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Dynaflow Lectures Surge analysis

Rotterdam, June 12th, 2008

Agenda

What are surges and what causes them


How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

Surges are variations in pressures that are generated by a


change in the operational status
f Several changes can lead to surges
Foreseen operational changes
Unforeseen operational changes
Layout changes

f Some examples of changes

Pump start-up
Pump trip
Variations in demand
Valve opening/closing

CONCLUSION
Surges can lead to (un)anticipated effects such as extremely
high or low pressures and unbalanced forces
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Surges may lead to unacceptable conditions


CONDITION

POTENTIAL PROBLEM

Pressures too high

f Leading to permanent deformation or rupture of


the pipeline and components

Pressures too low

f May cause collapse of the pipeline; leakage


into the line at joints and seals under subatmospheric conditions

Reverse flow

f Causing damage to pump seals and brush gear


on motors; draining of storage tanks and
reservoirs

Pipeline movement
and vibration

f Overstressing and failure of supports, leading


to failure of the pipe

Flow velocity too low

f Mainly a problem in slurry lines, causing


settlement of entrained solids and line blockage

Large unbalanced
loads

f Pipe movement

Surges are basically pressure waves running thru the pipe


system

Pressure at a system
node varies over time
due to a pressure wave
passing by and being
reflected at the end of
the system.
Pressures can rise and
fall to significant levels
compared to steady
state

Step 1: Valve closes

Step 2: Pressure wave


returns

Step 3: Pressure wave


is reflected at
the reservoir

Step 4: Pressure wave


returns at the
closed valve

Step 5: Lower pressure


wave travels
back to the
reservoir

Step 6: Reflection again


at the reservoir

Step 7: Pressure wave


travels back to
the closed valve

Step 8: Initial situation is


reached again
(after t = 4L/c)

Combined a clear oscillation becomes visible

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A basic transient pressure calculation can be made


Instantaneous valve closure
Fluid column length: L
Change in flow velocity: v
Fluid density:
Wave propagation speed: c

CALCULATION

FORMULAS

Momentum change = mass x velocity change

A * L * * v

Momentum change balanced by pressure


force impulse

A * L * * v = p * A * t
L * * v = p

p = c * * v
Fluid with density 1000 kg/m3 (water),
v = 1 m/s and c = 1000 m/s

L
c
(Joukowsky)

p = 10bar
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Wave-speed in fluids varies for types of pipes


K = fluid modulus of elasticity [Pa]
= fluid density [kg/m3]
D = pipe diameter [mm]
t = pipe wall thickness [mm]
E = pipe modulus of elasticity [Pa]
TYPICAL VALUES FOR FLUIDS

FORMULA

K
c=

DK
1+
t E

Steel:

1000 - 1400 m/s

FRP:

300 - 500 m/s

DI:

600 - 1000 m/s

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EXAMPLE

Resulting in different surge behavior


Pressure time history closing valve
valve closure time: 2 secs.

FIBERGLASS

STEEL

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Transient pressures also differ per transported medium


MEDIUM

TRANSIENT PRESSURES

Fluids and gases

f To a first approximation pressure pulses are


proportional to the sound velocity, the fluid/gas
velocity change and the fluid density.

Gases

f Velocities are high, velocity changes may be


high, speed of sound is moderate, density is
low
f Pressure pulsations are moderate

Fluids:

f Velocities are low, velocity changes are small


however speed of sound is high and densities
are high
f Pressure pulsation may be large

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Pressure pulsations might result in unbalanced forces

f Pressure pulsation propagate thru the pipelines at the speed of


sound
f Propagating pressure pulsation cause time dependent unbalanced
forces between consecutive elbow pairs
f The unbalanced forces generate a dynamic response of the piping
system
f Unbalanced forces may affect the integrity of the system. This
ought to be a concern for the piping engineer
f Tool to predict magnitude and time history of unbalanced loads is
required for the assessment of the fitness for purpose of the
system. BOSFluids is such a tool
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A brief discussion of some three effects related to surges

1. Column separation and vapor cavity formation


2. Air and gas entrainment
3. Resonance and auto-oscillation

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1. Column separation and vapor cavity formation


DESCRIPTION
f If the pressure falls below atmospheric it
can reach vapor pressure
f The liquid column would part as the
water boiled while the downstream
section would slow down
f Eventually the downstream water column
reverses its direction as well and
recombines with the upstream column
f At this instant the pressure at the point of
recombination will increase suddenly and
create new pressure waves propagating
in both upstream and downstream
direction

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2. Air and gas entrainment are highly unwanted


Both dissolved and free air and gas

f Dissolved air and gases will come out of solution when the pressure drops, but
the rate at which they can be reabsorbed is so slow that it can be ignored
f The system response depends on how the free air and gas are distributed
In pockets the gas can behave like air cushions and become points of reflection
Dispersed in bubbles the effect of even small quantities is to reduce the wave propagation
speed to as little as 25% of the normal speed

f Extremely high shock loads can be generated when moving slugs of liquid
following pockets of gas suddenly encounter valves, pipe bends or otherwise

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EXAMPLE

Example of incident as a result of trapped gas


DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Injection
startup
failure

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3. Resonance and auto-oscillation


Result of cyclic variations
Resonance

MODEL OF RESONATING SYSTEM

f Oscillatory behavior may be


generated for example by a
component or by unsteady flow
f The oscillations, or higher
harmonics, can be at the resonance
frequency of the system
f System resonance can lead to very
high pressures and can be very
violent

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Examples of incidents as a result of fluid transients (III)

EXAMPLE

DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Supports not designed


for its axial loads

Deflected
beam

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Examples of incidents as a result of fluid transients (II)

EXAMPLE

DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Unforeseen
unbalanced
forces

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Examples of incidents as a result of fluid transients (I)

EXAMPLE

DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Pipe lifted from its


support after the support
is deformed

Deflected
beam

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Examples of incidents as a result of fluid transients (V)

EXAMPLE

DESIGN WITHOUT ANALYSIS

Pipe not designed for


surge effects (minimum
pressures)

Unforeseen
vacuum

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Agenda

What are surges and what causes them


How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

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There are a number of ways to reduce the impact of surges

f Stronger pipes
f Rerouting
f Changing valve movements
f Avoiding check valve slam
f Increasing the inertia of pumps and their motors
f Minimizing changes for resonance
f Surge vessels
f Vacuum breakers and air release valves
f Pressure relief valves and bursting discs
f Bypass lines
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Stronger pipes, rerouting and bypasses

MEASURE

DESCRIPTION

Stronger pipes

f Increase the pressure rating of the pipe.


f Expensive and often used as last resort.

Rerouting

f Changes such as lowering high-points, less or


different bends and different rising profiles.
f Expensive measure and often not an option

Bypasses

f Installing a bypass line around a pump to


minimize the effect of a pump-trip
f When the pump trips the pressure at the
discharge will be low enough to open the
bypass to continue feeding the system bypassing the pump

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Changes of valve movements


ADJUSTING THE VALVE CLOSING CHARACTERISTIC

Critical opening/closing time:

T=

2L
c
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Avoiding check valve slam


ADJUSTING THE CHECK VALVE CHARACTERISTIC

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Installation of surge vessels

Surge vessels are


used to maintain
water supply after
for example a pump
trip.
As the trapped air
expands and the
driving pressure
falls, the flow is
allowed to
decelerate in a
controlled manner

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Installation of vacuum breakers and air release valves

Valve chamber

Vacuum breaker
(air valve)

Pipe line

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Pressure relief valves and bursting discs


REDUCE HIGH PRESSURES

RELIEF VALVE

Aimed at avoiding too high pressures in


the system
Typical situations include the rapid
closure of oil tanker loading valves and
control valves in process plants
Often the relief valve is connected to a
blowdown vessel to avoid the liquid/gas
to escape

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Agenda

What are surges and what causes them


How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

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A surge analysis of a system using BOSFluids in 5 steps


ESD valve shutdown in NH3 network

1. Make a surge model of the system and check steady state

Separate model for each system


maximum and minimum pressures

2. Define upset conditions and analyze


3. Evaluate transient results

Pressures, velocities and unbalanced forces

4. Generate unbalanced force time histories and insert in mechanical model


Time histories per relevant node
5. Introduce (support) modifications where required
Additional supports, axial stops, reinforcements, etc.

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1. Model piping system in BOSFluids and analyze

EXAMPLE

Steady State
PRESSURE

FLOWRATE

Steady state pressure distribution over


the system

Steady state flow rate distribution in the


system

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2. Define the upset conditions and analyze

EXAMPLE

Transient analysis
VALVE CLOSURE

TIME HISTORY

Pressure time-history in one of the


system nodes

ESD valve
closure in 5
seconds

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3. Evaluate the transient results (I)

EXAMPLE

Pressures, velocities and unbalanced forces


MAXIMUM PRESSURES [BARG.]

MINIMUM PRESSURES [BARG.]

The maximum pressures per node are


graphically represented. The pressures
however dont arise simultaneously.

Also the minimum pressures are


graphically represented. Minimum
pressures can fall to a minimum of -1
barg., i.e. full vacuum.

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3. Evaluate the transient results (II)

EXAMPLE

Pressures, velocities and unbalanced forces


UNBALANCED FORCES [N]

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4. Generate unbalanced force time histories and


insert in mechanical model

EXAMPLE

UNBALANCED FORCES PRE RELEVANT PIPE SECTION [N]

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5. Introduce (support) modifications where required

EXAMPLE

MODIFIED ARRANGEMENT
Axial stop &
Lateral Guide

Valve anchored

Lateral Guide
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Agenda

What are surges and what causes them


How to reduce the impact of surges
Case
Conclusions

41

Conclusion from Case Study & Presentation

f Surge effects can be of great importance


Just static design only often proves to be insufficient

f Several effects can lead to surge and should be checked for


f Unacceptable surge effects can often be avoided using suppression tools
Surge vessel, air valves, different system operation, etc.

f Only thru determination of the dynamic loads an assessment of the integrity by


the piping engineer is feasible
f Determination of surge effects is only possible by means of a transient flow
analysis (such as BOSFluids)

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