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# Dynaflow Lectures Surge analysis

Agenda

## What are surges and what causes them

How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

## Surges are variations in pressures that are generated by a

change in the operational status
f Several changes can lead to surges
Foreseen operational changes
Unforeseen operational changes
Layout changes

## f Some examples of changes

Pump start-up
Pump trip
Variations in demand
Valve opening/closing

CONCLUSION
Surges can lead to (un)anticipated effects such as extremely
high or low pressures and unbalanced forces
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## Surges may lead to unacceptable conditions

CONDITION

POTENTIAL PROBLEM

## f Leading to permanent deformation or rupture of

the pipeline and components

## f May cause collapse of the pipeline; leakage

into the line at joints and seals under subatmospheric conditions

Reverse flow

## f Causing damage to pump seals and brush gear

on motors; draining of storage tanks and
reservoirs

Pipeline movement
and vibration

## f Overstressing and failure of supports, leading

to failure of the pipe

## f Mainly a problem in slurry lines, causing

settlement of entrained solids and line blockage

Large unbalanced

f Pipe movement

## Surges are basically pressure waves running thru the pipe

system

Pressure at a system
node varies over time
due to a pressure wave
passing by and being
reflected at the end of
the system.
Pressures can rise and
fall to significant levels
state

returns

is reflected at
the reservoir

returns at the
closed valve

wave travels
back to the
reservoir

at the reservoir

travels back to
the closed valve

reached again
(after t = 4L/c)

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## A basic transient pressure calculation can be made

Instantaneous valve closure
Fluid column length: L
Change in flow velocity: v
Fluid density:
Wave propagation speed: c

CALCULATION

FORMULAS

A * L * * v

## Momentum change balanced by pressure

force impulse

A * L * * v = p * A * t
L * * v = p

p = c * * v
Fluid with density 1000 kg/m3 (water),
v = 1 m/s and c = 1000 m/s

L
c
(Joukowsky)

p = 10bar
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## Wave-speed in fluids varies for types of pipes

K = fluid modulus of elasticity [Pa]
= fluid density [kg/m3]
D = pipe diameter [mm]
t = pipe wall thickness [mm]
E = pipe modulus of elasticity [Pa]
TYPICAL VALUES FOR FLUIDS

FORMULA

K
c=

DK
1+
t E

Steel:

FRP:

DI:

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EXAMPLE

## Resulting in different surge behavior

Pressure time history closing valve
valve closure time: 2 secs.

FIBERGLASS

STEEL

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## Transient pressures also differ per transported medium

MEDIUM

TRANSIENT PRESSURES

## f To a first approximation pressure pulses are

proportional to the sound velocity, the fluid/gas
velocity change and the fluid density.

Gases

## f Velocities are high, velocity changes may be

high, speed of sound is moderate, density is
low
f Pressure pulsations are moderate

Fluids:

## f Velocities are low, velocity changes are small

however speed of sound is high and densities
are high
f Pressure pulsation may be large

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## f Pressure pulsation propagate thru the pipelines at the speed of

sound
f Propagating pressure pulsation cause time dependent unbalanced
forces between consecutive elbow pairs
f The unbalanced forces generate a dynamic response of the piping
system
f Unbalanced forces may affect the integrity of the system. This
ought to be a concern for the piping engineer
f Tool to predict magnitude and time history of unbalanced loads is
required for the assessment of the fitness for purpose of the
system. BOSFluids is such a tool
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## 1. Column separation and vapor cavity formation

2. Air and gas entrainment
3. Resonance and auto-oscillation

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## 1. Column separation and vapor cavity formation

DESCRIPTION
f If the pressure falls below atmospheric it
can reach vapor pressure
f The liquid column would part as the
water boiled while the downstream
section would slow down
f Eventually the downstream water column
reverses its direction as well and
recombines with the upstream column
f At this instant the pressure at the point of
recombination will increase suddenly and
create new pressure waves propagating
in both upstream and downstream
direction

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## 2. Air and gas entrainment are highly unwanted

Both dissolved and free air and gas

f Dissolved air and gases will come out of solution when the pressure drops, but
the rate at which they can be reabsorbed is so slow that it can be ignored
f The system response depends on how the free air and gas are distributed
In pockets the gas can behave like air cushions and become points of reflection
Dispersed in bubbles the effect of even small quantities is to reduce the wave propagation
speed to as little as 25% of the normal speed

f Extremely high shock loads can be generated when moving slugs of liquid
following pockets of gas suddenly encounter valves, pipe bends or otherwise

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EXAMPLE

## Example of incident as a result of trapped gas

DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Injection
startup
failure

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## 3. Resonance and auto-oscillation

Result of cyclic variations
Resonance

## f Oscillatory behavior may be

generated for example by a
f The oscillations, or higher
harmonics, can be at the resonance
frequency of the system
f System resonance can lead to very
high pressures and can be very
violent

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EXAMPLE

Deflected
beam

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EXAMPLE

Unforeseen
unbalanced
forces

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EXAMPLE

## Pipe lifted from its

support after the support
is deformed

Deflected
beam

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EXAMPLE

## Pipe not designed for

surge effects (minimum
pressures)

Unforeseen
vacuum

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Agenda

## What are surges and what causes them

How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

25

## There are a number of ways to reduce the impact of surges

f Stronger pipes
f Rerouting
f Changing valve movements
f Avoiding check valve slam
f Increasing the inertia of pumps and their motors
f Minimizing changes for resonance
f Surge vessels
f Vacuum breakers and air release valves
f Pressure relief valves and bursting discs
f Bypass lines
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MEASURE

DESCRIPTION

Stronger pipes

## f Increase the pressure rating of the pipe.

f Expensive and often used as last resort.

Rerouting

## f Changes such as lowering high-points, less or

different bends and different rising profiles.
f Expensive measure and often not an option

Bypasses

## f Installing a bypass line around a pump to

minimize the effect of a pump-trip
f When the pump trips the pressure at the
discharge will be low enough to open the
bypass to continue feeding the system bypassing the pump

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T=

2L
c
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## Surge vessels are

used to maintain
water supply after
for example a pump
trip.
As the trapped air
expands and the
driving pressure
falls, the flow is
allowed to
decelerate in a
controlled manner

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Valve chamber

Vacuum breaker
(air valve)

Pipe line

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## Pressure relief valves and bursting discs

REDUCE HIGH PRESSURES

RELIEF VALVE

## Aimed at avoiding too high pressures in

the system
Typical situations include the rapid
control valves in process plants
Often the relief valve is connected to a
blowdown vessel to avoid the liquid/gas
to escape

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Agenda

## What are surges and what causes them

How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

33

## A surge analysis of a system using BOSFluids in 5 steps

ESD valve shutdown in NH3 network

## Separate model for each system

maximum and minimum pressures

## 2. Define upset conditions and analyze

3. Evaluate transient results

## 4. Generate unbalanced force time histories and insert in mechanical model

Time histories per relevant node
5. Introduce (support) modifications where required
Additional supports, axial stops, reinforcements, etc.

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EXAMPLE

PRESSURE

FLOWRATE

the system

system

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## 2. Define the upset conditions and analyze

EXAMPLE

Transient analysis
VALVE CLOSURE

TIME HISTORY

system nodes

ESD valve
closure in 5
seconds

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EXAMPLE

## Pressures, velocities and unbalanced forces

MAXIMUM PRESSURES [BARG.]

## The maximum pressures per node are

graphically represented. The pressures
however dont arise simultaneously.

## Also the minimum pressures are

graphically represented. Minimum
pressures can fall to a minimum of -1
barg., i.e. full vacuum.

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EXAMPLE

## Pressures, velocities and unbalanced forces

UNBALANCED FORCES [N]

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## 4. Generate unbalanced force time histories and

insert in mechanical model

EXAMPLE

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## 5. Introduce (support) modifications where required

EXAMPLE

MODIFIED ARRANGEMENT
Axial stop &
Lateral Guide

Valve anchored

Lateral Guide
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Agenda

## What are surges and what causes them

How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

41

## f Surge effects can be of great importance

Just static design only often proves to be insufficient

## f Several effects can lead to surge and should be checked for

f Unacceptable surge effects can often be avoided using suppression tools
Surge vessel, air valves, different system operation, etc.

## f Only thru determination of the dynamic loads an assessment of the integrity by

the piping engineer is feasible
f Determination of surge effects is only possible by means of a transient flow
analysis (such as BOSFluids)

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