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1.

0 ABSTRACT

The objectives of this experiment are to evaluate and study the heat transfer
in shell and tube heat exchanger, to calculate the LMTD, the heat transfer rate, and
the overall heat transfer coefficient. This experiment consists of six runs. For each of
the run, four different type of temperatures are recorded in table 2. Those data are
used to calculate Qc , Qh , Q , Tm ,Ui and Uo in table 3 . From table 3, three type of
graph are plotted which is temperature vs time taken, LMTD vs time taken and
overall heat transfer coefficient vs time taken. From the calculation, its stated that the
number of Qh is increasing from 0 minutes to 50 minutes time taken and same
pattern goes to Qc , Q , Ui and Uo . Other than that, the Tm is constantly decreases.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

The experiment is conducted to evaluate and study the heat transfer in shell
and tube heat exchanger at various operating conditions. The conditions LMTD, the
heat transfer rate, and the overall heat transfer coefficient.

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are one of the mostly used equipments in the process
industries. Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat between two process streams.
One can realize their usage that any process which involves cooling, heating,
condensation, boiling or evaporation will require a heat exchanger for these
purposes. (Rehman, Usman (2011) Heat Transfer Optimization of Shell-and-Tube
Heat Exchanger through CFD Studies).

The simple double-pipe exchanger is inadequate for flow rates that cannot
readily be handled in a few tubes. If several double pipes are used in parallel, the
weight of metal required for the outer tubes becomes large. The shell-and tube
construction, which one shell serves for many tubes, is more economical. This
exchanger, because it has one shell-side pass and one tube-side pass, is a 1-2
exchanger.

In an exchanger the shell-side and tube-side heat-transfer coefficients are of


comparable importance, and both must be large if a satisfactory overall coefficient is
to be attained. The velocity and turbulence of the shell-side liquid are as important as
those of the tube-side liquid. (Brodkey, R.S. and H.C. Hershey,(1988) Transport
Phenomena: A Unified Approach, McGraw-Hill, pp. 539-43). To prevent weakening of
the tube sheets there must be a minimum distance between the tubes. It is not
practicable to space the tubes so closely that the area of the path outside the tubes
is as small as that inside the tubes. If the two streams are of comparable magnitude,
the velocity on the shell side is low in comparison with that on the tube side. Baffles
are installed in the shell to decrease the cross section of the shell-side liquid and to
force the liquid to flow across the tube bank rather than parallel with it. The added
turbulence generated in this type of flow further increases the shell-side coefficient.
(David Vaugh And Tyler Ware, (2000) Heat Exchanger Analysis.)

4.0 RESULT

4.1 DATA

Length of tube L

0.5 m

Number of tubes N

24 m

Outer diameter of tube Do

0.016 m

Inner diameter of tube Di

0.013 m

Table 1: Shell and tube heat exchanger specifications

4.2 OBSERVATION TABLE

Time
(min)
0

Fh (LPH)

Hot water side


T1 (C)
T2 (C)

Cold water side


Fc (LPH)
T3 (C)
T4 (C)

177

81.6

70.3

177

37.7

50.8

10

177

79.5

72.6

177

39.8

52.1

20

177

80.0

69.7

177

48.0

54.6

30

177

80.0

60.2

177

35.0

54.4

40

177

79.9

60.2

177

35.0

54.4

50

177

79.9

60.2

177

34.8

54.3

Table 2: Experimental data obtain from shell & heat tube exchanger.

4.3 CALCULATION
3

Time

Qh(W)

Qc (W)

Q (W)

Tm

Ui (W/m2oC)

Uo (W/m2oC)

(oC)

(min)
0

2269.50

2666.72

2468.11

30.07

4103.94

2735.96

10

1385.83

2503.86

1944.85

29.05

3347.42

2231.61

20

2068.70

1341.10

1704.90

22.50

3788.67

2525.78

30

3990.50

3949.18

3969.84

19.13

10375.95

6917.30

40

3970.32

3949.18

3959.75

19.12

10355.00

6903.33

50

3970.32

3969.50

3969.91

19.27

10300.75

6867.17

Table 3: calculated value for Qh , Qc , Q , Tm , Ui , Uo .

5.0 DISCUSSION

In this experiment, the objective is to study the heat transfer in shell and
tube heat exchanger at various condition, to calculate the LMTD, heat transfer rate
and overall heat transfer coefficient. This heat exchanger is operated with heated
water as hot water flow through the inner tube while the cold water flowing through
the shell side. The experiment is carried out with different time taken until its reach
constant temperature.

Firstly, the hot water tank is filled with water and heated until the water
achieved ideal / desired temperature of 80 0 c. The experiment was run until the flow
rate of hot and cold water reached constant temperature. Based on table 2, the
temperature inlet for cold water are lower than temperature outlet and temperature
inlet for hot water are much higher than temperature outlet. This proven that there is
heat exchanger process happened during the experiment.

The heat load was calculated for different time taken. At 0 minutes, the Q h
is 2269.50 W, Qc is 2666.72W and Q is 2468.11W. Next, the T m was 30.07 0C while
the inner overall heat transfer coefficient, U i is 4103.94 (W/m2 oC) and outer overall
heat transfer coefficient, Uo is 2735.96 (W/m2 oC). At 50 minutes, the Qh is 3970.32W,
Qc is 3969.50W and Q is 3969.91W. The Tm was 19.27 0C while the inner overall
heat transfer coefficient, Ui is 10300.75 (W/m2 oC) and outer overall heat transfer
coefficient, Uo is 6867.17 (W/m2 oC). From the calculation, we conclude that the
number of Qh is increasing from lower to higher time taken and same pattern goes to
Qc , Q , Ui and Uo . Other than that, the Tm is constantly decreases.

The relationship between temperature and time


90
81.6
80
70.3
70

72.6

60
50.8

80

79.5

52.1

37.7
40

79.9

79.9

60.2

60.2

60.2

54.4

54.4

54.3

35

35

34.8

30

40

50

69.7

54.6
48

50
Temperature (c)

80

39.8

30
20
10
0

10

20

60

Time (Min)
Time T1 (C)

Linear (Time T1 (C))

Time T2 (C)

Linear (Time T2 (C))

Time T3 (C)

Linear (Time T3 (C))

Time T4 (C)

Linear (Time T4 (C))

Figure 1: Temperature vs Time taken

Effectiveness is says the overall performance of heat exchanger, the Effectiveness of


the modified heat exchanger is high comparing with segmental heat exchanger,
because of high heat transfer rate due to stream ( hot and cold). The heat exchanger
temperature is drop up to compared value.

The relationship between Log temperature different and time


35
30.07
29.05
30

25

22.5
19.13 19.12 19.27

20
Log mean temperature different (Tm)
15

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

Time (Min)

Figure 2: LMTD vs Time taken

LMTD is low in the modified heat exchanger, because of the input and output
temperature different of hot fluid is very high.so LMTD is very low at high time taken
and gradually decreased from low time taken to high time taken. Because heat
transfer rate depends on the temperature of hot fluid.

The relationship between heat transfer coefficient and tim e

Inside overall heat transfer coefficient


Outside
( Ui
overall
)
transfer coefficient ( U0 )

Time (Min)
Ui (W/m2oC)

Uo (W/m2oC)

Power (Uo (W/m2oC))

Figure 3: Overall heat transfer coefficient vs time taken

Overall heat transfer coefficient is very high in modified heat transfer coefficient,
because of the CD tubes and orifice baffle combination. Increase the conduct time
and high cold fluid replacement, in modified heat exchanger the mass flow rate of
shell side fluid is very high. Because of the baffle is designed as the varying mass
flow rate from bottom to top, so replaced the cold fluid at heat transferred area of
heat exchanger. Increased the mass flow rate of cold water, so increased the overall
heat transfer rate of modified heat exchanger.

6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION

The objective is achieved for Table 2 and Table 3. Based on evaluate and study the
performance of shell and tube heat exchanger at various time taken was determined.
Besides that, the heat transfer rate, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient also
determined. From the calculation, its stated that the number of Q h is increasing from
0 minutes to 50 minutes time taken and same pattern goes to Q c , Q , Ui and Uo .
Other than that, the T m is constantly decreases. All the calculated data for this
experiment can be referred to the table in calculation section.

RECOMMENDATION

Follow safety regulations such as wearing a goggle, appropriate clothes, and


gloves to avoid any over-exposure to the substances which can be harmful.

All the temperature and flowrate readings are taken simultaneously as inlet
temperature is increasing gradually and outlet temperature varies.

The last set of temperature readings should be taken when all the temperatures
are fairly steady.

Whenever the annunciator TAH3 is activated during the course of the experiment,
press the red acknowledge button to silence the buzzer.

The first set of data must be taken right away after the process is started.
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7.0 REFERENCES

1. Rehman, Usman (2011) Heat Transfer Optimization of Shell-and-Tube Heat


Exchanger through CFD Studies.

2. Brodkey, R.S. and H.C. Hershey,(1988) Transport Phenomena: A Unified


Approach, McGraw-Hill, pp. 539-43.

3. David Vaugh And Tyler Ware, (2000) Heat Exchanger Analysis.

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