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Smoking in Pakistan

FINAL PROJECT
ENGLISH

“SOCIAL ISSUES IN PAKISTAN”


SMOKING

Submitted to:
Sir

Submitted by:
Syed Muhammad Hilal
ID: Fa09-BBA-090
BBA-I
Comsats University Islamabad
Smoking in Pakistan

Table of contents

I. What is social issue………………………………….3

II. Introduction social issue (smoking)…………………4

III. Smoking in Pakistan…………………………………5

IV. Effects of smoking…………………………………..6

V. Causes of smoking…………………………………..7

VI. Benefits of Quitting Smoking………………………8

VII. Recommendations………………………
…………..9
Smoking in Pakistan

VIII. Conclusions……………………………
……………9

What is social issue?

Social issues are matters which directly or


indirectly affect many or all members of
a society and are considered to be problems,
controversies related to moral values, or both.

Social Problems and sociological problems


within society are difficult to define and the
differences between them are part of an
ongoing controversial issue. There seems to be
no right or wrong answer and different people
have varied views.

A sociologist uses objectivity when studying


problems within the whole of society. If
sociologists see that there is a problem, for
example a social problem becoming a bigger
issue they will research it further and create
arguments and it will become what is known as
a sociological problem, they explain why it
happened. It is the wider perspective of
problems that occur within entire societies, not
small groups within society. ‘Social problems
are those aspects of social life that cause private
unhappiness or public friction and are identified
by those in power as needing some kind of
social policy to deal with them.

There are two aspects of a social problem being


objective and subjective. The objective is the
actual social condition and the subjective is the
perception of a social condition as a social
problem.
Smoking in Pakistan

Not all social conditions become elevated to the


status of “social problem”, the objective
condition must be perceived to be a social
problem publicly. At the beginning of the 20th
century alcohol abuse was perceived to be a
very serious social problem, responsible for
family breakdown, abandonment of children,
accidental death at work and violence in
society.

Social Problems and sociological problems


within society are difficult to define and the
differences between them are part of an
ongoing controversial issue. There seems to be
no right or wrong answer and different people
have varied views.

A sociologist uses objectivity when studying


problems within the whole of society. If
sociologists see that there is a problem, for
example a social problem becoming a bigger
issue they will research it further and create
arguments and it will become what is known as
a sociological problem, they explain why it
happened. It is the wider perspective of
problems that occur within entire societies, not
small groups within society. ‘Social problems
are those aspects of social life that cause private
unhappiness or public friction and are identified
by those in power as needing some kind of
social policy to deal with them.

There are two aspects of a social problem being


objective and subjective. The objective is the
actual social condition and the subjective is the
perception of a social condition as a social
problem.

According to most definitions, a social problem


is a harmful social condition, according to the
Smoking in Pakistan

beliefs and values of some influential or


dominant group in the society. A harmful social
condition becomes a social problem when it
persists over time and is not solved because
there are a number of competing proposed
solutions on which people do not agree. Thus
social problems involve social issues.

What is smoking?

Tobacco smoking is the practice


where tobacco is burned and the
vapors either tasted or inhaled.
The practice dates to 5000 BC in
shamanistic rituals. Many
civilizations burnt incense during
religious rituals, which was later
adopted for pleasure or as a social
tool Tobacco was introduced to
the old world in the late 1500s where it followed
common trade routes. The substance was met with
frequent criticism, but became popular
nonetheless. The industrialization of production
and increased life expectancies in the late 1920s
prompted anti-smoking groups to advocate against
its

Smoking is the most common method of


consuming tobacco, and tobacco is the most
common substance smoked. The agricultural
product is often mixed with other additives and
then paralyzed. The resulting vapors are then
inhaled and the active substances absorbed through
the alveoli in the lungs. The active substances
trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings which
heighten heart rate, memory, alertness, and
reaction time. Dopamine and later endorphins are
released, which are often associated with reward
and pleasure. As of 2000, smoking is practiced by
some 1.22 billion people, and men are more likely
Smoking in Pakistan

to smoke than women, however the gender gap


declines with age, poor more likely than wealthy,
and people of developing countries than those of
developed countries usage.

This movement was in Nazi Germany, however


following the Second World War health research
in Germany was described as "muted”. It was not
until the late 1950s before health authorities began
suggest the relationship between smoking and
cancer. These suggestions were confirmed in the
1980s, which prompted political action against the
practice. Rates of consumption from 1965 onward
in the developed world have either peaked or
declined. They however continue to climb in the
developing world.

Social network theory and methods were used to


study the relationship between peer groups social
structure and adolescent cigarette smoking. In
many consideration of adolescent cigarette
smoking, special importance is attached to peer
group.

It is very compelling to consider peer groups or


friendships groups as the principle causal factors in
(teenage) smoking behavior.

Other Harmful Forms of Tobacco

1. Spit (smokeless) tobacco


2. snuff
3. chewing tobacco
4. Cigars and pipes
5. Hookahs
6. Clove cigarettes and bides (from
India, Indonesia, and Pakistan)
Smoking in Pakistan

Smoking in
Pakistan

54 percent men and 20 percent women in Pakistan


are regular smokers. Pakistani people consume
more than 65 billion every year on smoking; this
figure however does not reflect the consumption of
imported or smuggled cigarettes.

More than 19 brands of cigarettes are available in


the market every tenth rupee that the government
of Pakistan spends comes from tobacco revenues.
Promotion of smoking and tobacco products is not
illegal in Pakistan.

Educating the public on tobacco and its hazards is


the first step for tobacco control in any country but
Smoking in Pakistan

unfortunately marketing and advertising budget of


tobacco companies in Pakistan is far greater than
the total budget on health promotion by the
Government of Pakistan.

Dr Muhammad Irfan, Consultant Paleontologist,


AKU said that tobacco advertising has been shown
to have strong influence on children and teenagers.
Most countries have completely banned tobacco
advertising in order to discourage the youth from
taking up smoking. He said that tobacco
dependence is generally under treated. People
trying to quit should use medications in
conjunction with as much counseling as possible.

In Sindh, The highest prevalence of cigarettes


smoking among males (48.6%) was seen in those
aged 25-44 years. After this age, there was a
decline in smoking among males in Punjab and
North Western Frontier Province, whereas the
other two provinces, Sindh and Balochistan, did
not show on.

The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was


14.2% (95% CI: 13.6-14.8) in individuals aged ≥ 8
years and 19.4% (95% CI: 19.08-19.72) among
those aged ≥ 15 years. The highest prevalence was
seen in the province of Sindh (16.1%) and the
lowest in North Western Frontier Province (7.1%).

Nearly a quarter of males (25.4%) were smokers


while only 3.5% of females smoked (p < 0.001).
The smoking was slightly more prevalent in urban
areas (15.2%) compared to rural areas (13.7%). y
such trend.

Smoking is common in Pakistan. There is no


clear policy on tobacco
Smoking in Pakistan

Effects of smoking

Diseases Related to Smoking Cigarettes Percent of


All Smokers Dying from Disease in Any Given
Year Lung Cancer (0.28%) Chronic Lung Disease
(0.21%) Coronary Heart Dis. (0.20%) As the
number of smoking years increase, the risk
increases substantial.

Dizziness, faintness, rapid pulse, cold and clammy


skin, N/V, diarrhea either excite or tranquilize
stimulates cerebral cortex and adrenal glands
(epinephrine release) increase blood pressure,
constricted blood vessels.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) and other


cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, aortic
aneurysm, and pulmonary heart disease Lung
cancer and other cancers Chronic obstructive lung
disease (COLD) including emphysema and chronic
bronchitis Additional health, cosmetic, &
economic concerns such as ulcers, impotence,
reproductive health problems, dental diseases,
diminished physical senses, injuries, cosmetic
concerns (wrinkles and more), & economic costs
Cumulative effects on reduced life expectancy and
reduced quality of life.

Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

ETS is also known as secondhand smoke


Mainstream smoke is exhaled by tobacco addicts
Side stream smoke comes off the burning end of
the tobacco product Nonsmokers are subjected to
health hazards Children have increased health
problems Smoking and ETS present dangers for
both a pregnant woman and the fetus Try avoiding
ETS.
Smoking in Pakistan

Estimated 100,000 people die every year from


Tobacco.

Causes of smoking

Nicotine addiction:
Addiction can start a few days after have a few
cigarettes. Half of teenage progress to daily
smoking, and become addicted
Social and psychological factors- physical
addiction, and habits (using tobacco in social
situations), character

Why start in the first place?


Appear older, mature; cool, manly, parents smoke
do not discourage smoking.

Who uses tobacco?


90% of new smokers are children and teens,
average age is 13.

Loss of Control:
75% of tobacco addicts say want to quit 60-80% of
addicts quit at stop-smoking clinics, but nearly all
relapse tobacco addicts have dysfunctional need-
gratification cycle average 40 minutes between
nicotine fix (get edgy, irritable, trouble
concentrating if no drug.
Smoking in Pakistan

Tolerance and Withdrawal:


Need to smoke more to have same effect
withdrawal symptoms- cravings, insomnia,
confusion, tremors, nausea, irritability, anger,
depression most symptoms gone in 2-3 days many
have cravings for several years after stop smoking.

Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence,


reportedly before the time of high school
graduation. Smoking among family members,
peers, teachers, psychological relaxation, pleasure,
and economic factors.

Benefits of Quitting Smoking

• Improved appetite, sense of taste and smell


improved
• Cardiopulmonary functions increased
energy and alertness
• Decreased need for sleep fewer headaches
improved respiratory status
• Reduced risk of lung, oral, and other
cancers.
• Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Behavior Change and Tobacco Addiction


Smoking in Pakistan

(Social Learning Theory)

• Tobacco addicts can quit if they value the


health behavior (VALUE).
• Tobacco addicts must believe they are in
control their own behaviors
• Tobacco addicts must feel confident that
they can stop abusing drugs
• Tobacco addicts must set realistic and
specific goals, both short term and long
term.
• Tobacco addicts must have social support to
maintain a tobacco-free life.

Alternative Products to Help With the Nicotine


Addiction Withdrawal

• Patches
• Gum
• Bottled water (4mg nicotine per bottle).
• Reduced risk of lung, oral, and other cancer

Recommendations

• Tax on tobacco should be increased


• Import of cigarette should be banned
• Anti smoking laws should be strictly
implemented
• People smoking in educational institution
should be expelled at the spot
• Seminars, creating awareness among the
masses about the side effects of smoking,
should be conducted off and on
• Banned the smoking advertisements on
print and electronic media
• Stop to import cigarettes and tobacco
• Shop keepers would not allowed to sell
under 18 age
Smoking in Pakistan

• Guide ness from parents and teachers to


young generation "NO SMOKING"

Conclusion
Smoking is not good for human in any way,
elders should play their role to stop their
children's away from smoking, government
have to play a vital role to control on
smoking by taking steps against tobacco
companies and have to banned the import in
this industry. Government should implement
the laws about smoking.