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Research Final Report

for
Research Project T2696, Task 02
Development Of High Performance Concrete And
Evaluation Of Construction Joints In
Concrete Floating Bridges

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE AND


EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN
CONCRETE FLOATING BRIDGES

by
Rafik Itani, Eyad Masad, Bart Balko and Brian Bayne
Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164

Washington State Department of Transportation


Technical Monitor
Geoff Swett, Bridge Engineer
Prepared for
Washington State Transportation Commission
Department of Transportation
and in cooperation with
US Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration

July, 2003

1. REPORT NO.

2. GOVERNMENT ACCESSION NO.

3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NO.

WA-RD 649.1

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE AND


EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN
CONCRETE FLOATING BRIDGES

July, 2003

7. AUTHOR(S)

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.

6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE

Rafik Itani, Eyad Masad, Bart Balko and Brian Bayne


9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

10. WORK UNIT NO.

Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC)


Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sloan Hall, Room 101
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99164-2910
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS

11. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO.

T2696 Task 02
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED

Research Office

Final Report

Washington State Department of Transportation


Transportation Building, MS 7370
Olympia, Washington 98504-7370

14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE

15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

This study was conducted in cooperation with US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
16. ABSTRACT

ii

Floating bridge concrete must be watertight, durable, workable, and must have sufficient cohesiveness to prevent segregation in
heavily congested deep walls. The mix design must experience minimal creep and shrinkage to reduce prestress losses, and shrinkage
cracking. As a result of recent concrete research, new mixes were created incorporating various quantities of fly ash, silica fume,
metakaolin, poly-carboxylate ether superplasticizers, and Caltite waterproofing admixture. This research focuses on concrete with a water
binder ratio of 0.33 and a slump in the range of 8 to 9 inches. Workability characteristics of the fresh concrete are analyzed and hardened
concrete properties tested in this research are compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and creep and drying shrinkage properties.
It was found that metakaolin was successful in producing mix designs with similar properties as Silica fume modified concrete.
Satisfactory strength was achieved through increasing the fly ash and lowering the silica fume contents, though, chloride ion permeability
was negatively affected. The removal of silica fume and the inclusion of Caltite decreased the concretes resistance to chloride ion
permeability and produced concrete that failed to attain the required 28-day ultimate compressive strength of 6500 psi.
The second part of this study focuses on developing an experimental setup to evaluate products and construction methods to help
prevent water leakage through construction joints in pontoon floating bridges. A pressure system was used to apply significant pressures to
concrete test specimens containing a construction joint. Different products and construction methods were used in constructing the joints
to determine the most effective methods for preventing water penetration in the field.
The testing results have shown compaction effort is the most important factor in water leakage through a joint. Increased
compaction in laboratory specimens leads to less water leakage through construction joints. Product selection was ineffective in preventing
water leakage if concrete compaction was inadequate.
17. KEY WORDS

18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

Key words: Concrete, Performance, Fly


Ash, Silica Fume, Metakaolin,
Polycarboxylate, Caltite, Creep, Shrinkage,
Compressive Strength, Permeability,
Construction Joint, Leakage, Waterstop,
Compaction, Watertight

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the


National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22616

19. SECURITY CLASSIF. (of this


report)

None

20. SECURITY CLASSIF. (of this page)

21. NO. OF PAGES

None

22. PRICE

236 pages

DISCLAIMER
The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the
facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect
the official views or policies of the Washington State Transportation Commission,
Department of Transportation, or the Federal Highway Administration. The report does
not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................ vii


LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... ix
SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 2

1.1

Background ......................................................................................................... 2

1.2

Problem Statement .............................................................................................. 3

1.3

Objectives ........................................................................................................... 6

1.4

Task Summary .................................................................................................... 7

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................... 10

2.1

Concrete for the Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge......................................... 10

2.2

Creep of Concrete ............................................................................................. 12

2.2.1

Creep affected by concrete composition................................................... 15

2.2.2

Creep related to compressive strength and shrinkage............................... 24

2.3

Other Concrete materials and Admixtures........................................................ 28

CHAPTER 3:

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS............................................................ 32

3.1

MATERIALS and Mix Designs ....................................................................... 32

3.2

Creep ................................................................................................................. 41

3.3

Shrinkage .......................................................................................................... 52

3.4

Compressive Strength ....................................................................................... 53

3.5

Chloride Ion Penetration ................................................................................... 54

iv

CHAPTER 4:

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ............................... 56

4.1

Concrete Mix Designs....................................................................................... 57

4.2

Creep ................................................................................................................. 58

4.3

Shrinkage .......................................................................................................... 69

4.4

Compressive Strength ....................................................................................... 72

4.5

Chloride Ion Penetration ................................................................................... 75

CHAPTER 5:

Summary and Conclusions ................................................................... 80

REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 83
CHAPTER 6:

LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................... 87

6.1

Floating Bridge History .................................................................................... 87

6.2

Hood Canal Design and Construction............................................................... 87

6.3

Mix Design........................................................................................................ 89

6.4

Water Leakage Tests through Cracked Concrete Elements.............................. 90

6.5

Moist Curing and Permeability......................................................................... 95

6.6

Waterstop Testing ............................................................................................. 96

6.7

Compaction Level for Concrete Construction Joints........................................ 97

6.8

Summary........................................................................................................... 98

CHAPTER 7:

MATERIALS AND TESTING METHODS ........................................ 99

7.1

Mix Design Specifications................................................................................ 99

7.2

Test Specimens ................................................................................................. 99

7.3

Products and Construction Methods Tested ................................................... 114

7.4

Experiment 1................................................................................................... 120

7.5

Experiment 2................................................................................................... 127

7.6

Experiment 3: Waterstop Testing ................................................................... 137

CHAPTER 8:

TEST RESULTS................................................................................. 139

8.1

Mix Characteristics ......................................................................................... 139

8.2

Experiment 1 Test Results .............................................................................. 139

8.3

Experiment 2 Test Results .............................................................................. 140

8.4

Third Experiment: Test Results ...................................................................... 153

CHAPTER 9:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................. 159

9.1

Conclusions..................................................................................................... 159

9.2

General Guidelines for Watertight Joint ......................................................... 161

9.3

Recommendations for Further Study .............................................................. 161

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 164


APPENDIX A ................................................................................................................ 166
APPENDIX B ................................................................................................................ 216
APPENDIX C ................................................................................................................ 219

vi

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 - Trends in Concrete Creep ............................................................................... 20
Table 3.1 Mix #1 LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix Design....................................... 36
Table 3.2 Mix #2 1st Alteration - WJE, Inc. Report Recommendation........................ 36
Table 3.3 Mix # 3 - 2nd Alteration - Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement ................... 37
Table 3.4 Mix # 4 - 3rd Alteration - Metakaolin - 10% OPC Replacement .................. 37
Table 3.5 Mix # 5 - LVM Mix Design #2 - Reference Mix Design .............................. 38
Table 3.6 Mix # 6 - 4th Alteration - LVM Mix with Caltite Admixture ....................... 38
Table 3.7 Mix # 7 - 5th Alteration - Caltite Mix Design ............................................... 39
Table 3.8 - Aggregate Gradations.................................................................................... 39
Table 3.9 - Total Aggregate Blend Gradation .................................................................. 40
Table 3.10 - Temperature and Humidity History.............................................................. 52
Table 4.1 - HPC Performance Grades (Table 1.2 - Definition of HPC according to
Federal Highway Administration, Goodspeed, et al. 1996)...................................... 56
Table 4.2 - Concrete Mix Design Quantities .................................................................... 57
Table 4.3 - Creep Comparison .......................................................................................... 60
Table 4.4 Shrinkage Strains ........................................................................................... 71
Table 4.5 28-Day Compressive Strength ....................................................................... 74
Table 4.6 Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Results - 28 day...................................... 78
Table 4.7 Permeability Classifications .......................................................................... 78
Table 5.1 Mix Design Test Results................................................................................ 80
Table 7.1 LVM Mix Design (after Lwin et al. 1995). ...................................................... 89
Table 8.1 Mix Design ..................................................................................................... 104

vii

Table 8.2 Final Mix Design ............................................................................................ 105


Table 8.3 - Products tested in experiments. .................................................................... 115
Table 8.4 - Construction methods tested in experiments................................................ 115
Table 8.5 - Stage one specimens..................................................................................... 123
Table 8.6 - Stage two specimens..................................................................................... 129
Table 8.7 - Stage three specimens................................................................................... 131
B1. - Water level changes second experiment stage one. ......................................... 216
B2. - Water volume changes second experiment stage one...................................... 217
B3. - Water level changes second experiment stage two.......................................... 218
B4. - Water volume changes second experiment - stage two. ..................................... 218
B5. - Water volume losses second experiment stage three ....................................... 219
C1. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - specimen one. ............................................................... 219
C2. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - specimen two................................................................ 219
C3. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - specimen three.............................................................. 220
C4. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - averages. ....................................................................... 220
C5. - MC-2010MN specimen one................................................................................ 221
C6. - MC-2010MN specimen two. .............................................................................. 221
C7. - MC-2010MN specimen three. ............................................................................ 222
C8. - MC-2010MN averages........................................................................................ 223
C9. - Synko-Flex specimen one. .................................................................................. 224
C10. - Synko-Flex specimen two................................................................................. 225
C11. - Sykno-Flex specimen three............................................................................... 225
C12. - Synko-Flex averages......................................................................................... 226

viii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 - Concrete Time Dependant Strains ............................................................... 13
Figure 2.2 - Compressive Strength vs Creep Coefficient (Persson) ................................. 27
Figure 3.1 - Gypsum Cylinder End Cap ........................................................................... 41
Figure 3.2 - CAD Drawing of Creep Frames................................................................... 42
Figure 3.3 Creep Frame ................................................................................................. 43
Figure 3.4 - Creep Frame Compression Springs............................................................... 44
Figure 3.5 - Plate Dimensions........................................................................................... 45
Figure 4.1 Specific Creep Comparison Estimated Strain Results to 5-Years............. 62
Figure 4.2 - LVM Mix Design Strain ............................................................................... 65
Figure 4.3 WJE Inc. Mix Design Strain......................................................................... 65
Figure 4.4 5% Metakaolin Mix Design Strain ............................................................... 66
Figure 4.5 10% Metakaolin Mix Design Strain ............................................................. 66
Figure 4.6 LVM (#2) Mix Design Strain ....................................................................... 67
Figure 4.7 LVM Mix w/ Caltite Waterproofing Admixture Mix Design Strain ........... 67
Figure 4.8 Caltite Mix Design Strain ............................................................................. 68
Figure 4.9 Long Term Shrinkage Strains, Extrapolated from 28-day Data................... 71
Figure 4.10 28-Day Compressive Strength.................................................................... 74
Figure 7.1 - Test configuration (after Dusenberry et al. 1993)......................................... 91
Figure 7.2 - Leakage test setup (after Rashed et al. 2000)................................................ 92
Figure 7.3 - Cross-section of testing experiment (after Clear 1985). ............................... 94
Figure 7.4 - Test setup for water penetration test (after Tan et al. 1996). ........................ 95

ix

Figure 8.1 - Keyway dimensions in field (after Hood Canal Retrofit and East-half
Replacment Construction Plans: SEC C-C)............................................................ 106
Figure 8.2 - Test specimen dimensions........................................................................... 107
Figure 8.3 - Dimension specifications for the steel plates. ............................................. 108
Figure 8.4 - Steel Bars 7/8in diameter screwed into bottom plate.................................. 109
Figure 8.5 - Construction setup for initial concrete pour................................................ 110
Figure 8.6 - Completed keyway of initial pour............................................................... 111
Figure 8.7 - Completed test specimens. .......................................................................... 112
Figure 8.8 - Hydraulic cylinder setup for post-tensioning the specimens. ..................... 113
Figure 8.9 - Waterstop placement within construction joint of specimen. ..................... 116
Figure 8.10 - Tegraproof coating placed on exterior joint face. ..................................... 117
Figure 8.11 - Mortar/slurry grout over initial two-inch depth of the second pour.......... 118
Figure 8.12 - Exposed aggregate along surface of joint caused by Preco HI-V. ............ 119
Figure 8.13 - Experimental setup of the first experiment. .............................................. 124
Figure 8.14 - Specimen connection to pressure system.................................................. 125
Figure 8.15 - Water collection system located beneath specimens. ............................... 126
Figure 8.16 - Experimental setup of the second experiment. ......................................... 133
Figure 8.17 - Connection of clear plastic tubing to galvanized pipe. ............................. 134
Figure 8.18 - Pressure regulator for air pressure system. ............................................... 135
Figure 8.19 - Concrete filler and sealant applied to the construction joint of stage three
specimens................................................................................................................ 136
Figure 8.20 - Testing setup of the third experiment........................................................ 138

Figure 9.1 - Water volume changes versus air pressure applied to stage one specimens of
the second experiment............................................................................................. 143
Figure 9.2 - Water volume changes versus total pressure on the system for stage one
specimens of the second experiment....................................................................... 144
Figure 9.3 - Water volume changes versus air pressure for the three specimens of stages
one and two that experienced no leakage from the pressure system. ..................... 147
Figure 9.4 - Water volumes lost versus time for the stage three specimens tested......... 151
Figure 9.5 - Total water volume lost at a given air pressure for stage three specimens
immediately before air pressure was increased. ..................................................... 152
Figure 9.6 - Expansion rates of Waterstop-RX 101TRH samples in the third experiment.
................................................................................................................................. 154
Figure 9.7 - Expansion rates of MC-2010MN samples in the third experiment............. 155
Figure 9.8 - Expansion rates of Synko-flex waterstop samples in the third experiment. 156
Figure 9.9 - Average expansion rates of the three waterstops tested in the third
experiment............................................................................................................... 157
Figure 9.10 - Average thickness increases of waterstop samples in the third experiment.
................................................................................................................................. 158

xi

SUMMARY
Floating bridge concrete must be watertight, durable, workable, and must have sufficient
cohesiveness to prevent segregation in heavily congested deep walls. The mix design must
experience minimal creep and shrinkage to reduce prestress losses, and shrinkage cracking. As a
result of recent concrete research, new mixes were created incorporating various quantities of fly
ash, silica fume, metakaolin, poly-carboxylate ether superplasticizers, and Caltite waterproofing
admixture. This research focuses on concrete with a water binder ratio of 0.33 and a slump in the
range of 8 to 9 inches. Workability characteristics of the fresh concrete are analyzed and
hardened concrete properties tested in this research are compressive strength, chloride ion
permeability, and creep and drying shrinkage properties.
It was found that metakaolin was successful in producing mix designs with similar
properties as Silica fume modified concrete.

Satisfactory strength was achieved through

increasing the fly ash and lowering the silica fume contents, though, chloride ion permeability
was negatively affected. The removal of silica fume and the inclusion of Caltite decreased the
concretes resistance to chloride ion permeability and produced concrete that failed to attain the
required 28-day ultimate compressive strength of 6500 psi.
The second part of this study focuses on developing an experimental setup to evaluate
products and construction methods to help prevent water leakage through construction joints in
pontoon floating bridges. A pressure system was used to apply significant pressures to concrete
test specimens containing a construction joint. Different products and construction methods were
used in constructing the joints to determine the most effective methods for preventing water
penetration in the field.
The testing results have shown compaction effort is the most important factor in water
leakage through a joint. Increased compaction in laboratory specimens leads to less water
leakage through construction joints.

Product selection was ineffective in preventing water

leakage if concrete compaction was inadequate.

CHAPTER 1:

1.1

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND
The State of Washington has been designing and building concrete floating bridges

since 1938. The original Lacey V. Murrow floating bridge opened to traffic in 1940, and
was considered at that time to be one of the most innovative and controversial bridges in
the world (Lwin el al. 1994). Since that time, Washington State has become a worldwide
authority in the design and implementation of this practical and economically viable
structure. Four floating bridges are currently in service in the state including the new
Lacey V. Murrow Bridge, the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (or the Second Lake
Washington Bridge), the Third Lake Washington Bridge, and the Hood Canal Floating
Bridge.
The most recent of the floating bridges constructed in Washington is the new Lacey
V. Murrow Floating Bridge. During the design phase of this bridge, extensive research
was performed to determine a mix design that would deliver superior performance for the
demands that the structure would experience. The concrete was developed and named
the LVM mix design, representing the bridge in which it was first used, the Lacey V.
Murrow.
The Hood Canal Floating Bridge was originally constructed in 1961 as a vital link
between the Olympic Peninsula and the central Puget Sound region. On February 13,
1979, the bridge was subject to its 100-year design storm and the West half was unable to
withstand the forces induced by the storm; the West half of the bridge was destroyed and
sank. Following this structural failure, the West half was rebuilt and the East half was
rehabilitated to maintain this important structure for the years to come. Currently, the
2

East half of the Hood Canal Floating Bridge is nearing the end of its design life and
scheduled for replacement

1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENT
It is the desire of the Washington State Department of Transportation to use a state

of the art concrete mix design for the floating pontoon sections of the new Hood Canal
Floating Bridge. The LVM mix design has worked well in the past, but there is room for
improvements, which are discussed in detail in the forthcoming pages.
Concrete, similar to most construction materials, deforms under constant load
sustained for a long period. This deformation is known as creep deflection and must be
understood and accounted for in structural design. One main area of impact that creep
has within concrete structures, and in particular prestressed concrete structures, is loss of
prestressing force due to the shortening of the concrete member.
Concrete is very strong in compression resistance, but weak in tension and must be
reinforced with steel. Prestressing is done for the basic purpose of dramatically reducing
or eliminating the tensile force that the concrete member will have to resist during its
design life. The compressive force that is induced into the concrete member through
prestressing is a moderately high, sustained load and, therefore, has the potential to cause
the concrete to creep. When the concrete member length is shortened, the length of the
elastically strained, tensioned cable is shortened as well, reducing the strain in the cable,
and thus reducing the tensile stress. This reduction in tensile stress in the cable translates
to a reduction in compressive stress in the concrete member, which in turn, causes a
stress reversal in the tensile zone of that member. If the stress reversal is large, the
3

concrete must resist the tensile force. Tensile forces in the concrete cause cracks to form
and if the cracks become too dramatic, failure would become eminent.
Floating bridges designers throughout Washington State utilize this prestressing
technique to create floating concrete pontoons. These pontoons are essentially hollow,
concrete beams resting on an elastic foundation. The pontoons used as the floating
structure in the Hood Canal floating bridge are 360 feet long, 18 feet high and 60 feet
wide. The length of a pontoon is subdivided into three rows of 14 cells each, with
outside wall and floor thickness between 8 and 12 inches. These pontoons float due to
the buoyant force of the water, and it must be noted that the air filled cells are key to the
equation of equilibrium. With the pontoons being constructed of concrete that has been
prestressed, creep of the concrete will occur. If the concrete creep is not controlled and
prestress loss occurs, cracks can form in the tensile zones of these beams. The tensile
zone is generally on the bottom face of the pontoons, as is usually the case with
supporting beams. Tensile zones are also on either of the sides of the pontoon, depending
on the direction of the dynamic forces induced by wind and wave action. If the tensile
stresses are large enough so that the concrete has to resist a portion of it, the concrete may
crack due to its inadequacy in this application. The cracked concrete would allow water
passage into the air filled cells, which will result in undermining the buoyancy of the
structure. Creep must be minimized so that prestress loss is controlled.
Shrinkage must also be analyzed in concrete used for floating bridges. Shrinkage
in concrete can cause large internal stresses in the concrete matrix and which can lead to
cracking. These cracks are passageways for water to penetrate the outer walls of the
pontoons and enter into the cells. Also, the concrete bridge pontoons have differing wall

and floor thickness. This difference in thickness can lead to localized stresses due to
shrinkage and lead to differential shrinkage cracking, and thus, allowing water to enter
the pontoon cells. A concrete of low shrinkage potential is necessary for its use in
floating bridges.
The Hood Canal is a body of salt water that is highly corrosive. Care must be taken
such that structural steel is protected. Included in this list of critical steel members are
steel reinforcing bars and steel prestressing tendons within the concrete pontoons. The
chloride ion penetrability of concrete mixes to be used in floating bridges must be tested.
Water leakage through joints in the pontoons of floating bridges has been a
problem in previous pontoon construction projects. Water trapped within pontoons can
cause excessive damage that if left unchecked can lead to pontoon failure. This water
leakage occurs mainly during or immediately after construction of the pontoon causing a
need for expensive post-construction repairs. Currently pontoon joint leakage is halted
through repairs to the inner surface of the pontoons such as through the use of sealing or
epoxy injection after completion.
Research has been performed in the past to improve mix designs for floating
bridges. The new mix designs have improved workability, durability and limit concrete
permeability. Little research has been performed on construction joint improvements.
Construction joint improvements are needed in pontoon floating bridges to reduce water
leakage and thereby reduce maintenance costs while lengthening pontoon service life.

1.3

OBJECTIVES
The overall goals of this research are to improve the concrete mix design currently

used in concrete floating bridges and to develop a watertight construction joint for these
bridges. The LVM mix design is used as a baseline for the development of new mix
designs suitable for use in concrete floating bridges.

The intent is to explore new

concrete technology and new materials that have emerged since the LVM creation in
1990, and to implement these into LVM alterations.

Tests will be performed to

determine properties in each mix and the results will be compared to the performance of
the LVM. Conclusions will be formulated based on these results.
Some concrete properties are of primary importance in selecting a mix design for
use in concrete floating bridges. These properties include fresh concrete workability,
creep, shrinkage, compressive strength, and chloride permeability. Creep of concrete will
be discussed in detail due to the relatively rare implementation of this test into mix design
performance studies.
Research objectives for the study of watertight construction joints include:

1.

To investigate different alternatives for developing a watertight construction joint


suitable for floating bridge pontoons.

2.

To design a laboratory experiment to simulate water infiltration in concrete


pontoon joints under conditions similar to those experienced in the field.

3.

To recommend guidelines for reducing water penetration through a construction


joint to be included in specifications for future floating bridges and other similar
projects.

1.4

TASK SUMMARY
This research consisted of six tasks grouped in two phases described below.

Phase 1 Review and Development


Task 1: Literature Review, Broad Scope
Collect and review relevant literature, mix design specifications, materials, new or
existing products, research findings and current practices used to produce durable
concrete for submerged concrete structures.

Also, collect information relevant to

construction joints in submerged concrete structures. The review will focus on current
construction practices for a floating bridge; mix designs used and new or existing
products for sealing construction joints.
Task 2: Literature Review, Concentrated
Utilize the information obtained after the construction of the last floating bridge in
the early 90s and other recent knowledge to develop new and improved mix designs.
The improvements would be based on high performance concrete (HPC) properties
especially chloride permeability, compressive strength, creep and shrinkage, and selfconsolidation.
Task 3: Review Synthesis
Based on the information gathered in tasks 1 and 2, identify and discuss material
properties, mix proportions and other factors that affect the durability of concrete in a salt
water environment. Also, based on information from manufacturers and product vendors,
a products ability to meet the design needs determined during task 1 is quantified.

Products are chosen for laboratory testing to determine their ability to reduce water
leakage through a construction joint.
Task 4: Research Development
Develop a detailed experimental work plan to investigate the influence of the
modifications in the mix design on the strength, durability, and long-term properties of
the concrete. In this task, a work plan to determine the effectiveness of different products
at reducing water penetration through the joint is also developed. The work plan will
include specimen dimensions, the design and construction of a water pressure system and
a testing procedure for determining the necessary requirements for passing the tests.

Phase 2 Realization and Analysis


Task 5: Implementation
Conduct concrete tests including compressive strength, chloride ion permeability,
creep and shrinkage to determine the influence of any modifications to the mix design
performance. This task also includes performing the experiments developed in task three
to determine product effectiveness at preventing water penetration through the joint. The
data gathered from the experiments will be analyzed to determine the most effective
product or construction method for use in the field.
Task 6: Production
The final report documenting research procedure and findings is provided. This
report will include the following: a synthesis of all pertinent literature from Tasks 1 and
2; a detailed documentation of the experimental work plan: materials used, number of
specimens and testing procedures; a statistical analysis of the testing results; proposed

methods for improving the performance of the mix design. The final task also involves
developing a set of construction joint procedures or guidelines to be included in the
specifications for the Hood Canal Floating Bridge East Half Replacement Project. The
guidelines will list a set of construction procedures or product guidelines for reducing
water penetration at the joint.
This report is split into two parts. The first part focuses on the concrete mix design
research to improve the LVM and includes Chapters 2 through 5. The second part
focuses on the construction joint research and includes Chapters 6 through 9.

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

This literature review focuses on the key aspects of concrete mix design
development and performance for use in concrete floating bridges. Topics of interest for
this research were a previous floating bridge mix design study and mechanisms of
concrete creep.

Other noted literature included admixture and supplementary

cementitious material effects on freshly mixed and hardened concrete properties.

2.1

CONCRETE FOR THE LACEY V. MURROW FLOATING BRIDGE


Concrete for the Lacey V. Murrow floating bridge was first developed with water

tightness and durability of the concrete as the prime importance. The research committee
conducted a concrete mix development program consisting of three phases. The first
phase included the investigation of many trial mixes. These mixes were used to verify
the resulting concrete properties produced by the inclusion of different supplementary
cementitious materials and concrete admixtures.

Silica fume was found to reduce

permeability, increase early compressive strengths, reduce bleeding, and increase the heat
of hydration. Fly ash was found to increased workability, reduce heat of hydration, and
increase ultimate compressive strengths of the concrete. Retarders added to the mixes
increased workability, extended slump life, and improved concrete set control.
Superplasticizers increased workability and decreased the water demand for concrete
mixes.
The second phase of the research was to develop the mix design to be used in the

10

Lacey V. Murrow floating bridge. This was done based on the results from the first
phase. Watertightness, durability, constructability, and compressive strengths were the
key properties that were tested in selecting an appropriate mix design. The third stage
involved constructing full size test sections to test the constructability of the concrete
mix.

Wall and slab sections were built and the mix design was evaluated for

effectiveness for the particular application of floating bridges.


The general mix design was created using the three phases for research. WSDOT
and fellow researchers set minimum and maximum quantity extents on different concrete
constituent proportions to be used in the contractor specified mix design. Proportions
selected by the project contractor and approved for use were as follows:

Portland cement type II:

624 lb

Silica Fume* (AASHTO M307):


Fly Ash Class F (AASHTO M295):

50 lb
100 lb

Paving Sand (WSDOT Class 1):

1,295 lb

Coarse Aggregate** (3/8 inch max agg.):

1,770 lb

Water: 225 lb
Water Reducer (ASTM C494, type A or D):

965 mL (25 oz)

Superplasticizer (ASTM C494, type F or G):

5065 mL (131 oz)

Air Entrainment:

none

Water/Cementitious Material ratio:

0.33

Slump:

7 in.

*- Silica Fume slurry 45% Silica fume solids, water and a small amount
of superplasticizer
**- Gradation similar to that of inch coarse aggregate

11

2.2

CREEP OF CONCRETE
Creep is defined by a deformation occurring under, and induced by, a constant

sustained stress. Creep strains are considered proportional to the applied stress for stress
values below 0.40*fc (Carriera et.al. 2000).

According to the Portland Cement

Association, the amount of creep is dependant upon the magnitude of the applied stress,
the age and strength of the concrete when the stress is applied, and the length of time the
concrete is stressed. Other factors that affect the creep potential of concrete have to do
with the quality of the concrete and the conditions of exposure. These factors include:
type, amount and maximum size of aggregate; type of cementitious materials; amount of
cement paste; volume to surface ratio of the concrete element; amount of steel
reinforcement; curing conditions prior to the load application; and the ambient
temperature and humidity (Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, PCA, p269).

A paper by Dilger and Wang (2000) provided definitions of creep terminology.


Basic creep is the creep without moisture exchange between the concrete and the ambient
environment. Drying creep is the additional creep caused by drying, i.e. by the loss of
moisture to the environment. Total creep of the concrete exposed to the environment is
the sum of basic and drying creep. The quantities defined here can be seen graphically in
Figure 2.1. The statement was made that high performance concrete (HPC) behaves
differently than normal strength concrete and therefore, property characteristics are
different with time. The current prediction models in codes and practice at the time this
paper was written did not apply to HPC. New creep prediction model equations are
provided in this paper for the use with high performance concrete.

12

Drying
Creep

Strain

Basic
Creep

Total
Creep

Shrinkage

Initial
Elastic
Strain

t0

Time (t-t0)

Figure 2.1 - Concrete Time Dependant Strains

In the book Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete, Neville, Dilger and Brooks
(1983) asserted that the deformation characteristics of a material are a critical element in
the knowledge of their behavior and an essential feature of their properties. The authors
insisted that creep deformation could be substantial and must be taken into account in
addition to initial elastic strain. This is demonstrated by sited test results showing creep
strains after one year of load as high as 2 to 3 times that of the initial elastic strains. A
fundamental generalization was made claiming hydrated cement paste is the seat of
concrete creep. This statement has been verified by tests cited in this book researching
creep of concrete with varying degrees of hydration.

13

Brooks and Neville (1975) studied concrete creep with the intent developing
extrapolation equations to estimate long-term creep from short-term tests.

They

determined that creep and shrinkage at one year could be predicted from measured values
at between seven and 28 days by means of linear and power equations. From their
research, conclusions were made that creep tests of approximately 100 days can be used
to very accurately predict the values at 1 year with an acceptable error coefficient. They
surmised that 1-year deformation, measured in microstrain, could be predicted from
experimentally determined 28-day values by the use of the following equations:

basic creep:

c365=6.0+1.59c28

total creep:

c365=18.4+1.70c28

and further extrapolated to:

ct =
1.15c365 > ( Ross )
57.4 + t
or

t 0.6
1.45c365 > ( Meyers)
ct =
0.6
15.45 + t

with an error coefficient of :

1
M =
c

(c

c)
n

c=actual creep after 1 year


ct=predicted creep after t days
n=number of tests

14

Brooks and Neville (1978) wrote a second paper with the intent of verifying or
altering their previous prediction equations using a larger database of creep test results.
The equations in this paper are based on 5-year creep data. The equations are provided to
predict creep and shrinkage at any age up to 5 years from values determined
experimentally at 28 days, within quoted accuracies.

It should be noted that these

equations are different from those previously published. The results are statistically
based on a 95% confidence interval. The relationships are sensibly independent of mix
properties, type of aggregate, size of specimen and age at testing. The expressions
provided in this paper are as follows:
basic creep- ct=c28*0.50t0.21 ;

Mbc=16%

total creep- ct=c28[-6.19+2.15ln(t-t28)]1/2.64 ;

shrinkage-

sh(t,tsh,0) = A(sh28)a ;

Mtc=19%

Msh=14%

where

A = [1.53loge(t-tsh,0)-4.17]2

and

a =

100
2.90 + 29.2 log e (t t sh, 0 )

Brooks and Neville noted that improved prediction accuracies can be obtained by
increasing the duration of the short-term test, but testing costs increase with test
continuance. The required accuracy for the particular application must be assessed so
that appropriate creep test duration can be determined.

2.2.1 CREEP AFFECTED BY CONCRETE COMPOSITION


Zia (1993) made generalizations about concrete creep in High Performance
Concrete, A State of the Art Report. These are similar to the generalizations that can be
15

made about shrinkage of concrete. Main points included were: when the water to cement
ratio is increased, the creep potential of the concrete is increased; when the cement
content is increased, the creep potential of the concrete is increased; with an increase in
aggregate content and stiffness, creep is decreased due to the restraining action of the
aggregate.

Collins (1989) studied high strength concrete mixes with compressive strengths
between 8,700 and 9,300 psi were tested. Test results of the different mix designs
showed that creep was less for concrete mixes with lower cement paste content and larger
aggregate.

The tests also showed that creep was not significantly affected by the

inclusion of a high range water reducer into the mix design.

Carrette, Bilodeau, Chevrier, and Malhotra (1993) tested high performance


concretes with high volumes of fly ash.

Concrete mixes had excellent mechanical

properties with relatively low levels of creep deformation.

Zia (1993) researched high strength concretes with different aggregate types
including crushed granite, marine marl, and rounded gravel were evaluated for creep
deformation.

These high strength concretes, with compressive strengths exceeding

10,000 psi, showed creep strains ranging from 20% - 50% of that of ordinary concrete.
The concrete consisting of marine marl aggregate had a much higher specific creep than
that of either the crushed granite of the rounded gravel concretes.

16

The forth chapter of a book by Neville, Dilger, and Brooks (1983) discussed the
influence of aggregate on creep. The authors findings based on prior research was that it
is acceptable to assume that the maximum size and grading of aggregate do not affect
creep given that full compaction within the concrete has been achieved.

Brooks (1999) assessed the affects of admixtures and supplementary cementitious


materials by a relative deformation approach.

This was done by comparing the

deformation of the admixture concrete with that of the control concrete having the same
mix proportions by mass, with ultimate values for creep obtained by extrapolation.
Various chemical admixtures were tested and it was determined that no
significant differences in creep strain occurred between types of plasticizers and
superplasticizers. However, a general increase in creep of 20% was shown, as compared
with the control concrete having the same mix proportions (=23%). The likely reason
for this increase is thought to be the chemical admixture ability to entrain air, which in
turn makes the hardened cement paste weaker. However, a point of note is that this
increase of 20% is conflicting within the article and may be a decrease of 20%. This
should be investigated further to determine the correct finding.
Blast furnace slag, fly ash, and silica fume, were used as supplementary
cementitious materials in the test mixes in this paper as well. The inclusion of blast
furnace slag (BFS) showed a decrease of average ultimate creep with an increase of
replacement of cement with slag. Shrinkage of the concrete was unaffected by the
increase in slag content. It was also shown that with BFS, lower creep values were
associated with slower development of strength. Fly ash concrete was shown to have

17

reduced average ultimate creep values with an increase of the cement replacement
percentage with fly ash. This trend was explained by looking at the concrete strength
development: fly ash concrete continues to develop strength through a very long
hydration process. As was the case with BFS, shrinkage was unaffected by the use of fly
ash in the concrete mix. A small reduction in creep was shown for small quantities of
cement replacement with silica fume. Creep increases with silica fume replacement of
over 16% of ordinary Portland cement.

Brooks and Neville (1992) published findings for creep deformations determined
first hand as well as findings published by other researchers.

The results were

summarized into effects of different admixtures and different supplementary cementitious


materials separately. Water reducers showed a very wide range of effects on concrete
creep. Results of various tests ranged from 34% to 166% of creep strain, as compared to
a reference mix. However, water reducers created from different chemical bases showed
differing results.

Lignosulphonate admixtures lead to a higher basic creep than

carboxylic acid admixtures. Carboxylic acid admixtures often result in a reduction in


basic creep compared with plain concrete. No consistent trend for concrete creep can be
observed when there is a change in cement paste content, in the type of aggregate, or in
cement composition.
There have been no publications regarding retarding admixtures (ASTM C494-82
type B) and their effect on concrete creep. Calcium chloride used as an accelerator has
been shown to increase creep in the range of 122% to 136%.

Lignosulphonate /

triethanolamine based accelerators increased basic creep in the range of 110% to 125%

18

and affected total creep (under drying conditions) in the range of 92% to 135%. A wide
variation of relative deformations have been shown for superplasticizer inclusion in
concrete mixes, however, an increase in concrete creep is the general trend.
Fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume were the supplementary cementitious
materials reviewed in this paper. Fly ash concrete has shown reduced creep values for up
to 35% ordinary Portland cement replacement. Reduced creep values have been shown
for blast furnace slag with replacement quantities of up to 75% of ordinary Portland
cement. With 30% of ordinary Portland cement replaced by silica fume and various
water cement ratios, approximately 50% more creep was observed under drying
conditions after moist curing. Less basic creep was observed for the silica fume concrete
if the concrete was autoclaved, but more basic creep occurred after moist curing.

Brooks (2000) reviewed different admixtures and supplementary cementitious


materials for their effect on concrete creep. Lignosulphonate and carboxylic acid water
reducers both result in greater mean deformations, however the results were not very
different between the two admixtures or their respective control concretes. Sulfonated
melamine formaldehyde condensates (SMFC), sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde
condensates (SNFC), and copolymers used as superplasticizers all showed a general
increase in the mean creep deformation compared with plain concrete. However, the
basic creep of concrete with the copolymer admixture was not significantly different from
that of plain concrete. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) tended to decrease
total creep as the slag levels increase in the concrete mix, but only for low water cement
ratios. For higher water cement ratios, creep appears to increase. It has been determined

19

that fly ash inclusion into concrete mixes reduces basic creep. Silica fume used as a
supplementary cementitious material increases basic creep as the silica fume content
increases. However, total creep decreases for low levels of silica fume. Autoclaved
concrete showed a large reduction in creep at high levels of silica fume addition, up to
about 30%. Relationship equations were included in this article to estimate creep based
on the replacement percentages of ordinary Portland cement with the supplementary
cementitious materials.
Based on the results of this research, Table 2.1 was created and included in the
article showing the general influence trends that the admixtures and supplementary
materials have on concrete creep. The variable R in the table stands for replacement
percentage

Table 2.1 - Trends in Concrete Creep

Ingredient
Plasticizers/
Superplasticizers
Blast Furnace Slag
Fly Ash
Silica Fum e

Creep at constant stress-strength ratio


Basic
Total
increase by 20%

increase by 20%

decrease with
increase of R
decrease with
increase of R
increase with R>7.5%
no change for R<7.5%

No
Change
decrease for
R>=10%
increase with R>15%
decrease for R<15%

.
Khatri (1995) studied a concrete mix with water to cementitious material ratio of
.35, and a constant binder content of 430 kg/m3. Results of this study showed that silica
fume at about 10% replacement marginally decreased the workability of the concrete but
significantly improved the mechanical properties.
20

These improvements included a

decrease in creep at all ages and refined pore size, which increases the concrete
compressive strength. The strain due to creep was said to be caused by the removal of
adsorbed water. When silica fume was added to high slag concrete, the creep was not
affected. When a ternary mixture, or one with three cementitious materials, was created
containing fly ash, general-purpose cement, and silica fume, strain due to creep was
increased.

A study performed by Jianyong and Yan (2001) was a comparison of the creep of
different materials used as concrete binders. The materials of interest included ordinary
Portland cement (OPC), ultra fine ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and
silica fume (SF). The creep tests were performed at a temperature of 203C, with a
testing duration of 180 days, and the test cylinders were loaded at 40% of their respective
28 day compressive strength. For comparison, drying shrinkage specimens were studied
simultaneously in the same environmental conditions as the loaded creep specimens. The
strains due to creep and shrinkage were measured using a mechanical comparator. In this
study, replacing OPC with 30% (by weight) GGBS and 10% (by weight) SF delivered the
best results for creep strain. The proportions of material for this mix was 360 kg/m3
OPC, 180 kg/m3 GGBS, 60 kg/m3 SF, and 156 kg/m3 of water, producing a water to
cementitious material ratio of 0.26.

The mineral and chemical admixtures examined in the study by Memon, Radin,
Zain and Trothier (2002) included fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica
fume, and superplasticizers. Blended mixtures, or a combination of the mineral and

21

chemical admixtures, performed better in strength and showed a general result of lower
permeability. This result was achieved by greater pore refinement due to the better
distribution of particle sizes in the blended mixes.

Ramachandran (1995) discussed concrete creep in the Concrete Admixtures


Handbook for various reasons having to do with the causes and effects that mix design
and proportioning have on the creep potential of the concrete. Summaries of the authors
conclusions based on previous studies are divided into admixture categories below.

Accelerators

Based on previous tests, calcium chloride and triethanolamine admixtures


increase the creep of concrete. With 1.5% CaCl2 addition, the percentage increase in
creep of the concrete cylinders loaded at 7 and 28 days was 36% and 22 % respectively.
Creep was increased by triethanolamine only at early age loading (7 days) when
lignosulfonate was added to the concrete as well. Calcium formate addition tends to
increase shrinkage.

Water reducers / Retarders

Listed in this section of the book were several of the basic causes of concrete
creep. Factors listed were type of cement, mix composition, type of cement, age at
loading, degree of hydration at loading, incremental hydration under loading, moisture
loss from concrete under sustained load, and movement of moisture in the cement gel
under conditions of hygral equilibrium between the ambient medium and the concrete.
Studies have shown that lignosulfonate admixtures increase the rate and total creep for
concrete with type I cement but there is no significant effect with type V cement. The

22

rates and formation changes of the hydration process caused by water reducers and
retarders altars the creep potential of a concrete when loaded at different times or ages
with a sustained load. Hydroxycarboxylic acid based water reducers/retarders tend to
increase long term creep except for lightweight concrete, however the initial creep rate is
low. The claims were made that in general, water reducers have either no effect or they
increase the creep of concrete and retarders increase the creep of concrete.

Superplasticizers

The author of this section observed that superplasticizers generally decrease


shrinkage of concrete, though exceptions do occur. The general consensus is that the
addition of superplasticizers into a mix results in approximately the same creep as the
reference mix. In on instance, an identical mix design was altered three times by adding
one different chemical superplasticizer at a time.

The superplasticizer based on

melamine added into the mix decreased creep, one based on napthalene showed
approximately the same creep as the reference and one based on Lignosulphonate
increased the creep of the concrete mix.

Air Entrainment

The use of air entrainment is not permitted in the LVM concrete mix and is not an
important factor for the creep of concrete.

Polymer modified Concrete

In general the use of polymers to modify a concrete mix design leads to large
creep deformations. Catastrophic failures of the concrete occur at 50C

Mineral Admixtures

23

The mineral admixtures of interest in this book are fly ash and silica fume, and are
used as supplementary cementitious materials. A study showed that fly ash type F with
replacement values of up to 15% of the ordinary Portland cement, the creep remains the
same. When more than 15% of the OPC by weight is replaced by fly ash type F, the
creep is slightly higher. High strength concretes containing silica fume were shown to
have significantly less creep than normal strength concretes due to the fact that SF
accelerates the strength development of the concrete. The general trend of concrete is
that as compressive strength of the concrete increases, the creep potential of the concrete
decreases.

2.2.2 CREEP RELATED TO COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND SHRINKAGE


Zia (1993) reported a trend in concrete creep that for higher strength concrete,
creep potential is lower. Another important trend is that creep deformations are similar
for silica fume concrete, fly ash concrete, and ordinary Portland cement concrete with
similar compressive strengths.

A study by Paulson, Nilson and Hover (1991) dealt with the long-term deflection
of high strength concrete beams. The study showed that the creep coefficient for high
strength concrete under steady and continuous axial compression was considerably less
than the creep coefficient of ordinary strength concrete.

The research done by Yamamoto (1990) demonstrated that creep deformation of


high strength concrete columns was much less than that of normal strength concrete.

24

Burg and Ost (1994) studied the engineering properties of five high strength
concrete mixes. The concrete had components of no mineral admixtures, silica fume
only, or both fly ash and silica fume in addition to the ordinary Portland cement. The
creep strain was measured under about 39% of fc (at 28 days) for a test duration of 430
days, and then unloaded so that creep recovery was measured. Specific creep was
determined to be the lowest for the concretes with the highest compressive strengths.
This was attributed to the paste composition and internal structure of the concrete.
Specifically, proportions of the mix (per cubic yard) with the lowest creep values were
800 lbs of cement type I, 125 lbs of silica fume, 175 lbs of fly ash, 425 fl oz. of high
range water reducer, 39 fl oz of retarder type D, a water to cement ratio of 0.318 and a
water to cementitious material ratio of 0.231. The value of the specific creep for this mix
was .24 millions of an inch/psi.

Neville, Dilger and Brooks (1983) reviewed research of the influence of stress
strength ratios and concrete age effects on creep.

The authors placed the linear

relationship between concrete creep and applied stress from a ratio of about 0 to between
0.30 and 0.75. Above that limit of linearity, creep increases with stress at an increasing
rate. Also determined was that for a given stress strength ratio, creep is the same
regardless of how strength or stress have been altered, as long as their ratio is the same.
When humidity is a variable in research, it can be said that the relation between
creep and stress to strength ratio seems to be approximately the same for different relative
humidity values, provided considerable shrinkage does not occur. For this to occur, the

25

concrete must reach hygral equilibrium with the medium prior to the application of the
load.
Regarding age at application of load, loading older concrete would definitely tend
to decrease creep due to the more mature hydration. After about 28 days, however,
differences are minor since strength gain is very slow at this point and the concrete
hydration is more mature. The creep at this point is only really dependant on the stress to
strength ratio. A section on maturity of concrete was included and the term reflects the
degree of hydration and therefore the amount of cement gel in the concrete matrix. It has
been shown that strength and maturity are not linearly related, and it is the maturity of the
hydration, not the strength of the concrete, that is the fundamental factor of creep.

Persson (2001) performed an experimental and numerical study on the similarities


and differences in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and normal
compacting concrete (NCC). Properties of interest included strength, elastic modulus,
creep and shrinkage. Eight mix designs were tested with water-cementitious material
ratios ranging from .24 to .80. Four mixes were self-compacting and each of these mixes
had a corresponding normal compacting concrete of similar water-cementitious material
ratio. To increase the viscosity of normal compacting concrete, fillers such as fly ash and
silica were used, in addition to superplasticizer introduction into the mixes. Spring
loading frames were used to perform the creep tests, and parallel specimens were used to
study shrinkage. For creep analysis, four different stress levels were studied including
0.20, 0.40, 0.55, and 0.70. Several conclusions reached as a result of this on going study.
First, the creep, shrinkage and elastic modulus of the two types of concrete corresponded

26

well when the strength was held constant. When the strength loading for the creep tests
was held constant, the creep coefficient of mature concrete was similar between the two
types of concrete. The creep coefficient of concrete increased greatly, when the concrete
was loaded at a young age, though this increase was similar for both types of concrete.
When the compressive strength of the concrete was high, the creep coefficient was
greatly reduced, which is similar to many results from previous literature. A graphical
display of these findings is shown here in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2 - Compressive Strength vs Creep Coefficient (Persson)

Zia (1993) surmised that concrete resistant to shrinkage also has low creep
potential.

27

2.3

OTHER CONCRETE MATERIALS AND ADMIXTURES

Metakaolin is a highly effective pozzolanic material that can be used as a


supplementary cementitious material. Brooks and Johari (2001) found that total creep,
basic creep, as well as drying creep were significantly reduced particularly at higher
metakaolin replacement levels. This effect can be attributed to a denser pore structure,
stronger paste matrix, and improved paste aggregate interface of the metakaolin concrete
mixtures. This is a result of the formation of additional hydrate phases from secondary
pozzolanic reaction of metakaolin and its filler effect. The research showed the 200-day
drying creep was reduced for metakaolin concrete at high levels of replacement (15%
ordinary Portland cement replacement). Shrinkage tests showed an increase in total
autogenous shrinkage at the 5% replacement level, but at the higher 10 to 15% levels of
replacement, total autogenous shrinkage was decreased.

Calderone, Gruber and Burg (1994) discussed some general properties of high
reactivity metakaolin (HRM) and its effect on freshly mixed and hardened concrete.
HRM is not an industrial byproduct, as are many other supplementary cementitious
materials. HRM is specifically manufactured for its particular uses, is nearly 100%
reactive, and conforms to ASTM C618, class N pozzolan specifications. This study
compares the relative performance of five mixtures produced with HRM and silica fume
at various contents including two mixes with HRM, 5% and 10% replacement, two mixes
with silica fume, 5% and 10% replacement, and one control mix with neither HRM nor
silica fume. The required additions for high range water reducer (HRWR) are 25% to

28

35% less for mixes containing HRM than for the mixes containing SF to obtain similar
slumps. The HRM mixes were also less sticky and provided similar set times to that of
SF concrete. The HRM concretes had higher compressive strengths, lower chloride ion
penetration, and similar drying shrinkage to the SF concrete with values for 28-day
shrinkage of 280 microstrain for the metakaolin concrete and 260 microstrain for the
silica fume concrete. The values for shrinkage for the two mixes were equal after 156
days of drying. HRM used in powder form was in some cases better than the SF in slurry
form.

The conclusions of a study by Ding and Li (2002) were that metakaolin is


comparable to silica fume as a supplementary cementitious material, but is lower in price.
Metakaolin is produced by a well-controlled manufacturing process, and is typically
incorporated into concrete to replace 5-20% by weight of cement.

Ding and Li

systematically studied and compared the effects of metakaolin as a cementitious


replacement to those effects of silica fume. Seven mix designs were created using 0, 5,
10, and 15% ordinary cement replacement by metakaolin or silica fume. All of the mixes
had a water to binder ratio of 0.35, a sand to aggregate ratio of 0.40, 1.0% (by weight of
cement) addition of napthalene sulfonate-based superplasticizer, and 0.25% addition of a
set retarder.
All of the metakaolin concrete mixes had much higher slump values than that of the
silica fume concrete mixes, and they showed higher slump values than the control mix at
the 5 and 10% levels.

The compressive strength test results indicated that the

introduction of metakaolin into concrete produces much higher strength than the control

29

at all levels, and very similar results to that of the silica fume concrete at the same
replacement levels.
Metakaolin concrete shows a faster initial rate of shrinkage than the control and the
silica fume concrete, but the rate levels off within days and leads to lower values over
time. The results showed lower values for shrinkage for greater levels of replacement of
cement with metakaolin, and the same was true for silica fume. The lowest shrinkage
values observed were from the mix with 15% metakaolin replacement.
The tests for chloride diffusivity showed that metakaolin is less effective than silica
fume at all similar replacement levels, but is still better than the control mix. After 90
days of observation, the 15% replacement levels of metakaolin and silica fume had
equivalent values for chloride diffusivity.

The purpose of a study by Sicker and Huhn (1997) was to characterize the
influence of silica fume and high reactivity metakaolin and of superplasticizers on the
rheological properties of mortars by means of fluidity measurements. New generation
superplasticizers such as polycarboxilic ether based superplasticizers were compared with
the commonly used, older types. The effect of superplasticizers in fresh concrete is a mix
with significantly lower flow resistance, while the viscosity remains almost unchanged.
Thus, the risk of segregation is no greater, as it would be with the addition of water. The
rheological properties of mortars are extremely dependant on the type of superplasticizer
and pozzolans in the mix design. The results of this study indicated that concrete made
with metakaolin and the polycarboxilic ether based superplasticizers had the longest
effective period for good rheological performance.

30

A study by Feng, Chan, He, and Tsang (1997) showed that when 10% of ordinary
Portland cement was replaced by an equal weight of shale ash, the compressive strength
of the concrete increased 5 to 10%. Oil shale ash is an industrial waste product that can
be utilized as a pozzolana and can also be used as a carrier for superplasticizer to form a
carrier-fluidifying agent (CFA).

When the shale ash was used as a carrier for the

superplasticizer, the resulting CFA could control slump loss. One such test showed that
when a 1.5% dosage of CFA was used, the slump was maintained for 90 minutes.

Xu and Chung (2000) performed research to show the effects of silica fume as a
supplementary cementitious material in concrete. The research was also to show the
increased benefits of using silane in conjunction with the silica fume. Silica fume was
shown in this paper, and has been shown in applications previously, to have significant
effects on the properties of the resulting concrete mixes. It has also been shown to
degrade the workability of the concrete.
Silane is a concrete additive that can be introduced in two ways: first in the form
of a coating on the silica fume particles, and second in the form of an admixture. Both of
the methods of silane uses were shown to enhance the workability and increase the
strength of the concrete. The method of coating the silica fume with silane was shown to
be the better method in terms of mechanical properties; however, this method is more
difficult to perform in the mixing process. There was no data recorded for creep effects
but the results for shrinkage in the concrete containing silane and silica fume showed an
improvement over the concrete mixes with no silane.

31

CHAPTER 3:

3.1

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGNS

Concrete used in floating bridges must be designed with compressive strength,


durability, and long-term properties as the critical factors for successful performance.
The LVM mix design, of which the origin was previously described in detail, has these
characteristics and was used as the reference mix for use in the development of new mix
designs. The LVM concrete is Mix Design number 1 and Mix Design number 5 in this
research. The concrete constituent quantities are shown in Table 3.1 and Table 3.5.
During the construction of the Lacey V. Murrow floating bridge, Wiss, Janney,
Elstner Associates (WJE), Inc analyzed the suitability of the mix design. Within their
published report (1993), they discussed mix design development, suitability testing
criteria, and the conclusions based on their findings.

This report included several

recommendations for future construction of watertight structures. It was stated that mix
alterations could be made such that the silica fume content be reduced to the 4 to 5
percent level and fly ash content be increased to 200 or more pounds per cubic yard.
They anticipated that this change could be made without impairing the permeability of
the concrete and would still maintain the other desirable qualities of the LVM mix. WJE,
Inc recommended that further tests be done to verify this conclusion.

This LVM

alteration is labeled WJE, Inc mix design and is mix number 2 in this study. The
quantities can be found in Table3.2.
Based on the findings of the literature review, concrete products were found that
were not used in practice when the LVM mix was first developed. New mix designs

32

were formulated for the purposes of this research based on previous successes of the
relatively new products. Metakaolin is a product that is currently being developed and is
used as a supplementary cementitious material much like silica fume. The report findings
listed in the literature review proved metakaolin to be a viable material for use in
concrete floating bridges. It was also recommended that additional research on this
product would be valuable. Two mixes, one with 5 percent ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC) replacement and one with 10 percent OPC replacement were designed. These
replacement values were selected so that nearly direct comparisons could be made to the
WJE, Inc mix, which was designed with 5 percent OPC replacement with silica fume,
and the LVM mix, which was designed with about 8 percent OPC replacement with silica
fume. The mix designs incorporating metakaolin are numbers 3 and 4 and can be seen in
Table 3.3 and Table 3.4, respectively.
A concrete waterproofing admixture that has been of interest to many developers
is Everdure Caltite. Traditional means of creating a waterproof concrete structure has
been the use of external membranes or surface treatments. As was mentioned previously,
silica fume and metakaolin are also effective in reducing the permeability of concrete, but
in a different way. Caltite was incorporated into two of the mix designs tested in this
study. The first mix utilized the LVM mix design quantities, with some of the mix water
replaced with equal parts of the Everdure Caltite.

The replacement quantity was

consistent with the recommended Caltite to concrete ratio or 6 gallons of Caltite for every
cubic yards of concrete. This mix design can be seen in Table 3.6. The second Caltite
mix design, and the final mix incorporated into this study, was studied for its properties,
as the other mixes were, but was intended to be a cost saving mix. The mix design would

33

be the same as the LVM, though it would not contain silica fume.

The concrete

quantities for this mix can are shown in Table 3.7. The cementitious material quantity is
slightly less than the LVM parent mix. It was anticipated that this mix design would
produce concrete strength in excess of the required 6500 psi. Workability properties
would be similar to the LVM and the level of chloride ion penetration would be
acceptable as well due to the presence of Caltite. The Caltite quantity was as before, 6
gallons per cubic yard of concrete.
This research necessitated the casting of nine concrete test cylinders for each mix
design to be studied. Seven of the cylinders were standard 6 by 12 inch specimens, and
two of the cylinders were standard 4 by 8 inch specimens. Three of the seven 6 by 12
inch cylinders were needed to obtain an average ultimate compressive strength value for
each mix design. The remaining four cylinders were used for the creep tests: two
cylinders for the total strain measurements and two companion cylinders for the
shrinkage measurements. The two 4 by 8 inch specimens were required for the chloride
ion penetration tests. All the cylinders were cast in vertical, one-time-use plastic molds.
The course and fine aggregate used in the concrete of the LVM floating bridge
had the gradations listed in Table 3.7. Coarse and fine aggregates used in this research
were from Glacier Northwest in Dupont, Washington. This is the anticipated stockpile
that will be used for the actual concrete used in the floating bridge construction and had
gradations very similar to that of the original LVM mix. The quantities were entered into
an aggregate spreadsheet to determine the effectiveness of the gradations and the results
were plotted on a gradation power chart to graphically display the results.
spreadsheet format can be seen in Table 3.8.

34

The

The ordinary Portland cement used in the original LVM mix design and required
was OPC Type II. According to the Portland Cement Association, type II Portland
cement generates less heat at a slower rate and has a moderate resistance to sulfate attack.
A lower heat of hydration is beneficial in large structures to avoid shrinkage cracking.
Resistance to sulfate attack in a harsh environment is critical for the durability of
hardened concrete.
As a result of conclusions reached from the literature review, a relatively new
superplasticizer was selected for use in this research.
superplasticizers

produce

concrete

with

more

Polycarboxylic-ether based

desirable

concrete

workability

characteristics than the older lignosulfonate, naphthalene, or melamine based


superplasticizers.

The superplasticizer used in all mixes tested was Glenium 3000.

Based on the effectiveness of this product, it was determined that no normal range water
reducer would be necessary in LVM mix or any of the new mix designs.

35

Table 3.1 Mix #1 LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix Design

mix proportions
lbs / 1 yd3
1770
1295
624
50
100
255
none
5.5 floz/cwt

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.329
8.0"

Table 3.2 Mix #2 1st Alteration - WJE, Inc. Report Recommendation

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
540
35
200
255
none
4.3floz/cwt
none

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.329
7.5"

36

Table 3.3 Mix # 3 - 2nd Alteration - Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
636.3
none
100
38.75
255
none
5.5floz/cwt
none

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Metakaolin
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.329
9.0"

Table 3.4 Mix # 4 - 3rd Alteration - Metakaolin - 10% OPC


Replacement

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
597.5
none
100
77.5
255
none
7.0floz/cwt
none

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Metakaolin
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.329
8.5"

37

Table 3.5 Mix # 5 - LVM Mix Design #2 - Reference Mix Design

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
624
50
100
258.66
none
5.5floz/cwt
none

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.334
8.5"

Table 3.6 Mix # 6 - 4th Alteration - LVM Mix with Caltite Admixture

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
624
50
100
222.12
none
5.5floz/cwt
6 gallons

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.351
8.5"

38

Table 3.7 Mix # 7 - 5th Alteration - Caltite Mix Design

mix proportions
per 1 yd3
1770 lb
1295
624
none
100
154.64
none
6.3floz/cwt
6 gallons

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

w/c ratio=
slump =

0.282
9.0"

Table 3.8 - Aggregate Gradations

Course Aggregate
Sieve
Size
5/8
1/2
3/8
1/4
#4
#6
Total Weight

Percent
Passing
100%
97.40%
82.80%
32.00%
5.30%
1.00%

Weight
Passing
(lbs)
1770
1724
1466
566
94
18
1770.0

Percent
Passing
97.60%
76.10%
55.30%
35.60%
13.30%
2.70%
0.70%

Weight
Passing
(lbs)
1264
985
716
461
172
35
9
1295.0

Fine Aggregate
Sieve
Size
#4
#8
#16
#30
#50
#100
#200
Total Weight

39

Table 3.9 - Total Aggregate Blend Gradation

BLEND REQUIRED-%
1-1/2" X 3/4"3/4" X #41/2" X #43/8" X #4Bldg-sandPavg-sand
0
0
58
0
42
0
100

SIEVE SIZE
(us)
(mm)
1-1/2" 37.500
1.0"
25.000
3/4"
19.000
1/2"
12.500
3/8"
9.500
#4
4.750
#8
2.360
#16
1.180
#30
0.600
#50
0.300
#100 0.150
#200 0.075
(FM)

BLENDED
ACCUMULATED P E R C E N T P A S S I N G
1-1/2" X 3/4"3/4" X #41/2" X #43/8" X #4Bldg-sandPavg-sandA G G'S
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
0.00

100.00
100.00
92.10
47.20
23.50
3.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.80

100.00
100.00
100.00
97.40
82.80
5.30
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
89.80
12.90
1.60
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.30

100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
91.30
64.50
38.20
18.50
7.70
2.30

100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
99.60
75.00
49.00
31.00
13.00
4.00
1.00

100.00
100.00
100.00
98.49
90.02
45.07
38.93
27.09
16.04
7.77
3.23
0.97

0.00

7.34

6.14

5.96

2.80

3.28

4.73

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

To achieve the standard for end conditions of compressive strength and creep test
cylinders, specimen end grinding, sawing, or capping must be performed. A highstrength gypsum mortar called Hydrostone was used as an end-capping compound. This
material was obtained from Special Effects Supply Corporation, Salt Lake City, Utah. A
mortar of high compressive strength was needed and although tests were not performed
in this research, USG specifications listed the compressive strength at 10,000 psi for a
0.32 water to gypsum ratio (www.freemansupply.com). An ideal water/gypsum ratio was
determined to be 0.25 for the purposes capping concrete cylinders. Large sheets of glass
were used as a level surface to ensure the end-smoothness requirement standard. An
40

estimated set time of 17 to 20 minutes was beneficial when many cylinders had to be
capped in a minimal amount of time. A picture a hardened gypsum end cap can be seen
in Figure3.1.

Figure 3.1 - Gypsum Cylinder End Cap

3.2

CREEP

Concrete used in floating bridges must be analyzed for its creep potential and
there is need for important experimental investigations into appropriate mix designs for
use in these types of bridges. For this research, creep frames had to first be designed and
fabricated. A basic creep frame schematic pictured in Annual Book of ASTM Standards
was used as a basis for the design.

Other frame designs and configurations were

considered, but this one was selected due to its simplicity and its efficiency. ASTM
C512 provides a written description of the basic creep frame design. The standard
41

requires that the frame be capable of applying and maintaining the desired load on the
specimen, despite any changes in the axial length of the specimen. The frame design is
shown in Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.2 - CAD Drawing of Creep Frames

42

Figure 3.3 Creep Frame

Creep frames must be designed with the strength of the concrete to be tested as
the main parameter and all of the components in the frame including the compression
springs, steel bar diameter and strength, and the plate sizes and strength are sized
accordingly. Concrete mix designs used in recent floating bridge construction has had
ultimate compressive strength values of up to 12,500 psi. An upper limit of 14,000 psi
was selected for the concrete compressive and as the capacity of the creep frames. The
ASTM standard calls for not more than 40% of the maximum compressive strength to be
applied to the concrete cylinders in the creep test. Thus taking 40% of 14,000 psi, a value

43

for the maximum stress that the frame would have to restrain is determined. The stress
value is converted to a force in pounds by multiplying its value by the end surface area of
the six-inch diameter concrete cylinder. This value of approximately 160,000 pounds can
be divided equally among the three rods. The tensile force in each rod is the force that
will be applied to each compression spring
As stated previously, the springs were designed with a strength capacity of 53,000
pounds. For the purpose of the creep test, the springs also had to be designed with a very
high stiffness so that the force would not change considerably due to a minute change in
length. A suitable spring was designed using a high strength steel wire with a diameter of
2.125 in., an outside spring diameter of 9 5/8 in., 12 in. free height, 9 5/16 in. solid
height, spring rate of 22,480 pounds per inch, and total compressed capacity of 60,000
pounds. See Figure 3.4 for a picture of the compression springs.

Figure 3.4 - Creep Frame Compression Springs

44

With the springs designed, the diameter of the steel base plate was sized by
circumscribing three springs in a triangular pattern and this diameter value was
minimized to reduce plate mass and cost. The three threaded, B7 steel reaction rods,
diameter 1.125 inches, were then positioned in a triangular pattern similar to the springs
and moved as close to the center of the plate as the springs and the concrete specimens
would allow. This placement was important to reduce plate deformation, which could
cause unwanted stress concentrations in the concrete. The upper jack plates were sized
according to the bar placements and were minimized to reduce the weight and cost. The
thickness of all of the plates was chosen to be 1.25 inches so that excessive deformation
or yielding would not occur. See Figure 3.5 for plate dimensions. The localized stresses
at the points of threaded rod insertion in the base plate were of particular interest so that
pull out would not occur when the rods were tensioned.

Figure 3.5 - Plate Dimensions

45

To ensure that stress concentrations in the concrete due to slight deviations from
the vertical in load application, a ball and socket joint was fabricated to allow for
specimen rotation. This joint consisted of a high strength steel ball bearing with a
diameter of .625 inches and a steel plate 2 inches thick with a diameter of 6 inches in
order to match the diameter of the specimens. Another plate of equal size, with no
socket, was made and placed on top of the specimens to eliminate stress concentrations
due to the bending of the lower jack plate. In order to ensure an even stress distribution
transfer from the load plates to the concrete specimens the flat surfaces of the end platens
were machined to within the smoothness tolerance listed in ASTM C39 of less than 0.002
inch deviations from plane.
With the design of the creep frame completed, focus was shifted to load
application and load measurement. A 60-ton load jack was sufficient to produce a load
corresponding to the design concrete compressive strength. A hand pump and load jack
system was acquired for the purposes of this test. The hand pump was equipped with a
calibrated dial gage which one could read the applied load to within certain accuracy.
The pump and jack system was calibrated using the Satec Model 400 QC Prism-1007
hydraulic compression machine located in the concrete lab in Albrook Hall. This manner
of load measurement using the dial gage was determined to be a good measure of applied
load. To provide an approximate check of applied load and load loss due to concrete
creep, a strain gage was attached to one of the steel reaction rods in each frame. The
strain gage was connected to a portable strain meter displaying strains in the steel rod,
from which stresses could then be calculated using approximated rod areas and material

46

properties.

The tensile stress in the rods was then transferred directly to the axial

compressive stress in the concrete cylinders. Youngs Modulus for the steel rods was
assumed to be 29(10)3 ksi and was approximately verified using the dial gage on the load
jack. The strain gage placement and orientations can be seen in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6 - Reference Strain Gage

ASTM C512 calls for concrete cylinders with a diameter of 6 inches and a height
of 12 inches. There are different ways in which strains in the cylinders can be measured,
but only 2 methods are typically practiced. The first method involves an internal strain
gage that is cast within the concrete specimen at the time of batching. A horizontal
concrete mold is used and the gage is positioned in a perfectly longitudinal manner within
the center of the mold. Concrete is then placed and consolidated around the gage. This
method can be accurate, but it is very difficult to position the strain gage and horizontal

47

molds are less common and more expensive than the typical vertical concrete cylinder
mold.
The second method used for measuring creep and shrinkage strains is the
installment of external gage points on longitudinal planes on the surface of the cylinder
and measuring and recording strains by hand.

This method is the one selected to

determine the creep strain in this research. Three planes spaced 120 degrees apart around
the circumference of the cylinder were used so that an average strain could be calculated
for each specimen. A standard gage length of 10 inches is marked on each plane, and 3/8
inch diameter, inch deep holes were drilled using a mill press and a masonry bit. The
drilling process can be seen in Figure 3.7. Brass gage points were glued into these holes
using a strong, waterproof adhesive called JB Weld. With a known initial gage length,
any decrease in length of the cylinders could be measured using a hand-held mechanical
extensometer / compressometer.

48
Figure 3.7 - Drilling of holes for gage points

The mechanical comparator must be accurate to the nearest ten-thousandths of an


inch, which is necessary for the small results expected. A multi position strain gauge was
acquired from ELE International to measure the strain deformations in the creep
specimens. This is a handheld device designed for measuring relative displacement
between the set gage lengths. Due to the length of most creep tests, the device selected
for measuring strain must be durable and stable enough to maintain accurate readings
throughout the length of the tests. The type of strain gage used in this research is
considered stable because it can be calibrated using a constant length standard bar before
every measurement.

The gage length of 10 inches mentioned previously was

recommended by Carreira and Burg (Creep and Shrinkage Structural Design Effects)
and was used in this research. This gage length is the longest span that can be used
without measuring the nonlinear strain regions at the cylinder ends. The mechanical
comparator and creep strain measurement can be seen in Figure 3.8.

49
Figure 3.8 - Creep strain measurement

50

ASTM C512 was used as the basis for the creep test standards. However, some
complications leading up to the testing portion of the experiment lead to some deviations
from the standard. Concrete curing lasted longer than the recommended standard time of
28 days. Due to problems in the preparations for the creep tests, a delay in the start date
was necessary to ensure successful strain measurements. The second phase of concrete
mix batching was done 2 days following the 28th day curing for the first phase of
batching, so the delay occurred in both phases of testing. Due to the delays in testing,
curing conditions varied between the two phases of creep tests. The concrete cylinders in
the first phase were cured in a water bath of standard temperature from age 24 hours to
26 days. On the 26th day of curing, the cylinders were removed from the water bath and
holes were drilled and gage points were glued in place. End caps were fashioned at this
point as well. The test cylinders were then placed in the controlled environment chamber
in which the creep frames were to be located. The cylinders remained in the chamber
until the 61st day of curing on which the creep tests commenced. During the testing
period, the temperature and humidity could not be held constant due to problems with the
chamber control system. The continuous data recorder was out of commission, so only
daily temperature and humidity readings are reported in Table 3.10.
The concrete cylinders in the second phase were cured in a water bath of standard
temperature from age 24 hours to 57 days. At this time, the cylinders were removed from
the water bath and holes were drilled, gage points were glued in place, and end caps were
fashioned. The cylinders were then placed in the controlled environment chamber and
remained unloaded until the 61st day of curing, at which the creep tests commenced.
Temperature and humidity data that was recorded for both phases are listed in Table 3.10.

51

The load applied to the concrete cylinders was readjusted periodically throughout
the creep test. This was done in order to maintain a constant stress state in the cylinders.
ASTM C512 requires that the load be adjusted if a change of 2% occurs from the correct
value.

Table 3.10 - Temperature and Humidity History


Phase 1

3.3

Test
Day

Temperature
(Fahrenheit)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
21
28

73.5
73.5
76.5
82.0
73.5
67.0
69.3
70.5
77.0
71.0
72.3

Phase 2

Humidity Temperature
(%)
(Fahrenheit)
52.0
52.0
49.0
45.0
52.0
56.0
57.0
59.0
47.0
57.0
56.0

73.4
73.4
73.4
73.4
73.4
73.4
73.4
73.2
83.2
84.0

Humidity
(%)
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
52.0
48.0
44.0

SHRINKAGE

Two 6x12 inch concrete specimens were cast from each mix design and were to be
used to measure concrete shrinkage. The shrinkage specimens were cured along side
their creep specimen counterparts and were subject to the same environmental conditions
for the duration of the creep test as were listed previously. The specimens remained
unloaded during the creep test. Strains in these specimens were measured in the same
52

manner as that of the creep specimens. Holes were drilled for brass gage points at ten
inch spacing, and strains were measured using the multi position strain gauge from ELE
International.

3.4

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Structural requirements of floating bridges built in recent years have specified a


minimum compressive strength of 6500psi. This was one of the criteria set by a previous
study on concrete for floating bridges and was satisfied and far surpassed in previous
tests of the LVM mix design. It has been documented and noted in the literature review
that the creep potential of concrete is reduced with the increase of compressive strength.
This is a benefit of having concrete with a compressive strength in excess of the design
strength.

While maintaining a compressive strength of 6500 psi provides adequate

strength, higher strength concrete can easily be proportioned. The benefits produced in
other performance criteria as a result of this increased strength are almost essential.
The method for testing the compressive strength of concrete was taken from
ASTM C39. For each of the seven mix designs, three 6x12 replicate cylinders were
made and cured according to ASTM C192. The specimens were immersion cured in a
saturated-lime water bath at 73.4 3F for 27 days and compressive strength tests were
performed on the 28th day of curing. The concrete mixes all had a relatively high design
compressive strength and therefore had to be end-capped for testing, in order to achieve
consistent results, rather than testing with standard neoprene pads and platens. Concrete
cylinders were capped with Hydrostone as described previously. The specimens were
tested for compressive strength using a hydraulic operated machine from SATEC, Model
53

400 QC Prism-1007, Grove City, PA.

The longitudinal axis of the specimen was

properly aligned with the thrust of the spherically seated block. A constant rate of
loading was maintained throughout, within the tolerances of the testing machine, and the
rate was within the limits provided in ASTM C39 of 20 to 50 psi per second. Ultimate
compressive stress was recorded, in addition to the type of fracture observed.

3.5

CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION

Durable concrete is defined as having has the ability to withstand external effects,
which may be mechanical, physical, or chemical, with minimal damage.
permeability is key to long-term durability of concrete.

Low

Low permeability in high

performance concrete provides protection against: damage due to freezing and thawing,
alkali-aggregate reactivity, carbonation, acid attack, chemical resistance, sulfate attack,
seawater exposures, etc. The Hood Canal is an extremely corrosive environment and
care must be taken to ensure that any structural steel within the concrete is protected from
chloride acid attack.
For this test, two 4 by 8 inch cylinders were cast from each mix design. The
cylinders were removed from the molds after 24 hours curing under a plastic tent with
wet burlap. The tent was used to maintain a relatively constant temperature and humidity
of 68 degrees Fahrenheit and 60 %, respectively for the first 24 hours of curing. Upon
removal from the molds, the specimens were partially cured by submersion in lime water
followed by curing in a moisture cabinet until the 28th day of curing. The first phase of
three mixes was cured for 22 days in the lime water before the specimens were placed in
the standard cure moisture cabinet. The four mixes in the second phase were water cured
54

for 6 days before the transfer to the moisture cabinet. Tests for Chloride ion penetration
were completed by WSDOT and were performed according to ASTM C 1202.
The experimental methods documented in this chapter are thorough and accurate.
All of the deviations from standard testing methods have been listed and explained.
Further analysis of the effects of these deviations from standard will be included in
upcoming chapters.

55

CHAPTER 4:

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The Federal Highway Administration provides classifications for high


performance concrete (HPC) with different performance characteristics. Grades of HPC
are listed from 1 to 4, 1 having the lowest performance in each of the criteria. It should
be noted that HPC grade 1 is still a high performance concrete and performs better than
normal concrete. The information is shown below in its original format in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 - HPC Performance Grades (Table 1.2 - Definition of HPC according to
Federal Highway Administration, Goodspeed, et al. 1996)
Performance
Characteristics

Standard
test method

Freeze-thaw durability
(X = relative dynamic
modulus of elasticity
after 300 cycles)

FHWA HPC performance grade


1

AASHTO T 161
ASTM
C 666
Procedure A

60%<X<80%

80%<X

Scaling resistance
(X = visual rating of
the surface after
after 50 cycles)

ASTM
C 672

X=4, 5

X=2, 3

X=0, 1

Abrasion resistance
(X = avg. depth of
wear in mm)

ASTM
C 944

2.0>X>1.0

1.0>X>0.5

0.5>X

Chloride penetration
(X = coulombs

AASHTO T 277
ASTM
C 1202

3000>X>2000

2000>X>800

800>X

Strength
(X = compressive
strength)

AASHTO T 2
ASTM
C 39

41<X<55 MPa
(6<X<8 ksi)

55<X<69 MPa
(8<X<10 ksi)

69<X<97 MPa
(10<X<14 ksi)

Elasticity
(X = modulus)

ASTM
C 469

28<X<40 GPa
(4<X<6x106psi)

40<X<50 GPa
(6<X<7.5x106psi)

50 GPa<X<
(7.5x106psi<X)

Shrinkage
(X = microstrain)

ASTM
C 157

800>X>600

600>X>400

400>X

Specific creep
(X = microstrain
per MPa)

ASTM
C 512

75>X>60/MPa
(0.52>X>0.41/psi

60>X>45/MPa
(0.41>X>0.31/psi

45>X>30/MPa
(0.31>X>0.21/psi

56

97 MPa<X
(14 ksi<X)

30/MPa>X
(0.21/psi>X

4.1

CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS

The seven mix designs tested in this research were listed previously in Chapter 3
and can be seen again here in Table 4.2 for reference convenience. All the mix designs
performed well in the batching process. The workability characteristics were comparable.
Superplasticizer was added to each mix at a predetermined quantity, and then adjusted to
achieve the desired slump at or between 8 and 9 inches. There was no indication of
aggregate and cement paste segregation with any of the mix designs. Segregation was
watched for and is an important problem to avoid in floating bridge pontoons due to the
deep walls into which this concrete is to be placed. The freeze thaw characteristic of
concrete is not a major issue in the Hood Canal region, so air content was not measured at
the time of batching.

Table 4.2 - Concrete Mix Design Quantities


M
i

Course Aggregate (lb)

1770

1770

1770

1770

1770

1770

1770

Fine Aggregate (lb)

1295

1295

1295

1295

1295

1295

1295

Portland Cement Type II (lb)

624

540

636.3

597.5

624

624

624

Silica Fume (AASHTO M307) (lb)

50

35

none

none

50

50

none

Fly Ash (AASHTO M295) (lb)

100

200

100

100

100

100

100

Metakaolin (Highly Reactive) (lb)

none

none

38.75

77.5

none

none

none

Water (lb)

255

255

255

255

258.7

222.12

154.64

Caltite - Waterproofing Admixture

none

none

none

none

none

49.86

49.86

W/C ratio

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.329

0.334

0.351

0.282

Water Reducer (ASTM C494)

none

none

none

none

none

none

none

Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

5.5 floz/cwt

4.3floz/cwt

5.5floz/cwt

7.0floz/cwt

5.5floz/cwt

5.5floz/cwt

6.3floz/cwt

8.0

7.5

9.0

8.5

8.5

8.5

9.0

Slump (inches)

Caltite -> 6 gallons/yd^3

57

All Values Based per Cubic Yard

4.2

CREEP

Measuring deformations to the precision necessary for accurate creep and


shrinkage results is an intricate task. The accuracy required by ASTM C512 is one tenthousandths of an inch. The specimen preparation procedure must be performed with
care. Gage points should be perpendicular with the axis of the cylindrical specimen and
should be parallel with each other so that the mechanical comparator can be used
effectively. Drilling of the holes and gluing the points into the correct position is critical
for useful results. If the gage points are not lined up correctly as previously described,
accurate measurements can still be collected. To collect strain data, the same person
should take all of the measurements and the mechanical comparator must be held at the
same orientation with respect to the specimen and gage points each time a reading is
taken.
Creep potential of concrete is valuable information for knowing if the concrete to
be used in construction is commensurate with the loadings to be applied throughout the
design life of a structure. As was described in detail in the Chapter 1, creep is present in
floating bridge pontoons and must be accounted for. Although creep deformation will
continue throughout the life of a structure, it is essential that predictions of long term
creep could be made based on short term data. Typically, creep tests are carried out for
180 days or up to one year or more. The expected creep strain after this time is much less
than that which would occur during the testing duration. As was stated in the literature,
(Brooks and Neville 1978) required creep accuracies for a given concrete application
should be assessed so that appropriate test duration could be selected. Short term, 28 day
tests were selected for this research. Such data can be used to observe concrete creep

58

potential at 28 days, and to extrapolate long-term results using empirical relationships.


The extrapolation equations and expected error developed by Brooks and Neville (1978)
are provided here in a revised form:

Basic creep- ct=c28*0.50t0.21 ;

Mbc16%

Total creep- ct=c28[-6.19+2.15ln(t)]1/2.64 ;

Mtc19%

Shrinkage-

st = s28 + 100(3.61 log e (t ) 12.05) 0.5

Msh14%

Measured and calculated creep quantities are shown in Table 4.3. The table lists
for each mix number, the applied stress, the instantaneous elastic deformation, the
calculated Youngs Modulus, measured 28-day creep, the 28-day creep coefficient, 28day specific creep, and long-term estimated creep strains. A graphical depiction for
comparison of the 28-day measured specific creep values and the long-term extrapolated
values, less the initial elastic strain, is shown in Figure 4.1. Other graphs displaying the
measured deformation of each mix design can be seen in Figures 4.2 through 4.8. For
visual clarity, actual measured data points are included in the graphs, and trend lines have
been sketched over the points to model the data curves. The results are graphed in microstrain versus time in days. The total strain was measured from the specimens under load
in the creep frames. Shrinkage strains were measured from the companion cylinders
cured at the same conditions as the creep specimens. The values for creep plus initial
elastic strain have been calculated by subtracting the shrinkage strains from the total
59

strain measured. Initial elastic deformation is included in creep strain curves in the
individual mix deformation graphs.

Table 4.3 - Creep Comparison


I
M
in
xs

The axial stress applied to the

t
a

#n

specimens was approximately 25 % of the


1.
3
28-day ultimate compressive strength. 2. The dial gage accuracy for the applied
2
3.
load reading was reported by the 4.2 manufacturer to be 1% of the maximum
53.
number on the gage ring scale. For this 63. particular application, the accuracy is
2
7.
equal to 1% of 65 tons, or .65 tons.
2
The instantaneous elastic deformation is is the measured strain immediatly after

ct
c28

= (6.19 + 2.15 * log e (t ))

1
2.64

the load is applied to the specimens. This strain is almost entirely recoverable when the
load is removed. This portion of the total load induced strain is not considered creep and
therefore, not included in the reported creep strain results. This property was described
by Neville, Dilger and Brooks (1983). The modulus of elasticity of the concrete is
calculated by dividing the applied stress by the instantaneous elastic strain. This Youngs
modulus is the initial value for the hardened concrete. As the concrete undergoes long
term deformation under applied load, the modulus of elasticity is reduced. The values
reported here in Table 4.3 are comparable to values seen in other research. In a study
performed by Cascade Testing in Seattle, a MOE for a mix similar in composition to the
LVM mix design was reported as 6.27(x106) psi.
60

This is the same as the valued

calculated for mix design #5. The MOE reported for a mix similar in composition to the
Caltite mix design was reported as 6.77(x106) psi, indicating a 1% difference from the
value calculated in this research of 6.84(x106) psi.
The 28-day creep is the actual measured strain for each concrete mix. The
deflection was measured in inches for each gage length on both specimens for a given
mix design. Each deflection measurement was divided by its respective gage length in
inches to obtain a strain value. These strain values were then averaged for each mix
design to obtain the value listed in Table 4.3. A routine check of strain similarity
between creep cylinders can be made by observing the measured data. For mix #1,
average total strain for cylinder 1 was recorded as 0.00088 in/in, and the average total
strain for cylinder 2 was 0.00088 in/in. This produced an average of 0.00088 in/in with a
standard deviation of 0.0. The standard deviation for the measured total strain data for
mix 3 is 0.000014.
The results The 28-day creep coefficient is the ratio between the measured creep
value at 28 days and the instantaneous elastic strain. It is important to note that creep
strains are relative, based on the stress applied to the specimens. A constant ratio
between applied and ultimate compressive stress has been used in this research.
Normalization to comparable data is done by dividing the strain in the cylinders by the
stress applied, resulting in the specific creep values presented in the Table 4.3. Specific
creep is reported in units of microstrain per psi and is used when comparing creep
potential of different mix designs. Extrapolated specific creep values for times of 180
days, 1 year and 5 years are also reported and listed in Table 4.3. The long term data was

61

calculated using the 28 day specific creep data and the equation previously reported from
Brooks and Neville (1978).

0.600

Specific Creep (microstrain/psi)

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

Mix #1

Mix #2

Mix #3

Mix #4

Mix #5

Mix #6

Mix #7

0.000
0.0

500.0

1000.0

1500.0

2000.0

Time (days)

Figure 4.1 Specific Creep Comparison Estimated Strain Results to 5-Years

62

Dilger and Wang (2000) made the observation that creep strains for a high
performance concrete mix are approximately 1.8 to 2.4 times the initial instantaneous
elastic strain after a long time. This principle is fairly consistent with the mixes tested in
this research. For one year extrapolated data, the creep coefficient ranges from 2.16 for
mix #6 to 2.67 for mix #4.
Mix #2 had the lowest measured value for specific creep. A value of 0.128
micro-strain at 28 days was 22% lower than Mix #3, which had the next lowest specific
creep results. It has been noted that mix #2 had the highest quantity of fly ash of all the
mixes tested. Brooks (1999) found that fly ash was shown to result in lower ultimate
creep values with an increase in cement replacement percentage of fly ash. This is
because fly ash concrete continues to develop strength over a long period, unlike silica
fume, which leads to faster development of ultimate compressive strength.

Brooks

(2000) also found that total creep decreases for low levels of silica fume. Both the higher
level of fly ash and the lower level of silica fume in mix #2 helped produce the concrete
with the lowest creep potential researched in this study.
Mix #7 had low specific creep, with a 28-day value of 0.165 micro-strain. This
could be attributed to the relatively low water-to-cementitious ratio of 0.28 (Burg et.al.
1994). This particular mix had low cement paste content with respect to the other
concretes. A decrease in cement paste content tends to produce concrete with decreased
creep (Zia, 1993).
deformations.

Furthermore, high aggregate content is known to restrain creep

It is unknown whether the Caltite lead to the reduction in creep as

compared to the baseline mix. Referring to mix #6, the Caltite inclusion into the concrete

63

did not appear to considerably affect creep of the LVM mix. Similar values for creep
were obtained for mix #6 as were for the LVM.
The LVM mix designs, #s 1 and 5, produced creep values of slightly differing
magnitude.

Both extrapolated creep values at 180 days are classified as Grade 2

according to Figure 4.1. The values are resulting from concretes with different curing
conditions and from a test that is difficult to repeat and achieve duplicate results.
Metakaolin modified concrete was similar to silica fume modified concrete in its
creep potential. Mix #4 creep deformation, 0.340 micro-strain, was nearly equivalent to
the creep of its counterpart, the LVM number 2, at 0.336 micro-strain at 180 days. Mix
#3 performed better in creep than did mix #4. This was not expected since results
observed in the literature claimed that creep of metakaolin modified concrete decreased
with the increased inclusion quantity of metakaolin in the mix (Brooks et.al. 2001). The
effect of the curing conditions may have affected the creep potential of the concrete. The
loss of internal relative humidity from cement hydration as well as water loss to the
ambient environment as the concrete cured in the testing chamber could have led to lower
total creep in mix #3, compared to that of mix #4 (Dilger et.al 2000).

64

1000
900

y = 71.452Ln(x) + 620.08

800
y = 61.879Ln(x) + 582.92

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
600
Total Strain
500

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain


Shrinkage Strain

400
300
200
100

y = 9.5728Ln(x) + 37.163

0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Time (days)

Figure 4.2 - LVM Mix Design Strain

1000
Total Strain
900

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain

800

Shrinkage Strain
y = 57.445Ln(x) + 551.12

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
600
500
y = 28.373Ln(x) + 352.98

400
300

y = 29.073Ln(x) + 198.14

200
100
0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0
Time (days)

Figure 4.3 WJE Inc. Mix Design Strain

65

20.0

25.0

30.0

1000
900
800
y = 61.195Ln(x) + 502.68

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
600
y = 43.29Ln(x) + 434.8

500
Total Strain
400

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain

300

Shrinkage Strain

200
y = 17.905Ln(x) + 67.883

100
0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Time (days)

Figure 4.4 5% Metakaolin Mix Design Strain

1000
900
800

y = 58.024Ln(x) + 560.96

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
y = 48.078Ln(x) + 509.54

600
500

Total Strain

400

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain


Shrinkage Strain

300
200
100

y = 9.946Ln(x) + 51.429

0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0
Time (days)

Figure 4.5 10% Metakaolin Mix Design Strain

66

20.0

25.0

30.0

1000.0
900.0
800.0
y = 49.814Ln(x) + 548.82

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700.0
y = 42.682Ln(x) + 512.51

600.0

Total Strain
500.0

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain

400.0

Shrinkage Strain

300.0
200.0
y = 7.1314Ln(x) + 36.302

100.0
0.0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Time (days)

Figure 4.6 LVM (#2) Mix Design Strain

1000
900
800

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
y = 45.193Ln(x) + 474.95

600
y = 33.95Ln(x) + 421.69

500
Total Strain
400

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain

300

Shrinkage Strain

200
100
y = 12.169Ln(x) + 52.182

0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Time (days)

Figure 4.7 LVM Mix w/ Caltite Waterproofing Admixture Mix Design Strain

67

1000
900
800

Strain (in/in) (10^-6)

700
600
y = 38.702Ln(x) + 380.86

500
y = 27.743Ln(x) + 332.03

400
Total Strain
300

Creep and Initial Elastic Strain


Shrinkage Strain

200
100

y = 10.959Ln(x) + 48.823

0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0
Time (days)

Figure 4.8 Caltite Mix Design Strain

68

20.0

25.0

30.0

4.3

SHRINKAGE

The engineers that designed the Lacey V. Murrow Bridge specifications placed a
limit on the maximum allowable shrinkage strains in the pontoons. The length change of
hardened concrete, tested according to AASHTO T160 or ASTM C 157, was required to
be less than 400 millionths (micro-strain) at 28 days. As was discussed previously,
shrinkage strain must be kept to a minimum so that shrinkage cracking does not occur
and allow water to penetrate into the pontoon cells.
The shrinkage testing method provided by ASTM C 157 was not used in this
research. Obtaining shrinkage strains in a similar manor as the strains due to creep was
desirable for direct comparisons and calculations. This method is prescribed by ASTM C
512 where necessary information requirements for creep are specified. It should be noted
that due to the creep testing procedure described previously, measurements for shrinkage
strains were not taken until the time the creep cylinders were subject to loading. This
being the case, actual data reported for shrinkage are not true 28-day values. The curing
conditions prior to strain measurements and age at testing have been described and
should be noted when reviewing the shrinkage results. The 28-day measured shrinkage
strain can be seen in Table 4.4.
Values observed for shrinkage strain are all classified as Grade 3 concrete strains
according to FWHA, with mix #2 as the one exception, which is classified as
Performance Grade 2. All mixes had shrinkage results well below the required limit of
400 millionths at 28 days. The LVM mix design, both numbers 1 and 5, performed quite
well and had the lowest shrinkage strains observed here.

As was expected, mixes

containing silica fume experienced slightly lower shrinkage than the mixes containing
69

similar quantities of metakaolin, at early ages. (Calderone, Gruber, Burg 1994) This was
observed in the comparison of the LVM to mix #4. In addition, shrinkage strains showed
a decrease as the OPC replacement quantity by metakaolin increased (Ding, Li 2002).
Caltite did not significantly affect shrinkage of the LVM mix, however a slight increase
was observed.
With the exception of mix #2, all mix designs performed as expected in
shrinkage. Mix design #2 had the highest shrinkage strain measured in this research.
This occurrence is possibly because more water still existed in the concrete cylinders.
The higher water content is due to the continuing of hydration over a longer period
because of the high fly ash content. More water in the concrete would allow for more
drying shrinkage as the concrete attempts to reach hygral equilibrium with the ambient
environment. These results, however, are larger than expected when considering the
curing conditions that the test specimens experienced prior to strain measurements.

70

Table 4.4 Shrinkage Strains

Mix #

Modulus of
Elasticity
(10^6)
(s/ei) psi

28 Day
Shrinkage
(microstrain)
(s28)

6.76
8.41
7.30
7.01
6.27
5.69
6.84

96.7
289.5
135.0
121.8
83.4
116.7
128.6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Estimated
Estimated
Long Term
Long Term
Shrinkage
Shrinkage
(microstrain) (microstrain)
ct=365 days
ct=180 days
355.5
548.3
393.7
380.6
342.2
375.5
387.3

Estimated
Long Term
Shrinkage
(microstrain)
ct=1825 days

400.8
593.6
439.1
425.9
387.5
420.9
432.7

484.8
677.5
523.0
509.8
471.4
504.8
516.6

st = s28 + 100(3.61 log e (t ) 12.05) 0.5


Long Term Shrinkage Strains
800.0
700.0

Shrinkage - 10^-6

600.0
500.0
400.0
300.0
200.0
100.0

Mix #1

Mix #2

Mix #3

Mix #4

Mix #5

Mix #6

Mix #7
0.0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time (days)

Figure 4.9 Long Term Shrinkage Strains, Extrapolated from 28-day Data

71

2000

4.4

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

The results for 28-day compressive strength can be seen in Table 4.5. The testing
protocol followed to obtain strength data is prescribed by ASTM C39, as listed in Section
3.4 of this report. Three cylinders were cast and cured for each mix design and tested in
axial compression on the 28th day.

Standard deviations for the mean compressive

strength are listed in Table 4.5 and are all within the requirement of 7.8% set forth in
ASTM C39.
Mix design 4 produced the highest compressive strength with an average ultimate
value of 9206.7 psi. The LVM mix design, numbers 1 and 5 with an average of the two
average ultimate values of 8788.4 psi was the next highest value obtained in this research.
The results of these two mixes are consistent with previous research findings mentioned
in the literature review chapter of this report. Concrete compressive strength is greater
with the inclusion of metakaolin than that of concrete with silica fume with similar OPC
replacement values. The results of mix numbers 2 and 3 are also consistent with past
metakaolin and silica fume comparison studies. Mix number 2 was proportioned with
4.5% OPC replacement with silica fume and mix number 3 had 5% OPC replacement
with metakaolin. Mix number 3 demonstrated a higher ultimate compressive strength
than number 2 by 7.5%.
The first mix incorporating Caltite, mix number 6, had a compressive strength of
6890 psi, which was lower than its parent mix design, the LVM, with an average
compressive strength of 8788 psi. These results were consistent with past results from a
similar study by Cascade Testing in Seattle, Washington where a control mix and a
similar mix having water replaced by equal part Caltite were tested.

72

The 28-day

compressive strength of the control mix was 12310 psi and that of the Caltite mix was
9980 psi. The reduction in compressive strength seen in this previous study of about 19.0
percent is similar to the results of this research of 21.6 percent. The Caltite was used as a
water replacement and accounted for as water in the water-to-cementitious material ratio.
The water-to-cementitious ratio was larger for this mix than the other mix designs tested
in this study. This larger ratio may have been the cause for the lower strength, as past
results have shown (Carette and Malhotra,1992). In addition, Caltite may not contribute
to the hydration process in the same manor as water does. Due to the removal of water
and replacement with Caltite, it could be speculated that similar hydration may not have
been possible, which could produce concrete with reduced strength.
Mix design 7 had a 28-day compressive strength of 6233.3 psi. As previous
results demonstrated, greater compressive strengths result from the inclusion of finer
supplementary cementitious materials such as silica fume or metakaolin (Calderone,
Gruber, Burg, 1994). The lower strength was expected due to the lack of these fines in
the mix design. Mix number 7 had the lowest strength of all of the mix designs tested,
and was just slightly lower than the required compressive strength of 6500 psi set forth in
the concrete specifications.

73

Table 4.5 28-Day Compressive Strength

Standard
Deviation

Average
28- Day
Compressive
Strength (psi)

177.8

8710

28 day
Cylinder
Mix Design
#
1
1
2
3

Compressive
Strength (psi)
8910
8650
8570

1
2
3

8140
8200
8150

32.1

8163.3

1
2
3

8820
8780
8720

50.3

8773.3

1
2
3

9340
9080
9200

130.1

9206.7

1
2
3

8870
8820
8910

45.1

8866.7

1
2
3

7010
6800
6860

108.2

6890

1
2
3

6100
6350
6250

125.8

6233.3

10000
Compressive Strength (psi)

9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Mix Design
#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Figure 4.10 28-Day Compressive Strength

74

#6

#7

4.5

CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION

ASTM C 1202 prescribes the testing method for determining the chloride
penetration resistance in of the concrete mixes. Two 4 by 8 standard cylinders were cast
for each mix to execute this test, as was stated in Section 3.5. Test results for the 28-day
cure chloride ion penetration tests can be seen in Table 4.6.
First, it should be noted that based on the creation of the LVM mix design, a
chloride permeability resistance adequacy standard was set at a maximum of 1000
coulombs passed at 56 day cure. Results for 56-day cure chloride permeability were not
determined in this research due to lack of test cylinders. This is a slight drawback since
the results cannot be compared directly to the permeability requirement set forth as a
basis for acceptability. However, trends can be noted using the 28-day data and the
results can be compared with those from prior studies to determine the adequacy of
chloride ion penetration resistance.
The lowest penetration result was mix number 5, the second phase LVM mix
design. The low level of charge passed, 1158 coulombs, was consistent with previous
LVM mix design permeability results. Lwin, Bruesch, and Evans (2001) reported test
results from initial LVM mix design development studies. Permeability results reported
were 1,198 coulombs at 28 days. This value was reduced to 790 coulombs at 56 days and
then further reduced to 584 coulombs at 90 days. At the time of the LVM construction,
113 permeability tests were performed on the LVM concrete and the results were
reported in the Concrete for Lacey V. Murrow Bridge Pontoons (1993), a WSDOT
document. The results for 28, 56 and 90-day tests had averages of 1327, 785, and 577
coulombs, respectively. The decrease in permeability is due to the further hydration of

75

the concrete with time and the resulting infilling of the porosity.

This typical

characteristic of concrete can be assumed to act in a similar manor for all of the mixes
studied in this research. Thus, it can be assumed that all of the permeability values would
decrease as the cure time increased. Boddy, Hooton and Gruber (2001) demonstrated
such property in a study in which long-term chloride penetration resistance of concrete
containing high reactivity metakaolin was explored.
The addition of Caltite to the LVM mix to form mix design #6 increased the
chloride penetration at 28 days to 1337 coulombs. This amounted to a 15% increase in
permeability, though this mix design was the second most resistant to chloride ion
penetration in this research.
Mix design number 4, the metakaolin mix with 10% OPC replacement had
chloride permeability of 1682.5 coulombs.

According to past studies, metakaolin

concrete has a similar, but slightly lower resistance to chloride ion penetration than does
silica fume concrete during early stages. Ding and Li (2002) found that for all OPC
replacement values, silica fume is more effective in providing improved chloride
resistance of concrete than metakaolin, but both were considerably better than their
control mix with no fine supplementary cementitious materials. Ding and Li reported
though, that after 90 days of observation, the silica fume and metakaolin 15%
replacement concretes displayed equal resistance results. This is a testament to the nearly
100% reactivity of the metakaolin and the further hydration that results over time. Due to
the results trend reported by Ding and Li, as well as conclusions reached by Boddy,
Hooton and Gruber (2001), it could be speculated that the permeability of the 10%

76

metakaolin modified concrete would reduce to below 1000 coulombs at 56 days, and
further reduction would occur by 90 days.
The conclusions to the aforementioned study by Ding and Li were not repeated
here when comparing mix number 2, the WJE Inc. mix recommendation containing 5%
silica fume, to mix number 3, which contained 5% metakaolin as OPC replacement. Mix
numbers 2 and 3 had chloride resistance results of 2380 and 1938.5 coulombs,
respectively. At 28 days, the metakaolin modified concrete showed greater resistance to
chloride penetration than did the fly ash and silica fume concrete. It should be noted that
the water to cementitious ratio was the same for both mixes, but the fly ash quantities
differed greatly between the two. Due to its reaction with OPC hydration and its small
size compared to OPC, it was shown that fly ash typically decreases concrete
permeability (Aitcin 1998), but this has not been displayed here in this early age test.
The curing conditions for these two mixes, as described in the Experimental Methods
chapter of this report, were alike, so the metakaolin mix simply outperformed the WJE
Inc mix in resistance to chloride ion penetration.

It should be assumed that the

permeability of these mixes would decrease drastically by the 56th day of curing, possibly
reducing the amount of coulombs passed by half. In a previous study (Ozyildirim,1998)
examining the permeability of a concrete mix similar in proportion to mix 2, the number
of coulombs passed reduced from 1454 at 28 days to 490 at 90 days.
Mix design number 7 had the largest chloride ion penetration at 2858 coulombs
at 28 days. This is classified by ASTM C1202 as moderate. Due to the lack of a fine
supplementary cementitious material, such as silica fume or metakaolin, the porosity of
this mix was greater than the other mixes. It should be noted that a previous 58-day

77

chloride ion permeability test on a mix similar in composition to mix 7 produced an


average result of 895 coulombs (CTL 1999)

Table 4.6 Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Results - 28 day

28 Day
Charge Passed Average
Chloride Ion
Mix Design Cylinder # (Coulombs)
Coulombs Penetrability
8
1598
1
1629*
Low
9
1660
17
2340
2
2380
Moderate
18
2420
26
1917
3
1938.5
Low
27
1960
35
1648
4
1682.5
Low
36
1717
44
1183
5
1158*
Low
45
1133
53
1340
6
1337
Low
54
1334
62
2916
7
2858
Moderate
63
2800

Table 4.7 Permeability Classifications

Chloride Ion Penetrability Based on Charge Passed


Charge Passed (coulombs)
Chloride Ion Penetrability
>4,000
High
2,000-4,000
Moderate
1,000-2,000
Low
100-1,000
Very Low
<100
Negligible
(ASTM C 1202 97)

78

79

CHAPTER 5:

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

This research provides a comparative study of several concrete mix designs for
use in floating bridges for the purpose of improvements in existing practices. The Lacey
V. Murrow (LVM) mix design is used as a baseline mix and alterations are made to that
design to improved the concrete performance.
The concrete mixes were studied for their fresh and hardened properties including
the 28-day compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, creep and shrinkage. For
purposes of comparison and determination of a better mix design, it is advantageous to
have a reference mix. Results are tabulated in Table 5.1 and should be referred to when
reviewing the conclusions reached.
Results of this research reiterates that the LVM mix design is a quality, high
performance concrete mix. The LVM has performed well in all the categories tested, and
has only slightly been improved in some areas by certain mix alterations. Though the
mix design was developed in 1991, it remains a mix that is quite suitable for use in
concrete floating bridges.

Bridge designers must evaluate the importance of minor

improvements in the LVM concrete performance for the benefits in the application.
Table 5.1 Mix Design Test Results
Average 28 day
Compressive
Mix Design Strength (psi)
Baseline
8788
2
8163
3
8773
4
9207
6
6890
7
6233

Chloride
Average
Ion
Coulombs Penetrability
1394
Low
2380
Moderate
1939
Low
1683
Low
1337
Low
2858
Moderate

80

Predicted
180-Day
Specific Creep
(microstrain/psi)
0.359
0.236
0.297
0.340
0.343
0.303

Predicted
180-Day
Shrinkage
(microstrain)
349
548
394
381
376
387

Mix design number 2 is a modified LVM mix, with decreased silica fume and
increased fly ash contents. The workability was acceptable and the fresh concrete could
attain similar slump to the LVM of 7.5 inches with a lesser amount of superplasticizer.
There was no indication of segregation. The 28-day compressive strength was 7.1%
lower, the permeability was classified as moderate, the 180-day specific creep decreased
by 34.3%, and the 180-day shrinkage was 57.2% greater than the baseline mix.
Mix design number 3 consists of high reactivity metakaolin at 5% OPC
replacement. Fly ash content was the same as the LVM and no silica fume was included.
The fresh concrete showed excellent performance with a slump of 9 inches when using an
equal amount of superplasticizer as the LVM mix. Compressive strength was only
slightly less by 1.7%, permeability was low, creep was reduced by 17.3%, and shrinkage
increased by 12.9%.
Mix design number 4 contains 10% high reactivity metakaolin as a supplementary
cementitious material. Fly ash content was the same as the LVM and no silica fume was
used. An 8.5-inch slump was measured with 7.0 fluid oz/cwt. The compressive strength
showed an increase over the LVM by 4.8%, permeability was low, 180-day specific creep
was reduced by 5.3%, and shrinkage increased by 9.1%.
Mix design number 6 contains the same quantities of cementitious materials and
superplasticizer as the baseline design, with a portion of the water replaced by Everdure
Caltite waterproofing admixture. Workability was excellent with the fresh concrete
attaining a slump of 8.5 inches. The compressive strength was decreased by 21.6%,
chloride ion permeability was low, creep was lower by 4.5%, and shrinkage was greater
than the LVM by 7.7%.

81

Mix design number 7 contains similar aggregate quantities as the LVM, as well as
equivalent amounts of OPC and fly ash. Silica fume is not used in this mix. Everdure
Caltite is added in place of equal parts mix water. The concrete attained a slump of 9.0
inches using 6.3 fluid oz/cwt of superplasticizer. The 28-day compressive strength was
6233.3 psi, showing a reduction in strength of 29.1%. The chloride ion permeability was
moderate, 180-day specific creep was 15.6% lower than the baseline mix, and shrinkage
increased by 11.0%.
General conclusions from the results of this research have been realized. The
reduction of silica fume and increase of fly ash proved successful in attaining required
specification properties. LVM concrete properties were improved by the inclusion of
high-reactivity metakaolin in some cases.

Caltite waterproofing admixture reduced

chloride ion permeability in the LVM mix, but decreased 28-day compressive strength.
Concrete with insufficient compressive strength was created with the removal of silica
fume and the inclusion of Caltite.
The results and conclusions reached are reliable and can serve a valuable tool in
the selection of concrete for use in floating bridges. As is the case with any concrete mix,
tests must be performed to ensure the suitability for a given application. This research
could be viewed as a first step in the selection and testing of a concrete mix. However,
prior to implementing a particular mix, an engineer may need to perform additional tests
to ensure compliance with desired performance criteria.

Large-scale wall and slab

sections representative of the bridge pontoons in which the concrete is to be used should
also be tested to ensure satisfactory constructability performance.

Such studies are

critical for the successful implementation of a given concrete mix in floating bridges.

82

REFERENCES

1. Concrete for Lacey V. Murrow Bridge Pontoons, (1993). Wiss, Janney, Elstner
Associates, Inc. WJE No. 912145
2. Results of ASTM C666 Rapid Freezing and Thawing, AASHTO T277 Rapid
Chloride Permeability, and AASHTO T259/260 90 Day Chloride Solution
Ponding of Specimens From Nine Concrete Mixes, (1999). Construction
Technology Laboratory, Skokie, Illinois
3. Aitcin, P.C. (1998). High Performance Concrete. London. E & FN Spon.
4. Brooks, J. J. (2000). Elasticity, Creep and Shrinkage of Concretes Containing
Admixtures, ACI Special Publication 194, pp283-360
5. Brooks, J. J. (1999). How Admixtures Affect Shrinkage and Creep, Concrete
International, April
6. Brooks, J. J. and Johari, M.A. Megat. (2001). The Affect of Metakaolin on
Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research
7. Brooks, J. J. and Neville, A. (1992). Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete As
Affected by Admixtures and Cement Replacement Materials, ACI Special
Publication 135-2, pp19-36
8. Brooks, J. J. and Neville, A.M. (1975). Estimating Long-term Creep and
Shrinkage from Short-term Tests, Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol 27 No.
90; March, pp. 3-12
9. Brooks, J. J. and Neville, A.M. (1978). Estimating Long-term Creep and
Shrinkage from Short-term Tests, Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol 30 No.
103; pp. 51-61
10. Burg, R.G. and Ost, B.W. (1994). Engineering Properties of Commercially
Available High Strength Concretes, Research and Development Bulletin - RD
104, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, USA
11. Calderone, M. A., Gruber, K. A., and Burg, R. G. (1994). High Reactivity
Metakaolin: A New Generation Admixture, Concrete International, Nov, pp 3740
12. Carreira, D.J. and Burg, R.G. (2000). Testing for Concrete Creep and
Shrinkage, ACI Special Publication 194, pp381-420

83

13. Carrette, G.G., Bilodeah, A., Chevrier, R.L., and Malhotra, V.M. (1993).
Mechanical Properties of Concrete Incorporating High Volumes of Fly Ash from
Sources in the U.S., ACI Materials Journal, Nov-Dec, Vol. 90 No.6, pp.535-544
14. Carrette, G.G.and Malhotra, V.M. (1992). Long-Term Strength Development of
Silica Fume Concrete, Proceedings, Canmet/ACI 4th International Conference
on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Istanbul, ACI
SP-132, vol. 2, ed. V.M. Malhotra, American Concrete Institute, Farmington
Hills, Mich., pp. 1651-1671
15. Collins, T.M. (1989). Proportioning High-Strength Concrete to Control Creep
and Shrinkage, ACI Materials Journal, Nov-Dec, Vol 86, No. 6, pp.576-580
16. Dhir, R. K. and Dyer, T. D. (1999). Modern Concrete Materials. Thomas
Telford Publishing, London
17. Dilger, W.H. and Wang, C. (2000). Creep and Shrinkage of High Performance
Concrete, ACI Special Publication 194. pp 361-371
18. Ding, J.T. and Li, Z. (2002). Effects of Metakaolin and Silica Fume on
Properties of Concrete, ACI Materials Journal V. 99, No. 4, July-August. pp
393-398
19. Dusenberry, D. O. (1993). What Sank the Lacey Murrow?, Civil Engineering
(New York), v. 63, n. 11, Nov. p 54-57.
20. Feng, N.Q., Chan, S.Y.N., He, Z.S. and Tsang, M.K.C. (1997). Shale Ash
Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 279-291
21. Firth, C. R. (1993). What Sank the Lacey Murrow? The Contractors Case,
Civil Engineering (New York), v. 63, n. 11, Nov. p 58-59.
22. Gloyd, Charles S., (1988) Concrete Floating Bridges, Concrete International,
May
23. Goodspeed, C. H., Vanikar, S. and Cook, R. A. (1996). Concrete International,
Vol 18, Issue 2, February
24. Jianyong, Li and Yan, Y. (2001). A Study on Creep and Drying Shrinkage of
HPC, Cement and Concrete Research 31, pp 1203-1206
25. Khatri, R. P. (1995). Effect of Different Supplementary Cementitious Materials
on Mechanical Properties of HPC, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25, No.
1

84

26. Lwin, M. Myint (1999). Chapter 22 - Floating Bridges. Bridge Engineering


Handbook, CRC Press, LLC
27. Lwin, M. Myint, (1989). Design of the Third Lake Washington Floating Bridge,
Concrete International, Feb. p 50-53.
28. Lwin, M. Myint, Bruesch, Alan W. and Evans, Charles F. (2001). High
Performance Concrete for a Floating Bridge, Fourth International Bridge
Engineering Conference; pp. 155-162
29. Lwin, M. Myint, Gloyd, Charles S. (1984). Rebuilding the Hood Canal Floating
Bridge, Concrete International, June, p 30-35.
30. Lwin, M. Myint. (1993). Floating Bridges Solution to a Difficult Terrain,
Transportation Facilities through Difficult Terrain, Wu & Barrett. Balkema,
Rotterdam, ISBN 90 5410 3434
31. Memon, A.H., Radin, S.S., Zain,M.F.M. and Trothier, Jean-Francois. (2002).
Effects of Mineral and Chemical Admixtures on High Strength Concrete in
Seawater, Cement and Concrete Research 32, pp 373-377
32. Neville, A.M., Dilger, W.H. and Brooks, J.J. (1983). Creep of Plain and
Structural Concrete, Longman Inc; New York.
33. Nichols, C. C., (1964). Construction and Performance of Hood Canal Floating
Bridge, Symposium of Concrete Construction in Aqueous Environments. ACI
Publication SP-8, P. 97-106. ACI
34. Ozyildirim, C. (1998). Fabricating and Testing Low-Permeability Concrete for
Transportation Structures, VTRC 99-R6, Virginia Transportation Research
Council, FHA, August
35. Paulson, K.A., Nilson, A.H., Hover, K.C. (1991). Long-Term Deflection of
High-Strength Concrete Beams, ACI Materials Journal, Mar-Apr, Vol 88, No. 2,
pp. 197-206
36. Persson, Bertil. (2001). A Comparison between Mechanical Properties of SelfCompacting Concrete and the Corresponding Properties of Normal Concrete,
Cement and Concrete Research 31, p 193-198, USA
37. Ramachandran, V.S. (1995). Concrete Admixtures Handbook, 2nd Edition; Noyes
Publications; Park Ridge, New Jersey, USA
38. Sicker, A. and Huhn, M. (1997). The Influence of Admixtures on the
Rheological Properties of Mortars, Helm Lacer No. 2

85

39. Xu, Yunsheng and Chung, D. D. L. (2000). Improving Silica Fume Cement by
Using Silane, Cement and Concrete Research
40. Yamamoto, T. (1990). Creep and Shrinkage of High-Strength Reinforced
Concrete Columns, Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 12, pp.
101-106
41. Zia, P., Ahmad, S.H., Leming, M.L., Schemmel, J.J. and Elliott, R.P. (1993).
Mechanical Behavior of High Performance Concretes, Volume 5: Very High
Strength Concrete, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research
Council, Washington, D.C., xi, 101pp. (SHRP-C-365)
42. Zia, P., Leming, M.L., Ahmad, S.H., Schemmel, J.J., Elliott, R.P., and Naaman,
A.E. (1993). Mechanical Behavior of High Performance Concretes, Volume 1:
Summary Report. Strategic Highway Resesarch Program, National Research
Council, Washington, D.C., xi 98, pp. SHRP-C-361.

86

CHAPTER 6:

LITERATURE REVIEW

This literature review focuses on three main topics. The first one is the history of
floating bridges with special attention to the Hood Canal Floating Bridge. The second
topic is on mix designs used on past floating bridges in the state of Washington. Finally,
the third topic is on concrete experiments that addressed leakage tests through cracked
concrete elements, waterstop testing and compaction level tests for concrete construction
joints.
6.1

FLOATING BRIDGE HISTORY

Floating bridges have been an important element of the transportation system for
the Puget Sound and Seattle, Washington area for over 60 years. Lwin (1993b) stated
that floating bridges have been constructed to cross wide bodies of water where the depth
of water is very great or the soil bottom is too soft making conventional bridges too
expensive. Lwin et al. (1984) discussed a relative cost analysis performed during the
replacement of the west half of the Hood Canal Floating Bridge in the early 1980's. The
relative cost of the floating bridge replacement was at least two-and-a-half times less
expensive than a conventional fixed bridge. Lwin (1993b) stated that experience has
shown prestressed concrete bridges are an economical, durable and low maintenance
bridge solution.
6.2

HOOD CANAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

The west half of the Hood Canal Floating Bridge sank under high winds in 1979.
Lwin et al. (1984) speculated that the failure could have been caused by dynamic loading
due to wind and waves, slippage of the anchors, ponding of water on the pontoon decks
87

or water entering inside the pontoons. The west half was rebuilt and completed in 1982.
The undamaged east half was left unchanged at the time.
Typical pontoon dimensions of the east half of the Hood Canal Bridge were
described by Henley et al. (1997) as having widths of 50ft, heights of 14.3ft and pontoon
drafts of 9.2ft with post-tensioning only in the longitudinal direction.

Nichols (1964)

discussed the construction process involved in pouring the pontoons for the bridges east
half. Concrete was poured through metal chutes to limit segregation. The maximum
concrete drop height from the end of the chutes was limited to five feet and was allowed
to spill out into the bottom slab area. The concrete was consolidated about 1 to 2 hours
after placement by allowing vibrators to sink of their own weight in the partially stiffened
mass.
Henley et al. (1997) discussed the dimension changes made to the Hood Canal
Bridges west half following the rebuilding after the 1979 storm. Typical dimensions of
pontoons for the west half of the bridge have widths of 60ft, heights of 18ft and pontoon
drafts of 12ft.

The pontoons are post-tensioned transversely, vertically and

longitudinally. Lwin et al. (1984) described the construction of the west half of the
floating bridge following the storm. The pontoons used for the replacement west half
were divided into compartments 20ft wide by 30ft long. A 28day compressive strength of
6500psi was required. Coarse aggregate was limited to inch nominal maximum size.
Non-air entrained concrete was used. Pontoons consisted of C and T shaped precast
segments that were assembled by joining precast segments with cast-in-place concrete.
Pontoons were assembled in graving docks and floated to the site.

88

6.3

MIX DESIGN

The mix design used for the Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge in 1991 has
performed well in the field and will be used for the Hood Canal East Half Replacement
Project. Lwin et al. (1995) stated that the LVM mix was designed towards watertightness and durability because of their importance in the long-term performance of a
floating structure exposed to water and severe environmental conditions. The LVM mix
design is shown in Table 7.1. The report by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (1993)
found that water-tightness and durability are achieved through low water-cement ratios
and through the use of dense cement paste between aggregates.
Table 7.1 LVM Mix Design (after Lwin et al. 1995).
Weights per cubic yard (saturated,
surface-dry)
Concrete Constituent
lbs.
Type II Portland cement
624
Silica fume (AASHTO M307)
50
Fly ash (AASHTO M295)
100
Paving sand
1295
Coarse aggregate
1770
Water
255
Water Reducing Agent
25
(ASTM C494), ounces
Superplasticizer (ASTM
131
C494), ounces
Air entrainment:
none
Water/cement ratio
0.33
Slump, in
7

The report also found that the maximum water-cement ratio to limit concrete
permeability should be 0.33. The required LVM mix strength was 6500psi and was
easily achieved. Non-air entrained concrete was used for the pontoons because of the
mild climate. A maximum coarse aggregate size of a inch was specified but a 3/8-inch
89

aggregate was ultimately used because of availability. To improve bond across the
construction joint the surface of the hardening concrete was water-blasted to expose the
aggregate. The roughening of the surface was reported to enhance the chemical adhesion
and mechanical interlock across the joint. Lwin et al. (1995) stated that a slump of seven
to nine inches was used for the mix and produced a flowable concrete that provided good
workability.
The LVM mix was designed after failure of the first Lacey V. Murrow Bridge in
1990. Lwin et al. (1994) described that the new mix was made using high performance
silica fume concrete to assure low permeability and shrinkage, thereby reducing the risk
of another failure. To further lessen the danger of failure individual cells were isolated
from adjacent cells to reduce the risk of flooding multiple cells in the event of a leak. As
another safety precaution Lwin (1993a) stated that individual cells were monitored by
sensors installed in each watertight compartment for early detection and warning of water
entry. An alarm would sound in the event of a leak notifying personnel to start the bilge
pumps.

All the aforementioned safety improvements in addition to others were

implemented based on recommendations of a Blue Ribbon Panel, established after the


sinking of the Lacey V. Murrow Bridge in 1990.
6.4

WATER LEAKAGE TESTS THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE


ELEMENTS

Dusenberry et al. (1993) performed tests on water flow rate through a cracked
reinforced concrete element.

The dimensions of the concrete test sections were

predetermined as was the placement of reinforcement within the test specimen. The

90

reinforced specimens were cast monolithically and allowed to cure for seven days before
being physically cracked using hydraulic jacks.
A hydraulic head of 2.13m was applied to the crack face. The pressure was
applied to the specimen through a pressure chamber attached to the top surface of the
specimen. The pressure was maintained by an elevated reservoir with a continuous water
supply and overflow tube as shown in Figure 7.1. Water flow rate through the crack was
measured by recording the weight of collected water in a tarred pan placed beneath the
specimen over a measured time period.
Dusenberry et al. found that the equation Q = T * dh/dl where T is transmissity
and dh/dl is the hydraulic gradient through the wall thickness for smooth planar cracks
with parallel surfaces can be modified by an adjustment factor for non-smooth surfaces.
The adjustment factor reduces flow through new cracks smaller than 0.5mm and is partly
caused by roughness within the crack. The adjustment factor C is expressed as,
C = K(1-b0/b)3 where K = 0.118, b0 = 0.013mm and b is crack width in millimeters.

Constant elevation
reservoir

Notches to induce
crack
Concrete
(sealed for test)
specimen

Overflow tube

Pressurized tank
Jacking

Jacks for crack


Width control

Water collection pan

Figure 7.1 - Test configuration (after Dusenberry et al. 1993).

91

Rashed et al. (2000) presented the results of the experimental phase of a research
program into the behavior and design of partially prestressed concrete water containment
structures. Typical wall sections were 250mm (9.84in) thick. The wall sections were
cracked using hydraulic jacks. A 300 by 1000mm plexi-glass chamber was fixed to the
top of the concrete specimen as shown in Figure 7.2 and filled with pressurized water
from a cylindrical steel container. Air pressure equivalent to 8-10m head of water was
applied to the water through the pressure regulator. A pressure of 70kPa (10.15psi) was
applied on the joint.
Pressure chamber
Plexi-glass

The Specimen

Hold down frame

drip pan

Figure 7.2 - Leakage test setup (after Rashed et al. 2000).

Water was collected from the underside of the joint and transferred to a graduated
cylinder.

The volume of water collected was recorded manually together with the

corresponding time. Additionally, the leakage rate was recorded using load cells located
beneath the pressurized water container that measured the decreasing container water
weight.

The weight of water lost was recorded electronically along with the

corresponding time.

92

Under a constant pressure of 70kPa specimens were subjected to a hydraulic


jacking force until leakage occurred. Leakage began for an average crack width of
0.1mm from the north side and 0.03mm from the south side of the specimen in only a few
minutes. Once leakage occurred jacking was stopped and water loss measurements were
taken until water penetration stopped at which point the jacking force was increased and
the process continued. Leakage rates were initially low and decreased with time. For
through cracks with effective widths less than 0.15mm, the cracks leaked initially and
then self-sealed. Cracks with wider effective widths flowed continuously.
Clear (1985) performed tests to observe autogenous healing in concrete
specimens. Autogenous healing of concrete reduces the flow of water through a crack at
rates primarily affected by the width of the crack. Initial reduction in flow is due
primarily to blockage of the flow path by loose particles already in the crack that is later
enhanced by precipitation of calcium carbonate.
Site observations were performed on an existing water reservoir three-and-a-half
months old. Moisture was collected from two existing cracks in the walls of the reservoir
using aluminum gutters. Flow rates were determined by recording the time necessary to
collect a measured volume of water. Flow was recorded during the filling of the reservoir
and for the following two weeks when the cracks were subject to a constant head of
water. After the maximum water level in the tanks was reached the flow rates decreased
with time at an ever-decreasing rate.
A lab experiment was also performed to observe autogenous healing in a 150mm3
concrete block. The block was cracked two days after casting through the use of jacking
bolts embedded in the concrete. The specimen was jacked until surface widths of 0.1, 0.2

93

or 0.3mm were observed. A hydraulic gradient of 22.5 was selected for the program to
represent a severe case (height of fluid column/thickness of wall) and was obtained using
a constant-head water tank attached to the entrance of the specimen. An elevation head
of 3.37m of water was maintained. Water passing through the crack was collected and
the time recorded to determine flow as shown in Figure 7.3. After seven days of flow,
each crack specimen was dismantled so that material within the crack could be examined.

manometer
water supply
plasticine
sill to divert
water as it leaves

and filter

crack
adhesive

collecting vessel

Figure 7.3 - Cross-section of testing experiment (after Clear 1985).

The leakage of water through cracks in concrete is mainly proportional to the


effective width of the crack. The smaller the initial effective width, the faster the crack
will seal. The healing mechanism is a combination of mechanical blocking and chemical
precipitation of calcium carbonate. Results revealed that filling the reservoir slowly
could significantly reduce the total loss of water from the reservoir.

94

6.5

MOIST CURING AND PERMEABILITY

Tan et al. (1995) performed tests on 100mm by 100mm cube specimens of


concrete aged two months to determine the desirable moist curing conditions necessary to
limit permeability. The testing faces were brushed before a water pressure was applied to
the face of the tested specimens as shown in Figure 2.4. Pressure heads of 0.3, 0.5, and
0.7 MPa were applied for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd day respectively. Specimens were split at the
conclusion of testing to determine their penetrating fronts. Tests revealed that specimens
cured in water for two days did not show significant differences in permeability as those
cured in water for six days. Only specimens soaked for 28 days showed significant drops
in concrete permeability. In all cases, the silica fume concrete had a much higher
resistance to water penetration than the specimens without.
Pressured water
inlet
Tube

Steel Plate
Testing cell

Specimen

Bolt
Nut

Figure 7.4 - Test setup for water penetration test (after Tan et al. 1996).

95

6.6

WATERSTOP TESTING

Tatro et al. (1988) summarized techniques for replacing damaged waterstops,


primarily in dams. Waterstop failures are generally attributed to excessive movement of
the joint which ruptures the waterstop, honeycomb areas adjacent to the waterstop
resulting from poorly consolidated concrete, contamination of the waterstop surface
which prevents bond to the concrete, punctures of the waterstop or complete omission
during construction and breaks in the waterstop due to inadequate or non-existing splices.
The life of a waterstop is related to the relative movement across the joint. As the
movement increases the life of the waterstop decreases.
Wallis (1992) paper looks into efforts to decrease or eliminate water penetration
through underground tunnel walls. Water penetration can cause safety hazards through
freezing and unsightly stains. Wallis (1992) reported that water will always find a path
around obstacles and creating an impermeable barrier (waterproofing membrane)
between water source and protected environment is most cost effective and secure
method of ensuring a watertight underground structure.
Kishel (1989) performed tests to study the cost effectiveness of providing a lining at
contraction joints between concrete slabs that make up the lining of a canal. The linings
are often waterstops or sealants applied to the joint to limit water leakage. Seepage rate
tests were performed on an unlined concrete canal in Arizona. Information was also
available for two canals located within 100 miles of the test site that were lined with
polyvinyl chloride strips or elastomeric sealant.
Evaporation of water from the canal was determined through the use of a class A
Weather Service evaporation pan that was installed next to the pan in a secure area. The

96

seepage rate for the unlined canal was calculated as 0.036ft3/ft2/day. The seepage rate for
the two canals with linings was found to range between 0.0110-0.090ft3/ft2/day. The
open jointed canal rates were within the range of the sealed joint canal. The value of
water saved over a 20- or 30- year payback period would be less than the cost of sealing
at present cost levels.

Observed rates indicate a lack of economic justification for

providing contraction joint sealing.


6.7

COMPACTION LEVEL FOR CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

Liou (1996) described tests to determine the effects of construction joints in the
Kawasaki man-made island in the center of Tokyo Bay. The island was so extensive that
the concrete for the basemat-of the island would have to be completed in several pours.
The tests were designed to simulate the worst conditions that could be experienced in the
field. They wanted to determine the best placing schedule and compaction level for the
concrete to produce the best joint. The joint was evaluated in terms of compressive
strength tests of cylinders and when testing initial vibration, slump tests were also
performed.
The concrete used in the tests was too flowable to allow meaningful conventional
slump data to be gathered. The worst-case condition experienced in the field was for a
joint that formed a 45-degree angle. Liou (1996) found that compaction of concrete
layers seems to have a beneficial effect on the compressive strength of the large-sized
concrete specimen (150mm diameter, 300mm high). Tests showed that placement delay
times longer than four hours seemed to have a slight detrimental effect on the strength.
Also, the initial vibration of the concrete delays the hardening process in the concrete and
prolongs its workability over time.
97

Loiu (1996) reported that the level of compaction was simulated by either striking
a concrete layer with a standard stick a predetermined number of times or by introducing
a small vibrator into the concrete layer. A test specimen that simulated a medium
compaction level in the field received 10 stick strikes in each of the two casting layers of
concrete; while a test specimen that simulates maximum compaction level in the field
received 25 stick strikes per layer. When a vibrator was used it was carefully introduced
into the sample at several equally spaced points for a total vibrational duration of 40
seconds. This helped to obtain uniform compaction and to avoid segregation in the
sample. Results showed that vibration provided by a small vibrator generally had a better
effect than vibration provided by using a striking rod.
6.8

SUMMARY

The literature review has revealed that limited research is available on joints in
floating bridges. The main reasoning for this limited information is due to the fact that
only a limited number of floating bridges exist in the world. It is evident from this
limited literature that there have been two approaches to deal with water penetration
through concrete joints. The first one is the use of special material added to the joint that
act as water stoppers or barriers to water flow. The chemical composition, placement and
application processes of these materials vary significantly. The second approach is to
allow the rough surfaces of concrete joints to act as barriers for the flow.

The

experimental plan in the remaining parts of this thesis investigates the effectiveness of
these two approaches in reducing or eliminating water infiltrations through joints in
floating bridges.

98

CHAPTER 7:

7.1

MATERIALS AND TESTING METHODS

MIX DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

The mix design for the reconstruction of the Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge
across Lake Washington was used for this project. The mix was chosen based on its
water-tightness, durability and low permeability. The mix was modified to use only a
superplasticizer, Glenium 3000 NS instead of the normal and high-range water reducers.
The materials needed to produce the test specimens were shipped from mixing plants
around the state to Washington State University. Table 8.1 contains the mix design
chosen for the laboratory experiments. The final mix prepared at Washington State
University is described in Table 8.2.
7.2

TEST SPECIMENS

Specimen dimensions were chosen after studying a typical joint in the Hood Canal
Floating Bridge. The joint had a thickness of 18 inches with a 3/4in deep by 9-inch long
keyway centered within the joint as shown in Figure 8.1. Test specimen dimensions were
reduced because of space and weight considerations. Specimens needed to be small
enough to construct and store within a tight work area and be light enough to allow easy
handling.

Smaller dimensions produced a worst-case scenario because the wall

thickness, and therefore the distance water must travel through the joint would be far
greater in the field.
Specimens were 8 inches thick, 16 inches long and 12 inches tall. A construction
joint was placed halfway up the height and contained a 1/2in deep by 3-inch wide
keyway centered in the specimen's depth. Two thin steel plates 1/8in thick, 8 inches

99

wide and 16 inches long were bonded to the freshly poured concrete at the top and
bottom of the 12in tall specimen. Figure 8.2 shows the dimensions and layout of a
typical specimen. The plates were designed to help hold the freshly poured concrete in
place and distribute the pressure applied to two 7/8in steel bars embedded into the
concrete. The steel bars were attached to nuts welded to the bottom steel plate. Two
one-inch diameter openings in the top steel plate were provided to allow the bars to slide
through. Schematics of the steel plates are shown in Figure 8.3.
The steel bars were spaced 8 inches on-center at the center of the specimen's
thickness. The bars were threaded over the bottom one-inch of length to allow threading
into nuts welded to the bottom plate. Threading was provided over the top 19 inches of
the 30in bar length to allow threading of a nut. Figure 8.4 shows a picture of the steel
bars and lower plate.
Specimens were cast within forms built for the experiment. The forms were
connected together to make the necessary dimensions. Two sets of forms were created
for each specimen. The first set was 6 inches tall while the second set was 12 inches tall.
The 6-inch forms created a box placed over the lower steel plate. The two 7/8in steel
bars were connected into the plate and a one-inch diameter PVC tube was placed around
the steel bars. The tube separated the concrete from the steel reducing the chances of
small stress cracks near the steel. The tubes were cut just long enough to measure 12
inches when added to the height of the nuts they rested on.

Figure 8.5 shows the

placement of forms around the steel bars and the location of the PVC tubes covering the
steel bars.

100

Six 10in long carriage bolts were embedded into the specimen's face. The bolts
were applied in a circular pattern with the construction joint located in the center. The
bolts were needed to attach a pipe with flanged fitting to the face of the specimen. The
pipe supplies a water pressure to the face of the specimen. Holes were drilled into the
forms in the locations of the flange's boltholes. The carriage bolts were embedded
halfway into a specimen's depth with a 1/2in flat washer glued to each bolt to provide
additional pullout resistance.
Concrete compaction and smoothing completed the construction of the initial
concrete pour. A hand trowel was used to smooth the surface of the joint and to create the
keyway shown in Figure 8.6. The 6-inch specimens were placed near wet burlap and
covered for 24 hours to cure. After the 24-hour period ended specimens were removed
from the 6-inch forms and the 12in forms were fastened in place.
The final pour of concrete was 48-hours after the completion of the initial pour.
The concrete was compacted and smoothed by hand trowel. The top steel plate was fitted
over the 7/8in steel bars and firmly pressed down onto the freshly poured concrete.
Specimens were placed beside wet burlap and covered for 24-hours to cure. After 24
hours specimens were removed from the forms creating a finished specimen as shown in
Figure 8.7.
Two 60ton hollow plunger cylinders were used in unison to tension the 7/8in steel
bars of each specimen simultaneously. A nut was threaded the full 18 inches onto the
steel bars. The nuts were threaded until hand-tight against the steel plate. A steel spacer
was then placed over the bars to provide room for tightening the nuts after jacking. The
hydraulic cylinders were placed over the bars to rest on the spacer. A one-inch thick steel

101

bar with two one-inch circular openings was placed over the cylinders. Finally a nut was
threaded down the 7/8in bars to the one-inch thick steel bar. The post-tensioning setup is
shown in Figure 8.8.
The nuts were tightened against the one-inch thick steel bar before the hydraulic
cylinders were loaded. A hand pump with pressure gauge was used to load the cylinders.
The two cylinders were attached to the hand pump by a pressure T that applied an equal
pressure to both cylinders. The cylinders were loaded slowly forcing the one-inch steel
bar and top nuts upward applying tension to the 7/8in steel bars. The system was loaded
to a 3000psi gauge pressure reading on the hand pump before the bottom nuts were
tightened and the pressure was released from the cylinders. The top nuts, one-inch thick
steel bar, hydraulic cylinders and steel spacer were then removed from the specimen.
The process was repeated with all post-tensioned specimens. Loading of each specimen
took a few minutes to complete.
Each post-tensioned bar was assumed to apply a pressure to the concrete over a
confined area 3 inches in diameter. The thin steel plate resting on the specimens was too
thin to effectively distribute the applied pressure after the force was transferred from the
cylinders to the steel bars. The pressure applied to the concrete by the jacking force was
calculated as 5402.78psi by the equation:
P = (Pj * Ahc * N) / Ae
where:
P = pressure applied to the specimen (psi),
Pj = pressure supplied by hand pump to cylinders (3000psi),
Ahc = effective area of one hydraulic cylinder (12.73in2),

102

(8.1)

N = number of cylinders (2),


Ae = area of concrete effected by one hydraulic cylinder (assumed 3in diameter effective
area =7.07in2).

The 5402.78psi pressure applied to the concrete is much higher than that seen in
the field. The pressure applied to the joint in the field is about 450psi at the joint. This
was determined based on a 180kip force applied by tendons spaced 2ft on-center. The
original pressure supplied by the hand pump was determined assuming that the force
applied to the specimens would be applied over the entire surface of the specimens. The
pressure this would have applied to the specimens assuming losses totaling 25% from the
jacking system was 447psi. The plates located at the top and bottom of the specimens
were too thin to effectively distribute the pressure throughout the specimen, hence the
high-pressure concentration.
The increased compressive stress around the steel bars should not affect the
results. The increased stress was over a very small area that increased the stress in that
area but should not have significantly increased the stress in the surrounding areas. This
increased stress would affect water penetration through the joint within this elevated
compression area but should not affect the surrounding areas of the joint. The majority of
the joint was unaffected by the increased compressive stress and would have functioned
normally.

103

Table 8.1 Mix Design

Weights per cubic yard (saturated,


surface-dry)
Concrete Constituent
lbs.
Type II Portland cement
624
Silica fume (AASHTO M307)
50
Fly ash (AASHTO M295)
100
Paving sand
1295
Coarse aggregate
1770
Water
255
Water Reducing Agent
(ASTM C494), ounces
Superplasticizer (Glenium
3000 NS), floz/cwt
Air entrainment:
Water/cement ratio
Slump, in
Compressive Strength, f'c, psi

104

none
4-12
none
0.33
7-9
6500

Table 8.2 Final Mix Design


Weights per cubic yard (saturated,
surface-dry)
Concrete Constituent
lbs.
Type II Portland cement
624
Silica fume (AASHTO M307)
50
Fly ash (AASHTO M295)
100
Paving sand
1295
Coarse aggregate
1770
Water
255
Water Reducing Agent
(ASTM C494), ounces
Superplasticizer (Glenium
3000 NS), floz/cwt
Air entrainment:
Water/cement ratio
Slump, in

none
5.50
none
0.33
8

Compressive Strength, f'c, psi 8788

105

Figure 8.1 - Keyway dimensions in field (after Hood Canal Retrofit and East-half
Replacment Construction Plans: SEC C-C).

106

Figure 8.2 - Test specimen dimensions.

107

Figure 8.3 - Dimension specifications for the steel plates.

108

THREADED
BAR

7/8 BAR

STEEL PLATE

WELDED
NUT

Figure 8.4 - Steel Bars 7/8in diameter screwed into bottom plate.

109

PVC

FORMS

Figure 8.5 - Construction setup for initial concrete pour.

110

KEYWAY

Figure 8.6 - Completed keyway of initial pour.

111

Figure 8.7 - Completed test specimens.

112

NUTS
STEEL BAR

HYDRAULIC
CYLINDER

STEEL
SPACER

NUTS
HAND
PUMP

Figure 8.8 - Hydraulic cylinder setup for post-tensioning the specimens.

113

7.3

PRODUCTS AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS TESTED

Products chosen for testing were determined based on manufacturer's


recommendations and available product data sheets. Tested products included waterstops
designed to prevent water penetration by forming a preventive barrier within the joint and
a cement coating designed to prevent water penetration by forming a barrier outside the
joint. The chosen products are listed in Table 8.3.
The construction methods chosen for laboratory testing were based on
recommendations from the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT
2001) and companies within the concrete industry. The different methods were designed
to decrease water leakage at the joint by either; improving bond across the joint,
increasing the surface area that water must follow to pass through the joint or by
improving compaction at the joint. The construction methods chosen are listed in Table
8.4.

114

Table 8.3 - Products tested in experiments.

Product
Company
Advantages
Placement
MCAdeka
within keyway on
expands upon contact with water,
2010MN Ultra Seal
negative pressure side of
forms water barrier
(Waterstop)
USA
7/8in steel bars
adhesive waterstop, bonds to
within keyway on
Synko-flex
Henry freshly poured concrete during negative pressure side of
(Waterstop)
curing, forms water barrier
7/8in steel bars
within keyway on
Waterstopexpands upon contact with water,
CETCO
negative pressure side of
RX 101TRH
forms water barrier
7/8in steel bars
brush applied to external
Tegraproof
face of specimen in direct
ChemRex slurry coat, seals wall-floor joints
(Coating)
contact with water
pressure

Table 8.4 - Construction methods tested in experiments.

Construction
Method
Mortar/slurry

Preco HI-V

Raking Method

Procedure

Advantages
Placement
greater
3 parts sand to 1 part cement
first two inches
compaction at
plus water (WSDOT 2001)
of final pour
joint
Retarder (Master Builders), exposes aggregate freshly poured
brush applied to joint
at joint, improves joint surface of
surface
bond strength
initial pour
0.5in deep grooves 1.5
freshly poured
inches on-center
lengthens water
joint surface of
(perpendicular to water
path through joint
initial pour
flow)

115

WATERSTOP

Figure 8.9 - Waterstop placement within construction joint of specimen.

116

COATING

Figure 8.10 - Tegraproof coating placed on exterior joint face.

117

CEMENTITIOUS
GROUT

71.3.1.2

Figure 8.11 - Mortar/slurry grout over initial two-inch depth of the second pour.

118

EXPOSED
AGGREGATE

71.3.1.3
71.3.1.4

Figure 8.12 - Exposed aggregate along surface of joint caused by Preco HI-V.

119

7.4

EXPERIMENT 1

Experiment one involved exposing specimens to a constant water pressure similar


to that experienced in the field. A typical pontoon for the Hood Canal Floating Bridge
has a draft of 13ft. The horizontal construction joint studied was located 28in from the
base of the pontoon creating a joint 128 inches or 10.67 feet below the water line. The
water elevation of 128 inches corresponds to a pressure on the joint of 19.44psi. The
pressure was determined by the equation:
P = h + P0

(Young et al. 1997))

(8.2)

where:
P = pressure on joint (psi),
= specific weight of fluid (salt water 64lb/ft3 (Young et al. (1997))
h = water elevation height (in)

P0 = atmospheric pressure (assumed 14.7psi (Young et al. (1997))


The 19.44psi pressure was supplied to the system by means of an elevated water
reservoir with water elevation 128 inches above the surface of the specimens. The
reservoir consisted of an 18in diameter PVC cap fastened to the ceiling. Water entered
the reservoir through a constant inflow tube attached to the bottom of the cap. Water was
supplied from a second reservoir located at the ground surface by a small 1/30hp
centrifugal pump located on the ground. A tube was attached to the side of the elevated
reservoir 128in above the surface of the specimens. The tube served as an overflow pipe
for the upper reservoir and returned any excess water to the lower reservoir. The lower
reservoir consisted of a plastic 55-gallon barrel filled with salt water from the Hood

120

Canal Floating Bridge.

The system created was self-maintained and could be left

unmonitored overnight.
Six flexible tubes were connected to the bottom of the elevated reservoir. The six
tubes ran to different specimens. The tubes were connected to a 6-inch PVC cap glued to
an 18in long PVC pipe. The PVC pipe was glued to the inside of a flanged fitting with
eight bolthole openings. The PVC pipe was bolted to the side of the concrete specimens
with the pipe centered on the joint.
The flanged fittings glued to the six-inch PVC pipe were connected to the
concrete specimens by 10in long carriage bolts embedded into the concrete. Additional
pullout resistance was supplied by gluing 1/2in flat washers to the carriage bolts. Six
carriage bolts were embedded into each specimen because of limited spacing.

neoprene gasket was placed beneath the flanged fitting to prevent water leakage at the
interface between the flange and concrete. The test setup is shown in Figure 8.13.
The system was designed to test up to six specimens simultaneously. Fewer
specimens could be tested because 1/2in ball valves were connected to each specimen
setup above the 6-inch cap. The valves could be closed to prevent water flow from tubes
unconnected to specimens. The valves also allowed lines to be closed once leakage
occurred to prevent pressure loss from the system.
A 3/8in bleed-hole was drilled into the 6-inch PVC cap. The bleed-hole allowed
air to escape the system when water was being added. Once water began escaping
through the bleed-hole the valve was closed and a 3/8in bolt with Teflon tape covering
the threads was tightened in the opening. The ball valve was then reopened to finish
filling the system with water. Specimens were shaken to remove any additional air

121

trapped beneath the six-inch PVC cap. Air bubbles were allowed to escape through the
top of the reservoir. The pressure system connection to the test specimens is shown in
Figure 8.14.
Hood Canal water was used for the experiment to ensure pressures similar to
those experienced in the field. The supplied pressure was equivalent to the 19.44psi
experienced in the field because the same fluid was used in the laboratory and the water
elevation was held at 128 inches above the specimen.

Any atmospheric pressure

differences were ignored.


Specimens were placed on their sides in the testing apparatus to allow the water
pressure supplied by the 6-inch pipe to be applied vertically. Specimens were placed on
two 3.5-inch square wood beams located 14 inches apart on-center. The beams rested on
cinder blocks that raised the specimens two feet off the ground allowing a large funnel to
be placed beneath the specimens.

The funnels were 18in diameter barrel funnels

positioned beneath the specimens to catch water escaping through the specimens.
Additional room was provided for a visual inspection of the underside of the specimens
and to provide space for a small water collection beaker. Two people were needed to lift
specimens onto the setup. The water collection system located beneath the specimens is
shown in Figure 8.15.
Stage 1
Stage one consisted of four specimens. The four specimens included two controls
one with a construction joint and one without as well as two waterstops MC-2010MN and
Synko-flex as shown in Table 8.5. The four specimens were post-tensioned nine days
after the second concrete pour. Specimens were compacted by mechanical stinger

122

repeatedly lowered into the freshly poured concrete for 30 seconds. Specimens were
tested for 15 days with monitoring every 24 hours to observe water leakage. The time
corresponding to when leakage occurred was recorded.
Table 8.5 - Stage one specimens.
Stage 1
Product

Product
Placement

Control (No Joint)

N.A.

specimens completed in one pour, mechanical


vibration of concrete

Control
(Construction
Joint)

N.A.

specimens completed in two pours, mechanical


vibration of concrete

MC-2010MN
Waterstop

within keyway on
negative pressure
side of 7/8in steel
bars

Synko-flex
Waterstop

within keyway on
negative pressure
side of 7/8in steel
bars

Construction/Application

two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of


concrete; applied continuous bead of P-201
paste to the joint and allowed to cure for 24
hours before pressing MC-2010MN into the
paste.
two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
concrete; brush applied Synko-flex primer to
surface and allowed to dry 3 hours. Peeled
release paper from one side of Synko-flex strip
and press firmly onto primed surface.

123

UPPER
RESERVOIR

TEST
SPECIMENS

71.4.1.1
71.4.1.2

PUMP

LOWER
RESERVOIR

Figure 8.13 - Experimental setup of the first experiment.

124

BLEED HOLE

PVC CAP

CARRIAGE
BOLT

FLANGED
FITTING

Figure 8.14 - Specimen connection to pressure system.

125

FUNNEL

BEAKER

Figure 8.15 - Water collection system located beneath specimens.

126

7.5

EXPERIMENT 2

Experiment two involved placing a variable pressure on the system. The setup of
experiment one was modified for use in experiment two. The pressure applied by the
system needed to be significantly increased so the upper reservoir of experiment one was
removed and an air pressure system was installed in its place.
Experiment one's testing setup was modified by removing the reservoirs and
flexible tubing from the system. The experimental setup of the second experiment is
shown in Figure 8.16. Air pressure was applied to the specimens by a 2-inch diameter
galvanized steel pipe suspended above the specimens. Openings were placed every 18
inches along the galvanized pipe. A 2-foot long by 1/2in inner diameter clear plastic tube
was securely fastened to the galvanized pipe as shown in Figure 8.17. Polyethylene hose
with 1/2in outer diameter by 0.375in inner diameter was connected to the clear tubing
and ran to the 1/2in ball valve of the original system. The polyethylene hose could hold a
water pressure up to 123psi.
One end of the 2-inch diameter galvanized pipe was capped while the opposite
end was connected to an air compressor by means of an air pressure hose. The hose was
connected to a valve used as a shutoff for the system. The setup also included a pressure
gauge and regulator used to increase and decrease pressure on the system as shown in
Figure 8.18.
Water was added to the system after specimens were attached to the flanged
fittings.

The system was initially designed to allow water to be pumped into the

galvanized pipe from the lower reservoir by means of a seventh connection to the
galvanized pipe. Water was not pumped through the galvanized pipe because of the high

127

probability of corrosion. The valve connected to the seventh line was shut to prevent air
leaks from the system through the open line. Water was poured into the system through
funnels at the connections between the galvanized pipe and tubing.
The bleed-hole was used to release trapped air as the specimens were filled with
water. After all air was removed from the line the water level was increased to a mark 4
feet above the surface of the specimens. The initial pressure on the specimens due to
water elevation and atmospheric pressure was 16.48psi. Any air pressure added to the
system was directly added to the initial pressure to obtain the total pressure on the
system.
Air pressure on the system was increased until leakage occurred in all specimens.
The valves were closed once leakage occurred to prevent pressure loss from the system.
The leakage was recorded and used to determine the relative success of different
products.
Stage 1
The specimens of stage one were re-tested using the variable air pressure system
of experiment two. Stage one specimens were tested in experiment two, three months
after initial casting. Air pressure on the system was initially zero and was increased every
half hour to a maximum air pressure of 100psi.
Stage 2
Six specimens were cast in stage two constructions. The specimens consisted of
the three waterstops; MC2010MN, Synko-flex and Waterstop-RX 101TRH as well as
three specimens where the mortar/slurry was added over the first two inches of the
second pour as shown in Table 8.6. The three waterstops were placed on the exposed

128

joint one-day after initial curing. Waterstops were placed 24 hours before submersion in
tap water for five days. Specimens were then removed and allowed two days of drying
before completion of the second pour of concrete.
Table 8.6 - Stage two specimens.
Stage 2
Product

Product
Placement

Construction/Application

two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of


concrete; applied continuous bead of P-201
MC-2010MN
paste to the joint and allowed to cure for 24
Waterstop
hours before pressing MC-2010MN into the
paste.
two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
within keyway on
concrete; brush applied Synko-flex primer to
Synko-flex
negative pressure
surface and allowed to dry 3 hours. Peeled
Waterstop
side of 7/8in steel
release paper from one side of Synko-flex strip
bars
and press firmly onto primed surface.
within keyway on two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
Waterstop-RX negative pressure concrete; brush applied WB-ADHESIVE to
101TRH
side of 7/8in steel joint surface, allowed to dry for 20 minutes
before waterstop pressed onto surface
bars
two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
applied to first two
concrete, initial pour was normal. Mortar/slurry:
Mortar/slurry over
inches of second
normal joint
91lbs sand, 30lbs cement, 9.9lbs water and 5mL
pour
superplasticizer
Preco HI-V retarder
Mortar/slurry
two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
to joint surface,
applied over
concrete, initial pour had Preco HI-V applied to
Mortar/slurry
exposed aggregate
freshly poured surface for 24 hours before being
applied to first two
surface caused by
washed off. Mortar/slurry: 91lbs sand, 30lbs
inches of second
(Preco HI-V)
cement, 9.9lbs water and 5mL superplasticizer
pour
Grooves cut into
two concrete pours, mechanical vibration of
joint surface of
concrete, initial pour contained no keyway,
Mortar/slurry initial pour,
grooves cut into freshly poured concrete. 1/2in
applied over raked Mortar/slurry
deep by 1-1/2in on-center, Mortar/slurry: 91lbs
joint surface applied to first two
sand, 30lbs cement, 9.9lbs water and 5mL
inches of second
superplasticizer
pour
within keyway on
negative pressure
side of 7/8in steel
bars

129

The mortar/slurry was placed at the time of the second pour of concrete. The
mortar/slurry was applied to the first 2 inches of the second pour. Construction methods
differed for the initial pour of concrete for each of the three specimens. One specimen
consisted of a typical initial pour of concrete as described in section 8.2. The next two
specimens were designed to increase the surface area along the joint of pour one, thereby
improving bond strength and forcing water to follow a longer path to penetrate through
the specimen.

One specimen had Preco HI-V, a chemical retarder used to expose

aggregate, applied to the freshly poured joint surface of pour one. The second specimen
used a raking method to create grooves in the concrete surface perpendicular to the flow
path of water through the specimen. No keyway was used with the raking method;
instead grooves were cut in the flat joint surface by dragging a thick wire through the
freshly poured concrete. The vertical grooves were a 1/2in deep and spaced an inch-anda-half on-center.
The six specimens of experiment two were tested two-and-a-half months after the
final concrete pour. The specimens were post-tensioned and tested on the same day.
Specimens were compacted by mechanical stinger lowered into the freshly poured
concrete for 30 seconds. Air pressure on the system was initially zero and was increased
every half hour to a maximum air pressure of 100psi.
Stage 3
Six specimens were tested in stage three. The six specimens included one control
joint, the Tegraproof coating brush applied to the external surface of the specimen in
direct contact with the water pressure and a 2-inch thick mortar/slurry placed over a
normal initial concrete pour.

Additional specimens included the Preco HI-V retarder

130

applied to the joint surface of the initial concrete pour, and two waterstops: MC2010-MN
and Synko-flex as shown in Table 8.7. The specimens of stage three were tested 29 days
after the final pour of stage three.
Table 8.7 - Stage three specimens.
Stage 3
Product

Product
Placement

Control
(Construction
Joint)

N.A.

Construction/Application

specimens completed in two pours, compacted


by 10 stick-strikes

two concrete pours, compacted by 10 stickstrikes; applied continuous bead of P-201 paste
to the joint and allowed to cure for 24 hours
before pressing MC-2010MN into the paste.
two concrete pours, compacted by 10 stickwithin keyway on
strikes; brush applied Synko-flex primer to
Synko-flex
negative pressure
surface and allowed to dry 3 hours. Peeled
Waterstop
side of 7/8in steel
release paper from one side of Synko-flex strip
bars
and press firmly onto primed surface.
applied to first two two concrete pours, compacted by 10 stickMortar/slurry over
inches of second
strikes, initial pour was normal. Mortar/slurry:
normal joint
pour
24lbs sand, 8lbs cement, 3.2lbs water
Preco HI-V retarder two concrete pours, compacted by 10 stickPreco HI-V
applied to joint
strikes, initial pour had Preco HI-V applied to
Retarder
surface to expose freshly poured surface for 24 hours before being
aggregate
washed off.
applied to surface two concrete pours, compacted by 10 stickTegraproof
of specimen
strikes, Tegraproof mix: 10lb Tegraproof, 3.41lb
Coating
directly exposed to water; brush applied to wetted joint surface,
water pressure
surface kept moist for 48 hours
MC-2010MN
Waterstop

within keyway on
negative pressure
side of 7/8in steel
bars

No PVC tubing was placed around the 7/8in bars because the specimens were not
post-tensioned. Specimens were compacted by 10 stick-strikes of the slump rod during
each pour to reduce compaction at the joint and represent poor compaction that could
occur in the field during construction. The 1/8in steel plate placed on top of earlier
specimens was not used because no post-tensioning occurred. A concrete filler/sealant
131

was applied to the surface of the joint to ensure that water leakage would occur only
through the joint. The sealant was applied to the sides of the specimen and across the
specimen face, except in the area in direct contact with the water pressure as shown in
Figure 8.19. The back of the specimen was left uncovered to allow water penetration to
occur through the specimen.

132

AIR PRESSURE
SYSTEM

Figure 8.16 - Experimental setup of the second experiment.

133

GALVANIZED
PIPE

FLEXIBLE
TUBING
CLEAR TUBING

Figure 8.17 - Connection of clear plastic tubing to galvanized pipe.

134

GALVANIZED
PIPE

AIR HOSE

SHUTOFF
VALVE
PRESSURE
REGULATOR

Figure 8.18 - Pressure regulator for air pressure system.

135

CONCRETE
MORTAR/SEALANT

Figure 8.19 - Concrete filler and sealant applied to the construction joint of stage
three specimens.

136

7.6

EXPERIMENT 3: WATERSTOP TESTING

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) was concerned


with premature expansion of the tested waterstops. An extended period of time could
elapse between the pouring of the first and second pours of concrete in the field.
Waterstops placed on the joint surface during the initial pour could be exposed to severe
environmental conditions that might cause waterstop swelling.

WSDOT wanted to

ensure that for a worst case scenario (standing water on the waterstop) the waterstops
would not expand excessively before the second pour of concrete. Excessive expansion
of a waterstop before joint completion could lead to waterstop damage or failure.
Three samples of each waterstop tested in earlier experiments were cut into
200mm lengths for the experiment. One sample of each waterstop was placed in a plastic
container filled with tap water. Samples were completely submerged beneath the surface
of the water to simulate a submerged joint in the field. Waterstops that floated were
placed beneath plastic strips anchored beneath the water surface. Figure 8.20 shows the
experimental setup of experiment three.
Measurements of waterstop weight, length and thickness were taken at intervals.
Measurements were taken at day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 20, 28, 31, 36 and 42. Samples
were removed from the containers and wrapped in paper towels to remove excess surface
moisture from the specimens before weighing. After all measurements were recorded
samples were re-submerged. Expansion rate determined by equation:
Expansion rate = (weight after soaking weight before soaking) / weight before soaking.

137

CONTAINERS

Figure 8.20 - Testing setup of the third experiment.

138

TEST RESULTS

CHAPTER 8:

8.1

MIX CHARACTERISTICS

The characteristics of the mix prepared at Washington State University were


described in Table 8.2. All specimens were prepared as closely to the LVM mix design
as possible. The amount of water reducer used per mix was slightly modified to create a
more workable mix. Concrete compressive strength and slump were determined for six
test cylinders made with the given mix. Slump tests and compressive strength tests were
not performed for each concrete pour due to the similarity between pours.
8.2

EXPERIMENT 1 TEST RESULTS

Four 8x12x16 inch concrete specimens were tested in the first experiment
according to methods described in section 8.3.

The specimens tested in the first

experiment were two controls, one with and one without a construction joint and two
waterstops, the MC-2010MN product and the Synko-flex product. The specimens were
exposed to a water pressure of 19.44psi for 15 days.

Specimens were repeatedly

checked over the initial two days of testing to observe leakage in the system. No leakage
was observed during the first two days of testing. Observations were taken once every 24
hours for the remainder of the test. Testing was stopped after 15 days because no water
leakage was observed through any specimen.
No leaks were observed from the pressure system connected to the specimens.
The water elevation in the system was held constant throughout the duration of the test.
The pump was able to transport water from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir
without interruption.

139

The four specimens tested prevented water penetration through the joint for a
pressure of 19.44psi. The test was inconclusive in determining the effectiveness of a
given product at preventing water penetration through the joint. All specimens prevented
leakage including the control specimen containing a construction joint. The jointed
control should have been the first specimen to leak out of all specimens tested. The
inability to produce water leakage through the specimens showed that the pressure
supplied by the system was inadequate for determining the most effective product or
testing method for preventing water leakage.
The lack of water leakage from the test specimens at a pressure similar to those
experienced in the field that cause leakage shows that construction methods in lab were
better than those used in the field. The specimen joint had a much smaller thickness than
that in the field but was not exposed to the excessive stresses experienced in the field due
to wave and tidal fluctuations. A likely reason the specimens did not leak is improved
concrete compaction in the lab. Nichols (1964) stated that concrete in the field was
poured from significant heights over large areas before being vibrated. The lower drop
height, reduced specimen size, better access to the joint and the use of the LVM mix in
the lab all helped to improve joint construction, thereby reducing water penetration.
8.3

EXPERIMENT 2 TEST RESULTS

As discussed in Chapter 8, the setup of the first experiment was modified to apply
a variable air pressure to the system as described in section 8.4. A variable air pressure
system was used because the pressure that would cause leakage through the specimens
was unknown. Air pressure could be slowly increased until leakage occurred through the
joint. The initial water pressure on the system was 16.48psi. Air pressure applied to the
140

system would be added to the initial water pressure to compute the total pressure applied
to the specimens.
Stage One
The four specimens tested in the first experiment were retested in the second
experiment using the variable air pressure. Water levels within the clear plastic tubing
connected to the galvanized pipe were monitored and water heights recorded to determine
water volume decreases.

Measurements were taken every half hour to determine

decreases in water volume and to observe any water leakage from the system, both
through the specimen and pressure system. Air pressures were increased every half-hour
from an initial pressure of zero to a final pressure of 100psi. The 100psi air pressure was
held on the system for 30 minutes before testing was completed.
Water volume decreases within the clear tubing at different air pressures are
shown in Figure 9.1. The same water volume decreases are shown for total pressure
changes in Figure 9.2. Measurements of water level changes were no longer recorded
after they fell below the clear tubing. Water level changes were taken immediately
before increasing the pressure.

Decreases in water volume were seen in all four

specimens tested. Water volume changes were no longer recorded once water leaks
occurred within the pressure system of a specimen. The Synko-Flex waterstop specimen
experienced a leak in the pressure system after 5psi air pressure was applied to the
system. A leak was observed in the pressure system for the control specimen containing
construction joint at 25psi air pressure. The specimens all had similar water volume
changes when no leaks were observed in the pressure systems.

141

No water leakage was observed through the construction joint of the test
specimens at any pressure. Testing was stopped after 100psi air pressure was held in the
system for 30 minutes. Water leaks from the system did not significantly reduce air
pressure in the system. Pressures close to six times that experienced in the field were
applied to the joint without causing leakage. No leakage was observed through the
specimen showing that construction methods used in lab were better than those used in
the field. The specimens were too highly compacted to allow water leakage through the
joint.
The MC-2010MN specimen had water volume decreases very similar to the jointless control specimen even though one specimen contained a construction joint and one
did not. Neither specimen experienced a significant leak from their pressure systems.
The control specimen containing construction joint also had similar water volume
decreases before a pressure system leak was observed at an air pressure of 20psi. The
three specimens all had similar water elevation changes when there were no leaks in the
pressure system. The likely reason was the high level of concrete compaction caused the
second pour of concrete to completely bond to the initial concrete pour effectively
closing the construction joint.

142

6000

5000

Volume (cm 3)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Air Pre s s ure (ps i)


Control, No Joint

Control, Joint

MC-2010MN

Figure 9.1 - Water volume changes versus air pressure applied to stage one
specimens of the second experiment.

143

120

6000

5000

Volume (cm 3)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Total Pressure (psi)


Control, No Joint

Control Joint

MC-2010MN

Figure 9.2 - Water volume changes versus total pressure on the system for stage one
specimens of the second experiment.

144

Stage Two
Six specimens were constructed for stage two testing.

The six specimens

included the three waterstops; MC-2010MN, Synko-flex and Waterstop-RX 101TRH as


well as three specimens where a mortar/slurry mixture was added over the first two
inches of the second concrete pour to create the joint. The mortar/slurry was placed over
a normal joint, over an exposed aggregate surface created by the Preco HI-V retarder and
over a concrete surface that had been raked to form grooves in the concrete of the joint.
The six specimens were completed before testing was finished for the first experiment.
The specimens were constructed and compacted similarly to those of stage one.
The water elevation in each specimen setup was recorded. Air pressure in the
system was increased 10psi every 10 minutes for the length of the test. Testing began
with no air pressure on the system and concluded after 100psi was held on the system for
10 minutes. No leakage was observed through any specimens construction joint.
Decreases in water volume within the clear plastic tubing were recorded
immediately before air pressure was increased. All pressure systems other than the
system connected to the Synko-flex product leaked immediately. The pressure applied in
the previous experimental stage had caused leaks in the pressure systems that had not
been effectively repaired. Leakage occurred at the connection between the 6-inch PVC
cap and 6-inch pipe or at the interface between the pipe and flanged fitting. The Synkoflex specimen was connected to a pressure system unused in stage one testing.
Leakage was experienced almost immediately in five of the six specimens. Water
volume changes were inaccurate for determining the effectiveness of different products at
preventing water penetration through a construction joint for the five specimens that

145

experienced pressure system leaks. The Synko-flex product was connected to the only
setup that contained no observable leaks from the pressure system.
Figure 9.3 shows a graph of the water volume decrease versus air pressure for the
Synko-flex specimen of stage two along with the MC-2010MN specimen and control
specimen with no construction joint of stage one. The three specimens have similar
water volume decreases with increases in air pressure even though stage two pressures
were increased more rapidly.
No leakage was observed through the construction joint of any specimen tested in
stage two. Volume decreases in stage two testing are similar to stage one testing for
specimens that experienced no leakage from the pressure system. All 10 specimens
tested in stages one and two should have had similar water volume decreases to those of
the control specimen without joint if no water losses occurred through the pressure
system. Water loss through leaks in the pressure system was the predominant factor
effecting water volume decreases.

146

6000

5000

Volume (cm )

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Air Pressure (psi)


Stage1_MC-2010MN

Stage1_Control_NoJoint

Stage2_Sykno-flex

Figure 9.3 - Water volume changes versus air pressure for the three specimens of
stages one and two that experienced no leakage from the pressure system.

147

Stage Three
The six specimens of stage three were constructed without mechanical vibration
of the concrete. The specimens were compacted by 10 stick-strikes of the slump rod per
specimen pour. The completed specimens contained significant honeycombing of the
concrete within the first few inches of each pour. No post-tensioning of the concrete was
performed. The six specimens tested included one control joint, the Tegraproof coating,
the mortar/slurry over normal initial pour, the Preco HI-V retarder to expose aggregate
along the joint, and two waterstops; MC-2010MN and Synko-flex.
Specimens were compacted without mechanical vibration and post-tensioning to
investigate the influence of compaction on leakage.

The high occurrence of

honeycombing near the joint seemed likely to cause leakage through the construction
joints of the specimens, even at low pressures. Specimens were placed on their sides and
water was poured along the joint to determine whether specimens would leak without any
air pressure being applied.
Four of the six specimens completed in stage three constructions leaked
immediately when water was poured along the joint. Water leakage was fast enough to
ensure that placing the four specimens within the testing setup was meaningless because
water would leak at too high a rate to obtain meaningful results. The two specimens that
did not immediately leak were the mortar/slurry mixture over a normal initial pour and
the Tegraproof coating applied to the surface of the joint. The two specimens were
placed in the pressure system and water was added through the connection between the
galvanized pipe and clear plastic tubing. Water began leaking through the construction
joints within several minutes.

148

Leakage occurred through the two specimens within minutes due to their
prolonged exposure to the water added to the system. All six specimens initially had
water poured over the joint to check for leakage but only four leaked immediately. The
four specimens that immediately leaked had significant openings within the construction
joint that allowed a clear path for water flow through the joint. The mortar/slurry
specimen and Tegraproof specimen had smaller openings that caused water to take a less
direct path to penetrate through the specimens.

The mortar/slurry helped improve

consolidation at the joint thereby limiting air voids at the joint and the Tegraproof coating
helped to cover the face of the joint thereby impeding waters path through the joint.
There was most likely a small hole that opened in the Tegraproof coating that allowed the
leak to occur.
Both specimens leaked through the construction joint before any air pressure was
added to the system. Water was continually added to the system until reaching the marks
drawn on the clear tubing four feet above the surface of the specimens at which point
measurements of water loss through the joint began being taken. Water that passed
through the construction joint of the two specimens was collected and weighed to
determine volume lost at varying times as shown in Figure 9.4. No pressure was applied
to the system until leakage had stopped for 35 minutes in one of the specimens.
An air pressure of 10psi was applied to the system after leakage had stopped for
35 minutes for the Tegraproof coated specimen. Pressures were increased 10psi every
hour for the remainder of the test. Testing was stopped after 30psi was held on the
system for one hour.

149

The Tegraproof and mortar/slurry mixture specimens had similar water leakage
amounts as shown in Figure 9.5. The graph shows total water lost immediately before air
pressures were increased. The Tegraproof product had less initial leakage when no air
pressure was on the system. The Tegraproof specimen healed itself more rapidly than the
slurry coating and was completely healed for 35 minutes before pressure was applied to
the system. When the 10psi air pressure was added the Tegraproof specimen quickly
began leaking more excessively than the mortar/slurry specimen.

As pressure was

increased both the mortar/slurry and Tegraproof specimens leaked more excessively.
All six specimens tested in stage three leaked excessively before air pressure was
applied to the system. Four of the six specimens leaked when water was poured over the
construction joint. The two specimens that did not initially leak had either a surface
coating that helped prevent water penetration or contained a mortar/slurry at the joint that
improved consolidation at the joint. Both products leaked before any air pressure could
be applied to the system showing that compaction levels in the lab were inadequate to
allow the determination of the most effective product for limiting water penetration.

150

4500

4000

3500

Volume (cm3)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Time (min)
Mortar/slurry

Tegraproof

Figure 9.4 - Water volumes lost versus time for the stage three specimens tested.

151

400

4500

4000

Total water volume lost (cm )

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Air Pressure (psi)


Mortar/slurry-Normal Joint

Tegraproof

Figure 9.5 - Total water volume lost at a given air pressure for stage three specimens
immediately before air pressure was increased.

152

8.4

THIRD EXPERIMENT: TEST RESULTS

The three waterstops tested in the third experiment performed very differently.
Measurements of waterstop expansion and thickness increases were taken. Waterstops
damaged during handling were removed from testing. Testing began with three samples
of each waterstop.
The Waterstop-RX 101TRH product swelled almost immediately when placed in
water. The Waterstop-RX products had expansion rates over 200 percent by day seven as
shown in Figure 9.6. The Waterstop-RX products became difficult to handle once soaked
and would easily break during handling. One sample was damaged after only one day of
testing. The other two Waterstop-RX 101TRH samples became too difficult to handle by
day seven.
The MC-2010MN product expanded much more slowly than the Waterstop-RX
product.

The product had an expansion rate over 100% close to day 20 as shown in

Figure 9.7. The product was much easier to handle than the Waterstop-RX product.
After day 30 expansion of the product slowed considerably.
The Synko-flex product expanded the least. The product was not designed to
expand upon contact with water as test results showed. After 40 days of submersion in
water the Synko-flex product had expanded less than two percent as shown in Figure 9.8.
The average expansion rates of the three different waterstops are shown in Figure
9.9. The figure clearly shows that the Synko-flex product expands the least of any of the
three products while the Waterstop-RX product expanded the most.

The average

thickness increases of the three waterstops are shown in Figure 9.10. The thickness
increases follow the general waterstop expansion rate increases.

153

250.00

Expansion Rate %

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00
0

Days
Waterstop RX-1

Waterstop RX-2

Waterstop RX-3

Waterstop RX-AVG

Figure 9.6 - Expansion rates of Waterstop-RX 101TRH samples in the third


experiment.

154

120.00

100.00

Expansion Rate %

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Days
MC 2010MN-1

MC 2010MN-2

MC-2010MN-3

MC-2010MN-AVG

Figure 9.7 - Expansion rates of MC-2010MN samples in the third experiment.

155

45

2.00
1.80

Expansion Rate %

1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Days
Synko-Flex-1

Synko-Flex-2

Synko-Flex-3

Synko-Flex-AVG

Figure 9.8 - Expansion rates of Synko-flex waterstop samples in the third


experiment.

156

250.00

Expansion Rate %

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Days
W aterstop RX-AVG

MC-2010MN_AVG

Synko-Flex-AVG

Figure 9.9 - Average expansion rates of the three waterstops tested in the third
experiment.

157

45

30.00

Thickness Increase (mm)

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Days
Waterstop-RX-A V G

MC-2010MN_A V G

Synko-Flex-A V G

Figure 9.10 - Average thickness increases of waterstop samples in the third


experiment.

158

45

CHAPTER 9:

9.1

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSIONS

The main objective of this study was to investigate alternatives for creating a
watertight construction joint for inclusion in the specifications for the Hood Canal East
Half Replacement Project.

Determining the effectiveness of different products and

construction methods at preventing water penetration will give WSDOT a starting point
in building better more watertight joints for floating bridges.
The testing methods used in this study did not conform to a standard testing
method due to the lack of such methods. The first experiment performed in this study
worked correctly but the pressure applied by the system was too low to give any
significant experimental results. Consequently, a second experimental procedure was
used that applied a variable air pressure to the system. The system of the second
experiment did increase the pressure applied to the specimens by over five times the
pressure of experiment one but did not provide results for determining one products
effectiveness over another at preventing water penetration.
The first two experiments were effective in showing that compaction is the
deciding factor in water penetration through the construction joint. The greater the
concrete compaction at the joint the less likely it will leak under pressure. Specimens in
stages one and two were compacted to a higher level than stage three specimens through
the use of a mechanical stinger. There was excellent compaction at the joint and no
observed honeycombing in any of the specimens of the first two stages. Stage three
specimens were compacted by stick strikes of the slump rod dropped into the freshly
poured concrete. The compaction level of stage three specimens was much lower than
159

that of the first two stages. Honeycombing was observed in all specimens and was most
severe near the joint. The honeycombing provided openings within the concrete to easily
allow passage of water through the joint.
Product selection did not play an important role in preventing or decreasing water
leakage through the joint. Poorly compacted specimens leaked immediately regardless of
the applied product while all well-compacted specimens remained watertight.
Honeycombing of the concrete near the joint signified poor compaction that has a high
likelihood of leaking.
Products that should be most effective in helping to prevent water leakage through
the joint are those that increase compaction at the joint. The mortar/slurry mixture
applied to the first few inches of the joint helped improve compaction of the joint. The
stage three specimen built using this construction method was one of only two specimens
that did not leak before being placed within the testing setup. The removal of coarse
aggregate from the first few inches of the second pour allowed the concrete to compact at
a lower compaction effort than would be needed for a similar mix containing coarse
aggregate. The mortar/slurry had the added benefit of helping to replace fines lost from
segregation of the concrete when placed in a tall wall.
The third experiment was performed to determine the expansion rates of the three
waterstops submerged in water. The Waterstop-RX 101TRH and MC-2010MN products
saw significant expansion and thickness increases within the first two weeks of testing.
The use of these two products in a joint exposed to significant moisture for an extended
period of time could cause these products to lose their effectiveness as a water barrier.
The Synko-flex waterstop retained its original shape and should not be damaged by

160

extended exposure to significant moisture. The Synko-flex product performed the best of
the three waterstops tested in the third experiment but has not been proven to effectively
reduce water penetration at the joint; more testing needs to be performed using a
compaction level that demonstrates the Synko-Flex products ability to reduce water
penetration more effectively than a similar jointed control specimen for a given air
pressure.
9.2

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR WATERTIGHT JOINT

The following general guidelines will help improve the resistance to water penetration for
a concrete construction joint.
1. The top surface of the joint should be compacted to as high a compaction level
as can be achieved in the field.
2. Repair any honeycombed concrete in the vicinity of the construction joint.
3. Use materials and construction methods to construct the joint that improve
compaction at the joint such as the mortar/slurry mixture.
4. Products such as waterstops and surface coatings may help to decrease water
penetration through the joint, but are far less important than good construction
practices when building the joint.
9.3

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

Clearly, there is a need for further testing to determine the ability of individual
products to prevent or reduce water penetration through a concrete construction joint.

161

The setup of the second experiment can be used to test these products. The products and
testing methods used in this study along with additional products should be tested using
the experimental setup of the second experiment with several small modifications.
The minimum compaction needed to prevent water leakage through the
construction joint of the control specimen should be determined for the initial 16.48psi
system pressure caused by the 4 foot water elevation. This minimum compaction should
be used with all specimens to determine the air pressure necessary to cause leakage
through the joint. Using this minimum compaction level will allow the most effective
products for limiting water penetration to be determined.
Additional tests should be performed on admixtures that improve concrete
compaction. The addition of these admixtures could limit water penetration through the
joint by improving compaction at the joint without an increase in labor. The use of
admixtures and other products that improve compaction should be studied further.
Testing should also be continued to determine the most effective surface
preparation for limiting water penetration at the joint. The raking method, exposed
aggregate surface and shear key should be further studied to determine the most effective
method for preventing water penetration. Test results were inconclusive in determining
the most effective surface preparation method for preventing water penetration;
additional testing is necessary.
All testing completed in this study was performed under static loading. Pontoons
in the field however are subjected to severe dynamic loading due to wind, wave and tidal
fluctuations. These dynamic forces could cause significant movement of the construction
joint that might lead to the formation of small cracks at the joint. Movement at the joint

162

could also cause damage to products applied to the joint. Testing should be performed to
apply dynamic forces to concrete specimens to study joint movement and subsequent
damage caused by this movement.

163

REFERENCES

Clear, C. A. (1985). The Effects of Autogenous Healing Upon the Leakage of Water
Through Cracks in Concrete. Technical Report-Cement and Concrete Association,
559(5).
Dusenberry, D. O., and DelloRusso, S. J. (1993). Water Leakage Through Cracks in
Reinforced Concrete. Proc., International Conference on Hydropower, 3(8), A. A.
Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2167-2176.
Henley, E. H., Wilson, D. L., and Kolle, G. A. (1997). William A. Bugge Bridge
Replacement Plan for the East-Half Floating Portion. Report, Washington State
Department of Transportation.
Kishel, J. (1989). Seepage and Contraction Joints in Concrete Canal Linings. Journal
of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 115(3), 377-382.
Liou, D. D. (1996). The Effects of Construction Joint in Mass Concrete. Materials for
the New Millenium. Proc. Fourth Materials Engineering Conference, 1(11), ASCE,
Washington DC, 193-202.
Lwin, M. M. (1993a). The Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge, USA. Structural
Engineering International, 145-148.
Lwin, M. M. (1993b). "Floating bridges-Solution to a difficult terrain." Transporation
Facilities through Difficult Terrain, J. T. H. Wu and R. K. Barrett, eds., Balkema,
Rotterdam, 581-591.
Lwin, M. M., Bruesch, A. W., and Evans, C. F. (1995). High-Performance Concrete for
a Floating Bridge. Fourth International Bridge Engineering Conference, National
Academy Press, Washington DC, 155-162.
Lwin, M. M., Dusenberry, D. O. (1994). Responding to a floating bridge failure. Public
Works, 125(1), 39-43.
Lwin, M. M. and Gloyd, G. S. (1984) Rebuilding the Hood Canal Floating Bridge.
Concrete International: Design and Construction, 6(6), 30-35.
Nichols, C. C. (1964). Construction and Performance of Hood Canal Floating Bridge.
Symposium on Concrete Construction in Aqueous Environment, ACI SP-8, 97-106.
Rashed, A., Rogowsky, D. M., and Elwi, A. E. (2000). Tests on Reinforced Partially
Prestressed Concrete Tank Walls. Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(6), 675-683.

164

Tan, K., and Gjorv, O. E. (1996). Performance of Concrete Under Different Curing
Conditions. Cement and Concrete Research, 26(3), 355-361.
Tatro, S. B., and Waring, S. T. (1988). Waterstop Technology-The Next Chapter.
Waterpower 87, Proc., International Conference on Hydropower, 2, ASCE, New York,
1442-1451.
Wallis, S. (1992). Putting Paid to Water Leakage Costs. Tunnels and Tunnelling,
24(1), 51-54.
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (1993). Concrete for Lacey V. Murrow Bridge
Pontoons. Report, Washington State Department of Transportation, ed., Robert
LaFraugh.
WSDOT (2001). Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge and Municipal Construction
2002. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Engineering
Publications, Olympia, WA.
Young, D.A., Munson, B.A., and Okiishi, T.H. (1997). A Brief Introduction to Fluid
Mechanics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

165

APPENDIX A

MEASURED MIX DATA


AND
STRAIN CALCULATIONS

166

Mix Design #1
LVM (Phase 1)

w/c ratio= 0.3291

Mix # 1 - LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix

mix proportions (per)


1 yd3

Concrete Constituent

Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water (Total)
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

Slurry -

1.5 ft3

1770 lb
1295
624
50
100
255
5.5floz/cwt

Silica fume = 2.8 lbs(all) (1270.05grams)


Water = 3.42lbs
(1551.28grams)
HRWR = 6mL

167

98.35
71.95
34.65
2.8
5.55
14.15
none
70 mL

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs

Mix Water=total-slurry water


= 10.73
lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design Mix Design # - 1

LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix

Date Batched and Specimens Cast Slump Air Content Batch Temperature Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

November 14, 2002


8.0"
66 F
7 and 2 (#'s 1-9)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points -

December 10, 2002

28-day Curing Date -

December 12 (13), 2002

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =
Cylinder f'c-2 =

8910psi
8650psi

(252,170 lbs) 2 cones


(244,730 lbs) Cone/Shear

Cylinder f'c-3 =

8570psi

(242,480 lbs) Cone/Shear

Average =

8710psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 8710 psi =
3484

psi

30 tons

Actual Applied Load =

= 24.4 % f'c (28 day)

= 2122psi

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements


Cylinder C-1 (mix #_____)
Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

Before Loading1/14
Immediately after Loading1/14
15-20 minutes1/14
1 hour1/14
2 hours: 45 minutes1/14
6 - 8 hours1/14
2nd Day1/15
3rd Day1/16
4th Day1/17
6th Day1/19
8th Day1/21
9th Day1/22
14th Day1/28
21st Day2/4

3:00pm
3:53p
4:20p
5:06p
6:45p
9:56p
1:50p
11:35a
1:40p
12:15p
1:35p
1:52p
3:30p
4:30p

Cylinder C-2 (mix #_____)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

0.1649
0.1615
0.1614
0.1605
0.1603
0.1602
0.1597
0.1596
0.1589
0.1579
0.1573
0.157
0.1565
0.156

0.1617
0.1581
0.1577
0.1569
0.1563
0.1559
0.1554
0.1549
0.1544
0.1541
0.1537
0.1535
0.1532
0.1529

0.1592
0.1554
0.1551
0.1541
0.1541
0.155
0.1548
0.1535
0.1535
0.153
0.1526
0.1518
0.1516
0.1513

0.1606
0.1571
0.156
0.1553
0.1549
0.1541
0.1539
0.1533
0.153
0.1525
0.1522
0.1519
0.1516
0.1514

0.1561
0.1529
0.1517
0.1512
0.1503
0.1497
0.1494
0.1492
0.1491
0.1486
0.1485
0.1482
0.1479
0.1474

0.1406
0.137
0.1362
0.1364
0.1352
0.1354
0.1349
0.135
0.1348
0.1341
0.1339
0.1337
0.1335
0.1332

28th day2/11 4:10p

0.1558

0.1527

0.1509

0.151

0.1469

0.1329

recovery2/11 4:11p

0.159

0.1553

0.1538

0.1538

0.1495

0.1346

168

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)

Actual date
Scheduled Time
Before Loading1/14 3:00pm

and time

Cylinder S-1 (mix #_____)

Cylinder S-2 (mix #_____)

Shrinkage Measurement

Shrinkage Measurement

0.1536

Immediately after Loading1/14 3:53p

0.1536

15-20 minutes1/14 4:20p

0.1535

1 hour1/14 5:06p

0.1535

2 hours: 45 minutes1/14 6:45p

0.1534

6 - 8 hours1/14 9:56p

0.1534

2nd Day1/15 1:50p

0.1534

3rd Day1/16 11:35a

0.1532

4th Day1/17 1:40p

0.1534

Gage

Length

Not

0.1305

0.1228

0.1575

0.1429

0.1305

0.1225

0.1575

0.1427

0.1302

0.1225

0.1572

0.1427

0.1292

0.1225

0.1573

0.1428

0.1301

0.1227

0.1572

0.1429

0.1304

0.1227

0.158

0.1426

0.1297

0.1226

0.1579

0.1424

0.1306

0.1224

0.1577

0.1427

0.1304

0.1224

0.158

0.1422

6th Day1/19 12:15p

0.1533

0.1302

0.1224

0.158

0.1422

8th Day1/21 1:35p

0.1532

0.1301

0.1223

0.1575

0.1418

9th Day1/22 1:52p

0.153

0.1303

0.122

0.1574

0.1416

14th Day1/28 3:30p

0.1529

Good

0.1299

0.1218

0.1573

0.1415

21st Day2/4 4:30p

0.1528

0.1294

0.1218

0.1571

0.1415

28th day2/11 4:10p

0.1528

0.1293

0.1218

0.1571

0.1415

recovery2/11 4:11p

0.1528

0.1293

0.1218

0.1571

0.1415

169

Mix Design #1 - LVM Mix Design


Creep Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

T
i
00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.
0
.1
.2
.4
.6
.7
11.
43
22
2120
r827
e7
Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

T
i
00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.
2
.4
.6
.7
11.
2423
2120
87
r2
e7

170

(Creep)

1
0.1606
0.0000
0.0035
0.0046
0.0053
0.0057
0.0065
0.0067
0.0073
0.0076
0.0081
0.0084
0.0087
0.0090
0.0092
0.0096
0.0068

10.0006
0.00000
0.00035
0.00046
0.00053
0.00057
0.00065
0.00067
0.00073
0.00076
0.00081
0.00084
0.00087
0.00090
0.00092
0.00096
0.00068

Cylinder #6
Cylinder plane #
2
0.1561
0.0000
0.0032
0.0044
0.0049
0.0058
0.0064
0.0067
0.0069
0.0070
0.0075
0.0076
0.0079
0.0082
0.0087
0.0092
0.0066

9.9628
0.00000
0.00003
0.00003
0.00003
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00005
0.00008
0.00010
0.00010
0.00010
0.00010

Cylinder #7
Cylinder plane
2
0.1575
0.0000
0.0000
0.0003
0.0002
0.0003
-0.0005
-0.0004
-0.0002
-0.0005
-0.0005
0.0000
0.0001
0.0002
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004

9.9961
0.00000
0.00032
0.00044
0.00049
0.00058
0.00064
0.00067
0.00069
0.00070
0.00075
0.00076
0.00079
0.00082
0.00087
0.00092
0.00066

3
0.1406
0.0000
0.0036
0.0044
0.0042
0.0054
0.0052
0.0057
0.0056
0.0058
0.0065
0.0067
0.0069
0.0071
0.0074
0.0077
0.0060

9.9806
0.00000
0.00036
0.00044
0.00042
0.00054
0.00052
0.00057
0.00056
0.00058
0.00065
0.00067
0.00069
0.00071
0.00074
0.00077
0.00060

average
total
strain
(in)

average
total
strain
(in/in)

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in)

0.0000
0.0034
0.0045
0.0048
0.0056
0.0060
0.0064
0.0066
0.0068
0.0074
0.0076
0.0078
0.0081
0.0084
0.0088
0.0065

0.00000
0.00034
0.00045
0.00048
0.00056
0.00060
0.00064
0.00066
0.00068
0.00074
0.00076
0.00078
0.00081
0.00084
0.00088
0.00065

0.0000
0.0035
0.0042
0.0048
0.0053
0.0055
0.0058
0.0063
0.0066
0.0072
0.0075
0.0078
0.0081
0.0085
0.0088
0.0062

average
shrinkage
strain

average
shrinkage
strain
(in/in)

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in)

0.0000
0.0002
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0.0000
0.0001
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0005
0.0007
0.0009
0.0009
0.0009
0.0009

0.00000
0.00002
0.00003
0.00002
0.00001
0.00000
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002
0.00002
0.00005
0.00007
0.00009
0.00009
0.00009
0.00009

0.0000
0.0001
0.0002
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.0003
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
0.0005
0.0006
0.0008
0.0009
0.0010
0.0010

(Shrinkage)

1
0.1228
0.0000
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0001
0.0001
0.0002
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0005
0.0008
0.0010
0.0010
0.0010
0.0010

9.9975
0.00000
0.00000
0.00003
0.00002
0.00003
-0.00005
-0.00004
-0.00002
-0.00005
-0.00005
0.00000
0.00001
0.00002
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004

3
0.1429
0.0000
0.0002
0.0002
0.0001
0.0000
0.0003
0.0005
0.0002
0.0007
0.0007
0.0011
0.0013
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014

9.9829
0.00000
0.00002
0.00002
0.00001
0.00000
0.00003
0.00005
0.00002
0.00007
0.00007
0.00011
0.00013
0.00014
0.00014
0.00014
0.00014

171

Time,m

Time, day

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in/in)

0
53
80
126
225
416
1335
2670
4115
6910
9790
11247
18720
28800
38880
38881

0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.9
1.9
2.9
4.8
6.8
7.8
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

0
0.000351768
0.000416799
0.000478453
0.000533494
0.000546821
0.0005835
0.000626831
0.00065683
0.000715181
0.000748516
0.000783522
0.000813525
0.000848533
0.000881878
0.000618505

(microstrain)
(x 10^6)
0
351.8
416.8
478.5
533.5
546.8
583.5
626.8
656.8
715.2
748.5
783.5
813.5
848.5
881.9
618.5

Shrinkage Measurements

Time,m

Time, day

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in/in)

0
53
80
126
225
416
1335
2670
4115
6910
9790
11247
18720
28800
38880
38881

0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.9
1.9
2.9
4.8
6.8
7.8
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

0
8.33951E-06
2.33408E-05
4.50056E-05
2.16669E-05
5.83745E-06
3.00125E-05
1.41663E-05
1.75168E-05
2.5016E-05
4.66977E-05
5.67017E-05
7.58716E-05
9.4206E-05
9.67062E-05
9.67062E-05

(microstrain)
(x 10^6)

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage
(in)

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage
(in/in)

(microstrain)
(x 10^6)

0
8.3
23.3
45.0
21.7
5.8
30.0
14.2
17.5
25.0
46.7
56.7
75.9
94.2
96.7
96.7

0.0000
0.0034
0.0039
0.0043
0.0051
0.0054
0.0055
0.0061
0.0064
0.0069
0.0070
0.0073
0.0074
0.0075
0.0079
0.0052

0.000000
0.000343
0.000393
0.000433
0.000512
0.000541
0.000553
0.000613
0.000639
0.000690
0.000702
0.000727
0.000738
0.000754
0.000785
0.000522

0
343.4
393.5
433.4
511.8
541.0
553.5
612.7
639.3
690.2
701.8
726.8
737.7
754.3
785.2
521.8

172

Mix #1
LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix (Phase 1)

Applied Creep Load =

2120psi

Time
(min)
0
53
80
126
225
416
1335
2670
4115
6910
9790
11247
18720
28800

Total
(in/in)
0
.352E-3
.417E-3
.478E-3
.533E-3
.547E-3
.584E-3
.627E-3
.657E-3
.715E-3
.749E-3
.784E-3
.814E-3
.849E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.343E-3
.393E-3
.433E-3
.512E-3
.541E-3
.553E-3
.613E-3
.639E-3
.690E-3
.702E-3
.727E-3
.738E-3
.754E-3

38881

.619E-3

.522E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.834E-5
0.162
0
0.166
.233E-4
0.186
0.024
0.197
.450E-4
0.204
0.042
0.226
.217E-4
0.241
0.079
0.252
.584E-5
0.255
0.093
0.258
.300E-4
0.261
0.099
0.275
.142E-4
0.289
0.127
0.296
.175E-4
0.302
0.140
0.310
.250E-4
0.326
0.164
0.337
.467E-4
0.331
0.169
0.353
.567E-4
0.343
0.181
0.370
.759E-4
0.348
0.186
0.384
.942E-4
0.356
0.194
0.400
.
.967E-4
0.246
0.292

173

Mix Design #2
WJE, Inc Report Recommendation

Mix # 2 - 1st Alteration - WJE, Inc. Report Recommendation


mix proportions (per)
Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

Slurry -

1 yd3

1.5 ft3

1770 lb
1295
540
35
200
255

98.35
71.95
30
1.95
11.1
14.15
none
55 mL

4.3floz/cwt

Silica fume=1.95lbs(all) (884.5grams)


Water=2.38lbs
(1079.5grams)
HRWR=6mL

174

w/c ratio= 0.3287

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs

Mix Water=total-slurry water


=
11.77 lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design Mix Design # 2

WJE, Inc Report Recommendation

Date Batched and Specimens Cast Slump Air Content Batch Temperature Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

November 14, 2002


7.5 "
66 F
7 and 2 (#'s 10 - 18)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points -

December 10, 2002

28-day Curing Date -

December 12 (13), 2002

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =
Cylinder f'c-2 =

8140psi
8200psi

(230360 lbs) 2 cones


(232130 lbs) 2 cones

Cylinder f'c-3 =

8150psi

(230790 lbs) 2 cones

Average =

8163.3psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 8163.3 psi =
3265.3 psi
28.1 tons

Actual Applied Load =

psi

= 24.4% f'c (28 day)

#13

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

Scheduled Time

and time
4:35pm
5:00p
5:20p
6:07p
7:59p
11:00p
1:53p
11:45a
1:51p
12:30p
1:40p
5:00p
3:40p
4:40p

#14

Cylinder C-1 (mix #_____)

Cylinder C-2 (mix #_____)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

Actual date
Before Loading1/14
Immediately after Loading1/14
15-20 minutes1/14
1 hour1/14
2 hours: 45 minutes1/14
6 - 8 hours1/14
2nd Day1/15
3rd Day1/16
4th Day1/17
6th Day1/19
8th Day1/21
9th Day1/22
14th Day1/28
21st Day2/4

= 1988 psi

0.1545
0.1514
0.1477
0.1474
0.1478
0.1479
0.1466
0.147
0.1466
0.1459
0.1456
0.1452
0.1445
0.1443

0.1561
0.1544
0.1532
0.152
0.1525
0.1525
0.1515
0.1515
0.1515
0.1511
0.1506
0.1502
0.1499
0.1496

0.1599
0.1564
0.1565
0.1539
0.1542
0.1531
0.1528
0.1525
0.1523
0.1519
0.1516
0.1514
0.1507
0.1503

0.163
0.1611
0.1595
0.1593
0.16
0.1593
0.1588
0.1587
0.1585
0.1581
0.1576
0.1572
0.1566
0.1563

2
0.157
0.1543
0.1544
0.1542
0.155
0.155
0.1551
0.1548
0.1547
0.1541
0.154
0.1538
0.1533
0.1531

3
0.154
0.1519
0.1495
0.1485
0.149
0.149
0.1479
0.1478
0.1474
0.1471
0.1468
0.1464
0.1456
0.1454

28th day2/11 4:15p

0.1441

0.1493

0.15

0.1561

0.153

0.1451

recovery2/11 4:16p

0.1475

0.1522

0.1535

0.1595

0.1558

0.1491

175

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)

Actual date
Scheduled Time
Before Loading1/14 4:35pm
Immediately after Loading1/14 5:00p

and time

Cylinder S-1 (mix #_____)

Cylinder S-2 (mix #_____)

Shrinkage Measurement

Shrinkage Measurement

1
0.15

15-20 minutes1/14 5:20p

0.1491

1 hour1/14 6:07p

0.148

2 hours: 45 minutes1/14 7:59p

0.1506
Gage

0.149

6 - 8 hours1/14 11:00p

0.1486

2nd Day1/15 1:53p

0.1481

3rd Day1/16 11:45a

0.148

4th Day1/17 1:51p

0.1481

Length

Not

0.1415

0.1421

0.1615

3
0.154
0.1542

0.1415

0.142

0.1615

0.1413

0.1421

0.1605

0.154

0.1397

0.1398

0.1595

0.1529

0.1403

0.1402

0.1596

0.1524

0.1403

0.1396

0.1597

0.1524

0.1398

0.1396

0.1595

0.1522

0.1397

0.1395

0.1594

0.1521

0.1396

0.14

0.1594

0.1522

6th Day1/19 12:30p

0.1478

0.1394

0.1385

0.1593

0.1518

8th Day1/21 1:40p

0.1476

0.1393

0.1395

0.1592

0.1517

9th Day1/22 5:00p

0.1474

0.1391

0.1394

0.1591

0.1517

14th Day1/28 3:40p

0.148

Good

0.1392

0.1393

0.1591

0.1516

21st Day2/4 4:40p

0.1476

0.139

0.139

0.1588

0.1515

28th day2/11 4:15p

0.1474

0.1388

0.1389

0.1587

0.1515

recovery2/11 4:16p

0.1474

0.1388

0.1389

0.1587

0.1515

176

Mix # 2 - WJE, Inc Report Recommendation


Creep Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

Cylinder # 13
Cylinder plane
T
i
00

average
total

total
strain

average
shrinkage

average
shrinkage
strain

0
.
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.
4
.6
.7
1.1
2423
2120
r827
e7

Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600
Cylinder #15
Cylinder plane
T
i
00

25

199

2585

9780

0.0

0.1

1.8

6.8

0.0006

0.0016

0.0026

0.0030

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

0.0003

0
.0
.

Gage

0.0000

0.0000

0.0003

0.000030

Length

0.0012

0.0001

0.0014

0.000140

Not

0.0018

0.0002

0.0022

0.000220

Good

0.0022

0.0002

0.0026

0.000260

0
.
0
.
2
.4
.
7
1.1
43
22
102
r72
e7

177

(Creep)

Cylinder # 14
Cylinder plane
1
0.163
0.0000
0.0019
0.0035
0.0037
0.0030
0.0037
0.0042
0.0043
0.0045
0.0049
0.0054
0.0058
0.0064
0.0067
0.0069
0.0035

2
0.157
0.0000
0.0027
0.0026
0.0028
0.0020
0.0020
0.0019
0.0022
0.0023
0.0029
0.0030
0.0032
0.0037
0.0039
0.0040
0.0012

10.0030
0.0000
0.0002
0.0003
0.0004
0.0003
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0003

9.9970
0.0000
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0001

3
0.154
0.0000
0.0021
0.0045
0.0055
0.0050
0.0050
0.0061
0.0062
0.0066
0.0069
0.0072
0.0076
0.0084
0.0086
0.0089
0.0049

average
total
strain
9.9940
0.0000
0.0002
0.0005
0.0006
0.0005
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0008
0.0008
0.0009
0.0009
0.0005

0.0000
0.0022
0.0035
0.0040
0.0033
0.0036
0.0041
0.0042
0.0045
0.0049
0.0052
0.0055
0.0062
0.0064
0.0066
0.0032

average
total
strain
(in/in)
0.00000
0.00022
0.00035
0.00040
0.00033
0.00036
0.00041
0.00042
0.00045
0.00049
0.00052
0.00055
0.00062
0.00064
0.00066
0.00032

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
0.0000
0.0025
0.0040
0.0049
0.0043
0.0046
0.0053
0.0054
0.0056
0.0060
0.0064
0.0067
0.0073
0.0076
0.0078
0.0045

(Shrinkage)
Cylinder #16
Cylinder plane
1
0.1421
0.0000
0.0001
0.0000
0.0023
0.0019
0.0025
0.0025
0.0026
0.0021
0.0036
0.0026
0.0027
0.0028
0.0031
0.0032
0.0032

2
9.9821
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0004
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003

0.1615
0.0000
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0019
0.0018
0.0020
0.0021
0.0021
0.0022
0.0023
0.0024
0.0024
0.0027
0.0028
0.0028

3
10.0015
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003

0.154
0.0000
-0.0002
0.0000
0.0011
0.0016
0.0016
0.0018
0.0019
0.0018
0.0022
0.0023
0.0023
0.0024
0.0025
0.0025
0.0025

178

9.9940
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003

average
shrinkage
strain

average
shrinkage
strain
(in/in)

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders

0.0000
0.0000
0.0003
0.0018
0.0018
0.0020
0.0021
0.0022
0.0020
0.0027
0.0024
0.0025
0.0025
0.0028
0.0028
0.0028

0.00000
0.00000
0.00003
0.00018
0.00018
0.00020
0.00021
0.00022
0.00020
0.00027
0.00024
0.00025
0.00025
0.00028
0.00028
0.00028

0.0000
0.0001
0.0006
0.0020
0.0016
0.0018
0.0021
0.0022
0.0021
0.0026
0.0025
0.0026
0.0025
0.0028
0.0029
0.0029

Time,m
0
25
40
87
199
380
1273
2585
4151
6890
9780
11420
18720
28800
38880
38881

Time,m
0
25
40
87
199
380
1273
2585
4151
6890
9780
11420
18720
28800
38880
38881

Time, day
0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.9
1.8
2.9
4.8
6.8
7.9
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

Time, day
0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.9
1.8
2.9
4.8
6.8
7.9
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in/in)
0
0.000250065
0.000395122
0.00048681
0.000433464
0.000461793
0.000530153
0.000536818
0.000558492
0.000605172
0.000638512
0.000671855
0.000731871
0.000758543
0.000781882
0.000448461

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in/in)
0
1.33484E-05
5.92087E-05
0.000200219
0.000160161
0.000178522
0.000210225
0.000220236
0.000210222
0.000256121
0.000250267
0.000263618
0.000249436
0.000276131
0.000289481
0.000289481

(x 10^6)
0
250.0651
395.1223
486.81
433.4642
461.7933
530.1531
536.8181
558.492
605.1718
638.5122
671.8548
731.8708
758.5428
781.8825
448.4615

(x 10^6)

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage
(in/in)

(x 10^6)

0
13.34843
59.20872
200.2193
160.1613
178.5222
210.2253
220.236
210.2224
256.1206
250.2675
263.6175
249.4361
276.1307
289.4807
289.4807

0.0000
0.0024
0.0034
0.0029
0.0027
0.0028
0.0032
0.0032
0.0035
0.0035
0.0039
0.0041
0.0048
0.0048
0.0049
0.0016

0
0.0002367
0.0003359
0.0002866
0.0002733
0.0002833
0.0003199
0.0003166
0.0003483
0.0003491
0.0003882
0.0004082
0.0004824
0.0004824
0.0004924
0.000159

0
236.7167
335.9136
286.5907
273.3029
283.2711
319.9278
316.5821
348.2697
349.0512
388.2447
408.2373
482.4347
482.4122
492.4018
158.9808

179

Mix #2
WJE, Inc Report Recommendation

Applied Creep Load =

1990psi

Time
(min)
0
25
40
87
199
380
1273
2585
4151
6890
9780
11420
18720
28800

Total
(in/in)
0
.250E-3
.395E-3
.487E-3
.433E-3
.462E-3
.530E-3
.537E-3
.558E-3
.605E-3
.639E-3
.672E-3
.732E-3
.759E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.237E-3
.336E-3
.287E-3
.273E-3
.283E-3
.320E-3
.317E-3
.348E-3
.349E-3
.388E-3
.408E-3
.482E-3
.482E-3

38881

.448E-3

.159E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in)
(microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.133E-4
0.119
0
0.126
.592E-4
0.169
0.050
0.199
.200E-3
0.144
0.025
0.245
.160E-3
0.137
0.018
0.218
.179E-3
0.142
0.023
0.232
.210E-3
0.161
0.042
0.266
.220E-3
0.159
0.040
0.270
.210E-3
0.175
0.056
0.281
.256E-3
0.175
0.056
0.304
.250E-3
0.195
0.076
0.321
.264E-3
0.205
0.086
0.338
.249E-3
0.242
0.123
0.368
.276E-3
0.242
0.123
0.381
.
.289E-3
0.080
0.225

180

Mix Design #3
Metakaolin 5% OPC Replacement

Mix # 3 - 2nd Alteration - Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement*


mix proportions (per)
Concrete Constituent

1 yd3

1.5 ft3

Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Metakaolin (High Reactive)
Water
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

1770 lb
1295
636.3
none
100
38.75
255

98.35
71.95
35.35
none
5.55
2.15
14.15
none
70 mL

5.5floz/cwt

* Based on 775 pounds of total cementitious materials

181

w/c ratio= 0.3287

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs--------> 2517.4g
lbs--------> 975.2g
lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design Mix Design # 3

Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement

Date Batched and Specimens Cast Slump Air Content Batch Temperature Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

November 14, 2002


9"
66 F
7 and 2 (#'s 19 - 27)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points -

December 10, 2002

28-day Curing Date -

December 12 (13), 2002

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =
Cylinder f'c-2 =

8820psi
8780psi

(249700 lbs) 2 cones


(248370 lbs) Shear Plane

Cylinder f'c-3 =

8720psi

(246800 lbs) 2 cones

Average =

8773.3psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
3509.3 psi
=.40 x 8773.3 psi =
30.3 tons

Actual Applied Load =

= 24.4% f'c (28 day)

= 2140.7 psi

#23

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

#24

Cylinder C-1 (mix #_____)


Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

Cylinder C-2 (mix #_____)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

0.1578
0.1551
0.155
0.155
0.1555
0.1559
0.1548
0.1543
0.1539
0.1535
0.1533
0.1526
0.152
0.1512

0.1501
0.1473
0.147
0.1467
0.1465
0.1469
0.146
0.1459
0.145
0.1443
0.1435
0.1433
0.1428
0.1424

0.1307
0.1279
0.1275
0.1274
0.1279
0.1279
0.1264
0.1255
0.1256
0.1253
0.1249
0.1245
0.1237
0.1234

0.17
0.1666
0.166
0.1657
0.1658
0.1658
0.1645
0.1646
0.1643
0.1638
0.1634
0.1632
0.163
0.1625

0.1635
0.1603
0.1599
0.1594
0.1594
0.1594
0.159
0.1582
0.1582
0.1578
0.1576
0.157
0.1566
0.1564

0.1923
0.1898
0.1891
0.1876
0.1879
0.1877
0.1868
0.1866
0.1865
0.1861
0.1855
0.1852
0.1845
0.1842

28th day 2/11 4:00p

0.1505

0.1422

0.1232

0.1623

0.1562

0.184

recovery 2/11 4:01p

0.1534

0.1456

0.1268

0.1649

0.1586

0.1879

Before Loading 1/14


Immediately after Loading 1/14
15-20 minutes 1/14
1 hour 1/14
2 hours: 45 minutes 1/14
6 - 8 hours 1/14
2nd Day 1/15
3rd Day 1/16
4th Day 1/17
6th Day 1/19
8th Day 1/21
9th Day 1/22
14th Day 1/28
21st Day 2/4

5:37pm
6:01p
6:18p
7:00p
8:45p
12:01am
2:04p
11:51a
1:55p
12:35p
1:50p
5:05p
4:00p
4:45p

182

#22

#25

Cylinder S-1 (mix #_____)


Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

Before Loading 1/14 5:37pm

Cylinder S-2 (mix #_____)

Shrinkage Measurement
1

Shrinkage Measurement
3

0.1655

0.0705

0.164

0.159

0.0641

0.12

Immediately after Loading 1/14 6:01p

0.1653

0.0704

0.1638

0.1593

0.064

0.12

15-20 minutes 1/14 6:18p

0.165

0.07

0.1636

0.1585

0.0653

0.119

1 hour 1/14 7:00p

0.1654

0.0708

0.164

0.1581

0.0649

0.1191

2 hours: 45 minutes 1/14 8:45p

0.1651

0.0705

0.1641

0.1591

0.0636

0.12

6 - 8 hours 1/14 12:01am

0.165

0.0706

0.164

0.1586

0.063

0.12

2nd Day 1/15 2:04p

0.1649

0.07

0.1636

0.1581

0.0628

0.12

3rd Day 1/16 11:51a

0.1646

0.07

0.164

0.158

0.063

0.1195

4th Day 1/17 1:55p

0.165

0.0701

0.1641

0.1576

0.0628

0.1195

6th Day 1/19 12:35p

0.1646

0.07

0.1636

0.1574

0.0628

0.1195

8th Day 1/21 1:50p

0.1645

0.0695

0.1633

0.1568

0.0625

0.1193

9th Day 1/22 5:05p

0.1645

0.0693

0.1632

0.1568

0.0625

0.1193

14th Day 1/28 4:00p

0.1646

0.0695

0.1636

0.157

0.0625

0.1194

21st Day 2/4 4:45p

0.1644

0.0693

0.1634

0.1569

0.0625

0.119

28th day 2/11 4:00p

0.1643

0.0693

0.1631

0.1568

0.0625

0.119

recovery 2/11 4:01p

0.1643

0.0693

0.1631

0.1568

0.0625

0.119

183

Mix # 3 - Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement


Creep Measurements

gage zero (10") =

0.1600
Cylinder # 23
Cylinder plane
T
i
00

average
total

total
strain

average
shrinkage

average
shrinkage
strain

0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.1
4232
1202
r827
e7
Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600
Cylinder # 22
Cylinder plane
T
i
00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.4
.6
.8
11.
2423
1202
8r72
e7

184

(creep)

10.0100
0.00000
0.00034
0.00040
0.00043
0.00042
0.00042
0.00055
0.00054
0.00057
0.00062
0.00066
0.00068
0.00070
0.00075
0.00077
0.00051

Cylinder # 24
Cylinder plane
2
0.1635
0.0000
0.0032
0.0036
0.0041
0.0041
0.0041
0.0045
0.0053
0.0053
0.0057
0.0059
0.0065
0.0069
0.0071
0.0073
0.0049

9.9990
0.00000
-0.00003
0.00005
0.00009
-0.00001
0.00004
0.00009
0.00010
0.00014
0.00016
0.00022
0.00022
0.00020
0.00021
0.00022
0.00022

Cylinder # 25
Cylinder plane
2
0.0641
9.9041
0.0000
0.00000
0.0001
0.00001
-0.0012
-0.00012
-0.0008
-0.00008
0.0005
0.00005
0.0011
0.00011
0.0013
0.00013
0.0011
0.00011
0.0013
0.00013
0.0013
0.00013
0.0016
0.00016
0.0016
0.00016
0.0016
0.00016
0.0016
0.00016
0.0016
0.00016
0.0016
0.00016

1
0.17
0.0000
0.0034
0.0040
0.0043
0.0042
0.0042
0.0055
0.0054
0.0057
0.0062
0.0066
0.0068
0.0070
0.0075
0.0077
0.0051

3
10.0035
0.00000
0.00032
0.00036
0.00041
0.00041
0.00041
0.00045
0.00053
0.00053
0.00057
0.00059
0.00065
0.00069
0.00071
0.00073
0.00049

0.1923
0.0000
0.0025
0.0032
0.0047
0.0044
0.0046
0.0055
0.0057
0.0058
0.0062
0.0068
0.0071
0.0078
0.0081
0.0083
0.0044

10.0323
0.00000
0.00025
0.00032
0.00047
0.00044
0.00046
0.00055
0.00057
0.00058
0.00062
0.00068
0.00071
0.00078
0.00081
0.00083
0.00044

average
total
strain

average
total
strain
(in/in)

0.0000
0.0030
0.0036
0.0044
0.0042
0.0043
0.0052
0.0055
0.0056
0.0060
0.0064
0.0068
0.0072
0.0076
0.0078
0.0048

0.00000
0.00030
0.00036
0.00044
0.00042
0.00043
0.00052
0.00055
0.00056
0.00060
0.00064
0.00068
0.00072
0.00076
0.00078
0.00048

average
shrinkage
strain

average
shrinkage
strain
(in/in)

0.0000
-0.0001
0.0001
0.0003
0.0001
0.0005
0.0007
0.0009
0.0011
0.0011
0.0015
0.0015
0.0014
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016

0.00000
-0.00001
0.00001
0.00003
0.00001
0.00005
0.00007
0.00009
0.00011
0.00011
0.00015
0.00015
0.00014
0.00016
0.00016
0.00016

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
0.0000
0.0029
0.0033
0.0038
0.0036
0.0035
0.0045
0.0049
0.0052
0.0056
0.0060
0.0064
0.0070
0.0074
0.0077
0.0045

(shrinkage)

1
0.159
0.0000
-0.0003
0.0005
0.0009
-0.0001
0.0004
0.0009
0.0010
0.0014
0.0016
0.0022
0.0022
0.0020
0.0021
0.0022
0.0022

3
0.12
0.0000
0.0000
0.0010
0.0009
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0010
0.0010
0.0010

9.9600
0.00000
0.00000
0.00010
0.00009
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00005
0.00005
0.00005
0.00007
0.00007
0.00006
0.00010
0.00010
0.00010

185

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in)
0.0000
0.0001
0.0003
0.0001
0.0001
0.0003
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0009
0.0012
0.0013
0.0011
0.0013
0.0014
0.0014

Time,m

Time, day
0
24
41
83
188
384
1227
2534
4090
6898
9853
11488
18720
28800
38880
38881

Time,m

0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.9
1.8
2.8
4.8
6.8
8.0
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

Time, day
0
24
41
83
188
384
1227
2534
4090
6898
9853
11488
18720
28800
38880
38881

0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.9
1.8
2.8
4.8
6.8
8.0
13.0
20.0
27.0
27.0

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(in/in)
0
0.000289984
0.000331626
0.000376547
0.000356542
0.000346523
0.00044821
0.000488244
0.000514911
0.000559907
0.000603234
0.000643236
0.000696576
0.000738241
0.000766575
0.000453265

(x 10^6)
0
289.9839
331.6256
376.547
356.5418
346.5229
448.2097
488.2435
514.9113
559.9069
603.2337
643.2363
696.576
738.2413
766.5751
453.2652

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage
(in)

Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
Cylinders
(x 10^6)
(in/in)
0
5.01659E-06
2.8308E-05
1.32701E-05
1.1662E-05
3.16538E-05
6.16742E-05
6.66283E-05
6.66125E-05
8.66368E-05
0.000119971
0.000124979
0.000108298
0.000126622
0.000134969
0.000134969

0
5.016592
28.30803
13.27013
11.66199
31.65377
61.67415
66.62833
66.61249
86.63677
119.9709
124.9791
108.2979
126.622
134.9687
134.9687

0.0000
0.0029
0.0030
0.0036
0.0035
0.0032
0.0039
0.0042
0.0045
0.0047
0.0048
0.0052
0.0059
0.0061
0.0063
0.0032

186

Creep=
Total
minus
Shrinkage
(in/in)
0.000000
0.000285
0.000303
0.000363
0.000345
0.000315
0.000387
0.000422
0.000448
0.000473
0.000483
0.000518
0.000588
0.000612
0.000632
0.000318

(x 10^6)
0
284.9673
303.3175
363.2769
344.8798
314.8692
386.5356
421.6152
448.2988
473.2701
483.2628
518.2571
588.2781
611.6194
631.6064
318.2965

Mix #3
Metakaolin - 5% OPC Replacement

Applied Creep Load =

2140psi

Time
(min)
0
24
41
83
188
384
1227
2534
4090
6898
9853
11488
18720
28800

Total
(in/in)
0
.290E-3
.332E-3
.377E-3
.357E-3
.347E-3
.448E-3
.488E-3
.515E-3
.560E-3
.603E-3
.643E-3
.697E-3
.738E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.285E-3
.303E-3
.363E-3
.345E-3
.315E-3
.387E-3
.422E-3
.448E-3
.473E-3
.483E-3
.518E-3
.588E-3
.612E-3

38881

.453E-3

.318E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in)
(microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.502E-5
0.133
0
0.136
.283E-4
0.142
0.009
0.155
.133E-4
0.170
0.037
0.176
.117E-4
0.161
0.028
0.167
.317E-4
0.147
0.014
0.162
.617E-4
0.181
0.047
0.209
.666E-4
0.197
0.064
0.228
.666E-4
0.209
0.076
0.241
.866E-4
0.221
0.088
0.262
.120E-3
0.226
0.093
0.282
.125E-3
0.242
0.109
0.301
.108E-3
0.275
0.142
0.326
.127E-3
0.286
0.153
0.345
.
.135E-3
0.149
0.212

187

Mix Design #4
Metakaolin 10 % OPC Replacement

Mix # 4 - 3rd Alteration - Metakaolin - 10% OPC Replacement*


mix proportions (per)
Concrete Constituent

1 yd3

1.5 ft3

Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Metakaolin (High Reactive)
Water
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)

1770 lb
1295
597.5
none
100
77.5
255

98.35
71.95
33.2
none
5.55
4.3
14.37
none
90 mL

7.0floz/cwt

* Based on 775 pounds of total cementitious materials

188

w/c ratio= 0.3338

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs--------> 2517.4g
lbs--------> 1950.4g
lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design -

Metakaolin - 10% OPC Replacement

Mix Design # - 4
Date Batched and Specimens Cast -

December 14, 2002

Slump -

8.5"

Air Content -

Batch Temperature -

62 F

Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

7 and 2 (#'s 28-36)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points 28-day Curing Date -

January 11, 2003

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =

9340psi

(264,240 lbs) Shear Plane

Cylinder f'c-2 =

9080psi

(256,990 lbs) Two cones

Cylinder f'c-3 =

9200psi

(260,400 lbs) Two cones

Average =

9206.7psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 9207 psi =

3683

psi

Actual Applied Load =

33 tons

= 25.4 % f'c (28 day)

31

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

32

Cylinder C-1 (mix #__4__)

Cylinder C-2 (mix #__4__)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

Actual date
Scheduled Time

= 2334.3 psi

Before Loading 2/18 2:20pm

and time

0.1448

0.1567

0.1544

0.1369

0.1502

0.0959

Immediately after Loading 2/18 2:25pm

0.1414

0.153

0.1508

0.1336

0.1471

0.0928

15-20 minutes 2/18 2:40pm

0.1412

0.1532

0.1502

0.133

0.1469

0.0924

1 hour 2/18 3:25pm

0.141

0.1528

0.1501

0.1328

0.1468

0.0922

2 hours: 45 minutes 2/18 5:30pm

0.1411

0.1527

0.1499

0.1324

0.1469

0.0919

6 - 8 hours 2/18 8:50pm

0.141

0.1525

0.1499

0.1323

0.1469

0.092

2nd Day 2/19 5:05p

0.1406

0.152

0.1497

0.1321

0.1463

0.0917

3rd Day 2/20 1:30a

0.1397

0.1514

0.1494

0.1316

0.1454

0.0911

4th Day 2/21 2:05p

0.1395

0.1512

0.1489

0.1314

0.145

0.0909

7th Day 2/24 12:55p

0.1389

0.15

0.148

0.1311

0.1433

0.0888

0.1374

0.1488

0.1465

0.1301

0.1425

0.0882

14th Day 3/3

2:15p

21st Day 3/10 2:25p

0.1366

0.1479

0.1457

0.1292

0.1417

0.0877

28th day 3/17 1:35p

0.1361

0.1481

0.1451

0.1287

0.141

0.087

58th day 5/14 6:00p

0.1338

0.1446

0.1427

0.1269

0.1373

0.0845

recovery 5/14 6:00p

0.1372

0.1487

0.1468

0.1293

0.1426

0.0883

189

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)


33
Cylinder S-1 (mix #__4__)

Cylinder S-2 (mix #__4__)

Shrinkage Measurement

Shrinkage Measurement

Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

34

0.089

0.1593

0.1517

0.175

0.1552

0.1548

Immediately after Loading 2/18 2:25pm

0.089

0.1592

0.1516

0.1749

0.1551

0.1547

15-20 minutes 2/18 2:40pm

0.0889

0.1592

0.1515

0.1748

0.155

0.1546

1 hour 2/18 3:25pm

0.0888

0.1591

0.1514

0.1747

0.1549

0.1545

2 hours: 45 minutes 2/18 5:30pm

0.0888

0.1591

0.1514

0.1747

0.1549

0.1544

6 - 8 hours 2/18 8:50pm

0.0888

0.159

0.1514

0.1747

0.1549

0.1544

2nd Day 2/19 5:05p

0.0888

0.1589

0.1514

0.1746

0.1549

0.1543

Before Loading 2/18 2:20pm

3rd Day 2/20 1:30a

0.0887

0.1588

0.1513

0.1745

0.1548

0.1543

4th Day 2/21 2:05p

0.0887

0.1588

0.1513

0.1745

0.1548

0.1543

7th Day 2/24 12:55p

0.0887

0.1587

0.1513

0.1744

0.1547

0.1543

2:15p

0.0885

0.1584

0.1509

0.1741

0.1545

0.154

21st Day 3/10 2:25p

0.0882

0.1583

0.1507

0.1737

0.1543

0.1538

28th day 3/17 1:35p

0.0881

0.158

0.1505

0.1735

0.1541

0.1535

58th day 5/14 6:00p

0.0865

0.1567

0.1488

0.1721

0.1527

0.152

recovery 5/14 6:00p

0.0865

0.1567

0.1488

0.1721

0.1527

0.152

14th Day 3/3

190

Mix # 4 - Metakaolin -10% OPC Replacement


Creep Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

Cylinder plane #
T
i

strain

strain

00
0
.
0
.
0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.
3
.
5
.
11
4232
1202
8575
8r85
e8

Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

average

Cylinder #33

average

shrinkage

Cylinder plane
T
i

shrinkage

strain

0
0
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.
1
.
2
.
3
.5
1.1
4232
1202
87
55
88

191

r5
e8

(creep)
average

average

Cylinder #32

total

total

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane #

strain

strain

Cylinders

(in)

(in/in)

(in)

Average total

0.1369

9.9769

0.1502

9.9902

0.0959

9.9359

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0033

0.00033

0.0031

0.00031

0.0031

0.00031

0.0032

0.00032

0.0034

0.0039

0.00039

0.0033

0.00033

0.0035

0.00035

0.0036

0.00036

0.0037

0.0041

0.00041

0.0034

0.00034

0.0037

0.00037

0.0037

0.00037

0.0039

0.0045

0.00045

0.0033

0.00033

0.0040

0.00040

0.0039

0.00039

0.0040

0.0046

0.00046

0.0033

0.00033

0.0039

0.00039

0.0039

0.00039

0.0041

0.0048

0.00048

0.0039

0.00039

0.0042

0.00042

0.0043

0.00043

0.0044

0.0053

0.00053

0.0048

0.00048

0.0048

0.00048

0.0050

0.00050

0.0051

0.0055

0.00055

0.0052

0.00052

0.0050

0.00050

0.0052

0.00053

0.0053

0.0058

0.00058

0.0069

0.00069

0.0071

0.00071

0.0066

0.00066

0.0065

0.0068

0.00068

0.0077

0.00077

0.0077

0.00077

0.0074

0.00074

0.0076

0.0077

0.00077

0.0085

0.00085

0.0082

0.00083

0.0081

0.00082

0.0084

0.0082

0.00082

0.0092

0.00092

0.0089

0.00090

0.0088

0.00088

0.0088

0.0100

0.00100

0.0129

0.00129

0.0114

0.00115

0.0114

0.00115

0.0115

0.0076

0.00076

0.0076

0.00076

0.0076

0.00076

0.0076

0.00076

0.0077

average

Average Shrinkage

(shrinkage)
Cylinder #34

average

shrinkage

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane

shrinkage

strain

Cylinders

strain

(in/in)

(in)

0.175

10.0150

0.1552

9.9952

0.1548

9.9948

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.0009

0.00009

0.0007

0.00007

0.0008

0.00008

0.0008

0.00008

0.0008

0.0013

0.00013

0.0009

0.00009

0.0010

0.00010

0.0011

0.00011

0.0010

0.0015

0.00015

0.0011

0.00011

0.0013

0.00013

0.0013

0.00013

0.0012

0.0029

0.00029

0.0025

0.00025

0.0028

0.00028

0.0027

0.00027

0.0027

192

0.0029

0.00029

0.0025

0.00025

0.0028

0.00028

0.0027

0.00027

0.0027

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
Time,m

Time, day

(x 10^-6)

(in/in)

0.0

0.000337

337.3183

20

0.0

0.000367

367.3973

65

0.0

0.000387

387.4363

190

0.1

0.000401

400.8156

390

0.3

0.000406

405.8123

1605

1.1

0.000443

442.5436

2830

2.0

0.000506

506.0044
534.3843

4305

3.0

0.000534

8555

5.9

0.000648

648.013

18715

13.0

0.000758

758.1879

28805

20.0

0.000837

836.6555

38835

27.0

0.000883

883.4454

83520

58.0

0.001154

1153.944

83521

58.0

0.000768

768.2092

Average Shrinkage

Time,m

Creep=

Creep=

Total

Total

Strain - 2

minus

minus

Cylinders

Shrinkage

Shrinkage

(in)

(in/in)

0.0000

0.000000

Time, day

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)
0

(x 10^-6)

0.0

8.33E-06

8.334006

0.0033

0.000329

328.9842

20

0.0

1.67E-05

16.67981

0.0035

0.000351

350.7175

65

0.0

2.67E-05

26.6924

0.0036

0.000361

360.7439

190

0.1

2.84E-05

28.35994

0.0037

0.000372

372.4557

390

0.3

3E-05

30.02672

0.0038

0.000376

375.7856

1605

1.1

3.5E-05

35.02521

0.0041

0.000408

407.5184

2830

2.0

4.34E-05

43.37026

0.0046

0.000463

462.6341

4305

3.0

4.34E-05

43.37026

0.0049

0.000491

491.014

8555

5.9

4.84E-05

48.36869

0.0060

0.000600

599.6443

18715

13.0

7.67E-05

76.72846

0.0068

0.000681

681.4594

28805

20.0

0.0001

100.0938

0.0074

0.000737

736.5617

38835

27.0

0.000122

121.7747

0.0076

0.000762

761.6707

83520

58.0

0.00027

270.313

0.0088

0.000884

883.6311

193

83521

58.0

270.313

0.00027

0.0050

0.000498

497.8962

Mix #4
Metakaolin - 10% OPC Replacement

Applied Creep Load =

2340psi

Time
(min)
0
5
20
65
190
390
1605
2830
4305
8555
18715
28805

Total
(in/in)
0
.337E-3
.367E-3
.387E-3
.401E-3
.406E-3
.443E-3
.506E-3
.534E-3
.648E-3
.758E-3
.837E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.329E-3
.351E-3
.361E-3
.372E-3
.376E-3
.408E-3
.463E-3
.491E-3
.600E-3
.681E-3
.737E-3

83520
83521

.115E-2
.768E-3

.884E-3
.498E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.833E-5
0.141
0
0.144
.167E-4
0.150
0.009
0.157
.267E-4
0.154
0.014
0.166
.284E-4
0.159
0.019
0.171
.300E-4
0.161
0.020
0.173
.350E-4
0.174
0.034
0.189
.434E-4
0.198
0.057
0.216
.434E-4
0.210
0.069
0.228
.484E-4
0.256
0.116
0.277
.767E-4
0.291
0.151
0.324
.100E-3
0.315
0.174
0.358
.
.270E-3
0.378
0.237
0.493
.270E-3
0.213
0.328

194

Mix Design #5
LVM (Phase 2)

Mix # 5 - LVM Mix Design #2

w/c ratio= 0.3342


mix proportions (per)
1 yd3

Concrete Constituent

Course Aggregate
1770 lb
Fine Aggregate
1295
Portland Cement Type II
624
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
50
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
100
Water
258.66
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
5.3floz/cwt
slurry Silica fume=2.8 lbs(all) (1270.05grams)
Water=3.42lbs
(1551.28grams)
HRWR=6mL

195

1.5 ft3
98.35 lbs
71.95 lbs
34.65 lbs
2.8
lbs
5.55 lbs
14.37 lbs
none
65 mL
Mix Water=total-slurry water
10.73 lbs
=

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design -

LVM Mix Design (2nd), Reference Mix

Mix Design # - 5
Date Batched and Specimens Cast -

December 14, 2002

Slump -

8.5"

Air Content -

Batch Temperature -

62 F

Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

7 and 2 (#'s 37-45)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points 28-day Curing Date -

January 11, 2003

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =

8870psi

(251,000 lbs) 2 cones

Cylinder f'c-2 =

8820psi

(249,550 lbs) Cone/Shear

Cylinder f'c-3 =

8910psi

(252,040 lbs) Cone/Shear

Average =

8866.7psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 8867

psi =

3547

psi

30.6 tons

Actual Applied Load =

= 24.4 % f'c (28 day)

40

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

41

Cylinder C-1 (mix #__5__)

Cylinder C-2 (mix #__5__)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

Actual date
Scheduled Time

= 2163.6 psi

Before Loading 2/18 2:30pm

and time

0.154

0.1566

0.1519

0.1538

0.1548

0.1571

Immediately after Loading 2/18 2:35pm

0.1506

0.153

0.149

0.1509

0.1509

0.153

15-20 minutes 2/18 2:58pm

0.1502

0.1527

0.1478

0.1505

0.1508

0.1532

0.15

0.1526

0.1477

0.1504

0.1507

0.1527

2 hours: 45 minutes 2/18 5:35pm

1 hour 2/18 3:35pm

0.1499

0.1524

0.1476

0.1501

0.1505

0.1525

6 - 8 hours 2/18 8:55pm

0.1499

0.1522

0.1474

0.1498

0.1504

0.1523

2nd Day 2/19 5:10p

0.1496

0.1519

0.1474

0.1496

0.15

0.1521

3rd Day 2/20 1:40a

0.149

0.1516

0.1469

0.1489

0.1493

0.1515

4th Day 2/21 2:07p

0.149

0.1514

0.1469

0.1487

0.1493

0.1512

7th Day 2/24 1:00p

0.1483

0.1505

0.1461

0.1481

0.1484

0.1502

0.1474

0.1497

0.1452

0.1472

0.1476

0.1491

14th Day 3/3

2:25p

21st Day 3/10 2:30p

0.1466

0.1488

0.1445

0.1463

0.147

0.1483

28th day 3/17 1:40p

0.1463

0.1484

0.1439

0.146

0.1462

0.148

58th day 5/14 6:00p

0.1446

0.1462

0.1422

0.1445

0.1442

0.1461

recovery 5/14 6:00p

0.1483

0.1501

0.146

0.1482

0.1488

0.1507

196

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)


42

43

Cylinder S-1 (mix #__5__)


Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

Cylinder S-2 (mix #__5__)

Shrinkage Measurement
1

Shrinkage Measurement
3

Before Loading2/18 2:30pm

0.1422

0.1585

0.1421

0.1529

0.1605

0.1536

Immediately after Loading2/18 2:35pm

0.1421

0.1585

0.1421

0.1529

0.1605

0.1536

15-20 minutes2/18 2:58pm

0.1421

0.1583

0.142

0.1528

0.1604

0.1535

1 hour2/18 3:35pm

0.142

0.1582

0.1419

0.1527

0.1603

0.1535

2 hours: 45 minutes2/18 5:35pm

0.1421

0.1581

0.1419

0.1527

0.1603

0.1535

6 - 8 hours2/18 8:55pm

0.1421

0.1581

0.1419

0.1526

0.1602

0.1535

2nd Day2/19 5:10p

0.1421

0.1581

0.1418

0.1525

0.1602

0.1534

3rd Day2/20 1:40a

0.1421

0.1581

0.1418

0.1525

0.1602

0.1533

4th Day2/21 2:07p

0.142

0.1581

0.1417

0.1524

0.1601

0.1533

7th Day2/24 1:00p

0.1419

0.1581

0.1417

0.1524

0.1601

0.1533

2:25p

0.1419

0.1579

0.1414

0.1522

0.16

0.1532

21st Day3/10 2:30p

0.1417

0.1579

0.1413

0.1522

0.1598

0.1531

28th day3/17 1:40p

0.1416

0.1576

0.1412

0.152

0.1594

0.153

58th day5/14 6:00p

0.1411

0.1564

0.1401

0.1503

0.1585

0.1517

recovery5/14 6:00p

0.1411

0.1564

0.1401

0.1503

0.1585

0.1517

14th Day3/3

197

Mix # 5 -2nd LVM Mix Design


gage zero (10") =

0.1600
(
c
Cylinder #40

total

total

Cylinder plane #
T
i

strain

strain

Cylinder #42

average

shrinkage

Cylinder plane
T
i

shrinkage

strain

00
0
.0
.
0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.3
.5
.
11
4232
2120
8575
8r85
e8

Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.
3
.5
1.1
4232
1202
8575
8r85
e8

198

average

(creep)
average

average

Cylinder #41

total

total

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane #

strain

strain

Cylinders

(in)

(in/in)

(in)

Average total

0.1538

9.9938

0.1548

9.9948

0.1571

9.9971

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0029

0.00029

0.0039

0.00039

0.0041

0.00041

0.0036

0.00036

0.0035

0.0033

0.00033

0.0040

0.00040

0.0039

0.00039

0.0037

0.00037

0.0038

0.0034

0.00034

0.0041

0.00041

0.0044

0.00044

0.0040

0.00040

0.0040

0.0037

0.00037

0.0043

0.00043

0.0046

0.00046

0.0042

0.00042

0.0042

0.0040

0.00040

0.0044

0.00044

0.0048

0.00048

0.0044

0.00044

0.0044

0.0042

0.00042

0.0048

0.00048

0.0050

0.00050

0.0047

0.00047

0.0046

0.0049

0.00049

0.0055

0.00055

0.0056

0.00056

0.0053

0.00053

0.0052

0.0051

0.00051

0.0055

0.00055

0.0059

0.00059

0.0055

0.00055

0.0053

0.0057

0.00057

0.0064

0.00064

0.0069

0.00069

0.0063

0.00063

0.0061

0.0066

0.00066

0.0072

0.00072

0.0080

0.00080

0.0073

0.00073

0.0070

0.0075

0.00075

0.0078

0.00078

0.0088

0.00088

0.0080

0.00080

0.0078

0.0078

0.00078

0.0086

0.00086

0.0091

0.00091

0.0085

0.00085

0.0082

0.0093

0.00093

0.0106

0.00106

0.0110

0.00110

0.0103

0.00103

0.0101

0.0056

0.00056

0.0060

0.00060

0.0064

0.00064

0.0060

0.00060

0.0060

average

Average Shrinkage

(shrinkage)
Cylinder #43

average

shrinkage

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane

shrinkage

strain

Cylinders

strain

(in/in)

(in)

0.1529

9.9929

0.1605

10.0005

0.1536

9.9936

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0001

0.00001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0001

0.00001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0001

0.00001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0002

0.00002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.0007

0.00007

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.0007

0.00007

0.0007

0.00007

0.0005

0.00005

0.0006

0.00006

0.0006

0.0009

0.00009

0.0011

0.00011

0.0006

0.00006

0.0009

0.00009

0.0008

0.0026

0.00026

0.0020

0.00020

0.0019

0.00019

0.0022

0.00022

0.0020

0.0026

0.00026

0.0020

0.00020

0.0019

0.00019

0.0022

0.00022

0.0020

199

Average total
Strain - 2
Time,m

Time, day

Cylinders

(microstrain)

(in/in)

(x 10^6)

0.0

0.000347

346.84

28

0.0

0.000384

383.54

65

0.0

0.000402

401.88

185

0.1

0.000420

420.22

385

0.3

0.000437

436.90

1600

1.1

0.000460

460.24

2830

2.0

0.000517

516.94

4297

3.0

0.000529

528.61

8550

5.9

0.000610

610.32

18710

13.0

0.000700

700.37

28800

20.0

0.000779

778.74

38830

27.0

0.000824

823.76

83520

58.0

0.001007

1007.19

83521

58.0

0.000602

601.98

Average Shrinkage

Time, day

Creep=

Total

Total

minus

minus

Cylinders

(microstrain)

Shrinkage

Shrinkage

(microstrain)

(in/in)

(x 10^6)

(in)

(in/in)

(x 10^6)

Strain - 2
Time,m

Creep=

0.0000

0.000000

0.0

1.668E-06

1.668

0.0034

0.000345

345.18

28

0.0

1.167E-05

11.673

0.0037

0.000372

371.86

65

0.0

2.001E-05

20.011

0.0038

0.000382

381.87

185

0.1

2.001E-05

20.010

0.0040

0.000400

400.21

385

0.3

2.335E-05

23.345

0.0041

0.000414

413.55

1600

1.1

2.835E-05

28.348

0.0043

0.000432

431.89

2830

2.0

3.002E-05

30.016

0.0049

0.000487

486.92

4297

3.0

3.669E-05

36.686

0.0049

0.000492

491.92

8550

5.9

3.835E-05

38.354

0.0057

0.000572

571.96

18710

13.0

5.336E-05

53.363

0.0065

0.000647

647.00

28800

20.0

6.337E-05

63.368

0.0072

0.000715

715.37

38830

27.0

8.338E-05

83.378

0.0074

0.000740

740.39

83520

58.0

1.951E-04

195.103

0.0081

0.000812

812.09

83521

58.0

1.951E-04

195.103

0.0041

0.000407

406.88

200

Mix #5
LVM Mix Design, Reference Mix (Phase 2)

Applied Creep Load =

2160psi

Time
(min)
0
5
28
65
185
385
1600
2830
4297
8550
18710
28800

Total
(in/in)
0
.347E-3
.384E-3
.402E-3
.420E-3
.437E-3
.460E-3
.517E-3
.529E-3
.610E-3
.700E-3
.779E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.345E-3
.372E-3
.382E-3
.400E-3
.414E-3
.432E-3
.487E-3
.492E-3
.572E-3
.647E-3
.715E-3

83520
83521

.101E-2
.602E-3

.812E-3
.407E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in)
(microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.167E-5
0.160
0
0.161
.117E-4
0.172
0.012
0.178
.200E-4
0.177
0.017
0.186
.200E-4
0.185
0.025
0.195
.233E-4
0.191
0.032
0.202
.283E-4
0.200
0.040
0.213
.300E-4
0.225
0.066
0.239
.367E-4
0.228
0.068
0.245
.384E-4
0.265
0.105
0.283
.534E-4
0.300
0.140
0.324
.634E-4
0.331
0.171
0.361

.
.195E-3
.195E-3

201

0.376
0.188

0.216

0.466
0.279

Mix Design #6
LVM Mix with Caltite Waterproofing Admixture

Mix # 6 - 4th Alteration - LVM Mix with Caltite Admixture


mix proportions (per)
1 yd3

1.5 ft3

1770 lb
1295
624
50
100
222.12

98.35
71.95
34.65
2.8
5.55
12.34
none
70 mL
2.77 lbs

Concrete Constituent
Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

Slurry -

w/c ratio= 0.3514

5.5floz/cwt
6 gallons

Silica fume=2.8 lbs(all) (1270.05grams)


Water=3.42lbs
(1551.28grams)
HRWR=6mL

202

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs

Mix Water=total-slurry water


=
8.92 lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design -

LVM Mix with Caltite Waterproofing Admixture

Mix Design # - 6
Date Batched and Specimens Cast -

December 14, 2002

Slump -

8.5"

Air Content -

Batch Temperature -

62 F

Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

7 and 2 (#'s 46-54)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points 28-day Curing Date -

January 11, 2003

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =

7010psi

(198,330 lbs) Cone/Shear

Cylinder f'c-2 =

6800psi

(192,420 lbs) Shear Plane

Cylinder f'c-3 =

6860psi

(194,190 lbs) Cone/Shear

Average =

6890psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 6890

psi =

2756

psi

23.8 tons

Actual Applied Load =

= 24.4 % f'c (28 day)

= 1681.2 psi

49

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

Cylinder C-1 (mix #__6__)

Cylinder C-2 (mix #__6__)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

50

Before Loading 2/18 2:45pm

0.1114

0.1594

0.1509

0.1614

0.1592

0.1771

Immediately after Loading 2/18 2:55pm

0.1084

0.1568

0.1475

0.1588

0.1572

0.173

15-20 minutes 2/18 3:10pm

0.1083

0.1568

0.1473

0.1586

0.1574

0.1728

1 hour 2/18 3:55pm

0.1081

0.1564

0.147

0.1585

0.157

0.1725

2 hours: 45 minutes 2/18 5:40pm

0.1078

0.1562

0.1466

0.1581

0.1569

0.1722

6 - 8 hours 2/18 9:00pm

0.1077

0.1558

0.1465

0.158

0.1568

0.172

2nd Day 2/19 5:15p

0.1075

0.1558

0.146

0.1577

0.1565

0.1718

3rd Day 2/20 1:45a

0.107

0.1554

0.1454

0.1572

0.1562

0.1712

4th Day 2/21 2:10p

0.107

0.1554

0.145

0.1574

0.1563

0.1708

7th Day 2/24 1:05p

0.1064

0.1547

0.1444

0.1569

0.1558

0.1702

14th Day 3/3

2:30p

0.1054

0.1542

0.1434

0.1561

0.1548

0.169

21st Day 3/10 2:35p

0.1048

0.1533

0.1424

0.1553

0.1542

0.1682

28th day 3/17 1:45p

0.1044

0.1529

0.1421

0.1549

0.1538

0.1678

58th day 5/14 6:00p

0.1026

0.1513

0.1402

0.1531

0.1523

0.1659

recovery 5/14 6:00p

0.1057

0.1541

0.144

0.1564

0.1548

0.1703

203

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)


51

Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

52

Cylinder S-1 (mix #__6__)

Cylinder S-2 (mix #__6__)

Shrinkage Measurement

Shrinkage Measurement

0.154

0.1551

0.152

0.162

0.1631

0.156

Immediately after Loading2/18 2:55pm

0.154

0.1551

0.152

0.162

0.1631

0.156

15-20 minutes2/18 3:10pm

0.1539

0.155

0.1518

0.1619

0.1629

0.1559

1 hour2/18 3:55pm

0.1538

0.155

0.1517

0.1618

0.1628

0.1558

2 hours: 45 minutes2/18 5:40pm

0.1538

0.155

0.1517

0.1618

0.1627

0.1558

6 - 8 hours2/18 9:00pm

0.1538

0.1549

0.1516

0.1618

0.1627

0.1557

2nd Day2/19 5:15p

0.1537

0.1548

0.1513

0.1617

0.1626

0.1556

Before Loading2/18 2:45pm

3rd Day2/20 1:45a

0.1536

0.1547

0.1511

0.1616

0.1625

0.1554

4th Day2/21 2:10p

0.1536

0.1547

0.1511

0.1616

0.1625

0.1554

7th Day2/24 1:05p

0.1536

0.1547

0.151

0.1616

0.1625

0.1553

0.1533

0.1545

0.1507

0.1615

0.1623

0.1551

14th Day3/3

2:30p

21st Day3/10 2:35p

0.1531

0.1542

0.1506

0.1613

0.1622

0.1548

28th day3/17 1:45p

0.1528

0.1541

0.1504

0.1613

0.1621

0.1545

58th day5/14 6:00p

0.1519

0.153

0.1492

0.1601

0.1614

0.1531

recovery5/14 6:00p

0.1519

0.153

0.1492

0.1601

0.1614

0.1531

204

Mix #6 - LVM Mix w/ Caltite


gage zero (10") =

0.1600
(
c
Cylinder #49

total

total

Cylinder plane #
T
i

strain

strain

Cylinder #51

average

shrinkage

Cylinder plane
T
i

shrinkage

strain

00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.3
.5
1.1
4232
1202
8575
8r85
e8

Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.2
.3
.5
1.1
4232
2120
8575
8r85
e8

205

average

(creep)
average

average

Cylinder #50

total

total

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane #

strain

strain

Cylinders

(in)

(in/in)

(in)

Average total

0.1614

10.0014

0.1592

9.9992

0.1771

10.0171

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0026

0.00026

0.0020

0.00020

0.0041

0.00041

0.0029

0.00029

0.0030

0.0028

0.00028

0.0018

0.00018

0.0043

0.00043

0.0030

0.00030

0.0030

0.0029

0.00029

0.0022

0.00022

0.0046

0.00046

0.0032

0.00032

0.0033

0.0033

0.00033

0.0023

0.00023

0.0049

0.00049

0.0035

0.00035

0.0036

0.0034

0.00034

0.0024

0.00024

0.0051

0.00051

0.0036

0.00036

0.0038

0.0037

0.00037

0.0027

0.00027

0.0053

0.00053

0.0039

0.00039

0.0040

0.0042

0.00042

0.0030

0.00030

0.0059

0.00059

0.0044

0.00044

0.0045

0.0040

0.00040

0.0029

0.00029

0.0063

0.00063

0.0044

0.00044

0.0046

0.0045

0.00045

0.0034

0.00034

0.0069

0.00069

0.0049

0.00049

0.0052

0.0053

0.00053

0.0044

0.00044

0.0081

0.00081

0.0059

0.00059

0.0061

0.0061

0.00061

0.0050

0.00050

0.0089

0.00089

0.0067

0.00067

0.0069

0.0065

0.00065

0.0054

0.00054

0.0093

0.00093

0.0071

0.00071

0.0072

0.0083

0.00083

0.0069

0.00069

0.0112

0.00112

0.0088

0.00088

0.0090

0.0050

0.00050

0.0044

0.00044

0.0068

0.00068

0.0054

0.00054

0.0057

average

Average Shrinkage

average

shrinkage

Strain - 2

shrinkage

strain

Cylinders

strain

(in/in)

(in)

(shrinkage)
Cylinder #52
Cylinder plane
1

0.162

10.0020

0.1631

10.0031

0.156

9.9960

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0001

0.00001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.0002

0.00002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0004

0.00004

0.0002

0.00002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0004

0.00004

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0003

0.00003

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.0004

0.00004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0006

0.00006

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0006

0.00006

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0007

0.00007

0.0006

0.00006

0.0006

0.0005

0.00005

0.0008

0.00008

0.0009

0.00009

0.0007

0.00007

0.0008

0.0007

0.00007

0.0009

0.00009

0.0012

0.00012

0.0009

0.00009

0.0010

0.0007

0.00007

0.0010

0.00010

0.0015

0.00015

0.0011

0.00011

0.0012

0.0019

0.00019

0.0017

0.00017

0.0029

0.00029

0.0022

0.00022

0.0023

0.0019

0.00019

0.0017

0.00017

0.0029

0.00029

0.0022

0.00022

0.0023

206

Average total
Strain - 2
Cylinders
Time,m
0

Time, day

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)
0

0.0

0.000295

295.1784

20

0.0

0.000304

303.5164

65

0.0

0.000332

331.8628

170

0.1

0.000360

360.2175

370

0.3

0.000377

376.8884

1585

1.1

0.000402

401.9063

2815

2.0

0.000450

450.272

4280

3.0

0.000459

458.6003

8535

5.9

0.000517

516.9747

18700

13.0

0.000609

608.7038

28785

20.0

0.000687

687.0782

38815

27.0

0.000725

725.4373

83520

58.0

0.000901

900.558

83521

58.0

0.000569

568.7081

Creep=
Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2

Creep=

Total

Total

minus

minus

Shrinkage

Shrinkage

Time, day

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)

(in)

(in/in)

0.0000

0.000000

0.0

0.0030

0.000295

295.1784

Cylinders
Time,m

(x 10^-6)

20

0.0

1.3E-05

13.3418

0.0029

0.000290

290.1746

65

0.0

2.2E-05

21.68184

0.0031

0.000310

310.1809

170

0.1

2.3E-05

23.34864

0.0034

0.000337

336.8688

370

0.3

2.8E-05

28.34742

0.0035

0.000349

348.541

1585

1.1

4.2E-05

41.6906

0.0036

0.000360

360.2157

2815

2.0

5.5E-05

55.02942

0.0040

0.000395

395.2426

4280

3.0

5.5E-05

55.02942

0.0040

0.000404

403.5709

8535

5.9

5.8E-05

58.36142

0.0046

0.000459

458.6133

18700

13.0

8.0E-05

80.05161

0.0053

0.000529

528.6522

28785

20.0

1.0E-04

100.0608

0.0059

0.000587

587.0174

38815

27.0

1.2E-04

116.7467

0.0061

0.000609

608.6906

83520

58.0

2.3E-04

225.1309

0.0068

0.000675

675.4271

83521

58.0

2.3E-04

225.1309

0.0034

0.000344

343.5772

207

Mix #6
LVM Mix with Caltite Waterproofing Admixture

Applied Creep Load =

1680

Time
(min)
0
5
20
65
170
370
1585
2815
4280
8535
18700
28785

Total
(in/in)
0
.295E-3
.304E-3
.332E-3
.360E-3
.377E-3
.402E-3
.450E-3
.459E-3
.517E-3
.609E-3
.687E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.295E-3
.290E-3
.310E-3
.337E-3
.349E-3
.360E-3
.395E-3
.404E-3
.459E-3
.529E-3
.587E-3

83520
83521

.901E-3
.569E-3

.675E-3
.344E-3

psi

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.000E+0
0.176
0
0.176
.133E-4
0.173
-0.003
0.181
.217E-4
0.185
0.009
0.198
.233E-4
0.201
0.025
0.214
.283E-4
0.207
0.032
0.224
.417E-4
0.214
0.039
0.239
.550E-4
0.235
0.060
0.268
.550E-4
0.240
0.065
0.273
.584E-4
0.273
0.097
0.308
.801E-4
0.315
0.139
0.362
.100E-3
0.349
0.174
0.409
.
.225E-3
0.402
0.226
0.536
.225E-3
0.205
0.339

208

Mix Design #7
Caltite Mix Design

Mix # 7 - 5th Alteration - Mix w/Caltite w/o Silica Fume


mix proportions (per)

w/c ratio= 0.2826

Concrete Constituent

1 yd3

1.5 ft3

Course Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Portland Cement Type II
Silica Fume (AASHTO M307)
Fly Ash (AASHTO M295)
Water
Water Reducer (ASTM C494)
Superplasticizer (ASTM C494)
Caltite

1770 lb
1295
624
none
100
154.64

98.35
71.95
34.65
none
5.55
8.59
none
75 mL
2.77 lbs

6.3floz/cwt
6 gallons

209

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs

Concrete for Hood Canal Floating Bridge Replacement Project


Concrete Mix Design -

Caltite Mix Design

Mix Design # - 7
Date Batched and Specimens Cast -

December 14, 2002

Slump -

9.0"

Air Content -

Batch Temperature -

62 F

Number of specimens cast (6x12 and 4x8) -

7 and 2 (#'s 55-63)

Date drilled and fitted with gage points 28-day Curing Date -

January 11, 2003

28-day Compressive Strength -

Break notes

Cylinder f'c-1 =

6100psi

(172,550 lbs) Vertical Planes

Cylinder f'c-2 =

6350psi

(179,770 lbs) Crushing

Cylinder f'c-3 =

6250psi

(176,790 lbs) Crushing

Average =

6233.3psi

Load to Apply for Creep Test - ASTM C 512


= 40% x f'c (28 day)
=.40 x 6233.3

psi =

2493

psi

21.5 tons

Actual Applied Load =

= 24.4 % f'c (28 day)

58

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements

59

Cylinder C-1 (mix #__7__)

Cylinder C-2 (mix #__7__)

Creep Measurement

Creep Measurement

Actual date
Scheduled Time

= 1520.9 psi

Before Loading2/18 3:05pm

and time

0.152

0.1585

0.1505

0.1354

0.1419

0.1165

Immediately after Loading2/18 3:10pm

0.1507

0.1562

0.1484

0.134

0.1379

0.1143

15-20 minutes2/18 3:25pm

0.1505

0.1561

0.148

0.134

0.1377

0.1141

1 hour2/18 4:25pm

0.1504

0.1558

0.148

0.1338

0.1377

0.1141

2 hours: 45 minutes2/18 5:45pm

0.1502

0.1554

0.1478

0.1332

0.1372

0.1139

6 - 8 hours2/18 9:05pm

0.1499

0.1553

0.1476

0.1328

0.137

0.1138

2nd Day2/19 5:20p

0.1497

0.155

0.1475

0.1326

0.1368

0.1137

3rd Day2/20 1:50a

0.1494

0.1545

0.1472

0.1323

0.1366

0.1132

4th Day2/21 2:15p

0.1496

0.1543

0.1475

0.1324

0.1363

0.1133

7th Day2/24 1:10p

0.1489

0.1535

0.1472

0.1314

0.1355

0.1127

0.1486

0.1527

0.1467

0.1308

0.1346

0.1122

14th Day3/3

2:35p

21st Day3/10 2:40p

0.1481

0.1521

0.1461

0.1302

0.1336

0.1116

28th day3/17 1:50p

0.1478

0.1517

0.1457

0.13

0.1327

0.1109

58th day5/14 6:00p

0.1462

0.149

0.1435

0.1284

0.1303

0.1092

recovery5/14 6:00p

0.1483

0.1521

0.1458

0.1298

0.1344

0.1115

210

Creep and Shrinkage Measurements (Continued)


60

61

Cylinder S-1 (mix #__7__)


Actual date
Scheduled Time

and time

Cylinder S-2 (mix #__7__)

Shrinkage Measurement
1

Shrinkage Measurement
3

Before Loading2/18 2:45pm

0.1557

0.1582

0.1575

0.1581

0.1558

0.1532

Immediately after Loading2/18 2:55pm

0.1557

0.1582

0.1575

0.1581

0.1558

0.1532

15-20 minutes2/18 3:10pm

0.1556

0.1582

0.1574

0.1579

0.1557

0.1531

1 hour2/18 3:55pm

0.1555

0.1581

0.1573

0.1578

0.1556

0.153

2 hours: 45 minutes2/18 5:40pm

0.1555

0.1581

0.1573

0.1577

0.1556

0.153

6 - 8 hours2/18 9:00pm

0.1554

0.1581

0.1573

0.1576

0.1556

0.153

2nd Day2/19 5:15p

0.1553

0.158

0.1572

0.1575

0.1555

0.1528

3rd Day2/20 1:45a

0.1552

0.1579

0.1571

0.1575

0.1555

0.1527

4th Day2/21 2:10p

0.1552

0.1578

0.157

0.1575

0.1556

0.1527

7th Day2/24 1:05p

0.1551

0.1577

0.1569

0.1575

0.1556

0.1527

2:30p

0.155

0.1575

0.1567

0.1573

0.1554

0.1526

21st Day3/10 2:35p

0.1548

0.1572

0.1565

0.1569

0.1552

0.1522

28th day3/17 1:45p

0.1546

0.1569

0.1563

0.1564

0.1547

0.1519

58th day5/14 6:00p

0.1533

0.1556

0.1553

0.1554

0.1537

0.1512

recovery5/14 6:00p

0.1533

0.1556

0.1553

0.1554

0.1537

0.1512

14th Day3/3

211

Mix #7 - Caltite Mix Design


gage zero (10") =

0.1600

(
c
Cylinder #58

total

total

strain

strain

Cylinder #60

average

shrinkage

Cylinder plane
T
i

shrinkage

strain

Cylinder plane #
T
i
00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.1
.3
.5
1.1
4232
1202
8565
8r85
e8

Shrinkage Measurements
gage zero (10") =

0.1600

00
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1
.1
.3
.5
1.1
4232
2120
8565
8r85
e8

212

average

(creep)
average

average

Cylinder #59

total

total

Strain - 2

Cylinder plane #

strain

strain

Cylinders

(in)

(in/in)

(in)

Average total

0.1354

9.9754

0.1419

9.9819

0.1165

9.9565

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0014

0.00014

0.0040

0.00040

0.0022

0.00022

0.0025

0.00025

0.0022

0.0014

0.00014

0.0042

0.00042

0.0024

0.00024

0.0027

0.00027

0.0024

0.0016

0.00016

0.0042

0.00042

0.0024

0.00024

0.0027

0.00027

0.0025

0.0022

0.00022

0.0047

0.00047

0.0026

0.00026

0.0032

0.00032

0.0029

0.0026

0.00026

0.0049

0.00049

0.0027

0.00027

0.0034

0.00034

0.0031

0.0028

0.00028

0.0051

0.00051

0.0028

0.00028

0.0036

0.00036

0.0033

0.0031

0.00031

0.0053

0.00053

0.0033

0.00033

0.0039

0.00039

0.0036

0.0030

0.00030

0.0056

0.00056

0.0032

0.00032

0.0039

0.00039

0.0036

0.0040

0.00040

0.0064

0.00064

0.0038

0.00038

0.0047

0.00047

0.0043

0.0046

0.00046

0.0073

0.00073

0.0043

0.00043

0.0054

0.00054

0.0049

0.0052

0.00052

0.0083

0.00083

0.0049

0.00049

0.0061

0.00061

0.0055

0.0054

0.00054

0.0092

0.00092

0.0056

0.00056

0.0067

0.00068

0.0060

0.0070

0.00070

0.0116

0.00116

0.0073

0.00073

0.0086

0.00087

0.0080

0.0056

0.00056

0.0075

0.00075

0.0050

0.00050

0.0060

0.00060

0.0055

average

Average Shrinkage

average

shrinkage

Strain - 2

shrinkage

strain

Cylinders

strain

(in/in)

(in)

(shrinkage)
Cylinder #61
Cylinder plane
1

0.1581

9.9981

0.1558

9.9958

0.1532

9.9932

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.00000

0.0000

0.0002

0.00002

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.00001

0.0001

0.0003

0.00003

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.0004

0.00004

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0002

0.0005

0.00005

0.0002

0.00002

0.0002

0.00002

0.0003

0.00003

0.0003

0.0006

0.00006

0.0003

0.00003

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.00004

0.0004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0003

0.00003

0.0005

0.00005

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0002

0.00002

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0005

0.0006

0.00006

0.0002

0.00002

0.0005

0.00005

0.0004

0.00004

0.0005

0.0008

0.00008

0.0004

0.00004

0.0006

0.00006

0.0006

0.00006

0.0007

0.0012

0.00012

0.0006

0.00006

0.0010

0.00010

0.0009

0.00009

0.0009

0.0017

0.00017

0.0011

0.00011

0.0013

0.00013

0.0014

0.00014

0.0013

0.0027

0.00027

0.0021

0.00021

0.0020

0.00020

0.0023

0.00023

0.0023

0.0027

0.00027

0.0021

0.00021

0.0020

0.00020

0.0023

0.00023

0.0023

213

Average total
Strain - 2
Time,m

Time, day

Cylinders

(microstrain)

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)

0.0

0.000222

222.1

20

0.0

0.000240

240.4

80

0.1

0.000250

250.4

160

0.1

0.000285

285.5

360

0.3

0.000307

307.2

1571

1.1

0.000326

325.6

2805

1.9

0.000361

360.6

4267

3.0

0.000357

357.3
427.4

8525

5.9

0.000427

18690

13.0

0.000488

487.5

28775

20.0

0.000553

552.6

38805

26.9

0.000601

601.1

83520

58.0

0.000805

804.7

83521

58.0

0.000549

549.3

Creep=
Average Shrinkage
Strain - 2
(microstrain)

Creep=

Total

Total

minus

minus

Shrinkage

Shrinkage

(microstrain)

Time,m

Time, day

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)

(in)

(in/in)

(x 10^-6)

0.0000

0.000000

Cylinders

0.0

0.0022

0.000222

222.1

20

0.0

1.00E-05

10.0

0.0023

0.000230

230.4

80

0.1

2.00E-05

20.0

0.0023

0.000230

230.4

160

0.1

2.17E-05

21.7

0.0026

0.000264

263.8

360

0.3

2.50E-05

25.0

0.0028

0.000282

282.2

1571

1.1

3.67E-05

36.7

0.0029

0.000289

288.8

2805

1.9

4.34E-05

43.4

0.0032

0.000317

317.2

4267

3.0

4.51E-05

45.1

0.0031

0.000312

312.2

8525

5.9

5.01E-05

50.1

0.0038

0.000377

377.3

18690

13.0

6.68E-05

66.8

0.0042

0.000421

420.7

28775

20.0

9.52E-05

95.2

0.0046

0.000457

457.5

38805

26.9

1.29E-04

128.6

0.0047

0.000472

472.5

83520

58.0

2.34E-04

233.7

0.0057

0.000571

571.0

83521

58.0

2.34E-04

233.7

0.0032

0.000316

315.6

214

Mix #7
Caltite Mix Design

Applied Creep Load =

1520psi

Time
(min)
0
5
20
80
160
360
1571
2805
4267
8525
18690
28775

Total
(in/in)
0
.222E-3
.240E-3
.250E-3
.285E-3
.307E-3
.326E-3
.361E-3
.357E-3
.427E-3
.488E-3
.553E-3

Creep
(in/in)
0
.222E-3
.230E-3
.230E-3
.264E-3
.282E-3
.289E-3
.317E-3
.312E-3
.377E-3
.421E-3
.457E-3

83520
83521

.805E-3
.549E-3

.571E-3
.316E-3

Specific
Creep
Specific
Specific
Shrinkage
plus Initial
Creep
Total
(in/in) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi) (microstrain/psi)
0
0
0
.000E+0
0.146
0
0.146
.100E-4
0.152
0.005
0.158
.200E-4
0.152
0.005
0.165
.217E-4
0.174
0.027
0.188
.250E-4
0.186
0.040
0.202
.367E-4
0.190
0.044
0.214
.434E-4
0.209
0.063
0.237
.451E-4
0.205
0.059
0.235
.501E-4
0.248
0.102
0.281
.668E-4
0.277
0.131
0.321
.952E-4
0.301
0.155
0.364
.
.234E-3
0.376
0.230
0.529
.234E-3
0.208
0.361

215

APPENDIX B

EXPERIMENT 2
B1. - Water level changes second experiment stage one.

Water Column Height

Time
10:00
10:35
11:05
11:35
12:00
12:30
1:00
1:30
2:00
2:30
3:00
3:30
4:30
5:00
5:30

Specimen
A1
B1
Air Pressure Gauge
Control, No Control,
Reading (psi)
Joint
Joint
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

20.3
24.5
27.4
29.4
31.8
33.8
36
38
40.3
44.2
47.8
51
55.8
N.A.
77

19
23.5
26.7
28.9
31.8
37.3
52 *
54
56.3
N.A.
N.A.
67.4
73.4
82.3
87.5

* Pressure system leak observed.

216

C1

D1

MC-2010MN

Synko-flex

17.2
22.1
25
27.2
29.5
31.2
33.2
35
37
39.8
43.2
46.4
48.6
52.5
55.6

17.5
48.5 *
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

B2. - Water volume changes second experiment stage one.

Time
10:00
10:35
11:05
11:35
12:00
12:30
1:00
1:30
2:00
2:30
3:00
3:30
4:30
5:00
5:30

Air Pressure
Gauge Reading
(psi)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

A1
Control,
No Joint
0
532.0
899.4
1152.8
1456.8
1710.1
1988.8
2242.2
2533.5
3027.6
3483.6
3889.0
4497.0

217

Volume Changes (cm3)


Specimen
B1
C1
D1
Control,
MC-2010MN Synko-flex
Joint
0
0
0
570.0
620.7
3927.0
975.4
988.1
1254.1
1266.8
1621.5
1558.1
2318.2
1773.5
4180.3
2026.8
4433.7
2254.8
4725.0
2508.2
2862.9
3293.6
3699.0
3977.7
4471.7
4864.4

B3. - Water level changes second experiment stage two.


T
2
3
A
4
N
Water
Column Height (cm)
:i.0
2
* Pressure system leak observed.
m
1
2
3
4
A
.
e.4
0
B
3
25
:3
1.
3
:02
5
2
0
:
2
4
:01
0N
.
2
:.
5A
0.
3N
:.
1A
0.
3N
:.
2A
0.
B4. - Water volume changes second experiment - stage two.
Volume Decrease (cm3)
A
2
2
:
0
0
2
:4
18
02
23
:7
218

25
:3
38
03

2
:
54
07

3
:
2
0

T
9
1
SSlurry-- Top Pour
N
Water Level Changes Mortar /2
Tegraproof
i.l (g) Volume Lost Total Lost (g) Volume Lost
:2
D3
F3
Total Lost
m
:5
3
4
u
A
2
7
e
2
0
.r
:5
4
9
5
2
91
3
N
5
::1.N
2
0
5.A
2
0
.
7
0
:53
0
.A
3
9
3.
:1
:0
1
5
:3
1
0
3
0
2
93
:5
:3
15
N
3..
0
5
5
:6
1
A
N
3
9.4
5
2
::7
:5A
3
4
1..N
4
0
0
11
5
.
3
9
::5
1
A
N
:.5
:4
2
4
5.A
0
0
5.7
0
1N
:3.N
3
:A
.
0
3.A
5.

B5. - Water volume losses second

3Nexperiment stage three


1
:1.
:A
3
5.
0
5

219

APPENDIX C

EXPERIMENT 3
0
1
(2 RX-1
7
Waterstop
D
m
Time Weight Length Thickness (mm) am Width (mm)
y)
)
C1. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH specimen one.

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

5
3
C2. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH -

specimen two.
Waterstop RX-2

Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

02
10

C3. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - specimen three.


Waterstop RX-3
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

1
9

32
8
52

220

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

C4. - Waterstop-RX 101TRH - averages.

Waterstop RX-AVG
Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

Time

Weight

Length

Thickness

Width

(Day)

(g)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(%)

(mm)

156.5

198.7

17.7

25.9

0.0

0.0

275.0

229.5

27.2

39.3

75.7

9.5

394.4

186.3

34.0

48.4

151.9

16.4

481.2

220.0

42.0

55.8

207.4

24.4

525.3

116.3

42.3

59.3

235.6

25.0

221

C5. - MC-2010MN specimen one.


MC 2010-MN-1
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

(
D
02
1
32
0
52
0
2
0
1
4
12
2
0
2
80
32
10
3
42
20

C6. - MC-2010MN specimen two.


MC 2010-MN-2
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)
(
D
02
0
12
0
3
52
0
12
0

222

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

12
1
2
0
2
3
3
6
42

C7. - MC-2010MN specimen three.


MC 2010-MN-3
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)
(
D
02
1
3
52
2
0
1
4
12
2
2
8
32
3
42
21

223

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

C8. - MC-2010MN averages.


MC-2010MN-AVG
Time

Weight

Length

Thickness

Width

(Day)
0
1
3
5
7
10
14
15
20
28
31
36
42

(g)
23.4
28.5
32.3
34.8
37.0
39.5
41.8
42.4
45.0
48.0
48.2
48.6
48.7

(mm)
200.0
202.3
204.5
205.7
206.3
208.0
208.3
208.3
208.7
208.7
208.7
208.7
208.7

(mm)
9.0
10.7
11.5
11.7
12.1
12.2
12.4
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.7

(mm)
15.0
16.8
17.3
17.7
17.9
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

224

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase
(%)
0.0
21.7
37.9
48.6
57.8
68.3
78.5
80.7
91.9
104.7
105.7
107.5
108.0

(mm)
0.0
1.7
2.5
2.7
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.7

C9. - Synko-Flex specimen one.


Synko-Flex-1
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)
(
D
0m
12
0
3
52
1
2
1
12
4
11
2
01
2
8
32
1
3
42
21

C10. - Synko-Flex specimen two.

225

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

Synko-Flex-2
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

(
D
02
10
32
0
52
2
0
1
4
12
50
2
0
2
80
32
3
6
42
20

C11. - Sykno-Flex specimen three.


Synko-Flex-3
Time Weight Length

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)
(
D
01
9
12
3
52
0
12
0

226

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase

12
40
1
5
2
0
2
0
2
40
2
20

C12. - Synko-Flex averages.


Synko-Flex-AVG
Time

Weight

Length

Thickness

Width

(Day)
0

(g)
156.6

(mm)
200.0

(mm)
16.9

(mm)
33.7

227

Expansion Thickness
Rate
Increase
(%)
0.0

(mm)
0.0

1
3
5

157.1
157.3
157.6

204.3
206.0
206.0

17.4
17.7
17.7

34.1
33.6
33.7

0.3
0.5
0.6

0.5
0.7
0.8

7
10
14
15
20
28
31
36

157.5
157.9
158.2
158.2
158.5
158.8
158.8
159.1

206.0
206.3
207.0
207.0
207.3
207.7
208.0
208.7

17.7
18.0
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1

33.9
33.9
33.9
33.9
33.9
33.9
33.9
33.9

0.6
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.6

0.8
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

42

159.4

208.7

18.1

33.9

1.8

1.1

228