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Analysis of Factors Influencing the

Travelers to Surfing at Uluwatu Beach


Ni Luh Sukrianingsih (1308405072), Kadek Sona Dwiguna (1308405047) , and Krossinta Nur Halimah
(1308405032)

Abstract
Factor analysis is used to simplify the analysis of
variables with a certain amount into a new factor with a
smaller without reducing the information on these
variables. Step-by-step analysis of factors which are
consisted of variable selection, formation factor and
interpretation of the results of factor analysis. The results
obtained in determining the factors that influence
travelers surfing Uluwatu Beach namely the
establishment of seven new factor of 25 initial variables
are used. The new factor that is formed can describe the
information contained in the initial variables. These
factors namely, Quality and Consistency Waves, Concern
Local Community, Surfing Facility, Popularity,
Accessibility, Securities and Uniqueness Waves.
Keywordstravelers, surfing, factor analysis
I. INTRODUCTION
Surfing (Surfing) is a sport that is challenging and related
with high waves. Surfing can be categorized into sport that has
dangerous risk. Nonetheless, surfing much favored by tourists
who have courage. For most traveler, surfing is a hobby that
has the highest priority in his life. The main thing of concern
for the surfers when visiting a beach is the waves. Perfect
waves gives tremendous satisfaction for surfers. So that the
surfers keen to travel from island to island to find perfect
waves.
Bali is one island that is visited by surfers. This is because
there are many beaches has attraction for surfing, such as the
beach of Kuta, Legian, Keramas and Medewi. Uluwatu beach
is one of the famous beaches visited by surfers. Uluwatu beach
is a favorite beach for tourists who have a hobby of surfing.
Almost every day the beach is filled by tourists who surf from
different continents, both tourists who first surfed this beach
and who have never surfed before. Each of tourist has many
different reason to be influenced to surf in this beach.
Therefore, the authors are interested in conducting research
on the analysis of the factors influencing the travelers for
surfing in Uluwatu Beach using factor analysis.

2. Surfing
Surfing is a famous water sport in the world. Although
surfing has an extremely dangerous due to the risk associated
with the waves, but the sport is favored by various groups, from
children to the elderly. Based on [3], surfing is a the art of
riding waves. The surfers using a surfboard to ride the waves.
Surfboard used also have the different size. In [4] The two main
types are shortboards and longboards. A shortboards measures
about 6 to 7 feet (2 meters) long. Its small size makes its esay
to control. Shortboards are great for doing tricks. Longboards
measures 9 feet (3 meters) or longer. They are more stable than
shortboards. Surfers can balance more easily on longboards
3. Factor Analysis
In [5] Factor analysis (more properly exploratory factor
analysis) is concerned with whether the covariances or
correlations between a set of observed variables can be
explained in terms of a smaller number of unobservable
constructs known either as latent variables or common factors.
According to [6] the factor analysis model expresses each
variable as a linear combination of underlyingcommon factors
f1,f2,... ,fm, with an accompanying error term to account for
that part of the variable that is unique (not in common with the
other variables). For y1,y2,... ,y pin any observation vector y,
the model is as follows:

ideally, m should be substantially smaller than p . Model


aboves can be written as :

II. LITERATURE REVIEW


1. Travelers
Travelers is a person who visits a travel destination in order
to get satisfaction, entertainment and tranquility. According to
[1], [2] a tourist is a temporarily leisured person who
voluntarily travels away from the place of residence for the
purpose of experiencing a change.

Where,

Latent
Factor

Indicator

Symbol

One of the best wave in the world

X1

This Beach has so many type of wave

X2

Height of wave in this beach is


challenging

X3

Quality and
Consistency The waves are perfect everyday for
months in this beach
Waves

X4

A lot of the location surfing that nice


wave

X5

If the waves on this beach is short its


still can be used to surfing

X6

Very easy to get this beach

X7

The road to the beach is a good

X8

There are many clues road to the


beach

X9

The locals are friendly

X10

Steps in the analysis of factors as follows:


1. Selection of variables
Determining the right variables for use in the analysis of
factors need to be carried out selection of variables in a way to
test the validity, reliability test. By [7] [8] states that the
validity limit is 0.3. In [9] Whereas for reliability test states that
if the coefficient alpha test is greater than 0.6, the questions in
the questionnaire feasible to use (reliable).Then, to see if a
variable has been sufficient to be used in subsequent factor
analysis it is necessary to see the value of anti-image
correlation in the MSA. The research variables is said to be
sufficient if the anti-image correlation value is greater than 0.5.
In addition to seeing whether variables is sufficient , it should
also need to seeing whether factor analysis is appropriate
analysis used for these studies, by looking at the index of
KMO. If the KMO index is greater than 0.5, factor analysis can
be used for these studies

Accessibility

2. Establishment of Factor
There are two important things in this step is determining the
number of factors and factor rotation. Determination of the
number of factors by looking at the value obtained from the
total variance explained, scree plot, communalitas, and matrixs
component distribution. While the rotation factor is to obtain
the simplicity and ease of interpreting a factor obtained from
the matrix component distribution.

Receptivity of
The locals always ready to help
residents

3. Interpretation of Results of Factor Analysis


Once obtained factor of simplification initial variables, the
next step is naming factors and validation factors . before
naming the factor formerly do tests of significance value of the
variable loading factor in the newly formed factors. Based
upon [10] the significant value of the loading factor with 70
samples is 0.65. After naming the factors it is necessary to test
the validity of the new factor, which is formed by halves the
amount of each sample was then conducted the same analysis
as the previous analysis. This validity test aims to determine
the consistency factor, whether the number of newly formed
factor equal to the number of factors that formed after halve
the number of samples used.
III. METHODOLOGY
In this research, data analysis method used is the analysis of
factors. This research uses 7 latent factors with 25 variable
indicator. The data that used are primary data obtained from
the questionnaires of tourists who surf in beach of Uluwatu.
The samples used in this study amounted to 70 samples. Here
is a table of variables used in this research :

Popularity

X11

The locals are honest

X12

On this beach held a lot the event of


surfing

X13

This beach famous in the world

X14

There are many surfers who publish


this beach on social media

X15

On this beach the water is clean of


gerbage

X16

On this beach the water is not mixed


with waste

X17

Quality of the
water
On this beach the quality of the water
is good
On this beach the water is not harm to
the health of the skin

X18

X19

Surfing
Facility

Facility of surfing in this beach is very


complete

X20

Facility in this beach has been


managed so well

X21

I could buy or rent the equipment of


surfing in this beach

X22

Based on tests results using 25 variables, shows that all the


variables used have the value of Corrected Item-Total
Correlation greater than 0.3. This means that all these variables
are valid, so that all of the variables can be used for further
analysis.
b) Reliability tests
Reliability Statistics

Securities

Availability of Security in parking


area

X23

Factor

Cronbach's Alpha

info

Availability of life guard in the beach

X24

Factor 1

0.83

Reliable

I feel safe for surfing on this beach

X25

Factor 2

0.8

Reliable

Factor 3

0.816

Reliable

Factor 4

0.807

Reliable

Factor 5

0.877

Reliable

Factor 6

0.871

Reliable

Factor 7

0.75

Reliable

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This study uses SPSS software to process data obtained from
questionnaires. The following will be discussed results from
SPSS output based the steps on a factor analysis.
1. Selection of variables
a) Validity tests
Item-Total Statistics
Variable Corrected
Item-Total Info
Correlation

Varia Corrected
Item-Total info
ble
Correlation

X1

0.494

Valid X14

0.566

Valid

Based on the results in the table above, shows that the value of
Cronbach's Alpha of factor 1 to factor 6, is greater than 0.6. It
can be concluded that all of the variables can be used for further
analysis.

X2

0.525

Valid X15

0.591

Valid

c) Measure of Sampling Adequacy(MSA)

X3

0.363

Valid X16

0.466

Valid

X4

0.484

Valid X17

0.379

Valid

X5

0.454

Valid X18

0.509

X6

0.45

Valid X19

X7

0.439

X8

Variable

AntiImage
Correlation

Variable

AntiImage
Correlation

Valid

X1

0.859

X14

0.767

0.56

Valid

X2

0.843

X15

0.772

Valid X20

0.733

Valid

X3

0.785

X16

0.774

0.441

Valid X21

0.604

Valid

X4

0.822

X17

0.594

X9

0.571

Valid X22

0.572

Valid

X5

0.786

X18

0.701

X10

0.578

Valid X23

0.499

Valid

X6

0.686

X19

0.829

X11

0.505

Valid X24

0.47

Valid

X7

0.751

X20

0.813

X12

0.54

Valid X25

0.58

Valid

X8

0.69

X21

0.672

X13

0.477

Valid

X9

0.796

X22

0.875

X10

0.699

X23

0.721

X11

0.694

X24

0.755

X12

0.832

X25

0.77

X13

0.824

1.001

4.004

74.876

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Based on the results of the process using SPSS using 25


variables obtained each of Anti-Image Correlation values
greater than 0.5, so it can be concluded that all variables are
sufficient for use in further analysis.

d) Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy


(KMO)
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.

Approx.
Chi-Square

df

Sig.

0.762

1081.545

300

0.000

To determine the number of factors formed, it can be seen by


looking at the eigen values, percentage of total variance and
scree plot. According to the table above, factors that can
formed is seven, because all seven of the component has an
eigen value greater than 1, and components that have eigen
values smaller than 1 will be removed. Then from the table
above, we can see the percentage of total variants on the
cumulative column. If the 25 variables used, simplified into
one factor will be obtained by way of the cumulative total
variance total value of 8,120 / 25 x 100% in order to obtain 14
768%. By the same method, if the 25 variables used simplified
into 2 factors, 3 factors, 4 factors, 5 factors, 6 factors, 7 factors
it will obtain the total variance Cumulative it respectively
amounted to 29.224% 42.730% 52.385% 61.680 % 69.072%
74.876%. By simplifying the 25 variables into 7 factors shown
in the table above, means 7 formed factor can explain as much
as 25 initial variables approxiamately 74.876%.
e) Scree Plot

Based on the output above, the result for the value of KMO is
0.762, which means greater than 0.5 and the significant value
of Sphericity Bartlett's Test is 0.000 which is smaller than
alpha. It concluded that these variables can be used to simplify
the 25 variables that used.
2. Establishment of Factor
a) Total Variance Explained
Fig.1. Scree Plot

Total Variance Explained


Initial Eigenvalues
Component Total % of Variance Cumulative %

Based on the results of the scree plot output above, it can be


seen that the point of which is above eigenvalues 1 as much as
7 points. This means than there are 7 factors formed after the
simplification of the 25 initial variables.

8.12

32.481

32.481

3.012

12.046

44.527

Communalities

2.516

10.064

54.591

Variable Initial Extraction Variable Initial Extraction

1.67

6.68

61.271

X1

0.672

X14

0.819

1.241

4.963

66.234

X2

0.653

X15

0.801

1.159

4.637

70.872

X3

0.601

X16

0.854

b) Communalities

X4

0.766

X17

0.787

X13

0.585

X5

0.7

X18

0.837

X14

0.829

X6

0.807

X19

0.789

X15

0.809

X7

0.758

X20

0.848

X16

0.711

X8

0.875

X21

0.754

X17

0.845

X9

0.742

X22

0.709

X18

0.84

X10

0.773

X23

0.651

X19

0.621

X11

0.597

X24

0.847

X20

0.785

X12

0.74

X25

0.795

X21

0.809

X22

0.777

X23

0.625

X13

0.546

Extraction Method: Principal


Component Analysis.

Based on the above table can be seen the amount of variance


can be explained by factors that exist.

X24

0.855

X25

0.748

c) Rotation Factor
Rotated Component Matrixa
Component
1
X1

0.597

X2

0.714

X3

0.712

X4

0.814

X5

0.745

Based on the results of the above output, has acquired


variables that are members of the each factors formed. Prior to
the naming factors, first tested the significance of the above
variables loading factor. In the above table, the variables thats
blocked is a variable that is not significant because it has a
loading factor of less than 0.65. Therefore, these variables can
not be used on the next process.
Here's a table formed factor consisting of the variables that
have been significant.
Formed Factor Variable

X6

Factor 1

X2 , X3, X4, X5

Factor 2

X10, X16, X17, X18

Factor 3

X20, X21, X22

Factor 4

X14, X15

Factor 5

X7, X8

Factor 6

X24, 25

Factor 7

X6

0.72

X7

0.792

X8

0.874

X9

0.648

X10

0.661

X11

0.581

X12

0.575

3. Interpretation of Factor
a)

Labeling factors

Once formed factors including the significant variables, it


will be naming a factor based on the equation of characteristics
variables.
Factor 1 is called the Quality and Consistency Waves,
composed of many types of wave (X2), height of waves is
challenging (X3), the waves are perfect everyday for months
(X4), and a lot of the location surfing that nice wave (X5 ).
Factor 2 is called Concern Local Comunity, consists of
locals are friendly (X10), the water is clean of garbage(X16),
the water is not mixed with waste (X17), the quality of the
water is good(X18).
Factor 3 is called Surfing Facility, consists of facility of
surfing is very complete (X20), facility has been managed so
well (X21), could buy or rent the equipment of surfing (X22).
Factor 4 is called Popularity, consists of famous in the
world(X14), many surfers who publish this beach on social
media (X15).
Factor 5 is called Accesibility, consists of very easy to get
the beach(X7), the road to the beach is a good (X8).
Factor 6 is called Securities, consists of availability of life
guard(X24), feel safe for surfing (X25).
Factor 7 is called Uniqueness Waves, consists of if the
waves is short its still can be used to surfing (X6).
b) Validation factors formed
Once formed, the factor will be testing the consistency of
factor. Test is conducted by dividing the sample into two, the
first part of the samples 1 to 35 and the second part from 36 to
70. Then do the same process with the use of principal
compenent in a separate section. Based on the results of the
testing process in both parts, each part can form seven factors
with cumulative value of the total variance in the first and
second is 78.345% and 78.934%, it does not have difference
too far. It concluded that seven factors that form has been
consistent.
V. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of the discussion of the analysis of factors
in determining the factors that influence the travelers of surfing
Uluwatu shore, it can be concluded as follows:
By using factor analysis, can be formed seven factors that can
explain the 25 initial variables without reducing the existing
information on these variables. It consists of seven factors:
1. Quality and Consistency Waves, it consists of many type
of wave, height of waves is challenging, the waves are
perfect everyday for months, a lot of the location surfing
that nice wave.
2. Concern Local Community, it consists of locals are friendly,
the water is clean of garbage, the water is not mixed with
waste, the quality of the water is good.

3. Surfing Facility, it consists of facility of surfing is very


complete, facility has been managed so well, could buy or
rent the equipment of surfing.
4. Popularity, it consists of famous in the world and many
surfers who publish this beach on social media.
5. Accesibility, it consists of very easy to get the beach and
the road to the beach is a good.
6. Securities, it consists of availability of life guard and feel
safe for surfing.
7. Uniqueness Waves, it consists of if the waves is short its
still can be used to surfing.

VI.

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