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Read the following example to how your understanding of the
chronological sequence of ideas help you to predict probable future actions,
that is, to make judgement about what is likely or not likely to occur.


Jim and Barry are applying for the position of manager of a tool
company. Jim is completing a four-ear liberal arts degree and wants to
secure any job immediately upon graduating. He works in the college
bookstore and is captain of the basketball team. Barry has completed a two-
year degree specializing in mechanical technology. He currently works at a
local garage and has had experience in repairing equipment, selling auto
parts, and purchasing equipment. Both men have met with career counselors,
have deal out applications, and have forwarded letters of reference to the
tool company. Jim’s letters have come from the bookstore manager, his
English professor, and the coach of his basketball team. Barry’s reference
have come from two technology instructors and his supervisor have come
from two technology instructors and his supervisor have come from two
technology instructors and his supervisor at the garage. Both eagerly wait
the next step in the job-seeking process.
1. What three steps has each man taken in the job-seeking process?
2. What is the next logical step in the process?
3. Based on your understanding of the facts-each man’s qualifications –
state which man will probably get the job:
4. Explain your reasoning in question 3:

Authors often limit their discussions about ideas or event and expect the
reader to use the stated facts and chronological sequence of events to predict
possible future actions.
Knowing the facts and following the sequence of ideas can help you
to predict possible future actions based logically on ideas developed in the

In the following exercise, be sure you understand the logical order of
ideas, and , based on your literal understanding, predict what is likely to
happen (likely) or what not likely to happen (unlikely)
A. Two years ago Ralph began work as a supermarket clerk. In
six moths he was promoted to assistant manager of the
market. He worked hard and year later took over the position
of market manager. Because of his continued efforts to
provide excellent service, Ralph’s work came to the
attention of the market’s administrations. They watched his
work carefully and several months later made a decision.
--- 1. Ralph will be evaluated for five years before he is
--- 2. When Ralph is promoted, he will become a good
market manager in the company
--- 3. Ralph will move the administrative officer shortly
--- 4. Ralph will be moved to one the firm’s smaller markets.
--- 5. In two more years with the company, Ralph will have
help every position.

B. Roberta and Joseph have applied for status as United Status

citizens. Joseph has a fine job. And Roberta is enrolled at a
local college where she studies secretarial science. Each had
an American sponsor, and each studied hard for the
citizenship exam.
--- 1. Joseph will get a better job when he emigrates from the
United States.
--- 2. Both Roberta and Joseph will become citizens.
--- 3. Roberta will begin her medical studies when he enrolls
in college.
--- 4. Roberta, but not Joseph, will pass the exam
--- 5. Roberta and Joseph will skip the next exam.
A. Applying Prediction and Assumption Skills to
Comparisons and Contrasts.

Recognizing the differences between fact and opinions and making and
making assumptions and predictions are comprehensions skills that are as
important to analytical writing as they are to narrative and descriptive
writing. Remember that you build reading skills one upon another and that
you apply each skill in a variety of situations.
Identifying similarities and differences between compared or
contrasted subjects can help you to understand the special characteristics of
those subjects. You can use your understanding of subjects to make logical
predictions about future actions logical assumptions about the nature of the
subjects. Consider the following example to see how you can use stated
comparisons and contrasts to help you make predictions and assumptions.

Two opposing groups, one that favors rising taxes and one which
favors keeping them at their present level, have put a major effort into
wining support in the upcoming vote on the town’s school budget. While the
anti-tax group (opposing the tax) has contrasted students, the local teaching
union, and concerned parents, the pro-tax group (In favor of the tax) has
relied on randomly phoning as many town residents as possible. Both have
sent mailings, but only the anti-tax people included a list of the ways the
proposed taxes will be used. Both groups are claiming widespread support
and victory in next week’s voting.
1. Name four similarities that the pro- and anti-tax groups share: …
2. Name two differences between the group: …
3. Which group will probably win the vote?
4. Can you assume that the proposed budget is smaller than last year’s

Check the assumptions or predictions that can be drawn logically from each
statement. There may be more than one answer for each statement.
1. Most boys and girls are satisfied with their allowances.
--- a). Girls expect larger allowances than boys do.
---b). Most children probably receive reasonable allowances.
2. City and suburban land values have been steadily increasing for the
past twenty years.
--- a) Many people are probably buying land for investment purposes.
--- b) Land values will continue to increase in the next decade.
3. The financial responsibility for social programs is shifting from the
Federal to state governments.
--- a) Local governments will soon be bankrupt.
--- b) Till recently, the Federal government paid for many of the social
programs in this country.