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In american english, hve to is more

commonly used to express necessity.


I have to go to school very early
today.
Must is used in spoken english when
the speaker is in a position of power.
You must do as I say! (they person
speaking is either a parent ora n
older person.)

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS
Must not is used to express
prohibition in writing such as in signs
and noticies.
Visitors must no enter the building
without ID.
Cant is more common than must not
in american english

Statements
questions

Must is rarely used for questions. To


ask question about an obligation or a
necessity, use have to.
Do I have to wear a uniform today?

Yes/ no

I should play basketball.


play

Should I

Can/ cant for permission

QUESTIONS

To change statements with should into


Yes/No questions, switch the positions
of the subject and should.

Use can to ask for permission and to


make requests. May is more formal.
Can is used in informal situations.
Can w ego to mayas house?
Can I go to the bathroom?
To make Yes/No questions with can,
follow this order:
Can + sibject + the base form of the
verb.
Can w ego to the movies tonight,
mom?
Use can and cant inshort answers.

Should/shouldnt for advice

Questions
answers

short

Can shelly come


can./

Yes she

Use should/shouldnt to give advice


Should and shouldnt are followed by
the base form of the verb.
Should and shouldnt have the same
form I, you, he, it, we, and they.
We shouldnt be late for class.
He should do his homework every day.
Should and shouldnt refer to the
presento r future.
You should call your mother now.
We shouldnt go to the mall tomorrow

UNIT 8

Going to for plans and intentions

Use be going to talk about definite


plans that were made before now.
What are they going to do
tomorrow?
Theyre going to play in the soccer
game.
Use the base form of the verb after
be going to.
Were going surf next week.

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YES / NO questions

Use never to form the negative of the


present perfect. Never comes between
have/ has and the past participle.
Ive never played polo.
Shes never taken the train.

Use not have to to say that


something is not necessary.
You dont have to do the
laundry today. I can do it
tomorrow.

YES / NO questions

To change statements in the present


perfect into Yes/No questions, switch
the positions of the subject and
have/has
Statements
questions

To make yes/ no questions with


have to, use do or does before
the subject.
YES / NO questions

Yes/ no

He has played golf before.


played golf

Do
have to eat

Has he
Dinner now?

I
You
We
They

Use nevero r not to give a negative


answer.

Have you played


Golf before?
havent

Yes
do.

no, never.
Or no, I

UNIT 7

No
dont

Have to / not have to for


obligaton
have to expresses a necessity
ora n, obligation that is
imposed, for example, by
anoteher
persono
r
a
Company.
To express obligation, use have
to/ not have to + the base
form of a verb.
Use have with I, you, we, and
they. Use has with he, she, and
it.
I / you / we / they have to be
home at 5:00.
He / she/ it has to do the
dishes.

I
You
We
They
I
You
We
they
He

Does

She
it

Yes
does

He
She
it
he
she
it

No
doesnt
MUST for rules
Affirmative statements

Must is used in written rules, sings,


and noticies.

Students must wear unifoprms at all


times during schoool hours

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