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HighstrengthlowalloysteelWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Highstrengthlowalloysteel
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Highstrengthlowalloysteel(HSLA)isatypeofalloysteelthatprovidesbettermechanicalpropertiesor
greaterresistancetocorrosionthancarbonsteel.HSLAsteelsvaryfromothersteelsinthattheyarenot
madetomeetaspecificchemicalcompositionbutrathertospecificmechanicalproperties.Theyhavea
carboncontentbetween0.050.25%toretainformabilityandweldability.Otheralloyingelementsinclude
upto2.0%manganeseandsmallquantitiesofcopper,nickel,niobium,nitrogen,vanadium,chromium,
molybdenum,titanium,calcium,rareearthelements,orzirconium.[1][2]Copper,titanium,vanadium,and
niobiumareaddedforstrengtheningpurposes.[2]Theseelementsareintendedtoalterthemicrostructureof
carbonsteels,whichisusuallyaferritepearliteaggregate,toproduceaveryfinedispersionofalloy
carbidesinanalmostpureferritematrix.Thiseliminatesthetoughnessreducingeffectofapearliticvolume
fractionyetmaintainsandincreasesthematerial'sstrengthbyrefiningthegrainsize,whichinthecaseof
ferriteincreasesyieldstrengthby50%foreveryhalvingofthemeangraindiameter.Precipitation
strengtheningplaysaminorrole,too.Theiryieldstrengthscanbeanywherebetween250590megapascals
(36,00086,000psi).BecauseoftheirhigherstrengthandtoughnessHSLAsteelsusuallyrequire25to30%
morepowertoform,ascomparedtocarbonsteels.[2]
Copper,silicon,nickel,chromium,andphosphorusareaddedtoincreasecorrosionresistance.Zirconium,
calcium,andrareearthelementsareaddedforsulfideinclusionshapecontrolwhichincreasesformability.
TheseareneededbecausemostHSLAsteelshavedirectionallysensitiveproperties.Formabilityandimpact
strengthcanvarysignificantlywhentestedlongitudinallyandtransverselytothegrain.Bendsthatare
paralleltothelongitudinalgrainaremorelikelytocrackaroundtheouteredgebecauseitexperiences
tensileloads.ThisdirectionalcharacteristicissubstantiallyreducedinHSLAsteelsthathavebeentreated
forsulfideshapecontrol.[2]
Theyareusedincars,trucks,cranes,bridges,rollercoastersandotherstructuresthataredesignedtohandle
largeamountsofstressorneedagoodstrengthtoweightratio.[2]HSLAsteelcrosssectionsandstructures
areusually20to30%lighterthanacarbonsteelwiththesamestrength.[3][4]
HSLAsteelsarealsomoreresistanttorustthanmostcarbonsteelsbecauseoftheirlackofpearlitethe
finelayersofferrite(almostpureiron)andcementiteinpearlite.HSLAsteelsusuallyhavedensitiesof
around7800kg/m.[5]

Contents
1
2
3
4

Classifications
SAEgrades
Notes
References

Classifications
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HighstrengthlowalloysteelWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Weatheringsteels:steelswhichhavebettercorrosionresistance.AcommonexampleisCORTEN.
Controlrolledsteels:hotrolledsteelswhichhaveahighlydeformedaustenitestructurethatwill
transformtoaveryfineequiaxedferritestructureuponcooling.
Pearlitereducedsteels:lowcarboncontentsteelswhichleadtolittleornopearlite,butratheravery
finegrainferritematrix.Itisstrengthenedbyprecipitationhardening.
Acicularferritesteels:Thesesteelsarecharacterizedbyaveryfinehighstrengthacicularferrite
structure,averylowcarboncontent,andgoodhardenability.
Dualphasesteels:Thesesteelshaveaferritemicrostruturethatcontainsmall,uniformlydistributed
sectionsofmartensite.Thismicrostructuregivesthesteelsalowyieldstrength,highrateofwork
hardening,andgoodformability.[1]
Microalloyedsteels:steelswhichcontainverysmalladditionsofniobium,vanadium,and/or
titaniumtoobtainarefinedgrainsizeand/orprecipitationhardening.
AcommontypeofmicroalloyedsteelisimprovedformabilityHSLA.Ithasayieldstrengthupto
80,000psi(550MPa)butonlycosts24%morethanA36steel(36,000psi(250MPa)).Oneofthe
disadvantagesofthissteelisthatitis30to40%lessductile.IntheU.S.,thesesteelsaredictatedbythe
ASTMstandardsA1008/A1008MandA1011/A1011MforsheetmetalandA656/A656Mforplates.These
steelsweredevelopedfortheautomotiveindustrytoreduceweightwithoutlosingstrength.Examplesof
usesincludedoorintrusionbeams,chassismembers,reinforcingandmountingbrackets,steeringand
suspensionparts,bumpers,andwheels.[2][6]

SAEgrades
TheSocietyofAutomotiveEngineers(SAE)maintainsstandardsforHSLAsteelgradesbecausetheyare
oftenusedinautomotiveapplications.

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Grade

HighstrengthlowalloysteelWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

%Carbon
(max)

SAEHSLAsteelgradecompositions[7]
%
%
%Sulfur %Silicon
Manganese
Phosphorus
(max)
(max)
(max)
(max)

Notes
Niobiumorvanadium
treated

942X 0.21

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

945A 0.15

1.00

0.04

0.05

0.90

945C

0.23

1.40

0.04

0.05

0.90

945X 0.22

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

950A 0.15

1.30

0.04

0.05

0.90

950B

0.22

1.30

0.04

0.05

0.90

950C

0.25

1.60

0.04

0.05

0.90

950D 0.15

1.00

0.15

0.05

0.90

950X 0.23

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobiumorvanadium
treated

955X 0.25

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium,vanadium,or
nitrogentreated

960X 0.26

1.45

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium,vanadium,or
nitrogentreated

965X 0.26

1.45

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium,vanadium,or
nitrogentreated

Niobiumorvanadium
treated

970X 0.26

1.65

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium,vanadium,or
nitrogentreated

980X 0.26

1.65

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium,vanadium,or
nitrogentreated

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Grade
942X

HighstrengthlowalloysteelWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

SAEHSLAsteelgrademechanicalproperties[8]
Yieldstrength(min)
Ultimatetensilestrength
Form
[psi(MPa)]
(min)[psi(MPa)]
Plates,shapes&barsupto4in. 42,000(290)

60,000(414)

Sheet&strip

45,000(310)

60,000(414)

00.5in. 45,000(310)

65,000(448)

0.51.5in. 42,000(290)

62,000(427)

1.53in. 40,000(276)

62,000(427)

Plates,shapes&bars:
945A,C

945X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto1.5in.

45,000(310)

60,000(414)

Sheet&strip

50,000(345)

70,000(483)

00.5in. 50,000(345)

70,000(483)

0.51.5in. 45,000(310)

67,000(462)

1.53in. 42,000(290)

63,000(434)

Plates,shapes&bars:
950A,B,C,D

950X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto1.5in.

50,000(345)

65,000(448)

955X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto1.5in.

55,000(379)

70,000(483)

960X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto1.5in.

60,000(414)

75,000(517)

965X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto0.75in.

65,000(448)

80,000(552)

970X

Sheet,strip,plates,shapes&
barsupto0.75in.

70,000(483)

85,000(586)

980X

Sheet,strip&platesupto0.375
80,000(552)
in.

95,000(655)

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RankingofvariouspropertiesforSAEHSLAsteelgrades[9]
Rank
Weldability
Formability
Toughness
Worst 980X

980X

980X

970X

970X

970X

965X

965X

965X

960X

960X

960X

955X,950C,942X 955X

955X

945C

950C

945C,950C,942X

950B,950X

950D

945X,950X

945X

950B,950X,942X 950D

950D

945C,945X

950B

950A

950A

950A

945A

945A

945A

Best

Notes
1.ClassificationofCarbonandLowAlloySteels,retrieved20081006
2.HSLASteel,20021115,archivedfromtheoriginalon20100103,retrieved20081011.
3.Degarmo,p.116.
4.Samedensityascarbonsteel,seenextparagraph
5."Stainlesssteelpropertiesforstructuralautomotiveapplications"(PDF).EuroInox.June2000.Retrieved
20070814.
6.Coldrolledsheetsteel,archivedfromtheoriginalon20080430,retrieved20081011
7.Oberg,pp.440441.
8.Oberg,p.441.
9.Oberg,p.442.

References
Degarmo,E.PaulBlack,JT.Kohser,RonaldA.(2003),MaterialsandProcessesinManufacturing
(9thed.),Wiley,ISBN0471656534.
Oberg,E.etal.(1996),Machinery'sHandbook(25thed.),IndustrialPressInc
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Highstrength_low
alloy_steel&oldid=710737767"
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