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MOJAKOE

MOdul JAwaban KOEliah

Manajement Accounting
UAS Semester Genap 2014/2015

t@spafebui

fSPA FEB UI

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Problem I
Current Monthly Profits :

Revenue :
(15.000 units * $4.8)

$72.000

Variable Costs :
(15.000 units * $2.5)

$37.500

Contribution Margin

$34.500

Fixed Costs

$20.000

Operating Income

$14.500

A. Selling Price = $4.8+$1.5 = $6.3.


Monthly Sales = 15.000-1.800 = 13.200 units

Revenue :
(13.200 units * $6.3)

$83.160

Variable Costs :
(13.200 units * $2.5)

$33.000

Contribution Margin

$50.160

Fixed Costs

$20.000

Operating Income

$30.160

Monthly profit will increase by -> $30.160-$14.500 = $15.660

B. Selling price = $4.8-$1.8 = $3


Monthly Sales = 15.000 + 6.000 = 21.000 units

Revenue :
(21.000 units * $3)

$63.000

Variable Costs :
(21.000 units * $2.5)

$52.500

(1.000 units * $0.2 *50%)

$ 100

Contribution Margin

$10.400

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Fixed Costs

$20.000

Operating Income (Loss)

($9.600)

Monthly profit will decrease by -> $14.500-($9.600)=$24.100

C. Incremental Revenue : 4.000 units * $4

$16.000

Incremental Cost

: 4.000 units * $2.45 + $500 = $10.300

Incremental Profit

$ 5.700

D.
Incremental method:
Incremental Revenue/saving
One time order (8,000 x $4.00)

= $32,000

Saving of VS for Regular order


(15,000 12,000)*$2.5

= $ 7,500

Incremental cost/opportunity loss


Regular sales forfeited
(15,000-12,000) * $4.8)

= ($14,400)

VC for special order


(8,000 x $2.45)

= ($19,600)

Additional Selling n Administrative

= ($ 500)

----------------------Total

$5,000

Final Copy should accept this option, because it gives total operating income $ 5,000

Alternative Method
Monthly Capacity = 20.000 units
Australian distributor order = 8.000 units
Others = 12.000 units

Revenue :
(12.000 units * $4.8)

$57.600

(8.000 units * $4)

$32.000

Variable Costs :

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(12.000 units * $2.5)

$30.000

(8.000 units * $2.45)

$19.600

Contribution Margin

$40.000

Monthly Fixed Costs

$20.000

Additional Fixed SGA Costs

$ 500

Operating Income

$19.500

Monthly profit will increase by -> $19.500-$14.500 = $5.000

E.
Incremental Method
Incremental Revenue or Saving
Used space rental

$ 1,000

Reduced VC (0.4*2.5*15,000)

$ 15,000

Incremental Cost
Fee for Mexican Manufacturer

($ 15,000)

($1 x 15,000)
-------------$ 1,000
At a current level of sales, Final copy should accept the offer, because it gives an
incremental $ 1,000 of operating income.

Alternative method:
Revenue :
(15.000 units * $4.8)

$72.000

Rent

$ 1.000

Variable Costs :
(15.000 units * $2.5 *60%)

$22.500

(15.000 units * $1)

$15.000

Contribution Margin

$35.500

Fixed Costs

$20.000

Operating Income

$15.500

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Monthly profit will increase by -> $15.500-$14.500 = $1.000

F.

Revenue:
(15.000 units * $5.05)

$75.750

Variable Costs:
(15.000 units * ($2.5+$0.1)

$39.000

Contribution Margin

$36.750

Fixed Costs

$20.000

Operating Income

$16.750

Monthly profit will increase by -> $16.750-$14.500 = $2.250

Problem II
1.
Activity

Amount (in thousand USD)

Prevention Costs :
Machine maintenance

330

Supplier training

40

Design reviews

200

Total Prevention Costs

570

Appraisal Costs :
Incoming inspections

63

Final testing

203

Total Appraisal Costs :

266

Internal Failure Costs :


Rework

112

Scrap

67

Total Internal Failure Costs

179

External Failure Costs :


Warranty repairs

68

Customer return

188

Total External Failure Costs

256

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From the data above, it can be seen that the company intends to be very careful
before the bad quality products appear by incurring Prevention Costs as the highest
proportion of the costs of quality. The company also really prevents bad products
from moving furthermore by incurring Appraisal Costs as the second highest
proportion of the costs of quality. As a result, the Internal Failure Costs are very low
among all costs of quality. However, the company actually cant detect many quality
defects that can be seen by high External Failure Costs and must rectify all of that
quality defects.

2. Value added Cost is a cost that, if eliminated, would reduce the actual or perceived
value or utility (usefulness) customers experience from using the product or service.
Non Value added Cost is a cost that, if eliminated, would not reduce the actual or
perceived value or utility (usefulness) customers experience from using the product or
service.

Activity

Amount (In Thousand USD)

Value Added Cost :


Design reviews
Total Value Added Cost

200
200

Non Value Added Cost :


Incoming inspections

63

Machine maintenance

330

Scrap

67

Warranty repairs

68

Customer return

188

Rework

112

Supplier training

40

Final Testing

203

Total Non Value Added Cost

1.071

3. Yes, because by using activity based costing, the company is forced to separate
value added cost and non value added cost and it provides a useful overall framework

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for value engineering. The company then should increase the efficiency of
value-added activities and reduce, or possibly eliminate, non value added costs. The
pricing policy must be based on the value added cost because it reflects the customers
willingness to pay.

Problem III
A. ROI (Return on Investment) = Operating Income / Total Assets
(NOTE : All calculations are in Rp000)
ROI of Car Division = 2.475.000 / 33.000.000 = 7.5%
ROI of Spare-Part Dvision = 2.565.000 / 28.500.000 = 9%

B. RI (Residual Income) = Operating Income - (Required Rate of Return * Measure


of Investment) (NOTE : All calculations and answers are in Rp000)
1. Total assets minus current liabilities as measure of investment :
RI of Car Division = 2.475.000 - (12% * (33.000.000 - 6.600.000)) =
-693.000
RI of Spare-Part Division = 2.565.000 - (12% * (28.500.000 - 8.400.000)) =
153.000

2. Total assets as measure of investment :


RI of Car Division = 2.475.000 - (12% * 33.000.000) = -1.485.000
RI of Spare-Part Division = 2.565.000 - (12% * 28.500.000) = -855.000

The appropriate measurement of investment is by using total assets as measure of


investment because it reflects overall companys balance sheet.

B. WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital) = Cost of Debt * Percentage of Debt


Funding * (1-Tax Rate) + Cost of Equity * Percentage of Equity Funding

Percentage of Debt Funding = Rp18 billion / (Rp 18 billion + Rp 12 billion) = 60%


Percentage of Equity Funding = Rp12 billion / (Rp 18 billion + Rp 12 billion) = 40%

WACC = 10% * 60% * (1-40%) + 15% * 40% = 9.6%

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Or WACC= (Cost of Debt (net of tax)*Total Debt + Cost of Equity * Total Equity) /
Total Debt + Total Equity

WACC = ((10% *(1-25%)*Rp18 Billion) + (15%*Rp12 Billion))/ Rp18 Billion +


Rp12 Billion
= 9.6%

EVA (Economic Value Added) = Net Operating Profit After Tax - {WACC * (Total
Invested Capital - Non interest bearing Liabilities) }

!!! Assume all current liabilites in this question are non interest bearing
liabilites!!!
(NOTE: All calculations and answers are in Rp000)

EVA of Car Division = 2.475.000 * (1-40%) - {9.6% * (33.000.000 - 6.600.000)} =


-1.049.400

EVA of Spare-Part Division = 2.565.000 * (1-40%) - {9.6% * (28.500.000 8.400.000)} = -390.600

Based on ROI,RI, and EVA, it can be seen that the ROI of Spare-Part division is
higher than Car division, RI of Spare-Part division from both measurement of
investments is higher than Car division, and EVA of Spare-Part division is higher than
Car division. Overall, the performance of Spare-Part division is better than Car
division maybe because Spare-Part division production is more efficient and effective
than Car division.
D.
Because Car Division operates in Thailand and uses Baht as reporting currency, PT
Angkasa has to make a translation for the further apple to apple analysis between all
of its divisions. According to Accounting principle, Operating Income have to be
converted using average exchange rate, and Assets have to be converted using closing
rate at the date of balance sheet.

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Exchange rate beginning of 2013 = Rp360
Exchange rate at closing date

= Rp380

Average Exchange Rate

= Rp370

in Baht

Converted to rupiah
7,000,000
2,590,000,000
85,000,000
32,300,000,000
8.02%

Operating Income
Total Assets
ROI

Based on the calculations, Thailand car division has higher ROI comparing to
Indonesias division. (8.02% > 7.5%)

Problem IV
A. Assuming Atlantic division has reach its full capacity, minimum selling price
should be :
Minimum Price for Atlantic at full capacity = Incremental Cost + Opportunity
Cost
= $575 + ($1000 - $575)
= $1000
So, based on Atlantic perspective, they shouldnt accept the $500 order, because
minimum transfer price is higher than that.

B. If both division have excess capacity, the minimum selling price is only variable
costs of equipment production.
Minimum Price = $90 + $ 400 = $490
So, if there is a buyer willing to pay $500 per unit, the company should accept it.
Because the company can get an incremental contribution margin of $10 per unit
($500 - $490)

As a whole, the company will get an incremental profit of $100 (10 units * $10)

C. The disadvantage is that Atlantic Division occurs loss because the variable costs
are higher than the selling price.
The advantage is if one day Pacific Division couldnt sell all of its parts to outside

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manufacturers, Atlantic Division could occur income because the buyer has become
the regular customer of Atlantic Division.

D. Atlantic Division needs to know whether Pacific Division has excess capacity or
not, because the variable cost of parts from Pacific Division in Atlantic Divisions cost
and revenue structure has a big influence in Atlantic Divisions decision making.
Problem V
1.
Strategic Objectives

Measures

Financial Perspective (Evaluate the profitability of


the strategy and the creation of shareholder issue) :
A. Increase revenue from new products

Revenue growth

C. Decreasing operating expenses

Cost reduction

J. Increase return on Investment (ROI)

ROI from productivity gain

Customer Perspective (identifies targeted customer


and market segments and measures the companys
success in these segments :
H. Increase customer satisfaction
I. Increase customer acquisition

Customer-satisfaction ratings
Number of new customers

Internal Business Process Prospective (Focus on


internal operations that create value for customer)
D. Decrease cycle time for the development of Number of new innovative products
new products
E. Decrease rework

Decrease of internal failure costs

L. Decrease the collection period for accounts Increase of accounts receivable


receivable

turnover

Learning and Growth Perspective (capabilities the


organizations must excel at to achieve superior
internal processes that in turn create value for
customers and shareholders)
B.

Increase

implementation

suggestions
F. Increase employee morale

of

employee Percentage

of

line

workers

empowered to manage processes


Employee-satisfaction ratings

G. Increase access of key employees to customer Percentage

of

manufacturing

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and product information

processes with real-time feedback

K. Increase employee productivity

Employee-productivity ratings

M. Increase employee skills

Percentage of employees trained in


process and quality management

2.

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2.

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Problem VI
1.

2. The analysis of operating income indicates that a significant amount of the increase
in operating income resulted from successful implementation of its product
differentiation strategy.

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