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ASME Section I & Section VIII

Fundamentals

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Jurandir Primo

ASME Section I & Section VIII - Fundamentals


Jurandir Primo
Copyright @ 2012
1 edio junho de 2012
Capa:
Jurandir Primo

Primo, Jurandir
ASME Section I & Section VIII - Fundamentals
Indice para pesquisas: ASME, Vasos de Presso, Tubulao e
Acessrios.
ISBN:

Livro no sistema de auto publicao cuja edio, reviso, diagramao e capa foram selecionados
pelo prprio autor, para no encarecer a obra e facilitar a compra, a todos os estudantes e interessados em assuntos tcnicos e engenharia de equipamentos.
Portanto, qualquer pessoa pode ter esse livro, sem necessidade de copiar, digitalizar ou utilizar
outros processos de reproduo, porque foi executado para custar menos que o valor de uma pizza.
No entanto, o autor permite que todas as partes do livro possam ser copiadas ou reproduzidas para
fundamentos educacionais, instrutivos e treinamento tcnico.
Para adquirir esta ou outras publicaes do autor, enviar solicitao para:
engprimo@msn.com.

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

PREFACE:
The goal of this manual is to describe some of the most important functions of pressure vessels
design and calculations according to the ASME code, interre-lated especially with materials,
allowable stress and the need to provide reaso-nable inspection requirements.
When writing a book for a particular population, it is necessary to make a choice as to the
treatment to be given to the matter. Technological development, currently is very fast, then, it is
necessary to establish and understand the concepts.
In developing each subject, the fundamental concepts were searched through examples of
didactic forms, not for specialists who already dominate the subject, but for students from
several classes interested in this matter.
Because of the existing communication facilities, future technicians and engineers, will certainly
be better than the past generations, but they should be, more than anything, respected for their
efforts to contribute to a new reality.
The author perfectly understands that is not an expert writer and is open to constructive criticism
and suggestions for improvement of this book.
This book is to everyone who, just like me, came from small to big cities, to study, to work, to
face all kinds of difficulties. However, even without the preparation of modern computer
programs, seeks to contribute to the needs of education and instruction for all social levels, that
should be the true values of democracy, development and progress in any country.

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Esse manual parte de uma srie de publicaes para as diversas reas de Engenharia:
Tecnologia de Soldagem;
Transportadores de Correia e Corrente;
Bombas Centrfugas;
Slos Mecnicos;
Compressores de Ar;
HVAC Ar Condicionado;
Torres de Resfriamento;
Ventilao Industrial;
Vasos de Presso Normas ASME;
Trocadores de Calor;
Vlvulas Industriais;
Tubulao Industrial;
Pavimentao Asfltica;
Outros...

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

Contents

I.

INTRODUCTION

II.

SECTION I & SECTION VIII FUNDAMENTALS

III.

ASME SECTION I POWER BOILERS

IV.

ASME SECTION I DESIGN, INSPECTION & REPAIR

V.

ASME SECTION VIII PRESSURE VESSELS

VI.

ASME SECTION VIII Division 1, Division 2, Division 3

VII. SHELL NOZZLES FUNDAMENTALS


VIII. ASME MATERIALS
IX.

MAWP Maximum Allowable Stress Values

X.

ASME SECTION VIII Div.1, Suplementary Design Formulas

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To :
All teachers of my childhood , since my first letters , elementary, high
school and college ;
All who, with absolute sincerity, fights for social justice and life
environment;
Every one that has gone and everyone who came to this planet as
missionaries of :
Education.

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

I. INTRODUCTION:
The ASME Code design criteria consists of basic rules specifying the design method, design loads,
allowable stress, acceptable materials, fabrication, testing, certification and inspection
requirements.The design method known as "design by rule" uses design pressure, allowable stress
and a design formula compatible with the geometry to calculate the minimum required thickness of
pressurized tanks, vessels and pipes.
The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code is made of 12 sections and contains over 15 divisions and subsections.
1.0 - Code Sections
I. Power Boilers
II. Materials
III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
IV. Heating Boilers
V. Nondestructive Examination
VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
VIII. Pressure Vessels
IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications
X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
1.1 - SECTION I. Power Boilers
This Section provides requirements for all methods of construction of power, electric, and miniature
boilers; high temperature water boilers used in stationary service; and power boilers used in
locomotive, portable, and traction service.
1.2 - SECTION II. Materials

Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications


Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications
Part C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals
Part D - Properties

1.3 - SECTION III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components

Subsection NCA - General Requirements for Divisions 1 and 2

1.3.1 - DIVISION 1

Subsection NB- Class 1 Components


Subsection NC- Class 2 Components
Subsection ND- Class 3 Components
Subsection NE- Class MC Components
Subsection NF - Supports
Subsection NG - Core Support Structures
Subsection NH - Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service

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1.3.2 - DIVISION 2

Code for Concrete Containments

1.3.3 - DIVISION 3

Containments for Transportation and Storage

1.4 - SECTION IV. Heating Boilers


Requirements for design, fabrication, installation and inspection of steam generating boilers, and hot
water boilers intended for low pressure service that are directly fired by oil, gas, electricity, or coal. It
contains appendices which cover approval of new material, methods of checking safety valve, safety
relief valve capacity, definitions relating to boiler design and welding and quality control systems.
1.5 - SECTION V. Nondestructive Examination
Requirements and methods for nondestructive examination which are referenced and required by
other code Sections. It also includes manufacturer's examination responsibilities, duties of authorized
inspectors and requirements for qualification of personnel, inspection and examination.
1.6 - SECTION VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
It defines general descriptions, terminology and guidelines applicable to steel and cast iron boilers
limited to the operating ranges of Section IV Heating Boilers. It includes guidelines for associated
controls and automatic fuel burning equipment.
1.7 - SECTION VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
Guidelines to promote safety in the use of stationary, portable, and traction type heating boilers. The
section provides guidelines to assist operators of power boilers in maintaining their plants as safely
as possible. Contains fuels for routine operation; Operating and maintaining boiler appliances;
Inspection and prevention of boiler failure; Design of installation; Operation of boiler auxiliaries;
Control of internal chemical conditions
1.8 - SECTION VIII. Pressure Vessels
Division 1 - Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and
certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig.
Division 2 - Alternative rules, requirements to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and
certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig.
Division 3 - Alternative rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels, provides requirements
applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels
operating at either internal or external pressures generally above 10,000 psi.
1.9 - SECTION IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Rules relating to the qualification of welding and brazing procedures as required by other Code
Sections for component manufacture. Covers rules are related to the qualification and re-qualification
of welders and welding and brazing operators in order that they may perform welding or brazing as
required by other Code Sections in the manufacture of components.

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

1.10 - SECTION X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels


Requirements for construction of FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Plastic) pressure vessels in conformance
with a manufacturer's design report. It includes production, processing, fabrication, inspection and
testing methods required.
1.11 - SECTION XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
Requirements for the examination, in-service testing and inspection, and repair and replacement of
components and systems in light-water cooled and liquid-metal cooled nuclear power plants.
1.12 - SECTION XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
Requirements for construction and continued service of pressure vessels for the transportation of
dangerous goods via highway, rail, air or water at pressures from full vacuum to 3,000 psig and
volumes greater than 120 gallons.
2.0 - The ASME B31 Code
ASME B31 was earlier known as ANSI B31. The B31 Code for Pressure Piping, covers Power
Piping, Fuel Gas Piping, Process Piping, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and Other Liquids, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components and Building Services Piping.
Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the pressure
containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports, and other
equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not
include support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or foundations.
2.1 - B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping
Required piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes requirements for
the design, materials, fabrication, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems
for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers, high temperature, high pressure water
boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 psig; and high temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 psig and/or temperatures exceeding 250F.
2.2 - B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping
This has been withdrawn as a National Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is
still available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas piping systems (from the
meter to the appliance).
2.3 - B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping
Code rules for design of chemical, petroleum plants, refineries, hydrocarbons, water and steam. This
Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical,
textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.
It prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection,
examination, inspection, and testing of piping. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or
stages within a packaged equipment assembly.
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2.4 - B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and
testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas
liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid
petroleum products between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants,
refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and truck) and other delivery and
receiving points.
The requirements for offshore pipelines are found in Chapter IX. Also included within the scope of this
Code are:

Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at
pipeline terminals (marine, rail and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure reducing stations
and metering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and proper loops;
Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe and fittings, and
piping interconnecting these facilities;
Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property which has been
set aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia,
and bulk plants;
Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety
and protection of the general public, operating company personnel, environment, property and the
piping systems.
2.5 - B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test,
and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for
temperatures as low as -320 F (-196 C), whether erected on the premises or factory assembled,
except as specifically excluded in the following paragraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration piping
in their respective jurisdictions.
This Code shall not apply to:
Any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories
or other nationally recognized testing laboratory:
Water piping and piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not exceeding 15 psi
(105 kPa) regardless of size; or
Pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all connecting refrigerant and
secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such apparatus.
2.6 - B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities used
for the transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance
of those facilities.
2.7 - B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines
This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that
transport gas. Pipeline system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported,
including pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator
stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

The principles and processes are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically
designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop
and implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and
processes. The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline
system.
2.8 - B31.9 - 1996 - Building Services Piping
This Code Section has rules for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings,
and multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures
covered in B31.1.
This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection,
examination and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes piping systems in the
building or within the property limits.
2.9 - B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
Rule for design, construction, inspection and security requirements of slurry piping systems. This
code covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous materials, such as coal,
mineral ores and other solids between a slurry processing plant and the receiving plant.
2.10 - B31G - 1991 - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines
The scope of this Manual includes all pipelines within the scope of the pipeline codes that are part of
ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping, ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,
Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols; ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and
Distribution Piping Systems; and ASME B31.11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems. Parts 2, 3,
and 4 are based on material included in ASME Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
Systems, 1983 Edition.
3.0 - ASME Certification and Inspection Procedures:
The symbols "A", "S", "U", "PP" and "H" Stamps covers the fabrication and alteration of high pressure boilers, unfired pressure vessels, power piping and heating boilers. Once any ASME Pressure
Vessel is manufactured, it is checked, tested and approved by the ASME Authorized Inspector, who
review all the procedures and all the documentation and sign the Data Report Form before to Stamp
the name plate with the U or UM symbols, which means that the Pressure Vessel fully complies
with the ASME Code rules for construction of Pressure Vessels.
The National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors uses the NB Symbol as well the
R Symbol to repair or to alter any previous Stamped Pressure Vessel. All materials used must be
very well documented and all welders must be certified. Manufacturers have an Authorized
Inspector, who judges the acceptability of the code.
The quality of weld is then checked for lack of weld penetration, slag inclusion, overlap and
excessive reinforcement. At the final inspection the units are hydrostatically tested at 1.5 times
working pressure and observed for leaks.

Imperial and Metric Values:

Professionals and students should be well versed in conversion practice. Many US customary unit
values presented in the ASME codes do not convert directly into metric values in the ASME editions.
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II. SECTION I & SECTION VIII Fundamentals:


The formulae in ASME Section I and Section VIII are used to determine the minimum required
thickness and design pressure of piping, tubes, drums and headers using the Maximum
Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP).
However, Paragraph UG-31 states, that these formulae may be also used for calculating wall
thickness of tubes and pipes under internal pressure.
2.1 Design:
The ASME Boiler Code Section I, as well as Section VIII, requires longitudinal and circumferential
butt joints to be examined by full radiograph. When the vessel design is required fully radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joint, the cylindrical shell will have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 1.0.
This factor corresponds to a safety factor (or material quality factor) of 3.5 in the parent metal.
When the vessel design is required non radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joints the vessel will
have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 0.7, which corresponds to a safety factor of 0.5 in., resulting in
an increase of 43% in the thickness of the plates.
2.2 Pressure Vessels Maximum Allowable Stress Values
The maximum allowable stress values be used in the calculation of wall thickness are given in the
ASME Code for many different materials. These stress values are a function of temperature.
Maximum Allowable Stress Value for Common Steels
Material

Carbon Steel
Plates and
Sheets

High Alloy
Steel Plates

Spec. Nbr

Grade

SA - 516

Grade
Grade
Grade
Grade

55
60
65
70

SA - 285

Grade A
Grade B
Grade C

SA - 36

DIVISION 1 DIVISION 2
-20F to
-20F to
650F
650F
13,800
18,300
15,000
20,000
16,300
21,700
17,500
23,300
11,300
12,500
13,800

15,000
16,700
18,300

12,700

16,900

SA - 203

Grade
Grade
Grade
Grade

A
B
D
E

16,300
17,500
16,300
17,500

21,700
23,300
21,700
23,300

SA - 240

Grade
Grade
Grade
Grade

304
304L
316
316L

11,200
12,300
10,200

20,000
16,700
20,000
16,700

Division 1 governs the design by Rules, is less stringent from the standpoint of certain design details
and inspection procedures, and thus incorporates a higher safety factor of 4. For example, if a
60,000 psi tensile strength material is used, the Maximum Allowable Stress Value is 15,000 psi.
Division 2 governs the design by Analysis and incorporates a lower safety factor of 3. Thus, the
maximum allowable stress value for a 60,000 psi tensile strength material will become 20,000 psi.

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

Many companies require that all their pressure vessels be constructed in accordance with Division 2
because of the more exacting standards. Others find that they can purchase less expensive
vessels by allowing manufacturers the choice of either Division 1 or Division 2.
Normally, manufacturers will choose Division 1 for low-pressure vessels and Division 2 for highpressure vessels. The maximum allowable stress values at normal temperature range for the steel
plates most commonly used in the fabrication of pressure vessels are given in Table above.

III. ASME SECTION I - POWER BOILERS


The scope of jurisdiction of Section I applies to boilers and boilers external piping. Superheaters,
economizers, and other pressure parts connected directly to the boiler, without valves, are
considered to be parts of the proper boiler and their construction shall conform to Section I. The
ASME Section I, paragraphs PG-1, PG-2 covers rules construction of power boilers, electric boilers,
miniature boilers, and high temperature water boilers.
1.0 - Materials:
Steel plates for boilers subject to pressure, whether or not exposed to the fire, shall be in
accordance with the specifications in ASME Section I, paragraph PG-6.1. Paragraph PG-9 states
that pipes, tubes, and pressure containing parts used in boilers shall be according to the
specifications listed in paragraph PG-9.1.
2.0 - Design:
The ASME Section I, paragraph PG-16.3 states that the minimum thickness of any boiler plate
under pressure shall be 6 mm (1/4). The minimum thickness of plates where stays may be
attached shall be 8 mm (5/16). When pipe over 125 mm (5.0) O.D. is used in lieu of plate for the
shell of cylindrical components under pressure, its minimum wall thickness shall be 6 mm (1/4).
The ASME Section I, Paragraph PG-21, states that the term Maximum Allowable Working
Pressure (MAWP) refers to gauge pressure, except when noted in the calculation formula.
3.0 - Cylindrical Components under Internal Pressure:
The formulae in ASME Section I - Paragraph PG-27, are used to determine the minimum required
thickness of piping, tubes, drums, and headers, when the maximum allowable working pressure is
known. These formulae can also be transposed to determine the maximum allowable working
pressure when the minimum required thickness is given.
The symbols used in the formulae are found in paragraph PG-27.3 and are defined as follows:
C = Minimum allowance for threading and structural stability (mm, inches) (see PG-27.4)
D = Outside diameter of cylinder (mm, inches)
E = Efficiency of longitudinal welded joints. A fully radiographed major longitudinal butt-welded joint in
a cylindrical shell would have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 1.0. Non radiographed longitudinal buttwelded joints have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 0.7.
e = Thickness factor for expanded tube ends (mm, inches) (see PG-27.4)
P = Maximum allowable working pressure (MPa, Kg/cm, psi) refers to gauge pressure)
R = Inside radius of cylinder (mm, psi)
S = Maximum allowable stress value at the operating temperature (Section II, Part D, Table 1A. See
PG-27.4) t = Minimum required thickness (mm, psi) (see PG-27.4)
y = Temperature coefficient (see PG-27.4)
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4.0 - SECTION I Calculation:


The following formulae are found in ASME Section I, paragraph PG-27.2.1.
a) Formula for minimum required thickness:

b) Formula for gauge maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP):

IV. ASME SECTION I - DESIGN, INSPECTION & REPAIR


Provides requirements for construction of power, electric, and miniature boilers; high temperature
water boilers used in stationary service; and power boilers used in locomotive, portable, and traction
service.
Rules allow the use of the V, A, M, PP, S and E symbol stamps. The rules are applicable to boilers in
which steam is generated at pressures exceeding 15 psig, and high temperature water boilers for
operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig and/or temperatures exceeding 250 F.
This code covers power boiler superheaters, economizers, and other pressure parts connected
directly to the boiler without intervening valves are considered as part of the scope of Section 1.

1.0 SECTION I Boiler Tubes up to and including 5 inches O.D. (125 mm):
a) To calculate the minimum required thickness, to paragraph PG-27.2.1, use equation below:

b) To calculate the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP):

Where:
t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in)
P = Design Pressure (psi)
D = Tube Outside Diameter (in)
e = Thickness Factor (0.04 for expanded tubes; 0 = for strength welded tubes)
S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II, Table 1A

ASME Section I and Section VIII - Fundamentals

Example 1 - Boiler Tube:


Calculate the minimum required wall thickness of a water tube boiler 2.75 in O.D., strength welded (e
= 0) into place in a boiler. The tube has an average wall temperature of 650F. The Maximum
Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is 580 psi gauge. Material is carbon steel SA-192.
Note: Before starting calculations check the correct stress table in ASME Section II, Table 1A:
SA-192 = 11,800 psi allowable stress Div. 1.
Solution:
For tubing up to and including 5 in O.D., use equation 1.1 above.
P = [580 psi]
D = [2.75 in]
e = 0 (strength welded)
S = [11,800 psi] at [650F])
t=

2.75 x 580
2 (11,800) + 580

+ 0.005 (2.75) + 0

t = 0.079 in.
Note: Where the manufacturing process produces only standard plate thickness, so should be used
1/8 in (3.2 mm) minimum.

2.0 SECTION I Piping, Drums, and Headers:


The following formulae are found in ASME Section I, paragraph PG-27.2.2. The information for
piping, drums, or headers may be given with either the inside I or outside (D) measurement.
a) Using the outside diameter:

b) Using the inside radius:

Where:
t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in)
P = Design Pressure (psi)
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