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Kemahiran : 1.1.1.

2 Describe Evolution Of Computer

Secara amnya evolusi komputer terbahagi kepada lima generasi iaitu:


• Generasi pertama ( 1940-1956 )
• Generasi kedua (1956-1963)
• Generasi ketiga (1964-1971)
• Generasi keempat (1971- kini)
• Generasi kelima (Kini & akan datang)

Nota :
Generasi pertama ( 1940-1956 ):
• Generasi pertama menggunakan tiub vakum sebagai
komponen dalaman komputer.
• Masalah penggunaan tiub vakum adalah penghasilan
haba yang tinggi, memerlukan ruang yang besar.
• Contoh:
o ENIAC, MARK 1, UNIVAC Tiub vakum
Generasi kedua (1956-1963)
• Generasi kedua menggunakan transistor
menggantikan tiub vakum. 1 transistor dapat
menggantikan 40 tiub vakum. Kelebihan transistor
adalah
• Menghasilkan haba yang sedikit berbanding tiub
vakum dan menggunakan tenaga yang kecil. Transistor
• Komputer lebih laju, lebih kecil dan lebih mantap
berbanding generasi pertama.
• Contoh:
o IBM 1401 (model T),

Generasi ketiga (1964-1971)


• Menggunakan teknologi IC (Litar bersepadu) yang
dihasilkan daripada cip silikon. Cip ini juga dikenali
sebagai ’semi conductor’.
• Kelebihannya: lebih kecil, lebih murah berbanding
teknologi transistor.
• Contoh:
o IBM 370, CDC 7600, B2500 Intgrated Circuit ( IC )
Generasi keempat (1971- kini)
• Menggunakan teknologi mikropemproses.
• 1 mikropemproses menyamai 1000 IC.
• Kelebihannya: komputer lebih kecil, kapasiti lebih
tinggi.
• Contoh: pelbagai jenama komputer iaitu
o Apple Macintosh
o IBM
o DELL
o ACER
Mikropemproses
Generasi kelima (Kini & akan datang)
• Berasaskan kepada kecerdasan buatan. teknologi ini
sedang berkembang. Era ini cuba mencipta robot
untuk menggantikan peranan manusia.
• Contoh aplikasi:
o Pengecam suara, industri robotik,

COMPUTER ETHIC
Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for
computer users.

CODE OF ETHIC
Guideline in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical and
unethical
Examples of ethical computer code of conducts include:
• sending warning about viruses to other computer users
• asking permission before sending any business advertisements to others
• using information with authorization

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Intellectual Property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists. These
works are unique and have value in the market place.
PRIVACY
Information privacy is described as the rights of individuals and companies to deny or
restrict the collection and use of information about them.

CYBER LAW
Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online
communication technologies.
SLANDER
- A legal term for false and malicious statement (meaning knowing that it is false,
or “reckless disregard” that it was false) untruth story about someone.

What is pornography?

- any form of media or material (like books or photographs) that depicts erotic
behaviour and is intended to cause sexual excitement.

B.Why is pornography considered “negative” content?

- Pornography tends to exploit men, women and children in a distasteful manner.

COMPUTER CRIMES
A computer crime is defined as any criminal activity that is related
to the use of computers. These activities include computer fraud,
copyright infringement, computer theft and computer attack.

i) COMPUTER FRAUD
Computer fraud is defined as having an intention to take advantage over or causing
loss to other people, mainly on monetary basis through the use of computers.

There are many forms of computer fraud which include e-mail hoaxes, programmer
fraud, investment schemes, sales promotions and claims of expertise on certain
fields.

ii) COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT pelanggaran hakcipta


Pelanggaran hakcipta bermaksud pencabulan ke atas hak-hak yang
dilindungi oleh Akta Hakcipta.Ia adalah perbuatan di mana
pengguna meniru, menyalin atau mengambil harta intelek tanpa
kebenaran pemilik yang sah. Ini termasuklah pelakuan menyalin
dan menjual buku, program komputer , video dll tanpa kebenaran
hakmilik.

ii) COMPUTER THEFT


Computer theft is defined as the unauthorized used of another person’s property with
the intention to deny the owner the rightful possession of that property or its use.

Examples of computer theft include:

• transfer of payments to the wrong accounts


• tap into data transmission lines on database at no cost
• divert goods to the wrong destination

iii) COMPUTER ATTACK


Computer attack may be defined as any activities taken to disrupt
he equipment of computer systems, change processing control or
corrupt stored data.

Computer attack can be in the forms of:

• physical attack that disrupt the computer facility or its transmission lines.
• an electronic attack that uses the power of electromagnetic energy to
overload computer circuitry.

Langkah-langkah keselamatan:

1. Antivirus

 Maksud – Perisian antivirus melindungi komputer

daripada serangan virus.

 Kegunaan - Program antivirus mengimbas program,

mengenal pasti, dan membuangnya dari memori

komputer, media storan atau files dari email.

 Cara menggunakan Antivirus.

1. ‘Install’ antivirus.

2. Mengimbas virus di media storan.


3. Jika virus dijumpai, pengguna perlu memadamkan virus.

2. Antispyware

 Maksud – Perisian antispyware yang melindungi komputer daripada serangan

spyware. Spyware merupakan perisian mengumpul maklumat tanpa atau

dengan pengetahuan pengguna untuk tujuan pengiklanan.

 Kegunaan – Program antispyware mengimbas program, mengenal pasti dan

membuang spyware dari memori komputer, media storan.

 Cara menggunakan antispyware.

1. ‘Install’ antispyware.

2. Mengimbas spyware di media storan.

3. Jika spyware dijumpai, pengguna perlu memadamkan spyware.

3. Kriptografi

 Maksud – proses menyembunyikan maklumat dengan mengubah maklumat

sebenar kepada bentuk lain, contohnya APA diubah ditulis sebagai I.


 Kegunaan – Menyembunyikan maklumat penting daripada pengetahuan orang

ramai. Kriptografi menukar maklumat penting kepada bentuk kod iaitu dalam

bentuk cipher.

 Proses kriptografi:

Plaintext encrypt Ciphertext

Bahasa yang tidak


Bahasa yang difahami difahami.
oleh pengguna

Plaintext decrypt Ciphertext

4. Firewall

 Maksud - perkakasan atau perisian yang berfungsi dalam rangkaian untuk

menghalang komunikasi yang tidak dibenarkan.

 Kegunaan – Menghalang penceroboh dari mengakses masuk ke dalam

komputer.

 Cara Menggunakan Firewall:

1. Memasang Perkakasan ‘firewall’.

2. ‘Install’ perisian ‘firewall’.

3. Buat konfigurasi pada firewall.


4. Sentiasa pastikan firewall berfungsi.

5. Data Backup

 Maksud – satu proses menyalin maklumat atau data dari satu storan yang sama

atau ke storan yang lain.

 Kegunaan – Memastikan data dan maklumat boleh digunakan jika data asal

hilang, rosak dan diubah suai akibat virus, trojan, worm dan logic bomb.

6. Aspek Kemanusiaan.

 Maksud – merujuk kepada pengguna dan penceroboh komputer sistem.

 Kegunaan – Aspek yang paling sukar untuk memberi perlindungan kepada

data dan perkakasan komputer. Perlindungan itu merujuk kepada Kesedaran

Organisasi dan Individu itu sendiri.

 Tindakan yang boleh diambil dari segi aspek kemanusiaan :

1. Terapkan nilai-nilai moral dan etika kerja dalam penggunaan komputer.

2. Memberi pendedahan kepada pengguna keburukan penyalahgunaan komputer.

3. Mengadakan kempen kesedaran kepada pengguna internet.

4. Mengadakan kursus keselamatan komputer kepada pekerja syarikat.


HERTZ
The clock speed unit is measured in hertz. A hertz is one cycle per second.

MEGAHERTZ (MHz)
Mega is a prefix that stands for million. Thus, megahertz (MHz) equals to one million
cycles of the system clock. A computer that operates at 933 MHz (megahertz) has 933
million clock cycles in one second.

GIGAHERTZ (GHz)
Giga is a prefix that stands for billion.Gigahertz (GHz) equals to one billion cycles of the
system clock.In relation with megahertz,1.0 GHz is equivalent to 1000 MHz.

For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per
second. This is what they are talking about if they say a computer is a 2.4 GHz machine.
Its clock rate is 2.4 billion cycles per second.
GHz is most often used as a measurement of a PC processor chip and power, with bigger
numbers meaning more speed and higher price.
There are three types of networks:

• Local Area Network or LAN

• Metropolitan Area Network or MAN

• Wide Area Network or WAN

Local Area Network or LAN

Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that connects to the computer and

devices in a limited geographical area. The simplest form of LAN is to connect two

computers together.

LAN is operated within a limited physical area, such as at home, school, a single

building or several buildings

Examples LAN :

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MAN can be defined as a group of network computers and network devices

connected together located at different sites within a large physical area such as a city.
MAN can be best connected using fiber optics. Sometimes, a MAN can be a

collection of several LANs within the same city.

Examples MAN :

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Wide Area Network (WAN) is the largest network of all

network types. The Internet is the largest WAN in the

world. WAN generally covers large distances such as

states, countries or continents.

An example in the society using WAN is the

banking organisation. Local banks have always

maintained their business online by connecting all computers of their branches in the

countries.

Actually, WAN is a group of MANs or LANs or the mixture of both networks.

A device called a router is needed to connect the MANs and LANs all over a large

physical area.

Define Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as a


protocol to facilitate communication over computer network.

TCP/IP is short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ; is


the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar
networks. Communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data
representation, signaling, authentication and error detection required to
send information over a communications channel
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet
Protocol Suite. Creates a reliable connection between two computers. TCP establishes a
communications session between two computers connected via the Internet. During this

Notes:
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC)
1. A network card is an adapter card or PC card.

Function of network interface card


• enables computer or device to access network.
• Coordinate the transmission and receipt of data, instruction and
information.

• WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (WNIC)


Wireless Network Interface Card is a network card that provides wireless data
transmission.

INTERNAL MODEM
An internal modem only works in stand-alone computers. It is built into the
computer. Function of Modem
• converts the digital signals from a computer to an
analogue signals that can be transmitted along an
ordinary phone line
• allows computers to connect to the Internet through
a telephone line
• converts information send into sounds (the
MOdulator part) which a modem on the other end of
the phone line can translate back into information
(the DEModulator part).
EXTERNAL MODEM
An external modem is separated from the computer and is also mobile.

HUB/SWITCH
Hub or switch is a common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are
commonly used to connect segments of a LAN hub or switch

ROUTER
A router is a communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers
together and transmits data to the correct destination.

WIRELESS ACCESS POINT


• A wireless access point is a central communications device that allow computers
to transfer data.
There are five main element for
multimedia

Item Elements Explanation

1 Text Text is a series of one or more string that can be displayed within a
user interface component. Text is the basic element of multimedia. It
involves the use of text types, sizes, colours and background colour.
2 Graphic Graphic is any illustrative element in a page layout, such as a
photography, illustration, icon, ruled line, or any other non-text
element. Graphics make the multimedia application attractive. There
are two types of graphics used : bitmaps or vector
3 Video Electronic signal of moving graphics, pictures and text used to
combine a fluent source of images used for entertainment, education
or other uses.
Audio is the sound portion which contains sound effect, speech,
4 Audio
music or narration.
Animation is a sequence of static images, once put together one after
5 Animation
the other, from a moving image.
STANDARD FILE FORMATS

Each of the five elements mentioned has various standard file formats. file format is a
particular way to store information in a computer. The formats will allow you to make
decisions of the type of text, graphic, audio, video and animation to use when developing
your own multimedia program.

STANDARD FILE FORMATS FOR EACH ELEMENT

File
Element Full Name
Format
Text ∗ .doc Microsoft Word Document
∗ .txt Text File
∗ .rtf Rich Text File
Graphic ∗ .jpg Joint Photographic Expert Group
∗ .gif Graphics Interchange Format
∗ .tiff Tagged Image File Format
∗ .bmp Bitmap
∗ .png Portable Network Graphics
∗ .psd Kodak Photoshop Document
Video ∗ .avi Audio Video Interleaved
∗ .mov Apple Quicktime Movie
∗ .mpeg Moving Picture Experts Group
∗ .wmv Window Media Video
∗ .mp4 MPEG-4 Part 14
Audio ∗ .wav Wave form (Microsoft)
∗ .midi Musical Instrument Digital Interface
∗ .aiff Audio Interchange File Format
∗ .au Audio (Sun Microsystem)
∗ .wma Windows Media Audio
∗ .mp3 Moving Picture Experts Group-1 Audio Layer 3
Animation ∗ .swf Macromedia Flash
∗ .gif Gif Animation
∗ .swi Swish Animation
Multimedia ∗ .au7 Macromedia Authorware 7
Application ∗ .fla Macromedia Flash 8
(Authoring ∗ .tbk Sumtotal Toolbook Assistant
Tools)
Web Pages ∗ .asp Active Server Page
∗ .php PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
∗ .htm Hypertext Markup Language
∗ .jsp Java Server Page
PHASES IN MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION

Problem statement and proposal. During the Analysis


Phase, the multimedia developers interview the clients to
Analysis Description find out their needs write the problem statement and a
proposal

Flow Chat and Storyboard. The multimedia developer


wil 1) Design a flow chart and story board
Design 2) Choose the colours and layout of each individual
Description
screen
3) Determine the position of navigation button

Implementatio Multimedia program.Once the storyboard is confirmed,


n Description the multimedia developers will start implementation
phases refers to the proses of converting the design plan
into a multimedia. This is the phase where the multimedia
program is produce.

Testing Checklist. The multimedia developers will use a


Description checklist to test the multimedia program. If the are any
errors, the programmer will fix the program.

Evaluation form. In the evaluation phase, selected users


Evaluation
will use an evaluation form to try out the program and
Description
give feedback

Checklist. The multimedia developers will use a


Publishing Desription checklist to test the multimedia program. If the are any
errors, the programmer will fix the program.
What is editing software?

Editing Software is a software that can be used to produce multimedia elements. The

examples of editing software that available for producing a multimedia program are:

Elements Functions of Editing Software Examples of Editing Software


Text Text Editor - To insert text or to edit • Notepad

plain text into multimedia application • Microsoft Word

• Open Office Writer

• KWord
Graphic Graphic Editor - To manipulate • Adobe Photoshop CS3

graphics such as crop, layout, combine • Adobe Illustrator CS3

graphic • Jasc paint Shop Pro

• Corel Draw 12

• Ulead PhotoImpact 12
Audio Audio Editor - To edit audio such as • Sound Forge 7.0

cut and paste audio file • Sound Recorder

• WavPad

• Adobe Audition
Video Video Editor – To edit video • Pinnacle Studio

• Adobe Premier

• Sony Vegas

• Adobe After Effects

• Ulead Video Studio 9.0


Animation Animation Editor – To create and edit • Macromedia Flash
animation such as Flying title, moving • Ulead GIF Animator

object. (Web animation)

• Swish

• 3D Studio Max

• Maya

• Lightwave 3D

Note:

A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no


abstraction from computer’s microprocessor.

1. FIRST GENERATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

The first generation of programming language, or 1GL, is machine language.


Machine language is a set of instructions and data that a computer's central processing
unit can execute directly. Machine language statements are written in binary code, and
each statement corresponds to one machine action.

2. SECOND GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

The second generation programming language, or 2GL, is assembly language.


Assembly language is the human-readable notation for the machine language used to
control specific computer operations. An assembly language programmer writes
instructions using symbolic instruction codes that are meaningful abbreviations or
mnemonics.

An assembler is a program that translates assembly language into machine


language. Since assembly language consist of human-readable abbreviations, the
assembler must first convert assembly language into machine-readable language before
the computer can readily understand its instructions.

3. THIRD GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE


The third generation of programming language, 3GL, or procedural language uses
a series of English-like words that are closer to human language, to write instructions.
High-level programming languages make complex programming simpler and
easier to read, write and maintain.
Programs written in a high-level programming language must be translated into
machine language by a compiler or interpreter.
PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C and C++ are examples of third
generation programming languages.

4. FOURTH GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

The fourth generation programming language or non-procedural language, often


abbreviated as 4GL, enables users to access data in a database.
A very high-level programming language is often referred to as goal-oriented
programming language because it is usually limited to a very specific application and it
might use syntax that is never used in other programming languages.
SQL, NOMAD and FOCUS are examples of fourth generation programming
languages.

5. FIFTH GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

The fifth generation programming language or visual programming language, is


also known as natural language.
It provides a visual or graphical interface, called a visual programming
environment, for creating source codes.
Fifth generation programming allows people to interact with computers without
needing any specialised knowledge.
People can talk to computers and the voice recognition systems can convert
spoken sounds into written words, but these systems do not understand what they are
writing; they simply take dictation.
Prolog and Mercury are the best known fifth-generation languages.

CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES

Constants

Constant is a data container that stores information. The value will never change (remains

constant) at any time during the course of a program.

Declare is the official term used in programming to announce to the program the

condition of statement in programming.


Variables

Variable is a data container that stores information. The value inside may change at any

time during the course of a program.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES

Constants Variables
Characteristics Value is not changeable during Value can be changed anytime

the course of the program. during the course of the program.


Usage Use constant when you want to Use variable to store data that

declare something that won’t may or will change during the

be changed midway in your running of the program.

program execution.
There are three types of errors uncovered during this phase: syntax
errors, logic errors and run-time errors.

SYNTAX ERROR
When the code violates the syntax of the programming language, a
syntax
error occurs.

A syntax error is caused by a wrong spelling in command and


declaration. Other syntax errors include case sensitive, punctuation
and wrong word command.

They either show up as you type the program code, or if you have
turned off the automatic syntax error check, the syntax errors show up
when you try to run or compile the program.