcertificatesforusebyother
parties.TheCAissuesdigitalcertificatesthatcontainapublickeyandtheidentityofthe
owner.ThecertificateisaconfirmationorvalidationbytheCAthatthepublickey
containedinthecertificatebelongstotheentitynotedinthecertificate.ACA'sobligation
istoverifyanapplicant'scredentials,sothatusersandrelyingentitiescantrustthe
informationintheCA'scertificates.
ThePublicKeyInfrastructure(PKI)solutionisbasedonInstaCertifierforissuingand
managingdigitalcertificates.Themanagementofcertificatesisautomatedand
complianttostandards.Strongnetworkelementauthenticationpreventsfrom
unauthorizedaccess.

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9 AAA and charging


Thischapterprovidesinformationonthefollowingissues:

LTE/EPCauthentication
Authorization
Accountingandcharging

9.1 LTE/EPC authentication


TheLTE/EPCnetworkprovidesalayeredsecurityassociationstructureasillustratedin
Figure100:LayeredsecurityassociationstructureoftheLTE/EPC.
Figure 100

LayeredsecurityassociationstructureoftheLTE/EPC
AUC

USIM
Root Key

Root Key

HSS/AAA

UE
CK,IK

CK,IK

Subscriber Authentication/Authorization(AKA)
MME
NASKeys

NASKeys

AK_ASME

NASSecurity Association
eNB
ASKeys

ASKeys

Oneway
key
derivations

UP Security Association
UP Keys

UP Keys

UP Security Association

EPSAuthenticationandKeyAgreement(EPSAKA)isbasedonUMTSAKAand
providesthefollowingfeatures:

EPSAKAisbasedonUSIMand(possible)extensionstoUMTSAKA
accesstoE-UTRANwith2GSIMoraSIMapplicationisnotgranted

EPSAKAproducedkeysarethebasisforbothC-planeandU-planeprotection.EPS
AKAisachallenge-responseprotocolthatachievesmutualauthenticationbetweenthe
userandthenetworkbydemonstratingknowledgeofapre-sharedsecretkeyKwhichis
onlyknownbytheUSIMandtheAuCintheuser'sHSS.TheEPSAKAprocedureis
illustratedinFigure101:LTE/EPCAKAprocedure.
FormoreinformationseealsosectionLTE/EPC overall key hierarchy concept.

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Figure 101

LTE/EPCAKAprocedure

TheMMEtriggersASsecuritycommandproceduretoeNBtoenablecipheringoftheUplanetrafficandciphering&integrityprotectionofRRCsignaling.Furthermore,theMME
usestheNASsecuritycommandprocedureestablishedNASSAbetweenUEandMME.

9.2 Authorization
Authorizationistheprocessbywhichafunctionalentityvalidatestheservicerequest
typetoensurethattheuserisauthorizedtousetheparticularnetworkservices.InEPS,
theauthorizationfunctionislocatedinMMEandanetworkelementincludingPCEF
functionality(P-GWforGTPvariant,P-GW/S-GWforIETFvariant).Theauthorization
functionalityofMMEisbasedonsubscriptiondatalocatedinHSS.Itisused,for
example,inthecontextofattachandbearermanagementprocedures.Figure102:
RetrievalofLTEauthorizationinformationshowshowMMEretrievesauthorization
informationfromHSS.Regionalsubscriptionrestrictionsareimposedbytheuser'shome
networkoperatorandaresignaledtotheMMEbyHSS.PCEFreceivesauthorization
informationfromPCRF.Alternatively,authorizationinformationmaybepre-configuredin
PCEF.
Figure 102

RetrievalofLTEauthorizationinformation

9.3 Accounting and charging


TheAccountingandChargingmechanismemployedbyEPSwillbeanevolutionofthe
PSDomainchargingmechanismsforGPRSandwillfacilitateseamlessinterworking
withlegacychargingsystems.ThePSDomainaccountingfunctionispartoftheoverall
architecturewhichcomprisesIMSandapplicationcharging,andadditionallycontributes
accessandtransportinformationforcostcalculation.Dependingonchargingfilterrules,

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thetransportinformationiseithercollectedattheIPbearerlevelorattheIPserviceflow
level.ThechargingfilterrulesareprovidedbythePolicyandChargingRuleFunction
(PCRF)anddeployedinthePolicyandChargingEnforcementFunction(PCEF)ofPGW.Alternatively,thechargingrulesmaybepreconfiguredinP-GW,whichisthe
solutionforFlexiNGbasedP-GWbeforePCRFsupport.

Charging scenarios
ChargingforEPCasoutlinedinFigure103:EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-non
roaming,Figure104:EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roaming,homeroutedtraffic,and
Figure105:EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roamingwithlocalbreakoutisperformedon
aperIPbearerbasiswhichinvolves:

PCRFfordynamicchargingruleinstructions
P-GW'sPCEFwithitscollectionandcreditcontrolclientfunctions
S-GWwithitscollectionfunctionsforinter-operatorcharging

Figure 103

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-nonroaming
UTRAN
SGSN

GERAN
S3

HSS
PCRF
S6a

S1-MME
MME

S4

S11

UE

Rx+

S7

S10
PCEF
E-UTRAN
LTE-Uu

S-GW
S1-U

S5

P-GW
Gz

CGF

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Operator's IP
Services
(e.g.IMS,PSSetc.)

Gy

OCS

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Figure 104

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roaming,homeroutedtraffic
PCRF
Rx+

S7

PCEF

P-GW

SGi

Gz

Operator's IP
Services
(e.g.IMS,PSSetc.)

Gy

HSS

CGF

OCS

S6a

HPLMN

VPLMN
UTRAN
SGSN
GERAN

G8a
S3

S1-MME
MME
S4

S11

UE

S10
E-UTRAN

S-GW

CGF

S1-U

LTE-Uu

Ga
Maygenerate
bearerlevelinter-operator
charging

Figure 105

EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roamingwithlocalbreakout
OCS
HSS

HPLMN

Gy

S6a

VPLMN
UTRAN
SGSN
GERAN

CGF
S3

PCRF

S1-MME

Gz

MME
S4

S11

UE

Rx+

S7

S10
PCEF
E-UTRAN
LTE-Uu

S-GW
S1-U

S5

P-GW

SGi

Operator's IP
Services
(e.g.IMS,PSSetc.)

Charging mechanisms
TherearetwochargingmechanismsemployedbyePACS:

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AAAandcharging

Offlinechargingisappliedtouserswhopayfortheirservicesperiodically(for
example,pay-monthlycustomers).
Onlinechargingisappliedtouserswhopayfortheirservicesinadvance(for
example,pay-as-you-gocustomers)andforrealtimecreditcontrolofpostpaid
services.

Offline charging
IftheusersessioncostiscalculatedusingtheOfflineChargingfunction,theP-GW
generatesaCDRbasedonthechargingrules(receivedfromthePCRF).Whentheuser
sessioncompletes,theP-GWforwardstheso-calledenhancedG-CDRviatheGz
interfacewithprotocolGTP'totheChargingGatewayFunctionwhichcollectsCDRsfrom
alllocalnetworkentitiesinvolvedinbillingthecall,andforwardsthemtotheBilling
System(BS).
TheOfflineChargingfunctioninS-GWisnecessaryfortheroamingcasewithhome
routedtrafficasoutlinedinFigure104:EPCcharging-3GPPaccess-roaming,home
routedtraffic,thatis,theP-GWislocatedinthehomenetwork.S-GWgeneratesaCDR
withaccessandbearerinformation.Whentheusersessioncompletes,theS-GW
forwardstheso-calledS-CDRviatheGainterfacewithprotocolGTP'toCGFandfurther
toBSofthevisitedoperator.Thesubscriber'sbillisalwayscalculatedinthehomelocatedBS.Inroamingcases,thevisitedoperatorgeneratesaTAP3Recordbasedon
S-CDR,or,ifavailable,aneG-CDRtorequesttheroamingchargetothehomeoperator.

Online charging
IftheusersessioncostiscalculatedusingOnlineCharging,P-GWforwardsusage
information,andreceivescreditinformationto/fromOCS,inrealtime,viaGyinterface
withDIAMETERbasedcreditcontrolapplicationprotocol(DCCA).Atsessionstart,the
OCSauthorizestheusersession.Duringthesession,informationaboutgrantedand
usedvolume,timeorunitquotasisexchanged.Theusedquotasarethebasisofcost
calculationinOCS.Iftheuserrunsoutofcredits,theOCScanterminatetheuser
sessionimmediately.OCSisalwayshome-located.
Intheroamingwithlocalbreakoutscenario,asoutlinedinFigure105:EPCcharging3GPPaccess-roamingwithlocalbreakout,theP-GWislocatedinthevisitednetwork
andconsequentlyaninter-operatorGyinterfacetoOCSisnecessary.Inthatscenario,a
simplechargingruleconfigurationisnecessarytoenableinterworkingwiththevisited
PCRF.Thepolicyandchargingruleshavetobebasedontheroamingagreements
betweentheoperators.Itisrecommendedtouseonesinglecharge,representedbya
standardizedratinggroup,whichinessenceprovidesflatratelocalbreakout.Dynamic
transferofchargingrulesfromhometovisited-PLMNwouldnotbeneeded.Ifsuch
transferwererequired,itwouldusetheS9referencepoint(betweentheHPCRFandthe
vPCRF).ThechargingrulesmaybepreconfiguredinthevisitedP-GW.

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

10 Migration to LTE VoIP


LTE/EPCisanentirelyIP-basednetwork,supportingnormalvoicecallsusingVoIP.
However,LTEVoIPintroductionwilltakeplacegradually,andnotinparallelwithinitial
LTEintroductionfordataconnectivity.Onthecontrary,inmostcasesasmoothmigration
fromCSvoicetoLTEvoiceisassumed.ThissectiondescribesCS-PSdomain
interworkingstepsthatcanbeidentifiedinthemigrationpathtoLTEvoice.Depending
ontheoperatorstrategyforvoiceandLTErolloutanditsspectrumassets,somesteps
maybedropped.Itisalsopossiblethatsomestepsmayco-existinparallel.
Thefollowingmigrationstepsareconsidered.
1.LTEusedforhighspeedpacketdataaccess,CSvoiceover2G/3G
2.FallbacktoCSvoice
3.SingleradioVoiceCallContinuity(SRVCC)
4.LTEusedforhighspeedpacketdataaccessonly,VoIPoverLTE
5.EmergencyCallHandling

1. LTE used for high speed packet data access, CS voice over 2G/3G
AtthisphasetheoperatorvoiceserviceissolelyprovidedoverCSnetwork(seeFigure
106:LTE/EPCarchitecturewithPS&CSdomainscompletelyseparated).LTEaccessis
usedfordataconnectivityonlyandtherewillbedifferentterminalsforvoice(handsets)
anddata(datacards,etc).NovoicespecificfeaturesneedtobesupportedbytheEPS
system.
Figure 106

LTE/EPCarchitecturewithPS&CSdomainscompletelyseparated

2. Fallback to CS voice
AtthisphasetheLTEnetworkisstillusedfordataonly(seeFigure107:LTE/EPC
architectureCSfallback).However,LTEcapableMultiradiohandsetsemergeandthese
handsetscanbesimultaneouslyregisteredtobothLTEand2G/3GCSnetwork.When
voicecallsareinitiatedorreceived,thehandsetisdirectedbythenetworktotheCS
networktocompletebothmobileterminatedandmobileoriginatedvoicecalls.The
functionalitytofallbackfromLTEtoCSdomainisreferredtoasCSFallback(CSFB).
TheCSFallbackprocedurerequiresthateNB,MMEandMSCnetworkelementsare
upgradedtosupporttheprocedure.TheeNBdecideswhichtypeofCSFallbackwillbe
used.
Formoreinformationrefertothefollowingfeaturedescriptions:

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MigrationtoLTEVoIP

LTE22: Emergency Call Handling


LTE562: CS fallback to UTRAN or GSM via redirect
LTE736: CS fallback to UTRAN
LTE874: CSFB to CDMA/1xRTT for dual RX Ues
LTE984: GSM redirect with system information
LTE1073: Measurement based redirect to UTRAN
LTE1441: Enhanced CS fallback to CDMA/1xRTT (e1xCSFB)

CSfallbackprocedureisstandardizedfor3GPPRel-8(TS23.272).
Figure 107

LTE/EPCarchitectureCSfallback

3. Single radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


Atthisphase,theoperatorprovidesVoIPoverLTEaccessandIMSisusedasenabling
SIPsessioncontrolmachineryforVoIPtraffic(seeFigure109:LTE/EPCSRVCC
architecturefor3GPPaccesses).However,asshowninFigure108:Singleradiovoice
callcontinuity(SRVCC)principle,itisassumedthatLTEcoverageisnotyetcomplete
andthusinterworkingwithunderlyinglegacyaccesstechnologyisrequired.Fromthe
voicetrafficperspectivethisimplieshandingoverLTEVoIPcalltoCSvoicecallprovided
bythelegacyaccesstechnology.ThehandoverfunctionalityfromVoIPtoCSdomainis
referredtoasSingleRadioVoiceCallContinuity(SRVCC).
SRVCCprocedureisstandardizedfor3GPPRel-8(TS23.216).Thisprocedureisnot
supportedyetandisplannedforfuturerelease.FeaturesLTE872: SRVCC to WCDMA
andLTE873: SRVCC to GSMsupportthisfunctionality.
Figure 108

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

TheselectionofthedomainorradioaccessisunderthenetworkcontrolinSRVCC.The
SVinterfacebetweenMSCServerandMMEisusedtoenableinterworkingbetweenPS
andCSdomains.Figure110:LTE/EPCSRVCCarchitecturefor1xRTTshowsthesame
withtheS102interfaceforthe1xinterworkingcase.SRVCCfunctionalityinMSC-Server
actsasanchorMSC-Servertowardstarget2G/3GCSdomain.SRVCCinMSC-Server
togetherwithVCCanchorhidesanymobilitybetweenLTEVoIPand2G/3GCSdomain
fromothersideofthecall.TheVCCanchorislocatedattheIMSapplicationserverand
basedonthesameconceptthatwasdefinedby3GPPforRelease7WLANVoiceCall
Continuity.
Figure 109

LTE/EPCSRVCCarchitecturefor3GPPaccesses

Figure 110

LTE/EPCSRVCCarchitecturefor1xRTT

InthecaseofSRVCCwithlegacy3GPPaccesstechnologies,duringLTEattach
proceduretheMMEreceivesSRVCCDomainTransferNumberfromHSSthatisfurther
giventoMSCviaSVinterface.TheMSCusesthisnumbertoestablishconnectionto
VCCanchorduringtheSRVCCprocedure.WhentheLTEVoIPsessionisestablished,it
isanchoredwithinIMSintheVCCanchortouseSRVCClateronifneededduringthe
VoIPsession.Thisanchoringoccursinbothoriginatingandterminatingvoicesessions
basedonIMSsubscriptionconfigurationandthusisnotdoneperVoIPsession.
TheSRVCCprocedureisinitiatedbytheeNBwhichstartsinter-systemmeasurements
ofthetargetsystem.TheeNBrecognizesvoicebearerbasedQCI=1andsends
handoverrequestwithSRVCCindicationtoMME,whichthentriggerstheSRVCC
procedureviaSVinterfacetoMSC-ServerwithForwardRelocationCommand.MSCServerinitiatesthesessiontransferproceduretowardsIMSbyestablishingnewsession
towardsVCCanchorthatoriginallyhasanchoredthesession.Thesessionisestablished
byMSC-ServerusingtheSRVCCnumberprovidedbyMME.MSC-Serveralso

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MigrationtoLTEVoIP

coordinatestheresourcereservationinthetargetcelltogetherwithtargetradioaccess
network.MSC-ServerthensendsForwardRelocationResponsetoMME,whichincludes
thenecessaryinformationforUEtoaccessthetargetcell.
AftertheSRVCCprocedurehasbeencompletedsuccessfully,theVoIPconnectionis
presentfromtheMediaGatewaythatiscontrolledbyMSC-Servertowardstheotherside
oftheongoingsession.TheCSconnectionexiststowardstheradioaccessnetworkto
whichUEwasmovedduringtheprocedure.
Incaseofsimultaneousvoiceandnon-voicedataconnection,thehandlingofanonvoicebearerisdonebythebearersplittingfunctionintheMME.TheMMEmaypreserve
thenon-voicePSbearerduringanSRVCCprocedureifthetargetaccesssystemdoes
notsupportsimultaneousvoiceanddatafunctionality.Ifthenon-voicebearerisalso
handedover,theprocessisdoneinthesamewayasthenormalinter-systemhandover
forpacketservices.TheMMEisresponsibleforcoordinatingtheForwardRelocation
ResponsefromSRVCCandpacketdatahandoverprocedure.
Intheroamingcase,thevisitedPLMNcontrolstheradioaccessanddomainchange
whiletakingintoaccountanyrelatedHomePLMNpolicies.

4. LTE used for high speed packet data access only, VoIP over LTE
Similartostep3,atthisphasetheoperatorprovidesVoIP-over-LTEaccessandIMSis
usedasenablingSIPsessioncontrolmachineryforVoIPtraffic(seeFigure111:
LTE/EPCarchitecturewithall-IPnetworkdeployingLTE).However,thedifference
comparedtostep3isthatLTEcoverageiscompleteandthusnointerworkingwith
underlyinglegacyCSaccesstechnologiesisrequired.Furthermore,IMSisusedasa
genericSIPsessioncontrolmachineryforallservices,thusremovingtheneedforaCS
serviceinfrastructure.AtthistimetheneedforCSFBandSRVCCsolutionshave
disappeared.
Figure 111

LTE/EPCarchitecturewithall-IPnetworkdeployingLTE

5. Emergency Call Handling


AtthisphasetheEmergencyCallHandlingfunctionalityisintroducedtoprovide
regulatoryrequirementsininitialphaseofLTEimplementation.Tograntproperhandling
ofemergencycallUEwillberedirectedfromLTEtoanotherCScapableRAT(WCDMA
orGSM).ThisactionistriggeredbyMMEsendingCSFallbackHighPriorityindicationto
eNB.AsaconsequenceUEwillberedirectedtoanotherRAT.
Additionally,theLTE572: IMS emergency sessionsfeatureisintroducedtoprovide
supportforIMS(IPMultimediaSubsystem)emergencysessionsforUEsRelease9.
SuchfunctionalityusesanAccessPointName(APN)thatisdedicatedforemergency
andcomprisestypicallyonebearerforSIPsignalingandonebearerforVoIPtoprovide
avoiceconnectionbetweentheuserandtheemergencycenter.

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AnIMSemergencysessionisestablishedandkeptwithpreferencecomparedtonormal
sessions.TheFlexiMultiradioBTSadmitsallIMSemergencysessions,thatisradio
bearers,RRCconnectionsandEPSbearersuntiloperator-configurablethresholdsare
reached.

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Nokiaservicesolutionskeybenefitsandcustomer
values

11 Nokia service solutions key benefits and


customer values
Thechallengesfacingoperatorsintodaysbusinessenvironmentarewelldocumented:
Averagerevenueperuser(ARPU)isdeclininginmanymarkets,pressuretoreduce
operatingexpenditure(OPEX)isgrowingandanincreaseincustomerchurnisimpacting
thebottomline.Operatorsalsohavetoimplementawidevarietyofsecuritymeasures
whilecopingwithincreasednetworkcomplexityandthelaunchofnew,differentiated
servicesofferings.
Nokiahasadeepunderstandingofthecustomersnetworks,withmorethan600fixed
andmobilecustomersaroundtheworld,over20,000servicesemployeesand150years
experienceinthetelecommunicationsindustry.NokiaServicesbusinesssupportsthe
entiretechnologylifecycleandcoversthefullrangeofcarriernetworktechnologies.We
understandyourbusinessandwehaveassembledacomprehensiveportfolioofproven
solutionsthatwillhelpyoumeetthechallengesoftodaysmarket.
Keybenefitsandvalueforthecustomersincludethefollowing:

Buildcompetitivenessinachangingmarketplacewhileatthesametimereduce
OPEXandoptimizeyouroperationalperformance
Seizenewbusinessopportunitiesquicklyandwithreducedrisk
Leavethedeploymenttousandfocusonyourcorebusiness
Keepyournetworkatpeakperformanceatalltimes

Build competitiveness in a changing market place while at the same


time reduce OPEX and optimize your operational performance
Inaworldofsharpeningcompetition,ithasneverbeenmoreimportantforoperatorsto
focusontheessentials:identifyinganddeployingthoseelusivenewvalue-addeddata
servicesthatholdthepromiseofprofit,nottomentionadditionalrevenues,acompetitive
advantageandbettercustomerrelationships.
Inpartnershipwithyou,wecanhelptodesignandimplementbusinessmodelsforyour
marketsituation,basedonagileandefficientprocessesandtechnologyinfrastructure.
OurManagedServicesprovidethemostextensiveportfolioofservicesandsolutions
thatcanhelpyouwinnewbusinessopportunitiesthroughhigherefficiencyandnovel
waystogeneratenewrevenue.
OurGlobalNetworksSolutionsCenterbringstogetherauniquetalentpoolofnetwork
planners,consultantsandspecialistswhooptimizeyourradionetworksanddelivernew
levelsofManagedServiceswhicharesecondtonone.
NokiatrackrecordofManagedServicesreferencesaroundtheworldistestamenttoits
abilitytooperatenetworksandoptimizetheirend-to-endperformance,togetherwith
serviceplatformsandterminals.Wehavemorethan160jointlymanagedservices
contractsgloballyoneofthestrongestreferenceportfoliosinthisgrowingbusiness
field.

Seize new business opportunities quickly and with reduced risk


Ourhostingsolutionallowsyoutorespondrapidlytonewmarketopportunitieswhile
minimizingthetechnicalandfinancialrisksofinvestmentinsoftware,equipmentand
peopleskills.Weofferapay-as-you-growbusinessmodelandflexible,affordablehosting

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values

LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

solutions.Ourstrongtrackrecord,clearinsightintoglobalend-userbehavioranda
preciseunderstandingofhowdevicesworkmeansweareabletoofferabroadrangeof
hostedmultimediaandconvergedservices,includinghostedtrialandlaunch,outsourced
messagingplatforms,hostedmobilevirtualnetworkoperator(MVNO)andalsohosted
contentandapplications.
Ourconsultantsarededicatedtoworkwithyoutogeneratenewrevenuesandoptimize
yourcapitalexpenditure(CAPEX),aswellastoreducetherisksinvolvedwhen
introducingnewtechnologies(includingmulti-vendorequipment)orlaunchingnew
servicestoyourcustomers.Wecanalsohelpyouoptimizeyourexistingservicesand
network,resultinginanincreaseinyourcustomersqualityofexperience,leadingto
reducedchurn.
Theconstantinnovationinourmarketmeansthatwearerequiredtomanage
increasinglycomplexserviceplatformsinthenetwork,whileatthesametimelaunching
newservicesandapplicationsquickly.NokiaServicesprovidethestandardizedService
DeliveryFramework(SDF)tomakethelaunchofnewservicesandapplicationsquicker
andeasiertointegrateandoperate.

Leave the deployment to us and focus on your core business


OurNetworkImplementationservicescanprovideyouanentireTurnkeysolution,
assumingresponsibilityasageneralcontractorforyourcompletenetworkdeployment,
allowingyoutodeployyourresources.WecanalsoprovideourImplementationservices
separatelyweofferprojectmanagement,construction,logisticsandnetworkdesign
solutionstocoveryourneeds.Ourexpertiseinthisarea,basedonourexperienceof
deployinghundredsoffixedandmobilenetworksaroundtheworld,aswellasourlocal
andglobalpresenceleadstohighnetworkquality,fulfillingtheagreedKPIs.

Keep your network at peak performance at all times


NokiaCaresolutionsaredesignedtokeepyournetworkoperatingatpeakperformance
atalltimes,24hoursaday,sevendaysaweek,365daysayearwithglobalon-siteand
remotesupport.Aflexibleportfolioalwaysallowstherightcombinationofservicesto
achievetheagreedservicelevelsattherighttime,intherightplaceduringallphasesof
theproductandsoftwarelifecycle.GlobalCareCentersandlocalexpertsarealsoonhandtoresolvetechnicalproblemsandtosupplementyourin-houseexperts.This,
togetherwiththeHardwareSparePartManagementServices,willhelpyouoptimize
yourinvestments.

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Nokiaenvironmentalissues

12 Nokia environmental issues


TheenvironmentalgoalsandactivitiesofNokiaareaimedatreducingtheenvironmental
impactofNokiaproductsovertheirentirelifecycle.
Lifecyclethinkingisbasedonunderstandingtheinterdependenceoftheenvironmental
impactsatdifferentstagesofaproduct'slifecycle.Basedontheanalysisofthe
environmentalaspectsandtheirimpacts,Nokiahasidentifiedfocusareasforits
environmentalwork.ThecurrentfocusareasinNokiaareenvironmentalmanagement
systemsatproductionsites,suppliernetworkmanagement,designforenvironment,
substancemanagement,environmentalaspectsofnetworksandsitesandrecyclingof
obsoleteproducts.

Environmental management systems


AllNokiaproductionsiteshaveanISO14001-certifiedenvironmentalmanagement
system(EMS).Withnewfacilities,thepolicyisfirsttobuildanISO-certifiedquality
managementsystemasabasisfortheEMS.Basedonaccumulatedexperienceand
expertise,anEMScanbebuiltandcertifiedatanewsitewithinoneyear.Thecontents
oftheEMSinplacevarysomewhatdependingonsuchlocalcircumstancesas
legislation,regulations,andwastetreatmentcapabilities.However,Nokiahasdecidedto
applyNokiastandardsinplaceswheretheyarehigherthantheprevailinglocal
standards.

Supplier network management


Nokiapurchasesanincreasingamountofcomponentsandassembliesfromsuppliers
aroundtheworld.Thesuppliers'activitiesaccountforasubstantialpartofthe
environmentalimpactofNokiaproductsovertheirlifecycle.Therefore,Nokiahas
formulatedcomprehensiveenvironmentalrequirementsforitssuppliers,andtheyarean
integralpartofNokiasupplychainmanagementpractices.Asapartofsupplier
qualificationprocess,theenvironmentalandethicalrequirementsareassessed.To
ensurecompliancetoNokiarequirements,trainedNokiapersonnelconductregular
assessmentsaspartofnormalsupplierassessment.

Design for Environment


DesignforEnvironment(DfE)meanssystematicintegrationofenvironmentalobjectives
intoproductdesign.ThepurposeofDfEistosatisfytherequirementsofcustomersand
otherstakeholdersinawaythatcauseslessenvironmentalimpact.InpracticeDfEuses
designpracticesthatlead,forexample,to

minimizedmaterialandenergyuse
maximizedreuseandrecycling
minimizeduseofmaterialsthataredetrimentaltotheenvironment

DfEobjectiveshaveanimpactontheproductdesignspecificationalongwithother
productfeatures,suchasperformance,quality,usability,andcosteffectiveness.In
Nokia,environmentalissuesareanaturalpartofProductProcess.
Environmentalissuesarealsoacriterionwhendesigningproductpackaging.Nokia
designsitspackagingtoberecyclableandseekstoreducetheamountandweightof
packagingmaterialswithoutcompromisingtherequirementforadequateprotection.

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LTERANandEPCSystemDescription

Substance management
Animportantpartofdesigningenvironmentallycompatibleproductsisthemanagement
ofthesubstancesthattheproductcontains.Inadditiontosolidmaterialssuchasmetals
andplastics,Nokiaanditssuppliersusehundredsofsubstances,preparationsand
chemicalsinthemanufactureofcomponents,products,andpackaging.Detailed
knowledgeoftheircompositionishelpfulindesigningproductsandmanufacturing
processesandinhandlingthemanufacturingwasteandusedproductsattheendoflife.
Mostcomponents,forexample,areinertandperfectlyharmlessinnormaluse,butsome
mayhavetobegivenspecialconsiderationinordertoensureproperend-of-life(EoL)
treatment.
NokiahascompiledaNokiaSubstanceListbasedonregulatoryrequirementsand
reasonablefacts.NokiaSubstanceListidentifiessubstancesthathavebeenbanned,
restricted,ortargetedforreductionbyNokia.

Environmental aspects of networks and sites


Nokiasupportsthecustomersbyenablingfastandeasysiteacquisitioninan
environmentallyresponsibleway.
Inpracticethismeansthat:

Nokiasupportsthecustomerinminimizingthetotalimpactofthenetworkonthe
landscapeandtheenvironment.
Nokiaprovidesthecustomerwithinformationaboutelectromagneticfields.
Nokiaassiststhecustomerindealingwithlocalauthoritiesandcommunitiesby
providingmaterial,advice,andtrainingonelectromagneticfields.
Nokiaaimstoofferlowimpactantennaandmastsolutionssystematicallyasoptions.

End-of-life practices
NokiacustomerscancontractwithNokiaforenvironmentallyresponsibleend-of-life
treatmentofobsoleteequipment.Thepurposeistorecoverthematerialandenergy
contentoftheobsoleteproductsandtoensuresafetreatmentofsubstancesthatcan
causeharmtopeopleortheenvironment,ifdisposedofuntreated.Inalife-cycle
perspective,EoLtreatmentcancompensateforsomeoftheenvironmentalimpactsof
theearlierstagesoftheproductslifecycle.
NokiaEquipmentTakeBackServiceprovidesNokiacustomerswithanend-to-end
servicethatincludestheremovalofend-of-lifeproductsfromthecustomers'networkand
ensuresend-of-lifetreatmentinanenvironmentallyresponsibleway.
TheNokiaEquipmentTakeBackServiceisofferedinseveralmodulesrepresentingendto-endworkflowoftheprocess:

removal
collection
recycling
projectmanagement

Thecustomersmayelecttoperformoneormoremodulesthemselvesandtoprocure
servicesfromNokiatoperformtheremainingmodules.InNokiaorOtherVendorHW
Replacement,thatis,SWAPcases,TakeBackServicebringsinCollectionand
RecyclingServiceasRemovalandProjectManagementarealreadyincluded.The
pricingisscalableaccordingtothemodules.

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Nokiaenvironmentalissues

ProductcollectionanddisposalwithinEuropeanUnion,WEEEdirective
ProductcollectionanddisposalwithintheEuropeanUnion
Donotdisposeoftheproductasunsortedmunicipalwaste.
Thecrossed-outwheeledbinmeansthatattheendofthe
productslifeitmustbetakentoseparatecollection.Note:
thisisapplicableonlywithintheEuropeanUnion(see
WEEEDirective2002/96/EC)

Restriction of hazardous substances


TheLTE/EPCSystemsetcomplieswiththeEuropeanUnionRoHSDirective
2002/95/EContherestrictionoftheuseofcertainhazardoussubstancesinelectrical
andelectronicequipment.Thedirectiveappliestotheuseoflead,mercury,cadmium,
hexavalentchromium,polybrominatedbiphenyls(PBB),andpolybrominateddiphenyl
ethers(PBDE)inelectricalandelectronicequipmentputonthemarketafter1stJuly
2006.

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