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Ni Luh Sukrianingsih (1308405072), Kadek Sona Dwiguna (1308405047) , and Krossinta Nur Halimah

(1308405032)

Abstract

Factor analysis is used to simplify the analysis of

variables with a certain amount into a new factor with a

smaller without reducing the information on these

variables. Step-by-step analysis of factors which are

consisted of variable selection, formation factor and

interpretation of the results of factor analysis. The results

obtained in determining the factors that influence

travelers surfing Uluwatu Beach namely the

establishment of seven new factor of 25 initial variables

are used. The new factor that is formed can describe the

information contained in the initial variables. These

factors namely, Quality and Consistency Waves, Concern

Local Community, Surfing Facility, Popularity,

Accessibility, Securities and Uniqueness Waves.

Keywordstravelers, surfing, factor analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

Surfing (Surfing) is a sport that is challenging and related

with high waves. Surfing can be categorized into sport that has

dangerous risk. Nonetheless, surfing much favored by tourists

who have courage. For most traveler, surfing is a hobby that

has the highest priority in his life. The main thing of concern

for the surfers when visiting a beach is the waves. Perfect

waves gives tremendous satisfaction for surfers. So that the

surfers keen to travel from island to island to find perfect

waves.

Bali is one island that is visited by surfers. This is because

there are many beaches has attraction for surfing, such as the

beach of Kuta, Legian, Keramas and Medewi. Uluwatu beach

is one of the famous beaches visited by surfers. Uluwatu beach

is a favorite beach for tourists who have a hobby of surfing.

Almost every day the beach is filled by tourists who surf from

different continents, both tourists who first surfed this beach

and who have never surfed before. Each of tourist has many

different reason to be influenced to surf in this beach.

Therefore, the authors are interested in conducting research

on the analysis of the factors influencing the travelers for

surfing in Uluwatu Beach using factor analysis.

2. Surfing

Surfing is a famous water sport in the world. Although

surfing has an extremely dangerous due to the risk associated

with the waves, but the sport is favored by various groups, from

children to the elderly. Based on [3], surfing is a the art of

riding waves. The surfers using a surfboard to ride the waves.

Surfboard used also have the different size. In [4] The two main

types are shortboards and longboards. A shortboards measures

about 6 to 7 feet (2 meters) long. Its small size makes its esay

to control. Shortboards are great for doing tricks. Longboards

measures 9 feet (3 meters) or longer. They are more stable than

shortboards. Surfers can balance more easily on longboards

3. Factor Analysis

In [5] Factor analysis (more properly exploratory factor

analysis) is concerned with whether the covariances or

correlations between a set of observed variables can be

explained in terms of a smaller number of unobservable

constructs known either as latent variables or common factors.

According to [6] the factor analysis model expresses each

variable as a linear combination of underlyingcommon factors

f1,f2,... ,fm, with an accompanying error term to account for

that part of the variable that is unique (not in common with the

other variables). For y1,y2,... ,y pin any observation vector y,

the model is as follows:

aboves can be written as :

1. Travelers

Travelers is a person who visits a travel destination in order

to get satisfaction, entertainment and tranquility. According to

[1], [2] a tourist is a temporarily leisured person who

voluntarily travels away from the place of residence for the

purpose of experiencing a change.

Where,

Latent

Factor

Indicator

Symbol

X1

X2

challenging

X3

Quality and

Consistency The waves are perfect everyday for

months in this beach

Waves

X4

wave

X5

still can be used to surfing

X6

X7

X8

beach

X9

X10

1. Selection of variables

Determining the right variables for use in the analysis of

factors need to be carried out selection of variables in a way to

test the validity, reliability test. By [7] [8] states that the

validity limit is 0.3. In [9] Whereas for reliability test states that

if the coefficient alpha test is greater than 0.6, the questions in

the questionnaire feasible to use (reliable).Then, to see if a

variable has been sufficient to be used in subsequent factor

analysis it is necessary to see the value of anti-image

correlation in the MSA. The research variables is said to be

sufficient if the anti-image correlation value is greater than 0.5.

In addition to seeing whether variables is sufficient , it should

also need to seeing whether factor analysis is appropriate

analysis used for these studies, by looking at the index of

KMO. If the KMO index is greater than 0.5, factor analysis can

be used for these studies

Accessibility

2. Establishment of Factor

There are two important things in this step is determining the

number of factors and factor rotation. Determination of the

number of factors by looking at the value obtained from the

total variance explained, scree plot, communalitas, and matrixs

component distribution. While the rotation factor is to obtain

the simplicity and ease of interpreting a factor obtained from

the matrix component distribution.

Receptivity of

The locals always ready to help

residents

Once obtained factor of simplification initial variables, the

next step is naming factors and validation factors . before

naming the factor formerly do tests of significance value of the

variable loading factor in the newly formed factors. Based

upon [10] the significant value of the loading factor with 70

samples is 0.65. After naming the factors it is necessary to test

the validity of the new factor, which is formed by halves the

amount of each sample was then conducted the same analysis

as the previous analysis. This validity test aims to determine

the consistency factor, whether the number of newly formed

factor equal to the number of factors that formed after halve

the number of samples used.

III. METHODOLOGY

In this research, data analysis method used is the analysis of

factors. This research uses 7 latent factors with 25 variable

indicator. The data that used are primary data obtained from

the questionnaires of tourists who surf in beach of Uluwatu.

The samples used in this study amounted to 70 samples. Here

is a table of variables used in this research :

Popularity

X11

X12

surfing

X13

X14

this beach on social media

X15

gerbage

X16

with waste

X17

Quality of the

water

On this beach the quality of the water

is good

On this beach the water is not harm to

the health of the skin

X18

X19

Surfing

Facility

complete

X20

managed so well

X21

surfing in this beach

X22

variables used have the value of Corrected Item-Total

Correlation greater than 0.3. This means that all these variables

are valid, so that all of the variables can be used for further

analysis.

b) Reliability tests

Reliability Statistics

Securities

area

X23

Factor

Cronbach's Alpha

info

X24

Factor 1

0.83

Reliable

X25

Factor 2

0.8

Reliable

Factor 3

0.816

Reliable

Factor 4

0.807

Reliable

Factor 5

0.877

Reliable

Factor 6

0.871

Reliable

Factor 7

0.75

Reliable

This study uses SPSS software to process data obtained from

questionnaires. The following will be discussed results from

SPSS output based the steps on a factor analysis.

1. Selection of variables

a) Validity tests

Item-Total Statistics

Variable Corrected

Item-Total Info

Correlation

Varia Corrected

Item-Total info

ble

Correlation

X1

0.494

Valid X14

0.566

Valid

Based on the results in the table above, shows that the value of

Cronbach's Alpha of factor 1 to factor 6, is greater than 0.6. It

can be concluded that all of the variables can be used for further

analysis.

X2

0.525

Valid X15

0.591

Valid

X3

0.363

Valid X16

0.466

Valid

X4

0.484

Valid X17

0.379

Valid

X5

0.454

Valid X18

0.509

X6

0.45

Valid X19

X7

0.439

X8

Variable

AntiImage

Correlation

Variable

AntiImage

Correlation

Valid

X1

0.859

X14

0.767

0.56

Valid

X2

0.843

X15

0.772

Valid X20

0.733

Valid

X3

0.785

X16

0.774

0.441

Valid X21

0.604

Valid

X4

0.822

X17

0.594

X9

0.571

Valid X22

0.572

Valid

X5

0.786

X18

0.701

X10

0.578

Valid X23

0.499

Valid

X6

0.686

X19

0.829

X11

0.505

Valid X24

0.47

Valid

X7

0.751

X20

0.813

X12

0.54

Valid X25

0.58

Valid

X8

0.69

X21

0.672

X13

0.477

Valid

X9

0.796

X22

0.875

X10

0.699

X23

0.721

X11

0.694

X24

0.755

X12

0.832

X25

0.77

X13

0.824

1.001

4.004

74.876

variables obtained each of Anti-Image Correlation values

greater than 0.5, so it can be concluded that all variables are

sufficient for use in further analysis.

(KMO)

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin

Measure of Sampling

Adequacy.

Approx.

Chi-Square

df

Sig.

0.762

1081.545

300

0.000

looking at the eigen values, percentage of total variance and

scree plot. According to the table above, factors that can

formed is seven, because all seven of the component has an

eigen value greater than 1, and components that have eigen

values smaller than 1 will be removed. Then from the table

above, we can see the percentage of total variants on the

cumulative column. If the 25 variables used, simplified into

one factor will be obtained by way of the cumulative total

variance total value of 8,120 / 25 x 100% in order to obtain 14

768%. By the same method, if the 25 variables used simplified

into 2 factors, 3 factors, 4 factors, 5 factors, 6 factors, 7 factors

it will obtain the total variance Cumulative it respectively

amounted to 29.224% 42.730% 52.385% 61.680 % 69.072%

74.876%. By simplifying the 25 variables into 7 factors shown

in the table above, means 7 formed factor can explain as much

as 25 initial variables approxiamately 74.876%.

e) Scree Plot

Based on the output above, the result for the value of KMO is

0.762, which means greater than 0.5 and the significant value

of Sphericity Bartlett's Test is 0.000 which is smaller than

alpha. It concluded that these variables can be used to simplify

the 25 variables that used.

2. Establishment of Factor

a) Total Variance Explained

Fig.1. Scree Plot

Initial Eigenvalues

Component Total % of Variance Cumulative %

seen that the point of which is above eigenvalues 1 as much as

7 points. This means than there are 7 factors formed after the

simplification of the 25 initial variables.

8.12

32.481

32.481

3.012

12.046

44.527

Communalities

2.516

10.064

54.591

1.67

6.68

61.271

X1

0.672

X14

0.819

1.241

4.963

66.234

X2

0.653

X15

0.801

1.159

4.637

70.872

X3

0.601

X16

0.854

b) Communalities

X4

0.766

X17

0.787

X13

0.585

X5

0.7

X18

0.837

X14

0.829

X6

0.807

X19

0.789

X15

0.809

X7

0.758

X20

0.848

X16

0.711

X8

0.875

X21

0.754

X17

0.845

X9

0.742

X22

0.709

X18

0.84

X10

0.773

X23

0.651

X19

0.621

X11

0.597

X24

0.847

X20

0.785

X12

0.74

X25

0.795

X21

0.809

X22

0.777

X23

0.625

X13

0.546

Component Analysis.

can be explained by factors that exist.

X24

0.855

X25

0.748

c) Rotation Factor

Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

1

X1

0.597

X2

0.714

X3

0.712

X4

0.814

X5

0.745

variables that are members of the each factors formed. Prior to

the naming factors, first tested the significance of the above

variables loading factor. In the above table, the variables thats

blocked is a variable that is not significant because it has a

loading factor of less than 0.65. Therefore, these variables can

not be used on the next process.

Here's a table formed factor consisting of the variables that

have been significant.

Formed Factor Variable

X6

Factor 1

X2 , X3, X4, X5

Factor 2

Factor 3

Factor 4

X14, X15

Factor 5

X7, X8

Factor 6

X24, 25

Factor 7

X6

0.72

X7

0.792

X8

0.874

X9

0.648

X10

0.661

X11

0.581

X12

0.575

3. Interpretation of Factor

a)

Labeling factors

will be naming a factor based on the equation of characteristics

variables.

Factor 1 is called the Quality and Consistency Waves,

composed of many types of wave (X2), height of waves is

challenging (X3), the waves are perfect everyday for months

(X4), and a lot of the location surfing that nice wave (X5 ).

Factor 2 is called Concern Local Comunity, consists of

locals are friendly (X10), the water is clean of garbage(X16),

the water is not mixed with waste (X17), the quality of the

water is good(X18).

Factor 3 is called Surfing Facility, consists of facility of

surfing is very complete (X20), facility has been managed so

well (X21), could buy or rent the equipment of surfing (X22).

Factor 4 is called Popularity, consists of famous in the

world(X14), many surfers who publish this beach on social

media (X15).

Factor 5 is called Accesibility, consists of very easy to get

the beach(X7), the road to the beach is a good (X8).

Factor 6 is called Securities, consists of availability of life

guard(X24), feel safe for surfing (X25).

Factor 7 is called Uniqueness Waves, consists of if the

waves is short its still can be used to surfing (X6).

b) Validation factors formed

Once formed, the factor will be testing the consistency of

factor. Test is conducted by dividing the sample into two, the

first part of the samples 1 to 35 and the second part from 36 to

70. Then do the same process with the use of principal

compenent in a separate section. Based on the results of the

testing process in both parts, each part can form seven factors

with cumulative value of the total variance in the first and

second is 78.345% and 78.934%, it does not have difference

too far. It concluded that seven factors that form has been

consistent.

V. CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the discussion of the analysis of factors

in determining the factors that influence the travelers of surfing

Uluwatu shore, it can be concluded as follows:

By using factor analysis, can be formed seven factors that can

explain the 25 initial variables without reducing the existing

information on these variables. It consists of seven factors:

1. Quality and Consistency Waves, it consists of many type

of wave, height of waves is challenging, the waves are

perfect everyday for months, a lot of the location surfing

that nice wave.

2. Concern Local Community, it consists of locals are friendly,

the water is clean of garbage, the water is not mixed with

waste, the quality of the water is good.

complete, facility has been managed so well, could buy or

rent the equipment of surfing.

4. Popularity, it consists of famous in the world and many

surfers who publish this beach on social media.

5. Accesibility, it consists of very easy to get the beach and

the road to the beach is a good.

6. Securities, it consists of availability of life guard and feel

safe for surfing.

7. Uniqueness Waves, it consists of if the waves is short its

still can be used to surfing.

VI.

REFERENCES

Geographical Perspective, Vadodara Gujarat, 2014.

[2] V. Smith, Hosts and Guests, Philadelphia: University

of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

[3] P. Mason, To The Limit Surfing, New York, 2012, p.

4.

[4] R. McClellan, SURFING, USA, 2008, p. 8.

[5] S. Landau and B. Everitt, A Handbook of Statistical

Analysis Using SPSS, London, 2003, p. 288.

[6] A. C. Rencher, Method of Multivariate Analysis, USA,

2002, pp. 409-410.

[7] R. M. Kaplan and D. P. Saccuzzo, Psychological

testing: Principles, applications, and issues, 4 ed.,

Pasicif Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing

Company, 1997.

[8] N. Setyaningrum, "Hubungan Adversity Quotient

dengan Intensi Berwirausaha pada Karyawan," 2009.

[Online]. Available: http://lib.ui.ac.id. [Accessed 27/5

/2016].

[9] U. Sekaran, Research method for business: A skill

building approach, 4 ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

[1 J. Phillips, "Application of Statitics in Educational,"

0] 2002. [Online]. Available:

http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/MULTIVARIATE/

Module13FACT. [Accessed 27/5/2016].

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