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Energy Demand And Resource

Assessment Study In Medadumbara


Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka
Working Paper

June 2011

October 2013

Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Consulting in South East Asia

Although this research is funded by PISCES, the views expressed in


it are entirely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent
the views or policies of PISCES. Subsequently any discussion of the
reports content should be addressed to the authors and not to PISCES.

Author
Prof. Anoja Wickramasinghe
Contributors: Namiz Musafer
Editors:
Lakmalee Gunaratne, Hannah Wanjiru, Ewan Bloomfield
(All images by Practical Action unless otherwise stated)
2014, Practical Action Consulting, UK

Contents
1 Introduction

Assessment Methodology

2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.3
2.4

Project briefing
Selection of Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs)
Assessment Approach and Process
Survey Units
Data Collection

6
7
7
8
9

Assessment Results

11

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.3
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

Demographic Features of the Units


Employment Status, Sources & Income
Current Energy Demand
Energy Demand for Cooking
Fuel-wood Sources
Biomass Resources
Travel Distance & the Time Spent In Securing Fuel-Wood
Processing & Storing
LPG & Kerosene
Livestock- A Potential Source For Bio-Energy
Species Of Liquid Bio-Fuel Potentials
Electricity Lighting & Other Services
Solar Energy Use
Industrial Energy Use

11
11
12
14
14
16
18
19
20
20
21
21
22
22

4 Conclusions

23

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Glosssary
DFID
GND
ICS
LPG
PISCES
RPC
SLSEA

Department for International Development


Grama Niladari Division
Improved Cookstoves
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Policy Innovation System for Clean Energy Security
Research Programme Consortium
Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority (SLSEA)

Foreword
Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security (PISCES) is a Research
Programme Consortium (RPC) funded by the United Kingdoms Department for
International Development (DFID). Its implemented internationally through five core
partners in India, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Tanzania, along with a range of associate
institutions and high-level Consortium Advisory Group (CAG). The idea behind the
PISCES project is to generate new knowledge on bioenergy that policy makers use to
formulate or enhance respective national policies and strategies on bioenergy.
This working paper presents a brief description of grassroots-level energy demand
and resource assessment that was carried out in the Medadumbara Divisional
Secretariat area between June and August 2010.

Acknowledgements
This research was carried out by Practical Action Consulting in South East Asia led by
Eng Namiz Musafer and Prof. Wickramasinghe in close collaboration with PAC team.
Special thanks also go to Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority (SLSEA) staff that
was instrumental during the research and follow up.

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

1. Introduction
This study was commissioned under Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy
Security (PISCES) project, implemented by Practical Action Consulting Sri Lanka (PAC
SL) and the Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority (SLSEA).
This brief report summarizes the grassroots-level energy demand and resource
assessment study that was carried out in the Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat area
between June and August 2010. A field study was commissioned in order to collect
grassroots level data on bio energy resources. The data was used to model the Energy
Demand & Resources in Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat Area. This working paper
is meant to assist policy makers and practitioners to effectively and efficiently use the
available bio-energy resources in their future energy plans.
This document presents a brief description of the field investigations, data collected
and the conclusions drawn. Primary data was collected to present and capture the
current scenario and give an accurate assessment of the energy demand and bio
energy resources.
The following illustration, Figure 1 highlights the range of research methods used in
data collection.

Consultation/Awareness
Discussions

Inventory
Demography
Livelihood, Income,
Forms of Energy,
Consumption, Access,
Cost & Use of
Resources

Observations

Survey
Current Scenario

Modelling

Energy Planning

Figure 1: Methodology and the procedure followed by this study

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

2. Assessment Methodology
The existing administrative government framework was selected for the collection,
storage, analysis and modeling of the available bio-energy data. The aim of the study
was to influence policy makers in Sri Lanka on grassroots level energy planning
and develop a methodology that can be replicated in future studies. To ensure a
representative region, the lowest level administrative division, the Grama Niladari
Division (GND), was chosen as the study unit.

2.1 Project briefing


The first step of the data collection process was to raise project awareness through
consultation with local authorities. A 2-day consultation workshop was conducted,
led by the Divisional Secretary of the Medadumbara Division.Participants included
the grass root level administrative officers in Sri Lanka known as Grama Niladari
Officers from 93 Divisions and the national and provincial level officers from the energy
sector who gave highlights on the current energy crisis, the role of renewable energy
and a methodology for gathering information for energy planning at grassroot level
in Sri Lanka. The participants provided information related to the local conditions of
the GNDs e.g energy access, consumption patterns and resource availability. This
information was then tabulated and used to select the three field survey GNDs, as
described in Table 1.

2.2 Selection of Grama



Niladari Divisions (GNDs)
The GNDs that were included in the
detailed study were selected using the
information provided by the Grama
Niladari Officers at the workshop. The 93
GNDs of the Medadumbara Division were
ranked with reference to geographical
variation and the availability of secondary
information on local conditions. Four
parameters were used representing local
conditions as follows:




Location (i.e. their remoteness)


Recorded number of households
Terrain conditions
Availability and use of various
biomass producing systems

The aim of this ranking was to select the GNDs with the best combination of the four
parameters which will aid understanding energy use and user patterns depending on
available energy sources. Following this assessment, the three divisions ranking the
highest - Galambalama, Maharawela and Udatenna were selected for the survey. The
three divisions are shown in Figure 2. Galambalama represents relatively low terrain
conditions with a wide range of biomass producing systems. Maharawela represents
Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

moderate terrain conditions and is located in the interior area. Udatenna represents
steeply sloping terrain conditions with roadside settlements.

2.2.1 Assessment Approach and Process


The Grama Niladari Officers were informed about the selections, who in turn informed
the communities involved, the research team was introduced to the villagers and the
key informants.
The two methods used for data collection were:

Household survey using a questionnaire

Participatory methods
The participatory approach was achieved through discussions and the respondents
we able to share scenarios and their experiences. The respondents were also
sensitized on the importance of the resource assessment exercise.
Two to three members from each household unit were involved in the discussions
related to the questionnaire. The discussions within the households allowed the
respondents to agree, accept and verify the information. This approach assured
reliability of the data collected. In addition to filling out the form, additional information
that was provided was recorded by the field team. Field mapping was carried out by
to get a broader understanding of the sources of bio-energy, the supply of sources /
production distribution and the available species distribution.

2.3 Survey Units


Once the Grama Niladari Divisions (GNDs) were identified (i.e., Maharawela, Udatenna
and Galambalama), household questionnaire were administered. The data captured
included the energy demand / current energy usage, the local context (including the
population dynamics influencing it), and the energy sources & resources of the area.
The information was gathered to enhance an understanding for modeling the existing
situation which would be tested and used for energy planning.
The field survey covered all the registered occupational and operational units of each
GND these included households, shops and small businesses - totaling 562 units. Of
which 160 were located in Galambalama; 183 in Maharawela and 219 in Udatenna.
Field data was collected from each individual operational unit focusing on energy
demand & consumption, use of energy resources and other important factors such
as socio-economics. A database was established by entering the data of each
household using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software. The
households were the functional units or the points for reference and analysis. In the
database, data on socio-economic, population, livelihoods, energy use and sources
used were compiled for further analysis. The data was then aggregated to provide a
better understanding of the total situation related to population, land area, access to
modern energy carriers, etc of each GND under study.

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

2.4 Data Collection


The questionnaire was designed to focus on the below key areas as per Table 1
Focus Areas

Nature Of Information)

Input for Assessment/Planning

Type Of The Functional Unit

Location Size
Type

Reference Point

Demography

Population
Composition
Education
Income
Household Dynamics /
Age
Functional Unit
Gender
Skills
Nature Of Occupation
Livelihood
Energy Forms & Use
Cooking Energy- Biomass
LPG
Kerosene
Electricity & Use
Devices & Household Appliances Technology
Energy Consumption
Biomass Combustion
Technology
Consumption
Type Of Cookers / Stoves
Biomass Sources
Types Of Sources
Area Extent
Amounts Obtained From Own,
Other Sources & Market
Cost Of Biomass/Income
Derived From Biomass
Distance To Sources
Types Of Biomass Derived
Lighting Sources
Forms
Access
Consumption
Cost
End-Use Devices
Electric Appliances
Types Used
Electricity Consumption
Cost
Energy Use In Production /
Nature Of Activities
Cottage Industry
Forms Of Energy Consumption
By Types Of Production
Amount Used, Cost
Transport Energy
Types Of Transport/ Modes
Forms Of Energy Used
Frequency Of Use
Cost
Biomass Resources
Types
Species Used
Distribution
Production
Local Resources With Energy
Nature/ Types
Potentials- For Hydro, Biogas/
Size Of The Resource
Bio-energy Development
Raw Material Output/Production
(Livestock, Farm Residues,
Secondary Materials From Saw
Mills, Rice Mills, Plantations )

Driving Forces Influencing the


Energy Demand & Use

Driving Forces Influencing the


Energy Demand & Use

Current Scenario on the


Available Forms of Energy &
Their Use
Energy Demand, Efficiency &
Multiple Use
Efficiency, Consumption &
Conservation
Local Production, Resource
Potentials, Availability, Demand,
& Market Options

Demand for Various Forms

Demand by Multiple Services

Demand for Energy for


Remunerative Activities/ Motive
Power
Demand for Transport Energy/
Service

Assessment of Resources &


Distribution

Potential Energy Resource


Assessment

Table 1: Overview Of The Focus Areas, Nature Of Information And Input For Energy Planning And Assessment

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

A wide range of methods including interviews, focus group discussions, and key
informant discussions were used as participatory discussions to obtain information.
Experiences, knowledge and issues of common concern of the functional units, village
leaders and officers were captured. Discussion groups consisted of approximately
8-10 individuals of each GND. These groups were organized by the key informants
from small settlements identified at the field. Focus groups consisted of people who
had similar interest or were engaged in similar activities. For instance:
80% of the focus groups engaged in discussions were women who used fuel wood.
Approximately 74% of the shopkeepers engaged in discussions were men.
The pottery group consisted of 60% women & 40% men.
Key informants including biomass producers, suppliers to the market, village
leaders, elderly and the officers working in the area.
Field observations carried out by the team were used to clarify some of the information
provided by the respondents and to better explain some of the realities of the GNDs which
were not captured through the questionnaire survey. These included observations on the
types of biomass; storage / processing of biomass and nature of production activities.
An inventory was produced by the field team in collaboration with the respondents to
record the key sources of fuel-wood, types available in the gardens of households,
hedges, common lands etc. These details were then used to confirm the lists of
sources and the names of the species mentioned by the survey respondents.

3. Assessment Results
3.1 Demographic Features of the Units
The total number of registered household units covered during the survey was 562
units; 160 units from Galambalama, 183 units from Maharawela and 219 units from
Udatenna.
This included 691 families within the 562 units; 440 (78%), were nuclear units, i.e.,
single units consisting of parents and children and the remaining 22% consisted of
either extended family units or a combination of small business operations.
The total population consisted of 2303 people - 1162 males and 1141 females with
an average of 4 persons per unit.
Within the three divisions, an average unit consisted of 4-5 members with the age
spanning between 16-65 years.
Category

Galambalama

Maharawela

Udatenna

1-3 Member Units

36

33

30

4-5 Memb888er Units


6-7 Member Units
8-9 Member Units
Total
AGE-Below 15 Yrs
16-65 Yrs
Over 65 Yrs
Total

48
11
05
100
23
72
05
100

53
12
02
100
27
65
08
100

59
10
01
100
25
69
06
100

Table 2: Demographic Structure (%) of the Surveyed Units

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

3.2 Employment Status, Sources & Income


The working age population of the area was distributed across a wide range of
employment. Despite the variations in the 3 GNDs, majority of the population was
engaged in formal and domestic work with farming being the least popular livelihood.
The income of the units was derived from multiple sources - most of which were
irregular and inconsistent. The most significant contribution comes from formal work,
self-employment and non-farm work.
Income variation among the households was also quite wide:
4% of units received less than LKR10,000 (LKR -Sri Lankan Rupees) per month
Approximately 48% received between LKR10,000- LKR25,000 per month
36% received between LKR25,000- LKR50,000 per month
12% received between LKR50,000- LKR 100,000 per month
Category

Galambalama

Maharawela

Udatenna

Farm Work

01

03

00

Non-Farm Wage Work


Formal
Domestic
Business/ Enterprise
Self-Employed
Foreign Employment
Other

13
16
28
02
05
05
30

04
23
19
03
04
01
43

06
28
26
02
04
01
33

Table 3: Percentage Distribution of Employed Persons by Categories

3.3 Current Energy Demand


Energy demand is heavily influenced by two crucial areas - cooking and lighting.
The two forms of energy that dominated current energy consumption were biomass
for cooking and electricity for lighting. The energy uses of these two purposes were
rather multifaceted due to the variations associated with the sources.
The form of energy used in cooking was primarily biomass (i.e. wood), but included
other forms like electricity, LPG and Kerosene. More than half of the units in
Galambalama & Maharawela and nearly all units in Udatenna used electricity for
cooking rice and boiling water with rice cookers and electric kettles or immersion
heaters respectively. LPG was also used by some for cooking and boiling water.
Kerosene was used only by a few units.
Solid biomass was the main source of fuel used for cooking for:
99% of the surveyed units in Galambalama
97% in Maharawela
96% in Udatenna.

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Majority in Galambalama used a semi-circular stove while a majority in Maharawela


and Udatenna use improved cook stoves. The field observations revealed that there
was a huge inconsistency in using commercially sourced biomass due to recurring
increase in cost.
The demand for electricity was primarily for lighting and for using various household
appliances. In addition, electricity was used for recreational items and equipment that
supplemented cooking. The demand for fossil fuels was associated primarily with
petrol and diesel which were used for transport and kerosene for lighting and cooking.
Form Of Energy,
Usage And Services

Cooking Sources
Grid-Electricity
(Rice Cookers &
Water Boiling)
LPG
Kerosene
Biomass
Improved Cook
Stoves
Semi-Circular *
Three Stone
Hearth
Gassifier
Lighting

Galambalama

Maharawela

Udatenna

No. of units
86/160

No. of units
103/183

No. of units
217/219

54
03
158
57/160

16
03
178
126/183

45
00
210
88/219

96
04

51
01

122
00

01

00

00

145
15

158
25

198
21

06
45

01
31

00
47

Electricity
Kerosene
Transport
Foot-Cycles
Other- Vehicles
(Petrol/Diesel)

Table 4: Overview on the Form of Energy Use and the Services

3.4 Energy Demand for Cooking


3.4.1 Fuel-wood Sources
The information on sources used by the households show that most of the
respondents used multiple fuel-wood sources (Table 5). The most widely used
fuel-wood sources were obtained from their own land, land which dont belong to
them and fuel-wood bought commercially at markets. Other sources providing fuelwood included private land, state-owned land (such as reservations and riverside
vegetation), forests and road side vegetation.
The total volume of monthly fuel-wood consumption in Galambalama was 344m3;
442m3 in Maharawela, and 356m3 in Udatenna. In Galambalama and Udatenna most
of the fuel-wood consumed were gathered from their own land. In Maharawela it was
sourced from the market.
10

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Percentage Share (%)

Other sources
01-30%
30-60%
60- 90%
Over 90%
Volume derived per
month (m3)
Own sources
01-30%
30-60%
60-90%
Over 90%
Volume derived per
month (m3)
Market sources
01-30%
30- 60%
60-90%
Over 90%
Volume derived per
month (m3)

Galambalama

Maharawela

Udatenna

(158 Units Use Fuel-wood)

(178 Units Use Fuel-wood)

(210 Units Use Fuel-wood)

39%
28
36
28
08
74

39%
28
36
28
08
74

18%
18
42
26
13
46

62 %
19
21
17

62 %
19
21
17

82%
08
22
03

42
155

42
155

67
233

40 %
08
25
24
43
115

40 %
08
25
24
43
115

28 %
07
38
26
29
78

Table 5: Percentage of Fuel Wood Coming From Main Sources

Nevertheless, a high variation existed in the behavioural pattern associated with


the use of these supply sources for fuel-wood. Many households depended on a
combination of sources. For instance:
In Galambalama out of the 158 units using fuel-wood, 39% used other sources;
62% used own sources and 40% used commercial sources.
In Maharawela out of the 178 units using fuel-wood 43% used sources other than
their own; 53% used own sources and 65 used the market.
In Udatenna out of the 210 units using fuel-wood, 18% used other sources; 82%
used own sources and 28% used market sources as well.
It should be noted that householders were unable to provide quantitative information
on the share of fuel-wood gathered from each source or the types of fuel-wood that
they gather from these sources.
According to the survey the actual number using other sources is 61 in Galambalama,
77 in Maharawela and 38 in Udatenna. The number using their own lands is 98, 95, and
172; and market sources were used by 63, 115 and 58 units of the respective GNDs.
Vendors, village producers and saw mills were the three market sources being used.
Branch-wood and twigs are the most widely used fuel-wood types in all three GNDs.
Field information revealed that these three sources were used in supplying branchwood. All the the twigs were sourced from their own land.
Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

11

Further analysis revealed that in Galambalama, saw-mills provided around 73%


of the market fuel-wood, but in Maharawela & Udatenna the villagers provided
87% and 76% respectively. Fuel-wood stocks were purchased monthly by 68% in
Galambalama, 96% in Maharawela and 74% in Udatenna.

3.4.2 Biomass Resources


The resources providing raw materials for energy generation are varied and diverse.
They are influenced by local conditions such as; whether the area is under forest
& vegetation cover, land use & land husbandry practices, composition & structure,
characteristics of trees and the extent of land under various types of crops/trees/
plantations.
Biomass resources from gardens and hedges of households were widely used by all
units covered in this study. A common feature across all 562 units was that they all
had household gardens. Nevertheless, the area extent of most of them was rather
small. For example, the average area extent of household gardens less than 0.5 acres
of extent was nearly 93% in Galambalama, 78% in Maharawela and 77% in Udatenna.
The most promising sources of biomass resources of the surveyed units were the
household gardens and hedges. In household gardens, the most widespread fuelwood options were gliricidia, coconut, jackfruit and mango. In Galambalama and
Maharawela, majority of the surveyed units use gliricidia wood for fuel and the rest use
either branch wood from jack fruit or coconut. In Udatenna the majority use coconut
wood while the rest rely on either gliricidia or branch wood from jackfruit.
The surveyed units tend to use all woody perennials available in their land. The
information provided in Table 6 illustrates the key fuel-wood species for local
consumption and their corresponding volume of annual production. Gliricidia is the
most densely established species, and produces a large volume of fuel-wood annually.
Coppicing at regular intervals enables a consistent supply that can be sustained
throughout the year. This indicates the importance of management practices in
assessing the annual output.
The supply of fuel-wood from other land sources was inconsistent and occasional.
Fuel-wood was also collected from roadside trees like gliricidia, jack, mara and
coconut were all used.
The use of gliricidia by the households was consistent across all three areas, as
shown in Table 7.Biomass residues are a source of raw material used for energy
generation. The residues derived from coconut palms and coconut shells are used as
a supplementary source. The usage of coconut residues was as follows; 131 surveyed
units in Galambalama, 177 units in Maharawela and 204 units in Udatenna. With
regard to coconut shells, a total of 4,588 shells were being used per month by 148
units in Galambalama, 4,623 shells were being used by 183 units in Maharawela and
5,943 shells were being used by 204 units in Udatenna.

12

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Species

Galambalama
No. of trees

Galambalama

Maharawela

Maharawela

Udatenna

Udatenna

Annual volume
M3/ yr

No. of trees

Annual volume
M3/ yr

No. of trees

Annual volume
M3/ y

43920

628

29172

289

20169

693

Jack

401

106

551

97

190

271

Coconut

289

134

639

182

1075

525

Mango

127

43

160

09

412

133

Gansooriya

76

18

06

36

02

Hapu

46

4.5

1359

38

81

15

Coffee

370

34

00

190

08

Kenda

109

28

158

53

159

63

Kududawla

30

07

226

05

124

29

Hawarinuga

49

13

52

05

03

05

Pihimbiya

16

05

146

69

10

Lunumidella

38

19

06

139

55

Alipera

25

2.5

42

01

58

11

Gliricidia

Table 6: The Occurrence of Certain Key Species in Household Gardens & Hedges

3.4.3 Travel Distance & the Time Spent In Securing Fuel-Wood


Distance travelled per week and the time spent in getting fuel-wood are important
proxy indicators reflecting the availability, the opportunity cost and the labour
associated with acquiring it.
The data collected highlighted that in Galambalama, 95% of the fuel-wood had to be
transported from less than 1km and the remaining 5% within 1-2km. In Maharawela
43% of fuel-wood required transport of less than 1km, 29% between 1-2km and 27%
required a distance of more than 2km. In Udatenna approximately 50% of the fuel-wood
required transportation of less than 1km, with the other half transported within 1-2 km.
Species

Mango
Gliricidia
Lantana
Hapu
Godapara
Jack
Mara
Kenda
Kududawla
Pihimbiya
Coconut
Yoda-nidikumba

Galambalama

Maharawela

Udatenna

00
38
23
28
08
27
14

03
14
22
14

09
15
02
10
08
12
11
01
01
11
-

Table 7: Number of Households Using Major Species

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

13

In all three divisions, majority of the units who gathered fuel-wood from their own
sources spent less than 3 hours a week while the remainder spent 3-5 hours a week
acquiring it.
A similar pattern is noted in the collection of fuel-wood from land owned by the others.
In Galambalama and Udatenna the majority collecting fuel wood from other sources
spent less than 3 hours a week while the rest took 3 to 4 hours a week. However, in
Maharawela the opposite was noted.
The survey showed that the time spent in procuring fuel-wood varied spatially and
also in relation to the source. Less number of hours and short travel distances
indicated that the supply of fuel-wood within close proximity, i.e. local sources,
maintaining a low opportunity cost.

3.4.3 Processing & Storing


Processing of fuel-wood is an important element of maximising biomass energy. Sun
drying prior to use, splitting and cross cutting is all processes influenced by the type
of fuel-wood and prevailing weather conditions.
Almost all units across the three divisions sun dried the firewood prior to use.
Between 81%-98% split fuel-wood prior to use. Storage took place in 52% in
Galambalama, 60% in Maharawela and 70% in Udatenna.

3.5 LPG & Kerosene


Both LPG and Kerosene are commercially available varieties of energy essentially
used for cooking and lighting requirements.
The average monthly consumption of LPG was less than 10kg used by 46 units
in Galambalama, 12 units in Maharawela, and 44 units in Udatenna. The average
monthly cost of LPG was noted as LKR 821 in Galambalama, LKR655 in Maharawela
and LKR597 in Udatenna.
Due to occasional use, the monthly kerosene consumption in these areas was rather
low. The total consumption per month was 203 bottles in Galambalama, 316 bottles in
Maharawela and 204 bottles in Udatenna. Single burner kerosene cookers were used
in two households in Galambalama and three in Maharawela. The average monthly
costs were LKR 1,364 in Galambalama and LKR 333 in Maharawela.
In Galambalama, households using kerosene for cooking did not use biomass as a
supplementary source. Hence, the cost was relatively higher than that in Maharawela
where biomass was used as a supplementary.
Field information revealed that kerosene was available for purchase within a relatively
small distance as compared to LPG. In Galambalama, 67% of the consumers
purchased kerosene in less than 0.5 Km distance. The figure is 98% in Maharawela
and 100% in Udatenna. In contrast 83% of LPG consumers in Galambalama and 70%
in Maharawela had the ability to purchase LPG within 0.8 to 1km distance, whereas in
Udatenna 80% purchased it within a 0.5km distance.
14

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

3.6 Livestock- A Potential Source For Bio-Energy


The types of livestock reared in the area include buffaloes, cows, goats, pigs, and
poultry. Livestock rearing was not widespread and a substantial spatial disparity was
revealed in Table 8.
Type

Buffaloes
Dairy
Goats
Pigs
Poultry

Galambalama

Maharawela

04
09
01
18

(09)
(34)
(02)
(1213)

06
01

(14)
(-)
(-)
(10)

Udatenna

01
01
02
01

(03)
(01)
(-)
(24)
(20)

Table 8: A Brief Overview of the Livestock in each GNDs


* Un-bracketed figures refer to the number of households with animals. Bracketed figures refer to the total number of animals.

3.7 Species Of Liquid Bio-Fuel Potentials


The field survey revealed that species with bio fuel potentials were not grown in the
area. However, three biofuel potential species; Jatropha (nearly 72 trees), Neem (4
trees) and Karanda (10 trees) were found in Galambalama. None were recorded within
the other two GNDs.

3.8 Electricity Lighting & Other Services


All the surveyed units with electricity were grid connected. These consisted of 90%
of the units in Galambalama & Udatenna and 86% in Maharawela. Three phase
connections were noted as 3% at Galambalama, 0.5% at Maharawela and 6% at
Udatenna. All other connections were one phase. Various types of supplementary
sources such as battery torches, bottle lamps, chimney lamps and Patromax lamps
were also in use.
The total monthly electricity consumption was 10,785kWh in Galambalama,
10,523kWh in Maharawela and 18416kWh in Udatenna. The average monthly
utilization costs of electricity varied substantially within and between the three GNDs.
Variations were between LKR 160-LKR1528 in Galambalama, LKR81-LKR4000 in
Maharawela and LKR151and LKR3400 in Udatenna.
The monthly consumption of electricity was primarily for lighting. There were also
instances where electricity supplemented biomass-energy based cooking. The main
domestic appliances used included rice-cookers, electric kettles, immersion heaters,
refrigerators, blenders and irons. Electricity was widely used for telephone charging,
TVs, radio, and cassette-players. Highest consumption rates were recorded for
the use of refrigerators and TVs. For instance, the total monthly consumption for
refrigerators in Galambalama was 4831kWh, in Maharawela 4399kWh and in Udatenna
10,935kWh. Consumption for TVs was recorded as 1071kWh in Galambalama,
927kWh in Maharawela and 121kWh in Udatenna.

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

15

3.9 Solar Energy Use


Solar energy is a thermal energy resource widely used for drying crop harvests,
fuel-wood and in industries like bricks and pottery. Direct sun-drying is a traditional
practice and modern technologies like solar driers were not used in the surveyed
districts.

3.10 Industrial Energy Use


Energy used for industry/ production work was relatively insignificant. The types of
production work recorded in this survey are as per Table 9.
Galambalama
Units & form
of energy

Consumption/
Monthly

Cost/month

Maharawela

Consumption

Cost

Carpentry

01- Manual

--

--

02-Electricity

--

Rs. 1000--

Candle

01-fuelwood

--

--

00

--

--

Bakery

00

--

--

01- fuel-wood

30 m3

15000-

Jaggery

01-fuel-wood

07m3

--

00

--

--

Jewelery

--

Industry

01 fuel-wood

--

--

00

--

Sewing

03 Manual

--

--

03 Manual

--

--

Pottery

00

--

--

39

03.5 m3

1692

02 fuel-wood
01 LPG

--

-Rs.7160

00

--

--

Food

Table 9: Energy Demand for Industry

4. Conclusions
The socio-economic data generated from the Grassroots Level Energy Demand &
Resource Assessment Survey led to a statistical analysis and projection of energy
related parameters. Based on the outcomes of this survey and analysis, a simplified
2-page questionnaire was developed, which were printed by the Sri Lanka Sustainable
Energy Authority (SLSEA). It was decided that instead of deploying special teams
of data collectors, which would be costly and time consuming, the Medadumbara
Divisional Secretariat decided to conduct the survey of the entire division.
A basic understanding of the revised questionnaire was relayed to all the Grama
Niladaris - GNs officers, the grass root level administrative officers in Sri Lanka, and data
from nearly 18,000 households was then collected using the new questionnaire. Based
on the success of this intervention, the PISCES project, along with SLSEA, anticipates
the inclusion of several specific energy related data questions, which will also include
bioenergy, at the national level census which is likely to take place in the 2021.
In the 2011 census, there were only two questions related to energy (the main source
of light and energy for cooking), which does not provide the required information
to the energy related decision makers. In addition, the Medadumbara Divisional

16

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Secretary has also declared the division as an Energy Conservation Zone as part of
the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RE) programme which PISCES along
with SLSEA has been conducting with them since early 2012.
Data received from the grass root levels, and the biomass flow rate studies in
specified geographical boundaries of the provinces and assessments made from GIS
and digital maps are expected to significantly improve the assessment of biomass
available and flows which will aid decision makers to make better informed decisions
and decentralised energy plan in the future.

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

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Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

Energy Demand And Resource Assessment Study In Medadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

19

Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security


(PISCES)
PISCES is a six-year research project funded by the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom
(UK). Project implementation started in July 2007. Through
action research the project is increasing available knowledge
and understanding of policy relevant trade-offs between energy, food and water security for livelihoods in relation to bioenergy. PISCES is a Research Programme Consortium whose
members include African Centre for Technology Studies
(ACTS, lead) Kenya; Practical Action Consulting UK, Eastern
Africa, and Sri Lanka; the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), India;
and the University of Edinburgh, UK. www.pisces.or.ke

Practical Action Consulting (PAC)


For over 40 years, PAC has provided development consultancy services as the consulting arm of the international NGO,
Practical Action. PAC provides high quality, independent and
professional advice to governments, NGOs, aid agencies and
the private sector. We work worldwide from regional offices
in the UK, Eastern and Southern Africa, South Asia and Latin
America. Our vision is of a sustainable world free of poverty
and injustice in which technology is used for the benefit of all.
www.practicalaction.org/consulting