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Pressure Pipe

Installation Manual

TA B L E

02
03
04
06
08
09
13
16
22
23
23
24
25
27
28
30

OF

CONTENTS

Contact Information
General Pipe Information
The Steel Bell and Spigot Joint
Shipping Weights and Dimensions
Laying Length
Pipe Markings
Pipe Dimensions for Lined and Embedded Cylinder Pipe
Joint Deflection
Bevel Adaptors
Field Installation
Health and Safety
Unloading the Pipe
Digging the Trench and Preparing the Bedding
Handling the Pipe
Preparing the Pipe Ends
Quantities of Lubricant & Grout for Joints

31
32
34
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
46
48
50
51
54
55
56
57

Making the Joints


Installing Fittings
Checking the Gaskets
Grade and Line Changes
Protecting the Joints
Backfilling
Installing with a Trench Box
Testing
Restrained Joints
Snap Ring Restrained Joint
Welded Restrained Joint
Harness Clamp Restrained Joint
Closures
Emergency Closures Pressure
Tapping
Wall Pieces
Pipe Orientation
Field Services

CONTACT INFORMATION

0
l
4
%

DECAST Ltd.
8807 County Road 56
Utopia, ON L0M 1T0
1.800.461.5632
705.734.2892
Engineering Fax: 705.734.2270
Shipping Fax: 705.734.9373
WEB
www.decastltd.com

CONTACTS

Rob Micieli

416.605.7374

Mauro DeFranco, P.Eng.

647.500.3789

Frank Mazza, C.E.T.

416.520.2779

John Pozzobon, C.E.T.

905.302.1062

Martin Fischer

705.796.8868

Vice President, Sales


Technical Sales Engineer
Sales
Sales
Sales

Benoit Tanguay, ing, P.Eng. 514.209.3188


(Eastern Canada)

SALES
sales@decastltd.com
ENGINEERING
engineering@decastltd.com

John Siervogel

Field Services

705.623.7263

02

GENERAL PIPE
INFORMATION

DECAST concrete pressure pipe and fittings


are manufactured to ANSI/AWWA C301
standards in sizes from 400 mm to 3600
mm with working pressures to 1720
KPa and higher
For specialized applications DECAST can
also manufacture concrete pressure
pipe to ANSI/AWWA C300 and C302
specifications.
DECAST concrete pressure pipe is
rugged, durable and long-lasting. The
pipe has self-centering steel joint rings and
rubber gaskets that ensure watertightness and joint flexibility.

Concrete pressure pipe can be installed


easily, rapidly and economically because its
steel bell and spigot joint, which is
manufactured to close tolerances,
permits a quickly-made watertight
connection. DECAST provides pipeline
layout drawings that show the
sequence of installation for all pipe and
fittings it manufactures.
This installation manual provides
instructions for laying, joining and
backfilling pipe. It is provided as a guide
only. DECAST assumes no responsibility
or liability by reason of supplying this
manual.

03

THE STEEL BELL


AND SPIGOT JOINT

The bell and spigot joint consists of a steel spigot on which a rubber gasket is placed. During installation, the spigot
end is pushed into the steel bell to form a watertight joint.

Prestressed Lined Cylinder Pipe Ready for Joining

Prestressed Embedded Cylinder Pipe Ready for Joining


04

The following diagrams show the completed joint for a prestressed lined cylinder pipe and a completed joint
for a prestressed embedded cylinder pipe.

Completed Joint for a Prestressed Lined Cylinder Pipe

Completed Joint for a Prestressed Embedded Cylinder Pipe

05

SHIPPING WEIGHTS AND


DIMENSIONS

DECAST supplies lined cylinder pipe (LCP)


and embedded cylinder pipe (ECP) in the
following diameters.
TABLE 1:

SHIPPING WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS OF

LCP AND ECP

LCP

Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

Bell
O.D.
(mm)

Barrel
O.D.
(mm)

Approx.
Weight
(Kg/m)

Core
Length
(m)
6.096

400

572

508

230

450

629

565

270

6.096

500

686

622

300

6.096

600

800

737

380

6.096

750

972

908

560

6.096

900

1143

1080

710

6.096

1050

1302

1251

970

6.096

1200

1473

1422

1230

6.096

1350

1667

1594

1460

6.096

1500

1838

1765

1640

6.096

06

ECP

1050

1295

1120

1200

1473

1340

6.096
6.096

1350

1626

1490

6.096

1500

1803

1680

6.096

1650

1981

2240

6.096

1800

2159

2650

6.096

1950

2337

3070

6.096

2100

2518

3560

6.096

2250

2670

3780

6.096

2400

2822

4020

6.096

2550

2975

4320

6.096

2700

3140

4690

6.096

2850

3311

5140

6.096

3000

3483

6030

4.877

3150

3686

6260

4.877

3300

3826

6780

4.877

3550

3997

7370

4.877

3600

4169

7970

4.877

07

LAYING LENGTH

The nominal lay length of a


standard length pipe is 6.106 m or
4.887 m. The nominal lay length is
based on a 10 mm joint gap. Actual
lay length can vary as shown in the
following table:

TABLE 2:

LCP

ECP

LAYING LENGTH
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

Min. Laying
Length
(m)

Average
Laying Length
(m)

Max. Laying
Length
(m)

400 through to 1200


1350

6.096
6.096

6.106
6.106

6.140
6.137

1500

6.096

6.106

6.140

1050 & 1200

6.096

6.106

6.140

1350

6.096

6.106

6.144

1500

6.096

6.106

6.147

1650

6.096

6.106

6.150

1800

6.096

6.106

6.128

1950

6.096

6.106

6.156

2100

6.096

6.106

6.128

2250 & 2400

6.096

6.106

6.163

2550 through to 2850

6.096

6.106

6.159

3000 through to 3600

4.877

4.887

4.940

08

PIPE MARKINGS

The bell end inner concrete lining of the


pipe surface is stenciled with:
DECAST
Date of manufacturing
Mark No.
Cylinder gauge, if other than 16 Gauge
Job No.
Serial No.
CSA / NSF 61
AWWA Designation
Inspector's stamp
Concrete pressure pipe is an engineered
product. Prior to repositioning any pipe or
fitting contact the Engineering Department at
DECAST

09

PIPE MARKINGS

L 48 - 12 A - 14G

TABLE 3:

Cylinder gauge (if other than 16 Ga)


Restrained joint (A) Snap Ring Bell, (W)
welded joint
Class of pipe (CL 12)
Pipe size, see Table 3
Lined (L), Embedded (E)

Pipe Size
(in)

PIPE MARKING
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

Pipe Size
(in)

Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

16

400

78

1950

18

450

84

2100

20

500

90

2250

24

600

96

2400

30

750

102

2550

36

900

108

2700

42

1050

114

2850

48

1200

120

3000

54

1350

126

3150

60

1500

132

3300

66

1650

138

3450

72

1800

144

3600

10

A pipe that differs from a standard pipe is


marked with a coloured stripe.
A YELLOW STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
restrained bell end.
A PINK STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
threaded or flanged outlet and is painted at
the outlet.
A BLUE STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
bevelled spigot.

Pipe Markings

11

PIPE MARKINGS

Pipe with cylinder thickness greater than 16 Gauge are


specially marked by adding a paint patch on the spigot
end. The colour code system is according to the
following chart:

TABLE 4:

U.S Gauge
Number

SPIGOT COLOUR CODE

Steel Sheet Thickness

Marking
Colour

(mm)

(in)

16

1.52

0.0598

None

14

1.90

0.0747

Orange

12

2.66

0.1046

Blue

10

3.42

0.1345

Green

4.18

0.1644

Yellow

4.94

0.1943

Purple

N/A

6.35

0.2500

Pink

N/A

7.37

0.2900

Blue/ Orange
Blue/ Pink

N/A

7.62

0.3000

N/A

7.94

0.3125

Blue/ Red

N/A

12.7

0.5000

Blue/ Green

N/A

15.88

0.6250

Red/ Green

12

PIPE DIMENSIONS FOR LINED AND


EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE

Lined Cylinder Pipe

Embedded Cylinder Pipe

13

PIPE DIMENSIONS FOR LINED AND


EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE

TABLE 5:

Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

LINED CYLINDER PIPE DIMENSIONS

Pipe
I.D.
(mm)

Core
Thickness
(mm)

Std. Joint
Depth
(mm)

Joint
Diameter
(mm)

Bell
O.D.
(mm)

Barrel
O.D.
(mm)

Core
Length
(m)
6.096

400

406

25

114

470

572

508

450

457

29

114

527

629

565

6.096

500

508

32

114

584

686

622

6.096

600

610

38

114

699

800

737

6.096

750

762

48

114

870

972

908

6.096

900

914

57

114

1041

1143

1080

6.096

1050

1067

67

114

1200

1302

1251

6.096

1200

1219

76

114

1372

1473

1422

6.096

1350

1372

86

121

1565

1667

1594

6.096

1500

1524

95

124

1738

1838

1765

6.096

14

TABLE 6:

Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE DIMENSIONS

Pipe
I.D.
(mm)

Core
Thickness
(mm)

Std. Joint
Depth
(mm)

Joint
Diameter
(mm)

Barrel
O.D.
(mm)

Core
Length
(m)

1050

1067

89

114

1143

1295

6.096

1200

1219

102

114

1302

1473

6.096

1350

1372

102

130

1467

1626

6.096

1500

1524

114

133

1622

1803

6.096

1650

1676

127

137

1781

1981

6.096

1800

1829

140

114

1944

2159

6.096

1950

1981

152

143

2095

2337

6.096

2100

2134

165

114

2255

2518

6.096

2250

2286

165

149

2410

2670

6.096

2400

2438

165

149

2569

2822

6.096

2550

2591

165

152

2715

2975

6.096

2700

2743

171

152

2873

3140

6.096

2850

2896

181

152

3064

3311

6.096

3000

3048

190

152

3216

3483

4.877

3150

3200

200

152

3369

3686

4.877

3300

3353

210

152

3521

3826

4.877

3450

3505

219

152

3673

3997

4.877

3600

3658

229

152

3826

4169

4.877
15

JOINT DEFLECTION

After the joint is in place, the pipe can be


deflected within the tolerable limits that are
shown in the Tables 7, 8, 9 and 10.

Deflection of Standard Pipe

16

TABLE 7:

Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

JOINT DEFLECTION OF LINED CYLINDER PIPE

Max. Joint
Opening
(mm)

Average
Laid
Length
(m)

Max.
Deflection
Angle

Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)

Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)

Joint
Depth

Joint
Diameter

(mm)

(mm)

400

44

6.106

5 - 24 '

574

64

114

470

450

44

6.106

4 - 49 '

512

72

114

527

500

44

6.106

4 - 21 '

462

80

114

584

600

44

6.106

3 - 38 '

387

95

114

699

750

44

6.106

2 - 55 '

311

119

114

870

900

44

6.106

2 - 26 '

259

142

114

1041

1050

44

6.106

2-7'

225

164

114

1200

1200

44

6.106

1 - 51 '

197

188

114

1372

1350

41

6.106

1 - 30 '

160

231

121

1565

1500

44

6.106

1 - 27 '

155

238

124

1738

17

JOINT DEFLECTION

TABLE 8:

JOINT DEFLECTION OF LINED CYLINDER PIPE WITH MECHANICAL RESTRAINED JOINTS

Nominal Pipe
Diameter

Max. Joint
Opening

(mm)

(mm)

Average
Laid
Length
(m)

Max.
Deflection
Angle

Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)

Min. Curve
Radius for
Length
(m)

Joint
Depth

Joint
Diameter

(mm)

(mm)

400

13

6.106

1 - 32 '

164

225

114

470

450

13

6.106

1 - 22 '

146

253

114

527

500

13

6.106

1 - 14 '

132

280

114

584

600

13

6.106

1-2'

110

335

114

699

750

13

6.106

0 - 50 '

88

417

114

870

900

13

6.106

0 - 41 '

74

499

114

1041

1050

13

6.106

0 - 36 '

64

576

114

1200

1200

13

6.106

0 - 31 '

56

658

114

1372

1350

13

6.106

0 - 27 '

49

751

121

1565

1500

13

6.106

0 - 25 '

44

833

124

1738

18

TABLE 9:

JOINT DEFLECTION OF EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE

Nominal Pipe
Diameter

Max. Joint
Opening

(mm)

(mm)

Average
Laid
Length
(m)

Max.
Deflection
Angle

Max. Offset
for Std
Length
(mm)

Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)

Joint
Depth

Joint
Diameter

(mm)

(mm)

1050

44

6.106

2 - 13 '

236

156

114

1143

1200

44

6.106

1 - 57 '

208

178

114

1302

1350

48

6.106

1 - 51 '

197

187

130

1467

1500

51

6.106

1 - 47 '

190

194

133

1622

1650

54

6.106

1 - 44 '

184

201

137

1781

1800

31

6.106

0 - 56 '

99

373

114

1944

1950

60

6.106

1 - 38 '

175

211

143

2095

2100

31

6.106

0 - 48 '

85

432

114

2255

2250

67

6.106

1 - 35 '

168

220

149

2410

2400

67

6.106

1 - 29 '

158

234

149

2569

2550

63

6.106

1 - 20 '

142

260

152

2715

2700

63

6.106

1 - 15 '

134

275

152

2873

2850

63

6.106

1 - 11 '

126

294

152

3064

3000

63

4.887

1-7'

96

247

152

3216

3150

63

4.887

1-4'

91

258

152

3369

3300

63

4.887

1-1'

87

270

152

3521

3450

63

4.887

0 - 59 '

84

282

152

3673

3600

63

4.887

0 - 57 '

80

293

152

3826

19

JOINT DEFLECTION

TABLE 10:

JOINT DEFLECTION OF EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE WITH MECHANICAL RESTRAINED JOINTS

Nominal Pipe
Diameter

Max. Joint
Opening

Max.
Deflection
Angle

(mm)

Average
Laid
Length
(m)

(mm)

Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)

Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)

Joint
Depth

Joint
Diameter

(mm)

(mm)

1050

13

6.106

0 - 38 '

67

548

114

1143

1200

13

1350

13

6.106

0 - 33 '

59

624

114

1302

6.106

0 - 29 '

52

704

130

1500

13

6.106

1469

0 - 26 '

47

778

133

1622

1650

13

6.106

0 - 24 '

43

854

137

1781

1800

13

6.106

0 - 22 '

39

932

114

1944

1950

13

6.106

0 - 20 '

36

1005

143

2095

2100

13

6.106

0 - 19 '

34

1082

114

2255

20

2250

13

6.106

0 - 18 '

32

1156

149

2410

2400

13

6.106

0 - 16 '

30

1232

149

2569

2550

13

6.106

0 - 16 '

28

1303

152

2715

2700

13

6.106

0 - 15 '

26

1379

152

2873

2850

13

6.106

0 - 14 '

25

1470

152

3064

3000

13

4.887

0 - 13 '

19

1235

152

3216

3150

13

4.887

0 - 12 '

18

1293

152

3369

3300

13

4.887

0 - 12 '

17

1352

152

3251

3450

13

4.887

0 - 11 '

16

1410

152

3673

3600

13

4.887

0 - 11 '

16

1469

152

3826

21

BEVEL ADAPTORS

Bevel adaptors may be used to make minor


grade or line changes that are beyond the
normal joint deflection.

Bevel Adaptor

22

FIELD INSTALLATION &


HEALTH AND SAFETY

FIELD INSTALLATION
The most common way to lay prestressed
concrete pipe is with a backhoe, although
other methods can be used depending on the
conditions and the size of the pipe
being installed.

HEALTH AND SAFETY


All installation procedures and operations
must be performed in accordance with local
Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA)
regulations and codes.

23

UNLOADING THE PIPE

All DECAST pipe is inspected at our


facilities before shipping. However, the
pipe should always be checked for any
damage that may have occurred during
transit. Note any damage on the packing
slip before accepting the pipe.
Before unloading the pipe, the truck and
the trailer must be parked on a level, stable
surface with brakes applied and, if
necessary, wheels blocked. When
unloading multi-tiered shipments, the cross
timbers must be secured to the trailer side
rail on the side that is being unloaded to
prevent the timbers from kicking up-wards
and dropping the rear pipe off the back
side of the trailer.
When pipes are unloaded using a forklift,
forks must be cushioned using rubber or
wood to prevent damaging the pipe.

Pipe may also be unloaded using a


backhoe or crane fitted with a cable or
sling, with safe lifting capacity, that has
been centered on the pipe at the
balancing point. The cable or sling must
be short enough to control the
movement of the pipe. Multiple slings
may be needed if the pipe or fittings
are large. Chains are not recommended.
Gaskets should be stored in a cool place
away from heat, sunlight, gasoline
or other materials that can damage
rubber. Joint lubricants should be stored
according to the manufacturer's
instructions. If freezing conditions are
expected, the pipe must be set on
wooden skids off the ground.

Unloading pipe using a


forklift

24

DIGGING THE TRENCH AND


PREPARING THE BEDDING

The typical trench geometry should allow


for sufficient clearance to properly install
the pipe. Pipe designs are affected by the
trench geometry, and hence the trench
geometry should not be changed from the
contract specifications without consulting
the supervising engineer and DECAST.

Digging a trench for a length of pipe

25

DIGGING THE TRENCH AND


PREPARING THE BEDDING

A space along the width of the pipe


approximately 200 mm deep and 400 mm
long should be made at the place where the
pipe will be joined. This space allows
room for the installation of the diaper
around the joint. To allow removal of the
cable after the pipe has been laid, a space
can also be made at the point where the
sling is located.
After digging the trench, the contractor
must follow the specifications that are
appropriate for the type of bedding. For
any change to the specifications, the
supervising engineers should be consulted.

COVER MATERIAL:
NATIVE MATERIAL (TYP.)

Typical Trench Bedding

26

HANDLING THE PIPE

Slip the steel cable sling under the pipe. Hook


one end of the sling on the hook of the bucket.
When you find the balancing point on the
length of pipe, mark the balancing points on the
other lengths of pipe.
To achieve the best possible control over the
joining, slowly move the backhoe to the end of
the trench, as closely as is safe.

Backhoe with steel sling moving pipe

27

PREPARING THE PIPE ENDS

For proper installation of the gasket prior


to joining the pipe the following steps
should be adhered to:
1 Clean the spigot groove and the inside
of the bell. Apply lubricant on the
spigot groove and the inside of the bell.
See Table 11 for recommended amounts.
2 Apply lubricant to the rubber gasket with
a clean cloth. Caution: Use only the
lubricant supplied by DECAST Petroleum
based lubricants should not be used
because they will damage the rubber
gasket.
3 Place the lubricated gasket in the
gasket groove of the entire spigot ring.
When the gasket is in place, insert a
smooth rod or a screwdriver between the
gasket and spigot

ring and run the screwdriver/


rod around the entire circumference
of the spigot ring to ensure that the
gasket is stretched evenly around
the spigot. This usually takes 2 to 3
rotations to accomplish.
4 Coat the gasket with lubricant.
5 Do not pre-install gaskets in pipe
strung
out
ahead
of
the
installation crew because the joint
lube under the gasket can dry from
the heat of the sun or be diluted by
rain water. In both of these
situations, the gaskets ability to
slide within the groove during
installation will be inhibited.

28

Clean spigot groove and inside of bell

Applying lubricant to the spigot


groove

Applying lubricant to the inside of the


bell

Applying lubricant to the gasket with a


clean cloth

Using a screwdriver to ensure that the


gasket is stretched evenly around the
spigot

Coating the gasket with lubricant


29

QUANTITIES OF LUBRICANT
& GROUT FOR JOINTS

Quantities of lubricant shown


are based on applying 1.5 mm
thick layer of lubricant to the
gasket, spigot groove and the
inside of bell.

TABLE 11: APPR OXIMATE QUANTITIES OF JOINT


LUBR ICANT & GR OUT FOR EXTER NAL STANDAR D JOINTS
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)

The amount of grout shown


are based on grouting the outside
joint opening of a standard joint.

Approx. No.
of Joints per
10 Kg Pail of
Lubricant

Approx.
Amount
of Grout per
Joint
(cu. meter)

(mm)

Approx. No.
of Joints per
10 Kg Pail of
Lubricant

Approx.
Amount
of Grout per
Joint
(cu. meter)

Nominal Pipe
Diameter

400

34

0.0142

1950

0.0765

450

31

0.0159

2100

0.0823

500

28

0.0176

2250

0.0880

600

23

0.0211

2400

0.0938

750

18

0.0263

2550

0.0991

900

15

0.0315

2700

0.1049

1050

11

0.0363

2850

0.1119

1200

0.0414

3000

0.1174

1350

0.0473

3150

0.1230

1500

0.0525

3300

0.1286

1650

0.0650

3450

0.1341

1800

0.0709

3600

0.1397

30

MAKING THE JOINTS

Carefully maneuver the pipe to align the spigot


end toward the existing bell end so that the
spigot will enter the bell end squarely. If the pipe
is properly aligned, the pipe will slide in
smoothly. If any dirt touches the lubricated
spigot ring of the pipe already in position, the
spigot ring must be cleaned and lubricated
again.

The following diagram shows three methods of making the


joints.

Pipe Joining Options


Pipe Joining

31

INSTALLING FITTINGS

Fitting joints slide together in the same way as


joints for straight pipe. As with straight pipe,
hydraulic pullers and come-alongs can be used
to join the fittings.
The long and short sides of the elbow are
stenciled on the face of the spigot. Additionally,
fittings are given a top mark at the spigot or bell
end as required.

Long, Short and Top Mark

32

Come-alongs or hydraulic pullers can be used to


pull the joint home while the backhoe supports
the elbow from above.

Elbow moved into position on the pipe

33

CHECKING THE GASKETS

A feeler gauge is used to test the joints for


correct gasket placement.

23 mm
INTERNAL
FEELER GAUGE

LCP PIPE
EXTERNAL
FEELER GAUGE

Use the external feeler gauge to check the


gasket from the outside.

68 mm

1 Insert the feeler into the joint.


2 If you cannot feel the gasket anywhere
along the full circumference, the joint is
ACCEPTABLE.

External and Internal Feeler Gauge


THE GASKET CANNOT BE FELT
AROUND THE FULL CIRCUMFERENCE
OF JOINT, THEREFORE, THE JOINT IS
ACCEPTABLE

THE GASKET IS FELT ANYWHERE, REMAKE


JOINT WITH NEW LUBRICATED GASKET

FEELER GAUGE

FEELER GAUGE

3 If you feel the gasket anywhere along the


circumference, remake the j oint using a
new lubricated gasket.
RUBBER GASKET

RUBBER GASKET

Acceptable LCP Joint

Unacceptable LCP Joint

34

ECP PIPE
Inspect the gaskets using the internal feeler
Insert spacers
gauge from the inside.
(12mm) between the bell and spigot ends to
allow entry of the feeler gauge.

THE FEELER GAUGE FITS IN BETWEEN THE SPIGOT


AND BELL, AND THE GASKET CAN BE FELT AROUND
THE FULL CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE PIPE.
THEREFORE, THE JOINT IS ACCEPTABLE

1 Insert the feeler into the joint.


2 If the feeler gauge does not fit between the
bell and the spigot, the joint is ACCEPTABLE.
3 Occasionally, the joint rings may permit the
feeler gauge to be inserted over the spigot lip
for a certain distance along the
circumference. At these locations, you must
be able to feel the gasket. If you do, the joint is
ACCEPTABLE.

RUBBER GASKET
FEELER GAUGE

Acceptable ECP Joint

THE FEELER GAUGE FITS IN BETWEEN THE


SPIGOT AND BELL, BUT CANNOT FEEL THE
GASKET. THEREFORE, REMAKE JOINT WITH NEW
LUBRICATED GASKET

4 If you do not feel the gasket where the


feeler gauge was inserted, the gasket has
been rolled or is cut. Remake the joint
using a new gasket.
RUBBER GASKET
FEELER GAUGE

Unacceptable ECP Joint

35

GRADE AND LINE CHANGES

If joint deflections are required, they should


be made after the pipes have been
joined. Restrained
joints
must
be
deflected as described in the restrained
joint section of this manual. Pipe positions
can be checked with a laser or transit.

A level is used to check the elevation of the bell end of


the pipe.

36

PROTECTING THE JOINTS

To protect the joints, a mortar collar is poured


around the full circumference of the joint.
1 Place the diaper around the full circumference
of the j oint so that it straddles the joint.
Tighten the wires or the straps.
2 Mix 3 parts sand to 1 part cement with
enough water to make a free-flowing grout.
Ensure that the same cement that was used in
the pipe coating is used in the grout.
See table 11 for approximate amount of
grout per standard joint.
3 Pour the grout into the diaper on one side
until the mortar appears on the other side.
Continue pouring the grout on the other
side until the diaper is full. Trowel the gap at
the top of the diaper with a stiffer mix.

Pouring the grout in the diaper


4 Mortar the inside of the j oint. Use a ratio of 3:1 (sand to
cement) and enough water to make a mix that can be
easily trowelled. Point the inner joint recess and strike off
the surface smooth with the inside of the pipe.

37

BACKFILLING

Follow the contract specifications for


backfilling. In general, after the pipe has been
laid to the line and grade, material is tamped in
uniform layers not more than 200 mm in
thickness up to the spring line of the pipe.
From the spring line of the pipe to about 300
mm above the top of the pipe, selected
material is spread uniformly and compacted.
The remainder of the trench is filled with any
readily available backfill appropriate for the
traffic conditions.

Bulldozer backfilling the pipe

38

INSTALLING WITH
A TRENCH BOX

Soil conditions and ensuring safety often


requires that pipe is installed within a trench
box.
After you pull the box ahead in the trench, it is
important to check the pipe to make sure that
the pipe joints have not pulled apart.

Installing with a trench box

39

TESTING

All testing must be done in accordance with


contract specifications and procedures.
DECAST can provide test bulkheads to
accommodate field test pressures on isolated
sections of the pipeline. Air testing is not
recommended.

Test Bulkhead

40

RESTRAINED JOINTS

When a pipeline changes size, direction or


is bulkheaded, the internal line pressure
creates a thrust condition along the
pipeline. At these locations, restrained
joints are installed to counteract the
thrust. Snap Ring joints, welded joints
and Harness Clamp are the typical
restrained joints that DECAST uses.
Harness Clamp restrained joints are
normally used at the long term bulkhead
locations.

41

SNAP RING
RESTRAINED JOINT

This patented joint assembly provides


restraint for pipe diameters 400 mm
through 1800 mm and is provided by
DECAST. The Snap Ring joint assembly is
used for applications requiring restraint
due to unbalanced forces (such as bends,
tees, etc.), therefore eliminating the
need for thrust blocks.
The joint design eliminates the problem
of point bearing and at the same time
permits deflection, for slight directional
changes during installation. Following
assembly of the joint, the voids around the
joint are filled with a protective cement/
sand grout. This grout helps to distribute
the thrust load uniformly around the joint
perimeter.
Registered trade name of Price Brothers Corporation

Snap Ring Joint

42

At the same time, the grout will


compress under load to permit slight
settlement of the pipeline. The result is a
superior restrained joint with a short
installation
time
that
effectively
eliminates
the
chance
of
an
installation error.
The Snap Ring method is a fast and easy
way to make a better mechanical
restrained joint. The joint is completely selfcontained, ready to engage, and completed
by tightening a 9 mm bolt. It only
requires one man just a few minutes to
complete the joint using a speed wrench.

Snap Ring Joint Assembly

43

SNAP RING RESTRAINED


JOINT

DEFLECTING A SNAP RING JOINT


ASSEMBLY
If a deflection of the Snap Ring is necessary,
the insert ring must be tightened in two stages.
Stage one: The joint is assembled squarely and
the insert is tightened only enough to prevent
the pipe from pulling apart during deflection.

Single Bolt Snap Ring Joint

44

Stage two: Once the pipe has been deflected the


required amount, the insert can be tightened to
the extent of the bolt travel. Hand tightening is
all that is required, do not force the bolt.

Snap Ring Joint

45

WELDED
RESTRAINED JOINT

Welded joints are another method used to


transmit thrust as well as provide joint restraint.
However, they are generally less economical than
a mechanically restrained joint due to field welding
costs. The rigidity of a welded joint coupled with
extreme soil settlement will cause adjacent pipe
lengths to transform into one long rigid beam,
subjected to bending and shear stresses. To this
end, welded type joints are used in special
applications to resist thrust and to increase the laylength of a standard pipe.
If welded joints are used, DECAST recommends
either an internal welded joint or an external
welded joint. Internal welded joints are utilized for
pipelines 1200 mm and larger in diameter, where
welding inside the pipeline is feasible.
This method requires a water-tight weld due to
the absence of the gasket.

Internal Field Weld

46

For pipelines 1050 mm and smaller


in diameter, an external welded joint
is recommended. This method requires a
field-weld bar (rolled to joint diameter),
which is wedged tightly against the
assembled joint rings. The procedure is
completed by a partial or full weld of
the
joint
assembly
circumference,
avoiding unnecessary heat which may
damage the rubber gasket.

External Field Weld

47

HARNESS CLAMP
RESTRAINED JOINT

The Harness Clamp Restrained Joint is normally


used at locations where there is the potential for
future connection. It is also used where the
application dictates a higher pressure, for
example at a bulkhead.

Harness Clamp Joint

48

DEFLECTING A HARNESS
CLAMP JOINT
When deflecting a Harness Joint the two C
clamps must be assembled and tightened in
two steps:
Step one: Assemble joint tightening the two
bolts only enough to prevent the pipe from
pulling apart during deflection.
Step two: Once the pipe is deflected to the
appropriate angle tighten the bolts and grout
as usual.
Harness Clamp Joint

49

CLOSURES

Closure sections are used when a new


pipeline is connected to an existing
pipeline, or when a connection is required
after an isolated pressure test. To
manufacture the closure section, DECAST
requires the exact dimensions of the
closure length.
If access to the pipe joints is available, the
closure should be measured as per the
diagram to the right. If the bulkheads
cannot be removed or if complete
excavation is not possible, DECAST
Technical Services can instruct the survey
crews on how to acquire the necessary
dimensions. DECAST will manufacture the
closure to fit the existing opening. The
closure may be installed with a coupling or
a split welding sleeve.

Measuring for a Typical Closure:


Closures can be manufactured for restrained or non
restrained areas of the pipeline.
50

EMERGENCY CLOSURES

Installed Closure

Installed standard weld sleeve closure

DECAST can provide a full range of Emergency Closure


sections available in 6.096 m and 7.315 m lengths. These
sections are designed to replace standard lengths of
pipe in restrained and non-restrained areas. The

plain ends of the closure sections are suitable for a field


welded sleeve or mechanical coupling. For more
information regarding Emergency Closure Sections
please contact our Engineering department.

51

PRESSURE TAPPING

Tapping into concrete pressure pipe is


a routine application.
The procedures
for tapping concrete pressure pipe while
the pipe is under pressure are the
same as for tapping other kinds of pipe.
Weld-on tapping assemblies are not
recommended for tapping concrete pipe
because deformation may occur during
welding to the pressurized steel cylinder.
The tapping saddle configuration should
allow for the saddle to be securely bolted
to the pipe before the prestressing wire or
the reinforcing rod from the tap opening
are removed.

Tapping machine positioned on pipe

52

DECAST can provide a full range of tapping


saddles for concrete pressure pipe and
other piping products. DECAST also
provides a full line of tapping services. In
lined cylinder pipe 900 mm and smaller a
strapless saddle tap may be used for taps
between 19 mm and 38 mm. The saddle
anchors directly to the prestressing wire
after the mortar coating has been carefully
chipped away.
This type of tapping saddle requires
no reinforcing bands or excavation under
the pipe. Encase all exposed steel in a 3:1
mortar mix after the tap has been made.

Installed wire anchor tapping saddle

Use a strap-type saddle for larger taps.


The saddle shown in the photograph below
is for a 200 mm tap in a 750 mm diameter
pipe.

53

PRESSURE TAPPING

The reinforcing bands of the saddle must be


torqued and the space between the saddle
and the barrel of the pipe grouted before any of
the prestressing wires are cut. The space
around the saddle gland can be grouted after
the pressure test is complete but must be
done prior to tapping the pipe. In all cases
tapping concrete pressure pipe should only be
done by qualified, experienced personnel.
After tapping is complete the saddle should be
protected by encasement in a cement rich
concrete or mortar with a minimum cover of 25
mm over all steel surfaces. Denso tape and paste
may also be used where concrete
placement is impractical.

Strap-type saddle used for larger taps

54

WALL PIECES

Wall pieces are generally provided with wall


flanges or thrust collars at the point at which
the wall is to encase the piece. If your project
does not incorporate this feature, internal
bracing should be used to ensure that the
piece remains round during the concrete pour.

Wall pieces may also be provided with water


stops. These are not designed for thrust
restraint. If thrust restraint is required, joint
restraints (mechanical or welded) must be
used. If thrust flanges are incorporated in the
wall piece the longitudinal thrust must be
transmitted from the wall piece to the
chamber or a thrust block.

Wall Piece

55

PIPE ORIENTATION

It is common practice to describe pipe as if it is


being viewed from the spigot end looking
toward the bell end.

Pipe Orientation

56

FIELD SERVICES

DECAST offers the assistance of highly


trained and experienced Field Service
Technicians who can advise your crew on
installation
procedures
and
repair
methods. Please see page 2 of this manual
for contact information.

57

Most extensive product line


in the industry
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE AND FITTINGS
VALVE AND UTILITY CHAMBERS
STEEL PIPE AND FITTINGS
BRIDGE GIRDERS
DE-SPAN

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE


TUNNEL SEGMENTS
BOX CULVERTS
REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE
MAINTENANCE HOLES & CATCH BASINS
INTEGRATED FRAME & COVER MH SYSTEM (IFC)
HEADWALLS
RAILWAY / SUBWAY TIES

DECAST Ltd.
8807 County Road 56
Utopia, ON L0M 1T0
1.800.461.5632
705.734.2892
WEB
www.decastltd.com