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CHAPTER I

Preliminary
INTRODUCTION
a. Background of the study
Development in science and technology (Science and Technology) is rapidly
increasing. Nowadays, it has an impact on the world of education with the growing
challenges faced by the world of education. Now, the world of education increasingly
requires to produce qualified human resources, who are able to answer and anticipate
development in science and technology. The world of education should be able to make it
happens.It is necessary to increase and to improve human resources in education.
One effort peningakatan and improvements in education especially in the field of automotive
engineering in particular, one engine stand Diesel Mitsubishi L 300.Mitsubishi L 300 is the
type of vehicles manufactured by Mitsubishi Diesel type, while the Mitsubishi L 300 stations
in the book there is an additional GS (gasoline) that Mitsubishi L 300 GS (Mitsubishi L 300
types of gasoline). Engines Mitsubishi L 300 in which there are several systems, among other
energy-producing drive systems or the engine (engine), fuel system, lubrication system,
cooling system, charging system and the system of the engine (engine). This paper will
explain how the later analysis and how to cope with reduced engine power on Diesel
Mitsubishi L 300, especially on the engine (engine). Other things the background for the
selection of the matter is: The machine system is very important in the work process,
propulsion and energy production in a vehicle or car. The machine consists of several
components, if any one of the components undergo wear and tear or curvature caused by the
heat work and then there will be an interruption in engine power is reduced as caused by
several reasons such as worn piston rings, cylinder head and cylinder block surfaces are
curved causing the gas leak and the engine power produced less than optimal.
b. Formulation of the problem
Why is the engine system very important in the process of work, drive and energy production
in a vehicle or car?

c. Objective of the study


To describe the importance.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW/ REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Working Principle Motor Diesel
The principle of motor diesel
Motor fuels are of two kinds, namely combustion engine (internal combustion angine) and
external combustion engine (external combustion engines), examples of external combustion
engine (external combustion engine) is a steam engine, turbine and other machines, eg
combustion engine (internal combustion engine) is a Diesel motors, motor gasoline, and
others.Type of car or vehicle is based on the combustion mechanism used divided into two
diesel motors and motor gasoline (internal combustion engine). Diesel engine combustion
mechanism known as compression ignition. The fuel is compressed until the pressure + 25 s /
d 32 kg/cm2 (Daryanto: 1995) in order to reach the point of ignition and fuel burn by itself,
while the gasoline engine using spark ignition mechanism.
Fuel pressure until a certain pressure is: + 15 s / d 22 kg/cm2 (Daryanto, 2015)
The world of education requires qualified human resources. Diesel Motor use diesel fuel in
addition to its use more efficient, diesel fuel is also more environmentally friendly because
the solar mixture of lead (lead) that cause pollution and respiratory disturb less than gasoline
motors, but because xxi pressure ratio compression ignition mechanism very high and require
a more robust construction, in general, the price of cars by using Diesel engines are more
expensive than the car using gasoline motor for the same class. The wheels of a vehicle
requires a power which allows the vehicle to move, and can cope with the situation, the air,
and so forth. Sources that generate power are called machine .. combustion engine piston is
the name of the machine that can convert thermal energy, electricity, wind or other power
source into mechanical power. Engine that converts heat energy into mechanical energy is
called motor fuel. Engine (engine) used in automobiles, is one of a series of components
(system) is very important that as a system that converts the heat generated from the
combustion process is then converted into work through the mechanism of translational
motion straight back and forth (reciprocal) of the piston ( piston) into a rotary motion
(rotation) on the crankshaft
(Cankshaft). Machines energy used in the car to be compact, lightweight and easy to put on
limited space. Machine shall provide a high speed and power are great, easy to operate and is
less of a sound, and therefore gasoline and Diesel engines are generally more widely used in
the vehicle or car.
Advantages Diesel engines than gasoline motors in general:
a. Diesel engines have a large thermal efficiency, this means that the use of more fuel
economical than gasoline motors.
b. Diesel engines are more durable and do not require an electric ignition (Electrik Igniter) to
support combustion so less difficulty than the gasoline motor.
c. Speed is lower than gasoline motors.
Diesel motors disadvantage compared with the gasoline motors
general :
a.Tekanan nearly twice the maximum burning gasoline motor 25 s / d 32 kg/cm2 (Daryanto
1995), it causes vibration and sound bigger Diesel motors.

b.Tekanan higher combustion, the diesel engine must be made of materials that resist high
pressure and the structure of the material is more powerful, it causes vibration and structure
stronger material, this led to the making to be more expensive than gasoline motors.
c.Motor Diesel fuel injection systems require precise causes are expensive and require careful
care and maintenance than gasoline motors.

DIESEL MOTOR OPERATING PRINCIPLE STEP FOUR:


A. STEP SUCTION
In step suction, air is introduced into the cylinder. Plunger (piston) evakuman in cylindrical
form as in motor gasoline. Plunger (piston) moves from top dead point towards the bottom
dead point and at this stage only the suction valve opens and allows air into the cylinder and
exhaust valves are closed during this suction action.
B. STEP COMPRESS
In the compression stroke, the piston (piston) moves from bottom dead point towards the top
dead point, and at the compression stroke is the second valve is closed. The air is sucked
during suction pressure to step up the pressure with a temperature of about 5000 C to 8000.
C. STEP COMBUSTION
In step combustion, the air contained in the cylinder is driven by a piston (piston) into the
combustion chamber at the top xxiv each cylinder, at the end of step nozzle spraying burning
fuel and then a mixture of fuel and air later burned by the heat pressure generated by the heat
generated by the combustion energy mengekspansikan pressure gas very quickly and plunger
(piston) pushed down. The force pushing the plunger (piston) to be forwarded to the shaft
bottom (connecting rod) and then forwarded to the crankshaft (crankshaft) and the change
from a straight back and forth motion of translation into
rotary motion (rotation) untukmemberi power on the machine.
D. STEP WASTE
In step exhaust, piston head from the bottom dead point towards the top dead point. In this
step only the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust combustion gases expelled through the
exhaust valve. Gas will be spilled out when the piston (piston) reaches top dead point, once
the process begins again step step waste suction, and so on. This process occurs over and over
again. During the machine, completing the four steps (steps suction, compression,
combustion, exhaust) crankshaft (crankshaft) spins twice and produced a one-time
combustion (power), or also called Diesel four-stroke motors.

Bibliography
Daryanto. (2015). Teknik Mesin. Solo: Erlangga.