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To study the magnetic field of magnets (bar magnet and U-magnets) in different configuration
for the first part of the experiment, iron fillings scattered on top of a piece of paper is used.
Magnetic fields are invisible, but are drawn based on the patterns made by the iron fillings
above. The N-N or S-S combination of bar magnets makes the iron fillings move away from the
center as it repels each other. The magnetic field lines diverge in like pole combination. The S-N
combination creates an attractive force which also attracts the iron fillings while the field lines
converge. The areas where iron fillings are largely concentrated located at the poles represent the
area where the field lines are strong. For the last combination, no magnetic lines can be traced
since there is no magnetic force in it. Adding the iron ring (a ferromagnetic body) inside of the
two u-magnets causes the direction of the field lines to avoid the area inside of the ring and travel
instead on its walls. The cause of errors in this part is caused by the lack of iron fillings to create
the patterns of magnetic field lines and the weak strength of magnets.
For part 2a, mass of magnets increases as the current changes from 0 to 5A and the voltage is
maximized. The number of magnets signifies the strength of the magnetic field it produced As
the number of magnets increases, the magnetic field lines strengthens, the change in mass
increases and the magnetic force in both units increase.
For part 2b, magnetic force is observed as the current increases with each trial. Without
current flowing, the increase in mass is zero and so is the magnetic force. As it rises, the
magnetic force increases, and it can be said that the force is relative to the current. There are
cases where small increments in current do not change the amount of magnetic force.

For part 2c, the relationship between force and current loop is determined. From the data
table, every current loop has its equivalent length. For longer loops, stronger the magnetic force
applies. Magnetic force also varies directly with the length of loop with constant current and at
maximum voltage.
Part 2d began with the wires of the coil parallel to the magnets and therefore to the magnetic
field. The accessory unit is turned and magnetic force increases until the wires are perpendicular
to the field where force is the strongest. In negative angles, magnetic force is negative, but since
a force is a vector, negative value means it acts on the opposite direction.
Inaccuracies in part 2 are mainly caused by the inconsistency of the measurements made by
the digital balance and by the inconsistent current with 0.1-0.2 discrepancies.


The fact that opposites attract and like repels is a common knowledge especially in
magnetism. This property of magnet is used to draw the field lines created by separated magnets.
The movements of the iron fillings are caused by the magnetic forces exerted by these field lines.
These fillings concentrate or separate as they create pattern which identifies the field lines while
they converge or diverge respectively. To clearly see the motion and patterns of iron fillings,
more of this should be used with stronger magnets.
There is an evident direct proportionality of the force to the loop length of SF number, to the
current that flows through it, to the strength of the magnetic field and to the sine of the angle
between the loop and the field. As the length of loop increases, the greater the magnetic fields
created and thus the stronger the magnetic force. The increasing amount of moving charge or
current also increases magnetic force. The force is maximum when the length is perpendicular to
B where sin 90=1 and minimum if parallel where sin 0=0. Mathematically, it can be expressed as
F=ILB sin whose magnitude is also experimentally equal to the increase in mass of

magnets once the current is changed from 0 to the given current.

For further improvement of experiment, I recommend providing sufficient amount of
materials and more accurate devices/instruments. I also recommend the use of the other type of
magnet-the electromagnet for the first part of the experiment.