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ABSTRAK
Gagal jantung menjadi masalah utama di bidang kardiologi yang
mempunyai prevalensi paling tinggi dalam masyarakat dan berperan besar
terhadap morbiditas dan mortalitas. Gagal jantung kongestif merupakan suatu
keadaan dimana jantung tidak mampu untuk memompa darah secara adekuat ke
seluruh tubuh. Prevalensi gagal jantung kongestif di Indonesia berdasarkan
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia sebesar 0.13% dan yang dirawat inap
di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan sebanyak 780 pasien (Salim, 2012). Gejala klinis
yang dialami pasien gagal jantung adalah kunci utama penyebab pasien mencari
pengobatan. Gejala klinis gagal jantung antara lain dyspnea, fatigue, batuk,
anoreksia, nokturia, kardiomegali, takikardi dan edema. Namun, tidak semua
gejala klinis ditemui pada penderita gagal jantung kongestif serta gejala klinis
yang tidak dideteksi sejak dini akan mengakibatkan prognosis yang buruk.
Penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan crosssectional dimana tiap subjek hanya diobservasi satu kali dan pengukuran variabel
subjek dilakukan pada saat pemeriksaan tersebut. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah
data sekunder dengan menggunakan rekam medis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah
untuk mengetahui prevalensi gambaran klinis pasien gagal jantung kongestif yang
dirawat inap di bangsal kardiologi RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan pada tahun 2014.
Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini prevalensi gambaran klinis pasien gagal
jantung kongestif adalah dyspnea (92%), kardiomegali (86%), distensi vena
jugularis (83%), takikardi (75%), ronkhi paru (66%), edema (64%), batuk dan
efusi pleura (38%), hepatomegali (20%) dan bunyi jantung s3 gallop (16%).
Jumlah pasien yang dirawat inap adalah 606 sedangkan durasi rawat inap rata-rata
2 hari. Distribusi karakteristik pasien gagal jantung kongestif ialah umur 41-60
tahun (53%), laki-laki (73%), dan wiraswasta (32 %). Prevalensi gambaran klinis
yang terbanyak ialah dyspnea yaitu sebanyak 92%.
Penelitian selanjutnya diharapkan menganalisis faktor-faktor yang
mempengaruhi kejadian rawat inap pasien gagal jantung kongestif.
Kata Kunci: Gambaran Klinis, Gagal Jantung Kongestif, Rawat Inap

ABSTRACT
Heart failure is a major problem in the field of cardiology who has the
highest prevalence in the community and contribute significantly to morbidity
and mortality. Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart is
unable to adequately pump blood throughout the body. The prevalence of
congestive heart failure in Indonesia by the Ministry of Health of the Republic
of Indonesia at 0:13% and were hospitalized at Adam Malik Hospital, 780
patients (Salim, 2012). Clinical symptoms experienced by heart failure patients
is a key cause of patients seeking treatment. Clinical symptoms of heart failure
include dyspnea, fatigue, cough, anorexia, nocturia, cardiomegaly, tachycardia,
and edema. However, not all the clinical symptoms observed in patients with
congestive heart failure and clinical symptoms which is not detected in early
phase will result in a poor prognosis.
This is a descriptive cross-sectional study in which each subject only
observed one time and variable measurements made at the time the subject of
the investigation. The data collected was secondary data using a medical record.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical features of
patients with congestive heart failure who are hospitalized in the cardiology
ward of H. Adam Malik Hospital in 2014.
Based on these results the prevalence of clinical features of patients with
congestive heart failure are dyspnea (92%), cardiomegaly (86%), jugular
venous distention (83%), tachycardia (75%), ronchi (66%), edema (64%) ,
cough and pleural effusion (38%), hepatomegaly (20%) and heart sound S3
gallop (16%). Number of hospitalized patients is 606 while the duration of
hospitalization average of 2 days. Distribution characteristics of congestive
heart failure patients are aged 41-60 years (53%), male (73%), and the selfemployed (32%). Highest prevalence of clinical manifestation is dyspnea which
was about 92%.
Future studies are expected to analyze the factors that influence the
incidence of hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure.
Keywords: Clinical Manifestation, Congestive Heart Failure, Hospitalization