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Adha Imam Cahyadi

Priyatmadi
Samiadji Herdjunanto
Oyas Wahyunggoro
Harry Prabowo
Igi Ardiyanto

Boeing 777

Tornado

Highly nonlinear, complicated dynamics!

Both are capable of transporting goods and people over long distances

BUT
One is controlled, and the other is not.
Control is the hidden technology that you meet every day
It heavily relies on the notion of feedback

Igi Ardiyanto
Field of Interest :
Robotics
Computer Vision
Intelligent Transportation System
Embedded System
Parallel Computing

More Information ??
http://te.ugm.ac.id/~igi

Pertemuan ke-

Topik dan Deskripsi/Rincian


Pengantar Kuliah

1
Pengertian dan Sejarah Sistem Kendali

Pemodelan Sistem Dinamis dan Fungsi Alih

Pemodelan dan Reduksi Sistem Kompleks

Tanggapan Waktu

Tanggapan Frekuensi

Konsep Kestabilan Sistem Linear

Review, Diskusi, dan Penutup

Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS)

Tujuan Instruksional Khusus


Memahami definisi kendali, sejarah kendali, istilahistilah sistem pengendalian, macam-macam sistem
kendali, dan contoh aplikasi sistem kendali
Mengetahui macam-macam sistem, klasifikasi
sistem, persamaan diferensial, tanggapan waktu,
fungsi alih, pemodelan orde 1 dan 2 dengan fungsi
alih
Memahami diagram blok sistem, diagram blok
sistem kendali, melakukan penyederhanaan
diagram blok kompleks, aturan Mason untuk
diagram alir, fungsi alih dengan diagram blok dan
alir
Memahami tanggapan waktu sistem dengan diagram
blok, letak-letak kutub dan zero sistem, kinerja
sistem berdasar letak kutub dan zero
Memahami hubungan antara fungsi alih dan
tanggapan frekuensi, tanggapan frekuensi orde 1
dan 2, resonansi, melakukan analisis melalui Bode
plot
kriteria stabilitas Routh-Hurwitz, Teorema
Kestabilan Nyquist, Konsep kestabilan absolut dan
relatif, Contoh-cotoh pada plant elementer dan
kompleks
Latihan soal, review, dan diskusi

Metode Root Locus

10

Perancangan pengendali dengan Root Locus

11

Perancangan di ranah Frekuensi dan Untai-untai


Pengendali

12

Dasar-dasar pengendali cerdas

13

Dasar-dasar kendali modern

14

Pengendali state feedback dan observer

15

Review, Diskusi, dan Penutup

16

Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS)

Kriteria sudut dan magnitude, aturan-aturan


menggambar rootlocus, menggambar rootlocus
dengan MATLAB, Merancang pengendali PID
menggunakan rootlocus, kompensator lag-lead
menggunakan rootlocus
Memperbaiki response keadaan tunak dengan
kompensasi serial, memperbaiki respons
keadaan transien dengan kompensator kaskade,
memperbaiki response gabungan, kompensasi
feedback, realisasi fisik kompensator
Mengenal perancangan pengendali menggunakan
Bode Plot dan Nyquist, untai-untai pengendali
Mengenal pengendali cerdas, desain pengendali
cerdas sederhana
Sistem dalam state space, state transition matrix,
Teorema Cayley Hamilton , pengubahan state space
ke transfer function dan sebaliknya, kontrollability
dan observability
Pengendali state feedback controller, desain
pengendali LQR, desain observer, desain reducedorder obeserver
Latihan soal, review, dan diskusi

Komposisi Nilai
Tugas sebelum UTS (10%)
Tugas setelah UTS (10%)
Ujian Tengah Semester (40%)
Ujian Akhir Semester (40%)

N.S. Nise, Control System Engineering, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Ltd., 2004.
Ogata, Katsuhiko, and Yanjuan Yang. Modern control engineering. Vol. 5.

Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 2002

Are U bored?

A system controlling the operation of another system.


A system that can regulate itself and another system.
A control System is a device, or set of devices to manage,

command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other device(s)


or system(s).

Without good understanding of control theory we

will never win the competition.


We work mainly on something that is too easy, not

challenging!
Application is considered more important than

theoretical aspects!
Without control how can we launch a satellite, launch

a missile, build a power plan?

First article of control


on governors (Maxwell)

to lazy to make the graph !!


1868

1868 First article of control on governors by Maxwell


1877 Routh stability criterion
1892 Liapunov stability condition
1895 Hurwitz stability condition
1932 Nyquist
1945 Bode
1947 Nichols

1948 Root locus


1949 Wiener optimal control research
1955 Kalman filter and controlability observability analysis
1956 Artificial Intelligence
1957 Bellman optimal and adaptive control

1962 Pontryagin optimal control


1965 Fuzzy set
1972 Vidyasagar multi-variable optimal control and Robust control
1981 Doyle Robust control theory
1990 Neuro-Fuzzy

Stability
Performance
Robustness

Illustration 1, stability

Illustration 2, instability

A measure on how good is our control system


A system with fast response always good?
Comparison: usually second order systems

A measure on how good is our control systems

behave in the presences of modelling errors,


disturbances, noises, etc
Phase margin, gain margin and vector margin
Family of a model

Flyball Governor (1788)


Regulate speed of steam engine
Reduce effects of variations in
load (disturbance rejection)
Major advance of industrial
revolution

Balls fly out


as speed
increases,

Valve closes,
slowing engine

Steam
engine

Boulton-Watt steam engine

Flyball
governor

http://www.heeg.de/~roland/SteamEngine.html

23

Some of airplanes are

unstable in nature
MIMO systems
Subject to

disturbances
Modelling error is

unavoidable
In the past: gain

scheduling, adaptive
control

1.
2.
3.
4.

Efficiency
Green environment
Save money
etc

One of the biggest yet

complicated plant in the


world
The Leontief-type

economic systems behaves


as control systems
stability (Kornai, 1973)
Stock signals can control

the behaviors of
consumers and producers

In Feedback Loop

Actuate

Sense

Gas Pedal

Vehicle Speed

Compute
Control Law

Goals
Stability: system maintains desired operating point (hold steady
speed)
Performance: system responds rapidly to changes (accelerate to 65
mph)
Robustness: system tolerates perturbations in dynamics (mass,
drag, etc)

MODERN ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF CONTROL

Flight Control Systems

Chemical Process Control

Automotive

Modern commercial and


military aircraft are fly by
wire

Regulation of flow rates,


temperature,
concentrations, etc.

Autoland systems,
unmanned aerial vehicles
(UAVs) are already in place

Long time scales, but only


crude models of process

Robotics
High accuracy positioning
for flexible manufacturing
Remote environments:
space, sea, non-invasive
surgery, etc.

Communications and Networks


Amplifiers and repeaters

Engine control,
transmission control,
cruise control,
climate control, etc
Luxury sedans: 12
control devices in
1976, 42 in 1988, 67
in 1991

Congestion control of the


Internet

AND MANY MORE...

Power management for


wireless communications

(x ,
y)
28

January 11, 2005

29

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise


Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

MATLAB Toolboxes

Modeling

SIMULINK

Input/output representations for


subsystems + interconnection rules

Control System

System identification theory and algorithms

Data Acquisition

Theory and algorithms for reduced order


modeling + model reduction

Optimization

Analysis
Stability of feedback systems, including
robustness margins
Performance of input/output systems
(disturbance rejection, robustness)
Synthesis
Constructive tools for design of feedback
systems
Constructive tools for signal processing and
estimation (Kalman filters)

Neural Network

Fuzzy Logic
Robust Control
Instrument
Control
Signal Processing
LMI Control
Statistics
Model Predictive
Control
System
Identification
-Analysis and
Synthesis

Feedback control is Every where


you just have to look for it

Everything* is under control !!!


. (FeedBack, unknown year)
*including magatrika, telecomers, nightlogin

A control system has an input, a process, and an output.


Control systems can be open loop or closed loop.
Open-loop systems
Do not monitor or correct the output for disturbances; however,

they are simpler and less expensive than closed-loop systems.


Closed-loop systems
Monitor the output and compare it to the input. If an error is

detected, the system corrects the output and hence corrects the
effects of disturbances.

Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or


control actuator to obtain the desired response.
Output has no effect on the control action.
In other words output is neither measured nor
feedback.
Input

Controll
er

Proces
s

Output

Examples: Washing Machine, Toaster, Electric Fan

Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to


compare the actual output to the desired output
response.
Input
Comparator

Controll
er

Output
Process

Measurement

Examples:- Refrigerator, Iron

Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System


A Control System in which output varies linearly with the
input is called a linear control system.
u(t)

y(t)

Process

y(t ) 2u(t ) 1

y(t ) 3u(t ) 5
y=3*u(t)+5

y=-2*u(t)+1

35

30
0

25
y(t)

y(t)

-5

20

-10

15
-15
-20

10
0

6
u(t)

10

6
u(t)

10

Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System


When the input and output has nonlinear relationship the
system is said to be nonlinear.
Adhesion Characteristics of Road

Adhesion Coefficient

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.02

0.04
Creep

0.06

0.08

Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System


Linear control System
Does not exist in practice.

When the magnitude of


signals
in
a
control
system are limited to
range in which system
components exhibit linear
characteristics the system
is essentially linear.

0.4
Adhesion Coefficient

Linear control systems


are
idealized
models
fabricated by the analyst
purely for the simplicity
of analysis and design.

Adhesion Characteristics of Road

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.02

0.04
Creep

0.06

0.08

Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System


Temperature control of petroleum product in a distillation
column.
C
Temperature
500C
Valve Position
0%

25%
% Open

100%

Time invariant vs Time variant


When the characteristics of the system do not depend
upon time itself then the system is said to time
invariant control system.

y(t ) 2u(t ) 1

Time varying control system is a system in which one


or more parameters vary with time.

y(t ) 2u(t ) 3t

Lumped parameter vs Distributed Parameter

Control system that can be described by ordinary


differential equations are lumped-parameter control
systems.
2

d x
dt 2

dx
C
kx
dt

Whereas the distributed parameter control systems are


described by partial differential equations.
2

x
x
x
f1
f2
g 2
dy
dz
dz

Continuous Data Vs Discrete Data System

In continuous data control system all system variables


are function of a continuous time t.
x(t)

A discrete time control system involves one or more


variables that are known only at discrete time intervals.
X[n]

Deterministic vs Stochastic Control System

A control System is deterministic if the response to input


is predictable and repeatable.
x(t)

y(t)

If not, the control system is a stochastic control system


z(t)

Control Systems

Natural Man-made

Manual Automatic

Open-loop Closed-loop

Non-linear linear

Non-linear linear

Time variant
Time variant Time invariant

Time invariant

A model is a simplified representation or


abstraction of reality.
Reality is generally too complex to copy
exactly.
Much of the complexity is actually irrelevant
in problem solving.

48

Modeling is the most important part of the entire

control systems
Modeling means deriving reasonable mathematical

model of any systems


In control terminology: every model is wrong!
Uncertain VS unknown!
Also, simplicity vs accuracy
And, LTI vs LTV
And also, Linear VS Nonlinear!

When only input and output are known.


Internal dynamics are either too complex or unknown.

Easy to Model

Input

Output

50

Consider the example of a heat radiating system.

51

Consider the example of a heat radiating system.

Room
Temperat
ure (oC)

12

8
10

20
33

Temperature in Degree Celsius


Temperature in Degree Celsius (y)

Valve
Positi
on

Heat
Raadiating
System
Heat
Raadiating
System

3535

Room Temperature
Room Temperature
quadratic Fit

3030
2525
20
20

y = 0.31*x 2 + 0.046*x + 0.64

15
15
10
10
5
0

5
00

4
6
4
6
Valve Position
Valve Position (x)

10

10

52

When input and output and some information about the internal dynamics

of the system is known.

Easier than white box Modelling.

u(t)

y(t)
y[u(t), t]

53

When input and output and internal dynamics of the system is known.

One should know have complete


knowledge
of the system to derive a
dy(t )
du
( t ) d 2 y( t )

u(t)
white box model.

dt

dt

dt 2

y(t)

54

For the one studying control, transfer

function should be very familiar


So what is transfer function???
Transfer function relates the input and its

output
Only applicable for LTI Dierential Equation

systems
Example: Satellite control systems

Transfer function is mathematical method that

expresses a differential equation


It is the property of the system itself. Mean??
It does not provide information of the physical

structure
If it is known that should be good. Why? because the

output response is in your hand!


I If it is not known... Do some experiments but not

always correct. How to do that?

Transfer Function is the ratio of Laplace

transform of the output to the Laplace


transform of the input. Assuming all initial
conditions are zero.
u(t)

If

Plant

u ( t ) U ( S )

y(t)

and

y ( t ) Y ( S )
Where

is the Laplace operator.


57

Then the transfer function G(S) of the

plant is given as
G( S )

U(S)

Y (S )
U (S )

G(S)

Y(S)

58

By use of Laplace transform we can convert

many common functions into


function of complex variable s.
For example

sin t
Or

at

algebraic

s2 2
1

sa

Where

s is a complex variable (complex


frequency) and is given as

s j

59

Not

only common function can be


converted
into
simple
algebraic
expressions but calculus operations can
also
be
converted
into
algebraic
expressions.
For example dx( t ) sX ( S ) x( 0 )
dt

d 2 x( t )
dt 2

dx( 0 )
s X ( S ) x( 0 )
dt
2

60

In general

d n x(t )
dt n

Where

x(0 )

s n X ( S ) s n 1 x( 0 ) x n 1 ( 0 )

is the initial condition of the

system.

61

u is the input voltage applied at t=0


y is the capacitor voltage
If the capacitor is not already charged then y(0)=0.

62

1
x(t )dt X ( S )
s

The time domain integral becomes


division by s in frequency domain.

63

Consider the following ODE where y(t) is input of


the system and x(t) is the output.

or

d 2 x(t )
dt 2

dy(t )
dx(t )
B
dt
dt

Ax' ' (t ) Cy' (t ) Bx' (t )


Taking the Laplace transform on either sides
A[ s 2 X ( s ) sx( 0 ) x' ( 0 )] C[ sY ( s ) y( 0 )] B[ sX ( s ) x( 0 )]
64

A[ s 2 X ( s ) sx( 0 ) x' ( 0 )] C[ sY ( s ) y( 0 )] B[ sX ( s ) x( 0 )]
Considering Initial conditions to zero in order to find
the transfer function of the system

As 2 X ( s ) CsY ( s ) BsX ( s )
Rearranging the above equation

As 2 X ( s ) BsX ( s ) CsY ( s )
X ( s )[ As 2 Bs ] CsY ( s )
X (s)
Cs
C

Y ( s ) As 2 Bs As B

65

1. Find out the transfer function of the RC network shown in


figure-1. Assume that the capacitor is not initially
charged.

Figure-1

2. u(t) and y(t) are the input and output respectively of a


system defined by following ODE. Determine the Transfer
Function. Assume there is no any energy stored in the
system.

6u' ' (t ) 3u( t ) y( t )dt 3 y' ' ' (t ) y(t )


66

In general

Where x is the input of the system and y is the

output of the system.

67

When order of the denominator polynomial is

greater than the numerator polynomial the


transfer function is said to be proper.
Otherwise improper

68

Transfer function helps us to check:


The stability of the system
Time domain and frequency domain
characteristics of the system
Response of the system for any given
input

69

Proportional controller
Derivative controller
Integral controller
Lead compensator
Lag compensator

The combined-action controller are extensively used

in the industry
For almost 60 years there is still about 67 % of

industrial controllers of this type remains


Then, why we study more advanced controller?

What is well-posedness?
What is degree and relative degree?
What is characteristic equation?
What is proper and strictly proper transfer

function?
What is What is internal stability?

Mechanics, Fluid, Thermal, Electrical and Electronics

Relies on Newtons Laws


Mostly will results to

second order systems


Representation using
transfer function ??
State space representation ??

USE NEWTON LAW !!

u(t) is the displacement of the cart and is the input to the system.
At t=0, the cart is moved at a constant speed, or constant.
The displacement y(t) of the mass is the output. (The displacement is

relative to the ground.)


m denotes the mass, b denotes the viscous-friction coefficient, and k

denotes the spring constant.


According to Newtons Law

Laplace
Transform

How to make State Space


Representation ??
- Later on next classes,
- or you can read Ogatas book

What Laws do we use here?


Loading and non loading systems
Basic theory of Op amp

Inverting and non-inverting amplifier


Realization of lead and lag compensator
Implementation of PID controllers

Change in level difference, m


Change in flow rate, m 3 / s
Change in liquid stored, m 3
C
Fluid capacitance:
Change in head, m
(Approximated) Fluid resistance:

Example

Analogous to fluid systems


R: resistance
C: capacitance
Heat

Change in temperature difference, K


R
Change in flow heat, kcal / s
Change in heat stored, m 3
C
Change in temperature, K

Be able to

apply the State-Space design method

(explained later)

apply the computational


efficiency of analysis tools such as MATLAB,

Enhances our ability to

since the state-variable form is one of the methods


used for specifying differential equations in
computer-aided control systems design
software packages.

ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION

Can be used to study existing systems without


disrupting the ongoing operations.
Proposed systems can be tested before committing
resources.
Allows us to control time.
Allows us to gain insight into which variables are
most important to system performance.

84

DISADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION

Model building is an art as well as a science. The


quality of the analysis depends on the quality of the
model and the skill of the modeler.
Simulation results are sometimes hard to interpret.
Simulation analysis can be time consuming and
expensive.
Should not be used when an analytical method would
provide for quicker results.
85

Homework, write a small report (1 page) on control systems

analysis using Matlab for the following system!


In term of
Representation using transfer function
State space representation
Response to unit step
Further analysis

HINTS:
Ogata book, 2-6 (MATLAB)
Send to e-LISA : Teknik Kendali
Genap 2016

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