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The ReligionFacts “Big Religion Chart” is an attempt to summarize a selection of religions as concisely as possible for purposes of quick comparison. It is not intended to be a substitute for advanced religious study and exploration. Our hope is that this chart simply serves as a useful starting point to compare and understand the world's religions. Currently, 45 religions and belief systems are compared in this chart. Please note that, as throughout ReligionFacts, we have been quite inclusive. Some groups listed here may not properly be called “religions.” Conversely, if a group is not included in the Big Religion Chart, it doesn't mean it's not a religion or doesn't matter - the chart is not comprehensive. Links in the chart lead to ReligionFacts articles, where you can find more information and references for the basic data compared here.

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

Founded

c.1918

among the

Yoruba

people of

West

1

Nigeria, as

a reaction

million

against

established

Anglicanis

m.

Generally monotheis tic; a mix of

Strong

emphasis

Not

Spiritual

healing is

central. Mix

of Anglican

Anglican, Pentecost al and

on healing

and

emphasiz and African

ed; views rituals; a

salvation in vary.

prophet

traditional this life.

plays a

African

beliefs.

prominent

role.

none

Originated in Switzerlan d with the strict teachings of Jakob Amman, which led to a split from Mennonite s in 1693.

290,10

0

(Old

Order

Amish)

(see

Emphasis

Christianit on

(see

Communion Christian

Christiani twice a

Bible

y)

humility, simplicity, submission to God, and avoiding vanity

ty)

year; foot washing; separation from the world; speak German and Pennsylvani a Dutch; no electricity; plain

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

clothes like

17th-

century

European

peasants;

"Running

Around"

before

baptism at

age 17-20;

shunning

Valhalla

Revival of

Norse and

Germanic

paganism,

1970s

Scandinavi a and USA.

(heaven)

Polytheisti Salvation

c, Norse

or

unknow

n

gods and

redemption

goddesses not

, Norse

emphasize

creation

d. Fatalistic

myths.

outlook.

for death

in battle;

Hel

(peaceful

place) for

most;

Hifhel

(hell) for

the very

evil.

Sacrifice of food or drink, toast to the gods, shamanism (less frequently), celebration of solstice holidays. Nine Noble Virtues is moral code.

Eddas

(Norse

epics);

the

Havamal

(proverb

s

attribute

d to

Odin)

 

Adhere

 
 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

1.1

 

Notable

billion

There is

atheist

Appears

throughout

history

(including

ancient

Greek

philosophy

), but

especially

after the

Enlightenm

ent (19th

cent).

(includi no God,

ng

gods, or

agnosti divine

c

and

non-

being.

Beliefs

religiou about the

s,

which

universe

and its

tend to origins are

be

groupe

d

on

based on

latest

scientific

not addressed none

none

works

include

those of

Epicurius

,

Bertrand

Russell,

Carl

Sagan,

Richard

Dawkins,

Christop

 

surveys findings.

 

her

)

Hitchens.

 

Soul

Daily

 

The soul is

separates prayer,

 

Founded

by

Bahá'u'lláh 5-7

, 1863,

Tehran,

Iran.

million

One God,

who has

revealed

himself

progressiv

ely

through

major

world

religions.

eternal and from the

avoidance

essentially good. Purpose of life is to develop spiritually and draw closer to God.

body and of

begins a

journey

towards

or away

intoxicants,

scripture

reading,

hard work,

from God. education,

Heaven

and hell

work for

social

are states justice and

Writings

of

Bahá'u'll

áh and

other

Bahá'í

leaders.

 

of being.

equality.

 

Adhere

 
 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

Bon

Indigenous 100,00

Nontheisti Purpose is

Reincarna Meditation

Bonpo

religion of

0

c

to gain

tion until

on

canon

Tibet.

Buddhism, enlightenm gain

mandalas

 

but

ent.

enlighten and Tibetan

 

meditatio

ment.

deities,

n on

astrology,

peaceful

monastic

and

life.

wrathful

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

deities.

Based on teachings of Siddharta Gautama (the Buddha) in c. 520 BC, NE India.

360

million

Purpose is

to avoid

Reincarna

Varies:

suffering

tion

Theravada and gain

(understo

atheistic;

enlightenm od

Mahayana ent and

more

release

polytheisti from cycle

c.

Buddha of rebirth,

taught

or at least

nothing is attain a

permanen better

differentl y than in Hinduism,

with no surviving soul) until gain

Meditation,

mantras,

devotion to

deities (in

some

sects),

mandalas

(Tibetan)

t.

rebirth by

gaining

merit.

enlighten ment

Tripitaka

(Pali

Canon);

Mahayan

a sutras

like the

Lotus

Sutra;

others.

Founded in

1926,

Vietnam by Ngo Van Chieu and others based on a séance.

4-6

million

God

represent

ed by

Divine

Eye.

Founders

of

Goal is

peace and

harmony in

each

Buddhism, person and

Taoism,

in the

Hinduism, world.

Islam, and Salvation Christianit by

y

"cultivating

venerated self and

, and

saints

including

Victor

Hugo.

finding God

in self."

Reincarna

tion. Bad

karma

can lead

to rebirth

on a

darker

planet;

good

karma to

better life

on earth.

Eventual

attainme

nt of

nirvana

Hierarchy

similar to

Roman

Catholicism.

Daily

prayer.

Meditation.

Communica

tion with

spirit world

(now

outlawed in

Vietnam).

or

heaven.

Caodai

canon

Founded by Deepak n

Chopra in

1991,

California

unknow monism - God or Supreme Reality pervades

Humans have limitless potential, but do not

Reincarna Yoga,

tion

meditation,

massage,

nutrition,

Deepak

Chopra's

many

books,

mindfulness such as

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

recognize this. Health

 

the

 

all things;

and success can be had

all is unity by focusing on whole

 

, detox

sessions,

positive

thinking.

Seven

Spiritual

Laws of

Success

self (mind, body, spirit).

 
 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

Heaven is

"not a

Founded

by Mary

150,00

Baker Eddy 0 -

in 1879,

400,00

Massachus 0

etts.

Salvation is

"Life, Truth,

One God.

No Trinity

(in

and Love

understood

and

traditional demonstrat

sense).

Matter

and evil

do not

exist.

ed as

supreme

over all;

sin,

sickness

and death

destroyed."

locality,

but a

divine

state of

Mind in

which all

the

manifesta

tions of

Mind are

harmonio

us and

immortal.

Spiritual

healing

through

prayer and

knowledge,

Sunday

services,

daily Bible

and Science

& Health

reading.

Christian

Bible,

Science

& Health

with Key

to the

Scripture

s

 

"

Christianit Based on

2 billionHoly

All have

Eternal

Prayer,

Bible

y

life and

Trinity =

sinned and

heaven or Bible study,

(Hebrew

teachings

God the

are thereby hell (or

baptism,

Bible +

of Jesus of

Father +

separated

temporar Eucharist

New

Nazareth,

God the

from God.

y

(Communio Testame

c. 30 CE,

Son +

Salvation is purgatory n), church

nt)

Roman

God the

through

).

on Sundays,

province of

Holy Spirit faith in

numerous

Palestine.

Christ and,

holidays.

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

for some,

sacraments

and good

works.

Anton

LaVey in

San

Francisco,

California

on April

30, 1966

atheistic;

neither

God nor

unknow

n

Satan

exists;

"Satan" is

not a

being but

a concept

man is just another animal; pursue gratificatio n

none

church membershi p of various degrees; priesthood; no killling animals except for defense or food; kindness to those who deserve it

The

Satanic

Bible

Based on

teachings

of

sm

Confucius

(K'ung-fu-

tzu) in

China, 5th

century

BCE

5-6

million

Not

addressed

Purpose of life is to fulfill one's role in

society with propriety, honor, and loyalty.

Not

addresse

d

Honesty,

politeness,

propriety,

humanenes

s, perform

correct role

Analects

in society,

loyalty to

family,

nation

Especially popularize d in the

18th-cent.

Enlightenm

ent under

Kant,

Voltaire,

Paine,

Jefferson,

and others

One Creator God who is uninterest unknow ed in the world. Reason is basis for all knowledg

n

e.

not

addressed

not

addresse

d

None

prescribed,

although

Thomas

Paine's

The Age

of

some deists Reason

practice

prayer.

and

similar

texts

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 
 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

Modest

Al-Darazi

in 11th

century,

Cairo,

Egypt.

Roots in

the

Isma'iliyya

sect of

Shia Islam.

500,00

0

Universal

Intelligenc

e (al-Aql

al-Kulli) or

Divine

Essence

(akin to

Neoplaton

ism), of

which al-

Hakim is believed to be an incarnatio

n.

Live a good life for a favorable reincarnati on. Await the re- appearanc e of al- Hakim (a

Reincarna

tion.

Heaven is

a spiritual

existence

when one

has

escaped

Fatimid caliph who

reincarna

tion. Hell

disappeare is

d in 1021),

who will usher in a

distance

from God

in lifetime

Golden Age after

for true

believers.

lifetime.

lifestyles,

fasting

before Eid

al-Adha.

Beliefs and

practices

are hidden

for

protection

from

persecution.

Special

group of

initiates

called

uqqal.

Al-Naqd

al-Khafi

(Copy of

the

Secret);

Al-Juz'al-

Awwal

(Essence

of the

First)

 

"Each of us

Reincarna

and on a

journey.

Spiritual

tion. The

Exercises of

Founded

by John

Paul

Twitchell in

1965, Las

Vegas.

50-

500,00

0

is Soul, a spark of

God sent to The Divine this world

Spirit,

called

"ECK."

to gain

spiritual

experience.

" Salvation

Soul is eternal by nature

spiritual

Liberation

ECK:

mantras,

meditation,

and

dreams.

These

enable Soul

Shariyat-

Ki-

Sugmad

and

books by

Harold

Klemp.

 

is liberation

travel and

and God-

realization.

possible in a

single lifetime.

spiritual

growth.

Epicureani Based on

unknow A deistic

Materialism None. No

Pursue the

Letters

sm

teachings

n

sort of

:

afterlife.

highest

and

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts
 

polytheis

everything

 

of Epicurus

(c.300

BCE),

Athens.

m: the

gods

exist, but

take no

notice of

humans.

is made of atoms, including gods and the soul.

The soul

dissolves

when the

body

dies.

pleasures

(friendship

and

tranquility)

and avoid

pain.

Principal

Doctrines

of

Epicurus

 

The Falun

Five

(wheel) is

exercises to

an energy

strengthen

source

the Falun.

located in

Cultivation

Zhuan

Founded

by Li

Hongzhi in

10

Countless

gods and

spiritual

the navel.

Goal is

spritual

Not

addresse

of

Falun

truthfulness and

,

other

1992 in

China.

million

beings.

Demonic

transcende d

nce,

benevolenc

e and

writings

by

 

aliens.

achieved

forbearance Master Li

 

by

. Meat

practicing

eating

Falun

discouraged

Gong.

.

 

The

Humans

Gnostic

supreme

can return

scripture

m

Various

teachers

including

ancient

form

extinct;

Valentinus, small

1st-2nd

centuries

CE.

modern

revival

groups

God is

to the

unknowab spiritual

le; the

creator

world

through

god is evil secret

and

knowledge

Return to

the

spiritual

world.

Asceticism,

celibacy

s

including

various

Gospels

and Acts

attribute

 

matter is

of the

d to

evil.

universe.

apostles.

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

Variety of

ancient Olympic

Human life

Beliefs

Animal

Epic

religions of form

pantheon

is subject

varied

sacrifice,

poems of

ancient

extinct

(Zeus,

to the

from no

harvest

Homer

Greeks.

etc.)

whim of

afterlife

offerings,

and

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

mixed

with

eastern

deities

like Isis

and

Cybele

the gods

and to

Fate; these

can be

controlled

through

sacrifice

and

divination.

to

shadowy

existence

in the

underworl

d to a

paradise-

like

afterlife

(mainly in

mystery

religions).

festivals,

games,

processions,

dance,

plays, in

honor

of the Hesiod.

gods. Secret

initiations

and rituals

in mystery

religions.

Bhaktiveda

nta Swami

Prabhupad

a, 1966,

USA (with

roots in

15th-

century

Hindu

250,00

0-1

million

movement

)

Salvation

Krishna is

the

Supreme

God.

from this

Age of Kali is by a return to Godhead,

Reincarna

tion until

unite with

accomplish the

ed through Godhead.

Krishna-

Consciousn

Chanting, dancing, evangelism, The vegetarianis Bhagava

m, temple

worship,

monastic-

style living

d-Gita As

It Is

ess.

Indigenous

religion of

India as

developed

900

million

to present

day.

One

Supreme

Reality

Humans

are in

bondage to

ignorance

and

illusion, but

are able to

(Brahman) escape. manifeste Purpose is

d in many to gain

gods and

release

goddesses from rebirth, or at least a better rebirth.

Yoga,

meditation,

worship

(puja), devotion to Reincarna a god or

tion until

gain

goddess,

pilgrimage

enlighten to holy

ment.

cities, live

according to

one's

The

Vedas,

Upanisha

ds,

Bhagava

d Gita,

Ramayan

a, etc.

dharma

(purpose/

role).

Based on

1.3

One God

Humans

ResurrectiFive Pillars: Qur'an

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

teachings of the Prophet Muhamma d; founded billion 622 CE in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

(Allah in Arabic); the same God revealed (imperfect ly) in the Jewish and Christian Bibles

must submit (islam) to the will of God to gain Paradise after death.

on of

body and

soul

followed

by

Paradise

or Hell

Founded

by

Mahavira,

4

c. 550 BCE, million eastern India

The

universe

is eternal;

many

gods

exist.

Gods,

humans

and all

The soul is uncreated and eternal and can attain perfect divinity. Purpose is to gain liberation from cycle of rebirth,

Reincarna

tion until

liberation

is

living

by

avoiding attained

things are all bad

classified

in a

complex

hierarchy.

karma, especially by causing no harm to any sentient being.

Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting. Mosque services on Fridays.

Monasticism

(Scriptur

Ablutions

e);

before

Hadith

prayer. No

(tradition

alcohol or

)

pork. Holidays related to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan.

under the

Five Great

Vows (Non-

Violence,

Truth,

The

Celibacy,

teaching

Non-

s of

Stealing,

Mahavira

Non-

in

Possessiven various

ess);

collectio

worship at

ns.

temples and

at home.

Meditation

and

mantras.

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

Founded

by Charles

Taze

Witnesses Russell,

1879,

Pittsburgh

6.5

million

Heaven

for

One God:

144,000

Salvation is chosen

Jehovah. No Trinity. Christ is

through faith in Christ and

the first creation of God; the Holy Spirit is a force.

obeying Jehovah's laws. The End of the World is soon.

Witnesse

s,

eternity

on new

earth for

other

Witnesse

s. All

others

annihilate

d. No

hell.

No blood transfusions , no celebration of holidays, no use of crosses or religious images. Baptism, Sunday service at Kingdom Hall, strong emphasis on evangelism.

New World Translati on of the Scripture s

The

religion of

the

Hebrews

(c. 1300

BC),

especially

after the

14

million

destruction

of the

Second

Temple in

70 AD.

One God:

Yahweh

(YHVH)

Not historicall Circumcisio

y

n at birth,

emphasiz bar/bat

Obey God's

command

ments, live

ethically.

Focus is

more on

this life

than the

next.

ed.

Beliefs

mitzvah at

adulthood.

vary from Synagogue

no

afterlife

to

shadowy

services on

Saturdays.

No pork or other non-

existence kosher

to the

World to

foods.

Holidays

Come

related to

(similar

to

historical

events.

heaven).

Hebrew

Bible

(Tanakh);

Talmud

3rd

At one

Many

century CE time up gods,

Appease

and

The soul

journeys

Astronomy,

divination,

Dresden

Codex;

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
Texts
nts

to 2

million.

Today,

several

million

Maya

practic (rise of the e a

Mayan

Roman

civilization) Catholi

;

influenced

by Olmec

religion

cism

that

retains

many

including

Itzamná,

Kukulcán,

Bolon

Tzacab,

and Chac

elemen

ts of

traditio

nal

Mayan

religion

through

dark and

threateni

ng

human

nourish the underworl sacrifice,

gods;

determine

luckiest

dates for

various

activities.

d; but

elaborate

sacrificial burial for

victims

and

women

royalty,

worship in

stone

who die

in

childbirth

pyramid-

temples

go to

heaven.

.

Madrid

Codex;

Paris

codex;

Books of

Chilam

Balam;

Popol

Vuh; The

Ritual of

the

Bacabs

m

Founded

by Joseph

Smith,

12.2

million

1830, New

York.

God the

Father,

the Son

Jesus

Christ,

and the

Holy

Ghost are

three

separate

individual

beings

Humans

All return Abstinence

Christian

existed as

spirits

before this

life,

to spirit

world for

period of

from

alcohol,

tobacco,

instructio coffee and

salvation is n before

tea;

returning

to God.

resurrecti baptism for

on.

the dead;

Salvation by faith in Christ, good works,

Mormons

eternal

to heaven marriage;

with God

and

families;

temple

garments

under daily

ordinances, others

clothes;

and

rewarded active

Bible,

Book of

Mormon,

Doctrine

and

Covenant

s, and

Pearl of

Great

Price

evangelism but not

.

with God;

evangelism.

hell for

those

Adhere Origins God(s) Human Life Afterlife Practices Texts nts
Adhere
Origins
God(s)
Human Life Afterlife
Practices
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"One God

whose

proper

name is

Allah."

Wallace

Fard

Founded

by Wallace

Fard

Muhamma

d, 1930,

Detroit,

USA.

Muhamma

Estimat d became

es

range

from

10,000

to

100,00

0

the divine messiah

and incarnatio n of Allah in 1930.

The Earth is over 76 trillion years old and all land was once called "Asia."

"The

Blackman

is the

original

man." Live

righteously

and

worship

Allah.

who

reject

God after

death.

Mental

Prayer five times a day. Work for the equality of the African race. Respect

resurrecti laws of the

on of the

land, don't

righteous carry arms,

. Black

don't make

people

war. Healthy

will be

living and

mentally

abstinence

resurrect

from

ed first.

alcohol,

smoking

and

substance

abuse.

Modest

dress.

Qur'an and "Scriptur es of all the Prophets of God" are holy texts. Influentia l writings include Elijah Muhamm ad's Message to the Blackma n in America

(1965)

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Neoplatoni Philosophy

sm

based on

the

teachings

of Plotinus,

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Porphyry, Iamblichus, and others. Flourished 200s to 500s CE in western Europe; influential on Christian and Jewish theology.

Helena

Petrovna

Blavatsky

and Annie

Besant in

the 19th C, Alice A. Bailey

5

million

(1880-

1949),

flourished

in 1970s

and 80s

Dawning of a New Age of heightened consciousn ess and internation al peace. Individuals

Astrology;

mysticism;

use of

crystals;

yoga; tarot

The Divine can obtain

is an

a foretaste

impersona of the New l life force Age

that

pervades

all things

through

spiritual

transforma

tion

readings;

Reincarna

tion

based on

karma

holistic

medicine;

psychic

abilities;

angelic

Works of

a variety

of New

Age

writers

communicat

ions;

("Ascensio

n"). More

emphasis

on the

latter now.

channeling;

amulets;

fortune-

telling

Evil comes

from

ignorance.

New

Founded by Phineas 0

160,00

Generally

monism

Man is

divine,

"Life is

Emphasis

eternal in on spiritual

Writings

of

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Parkhurst

Quimby

(1802-66)

and others,

late 19th

century,

USA.

(all is One), but members might be theists, pantheists or panenthei sts. God is immanent ; the universe is essentially spiritual.

essentially spirit, and has infinite possibility. Mind can control the body. Sin and sickness caused by incorrect thinking. Man can live in oneness with God in love, truth, peace, health, and prosperity.

the

invisible

kingdom

of God."

and mental

healing, but

without

rejection of

modern

medicine.

Worship

services;

prayer for

the sick;

discussion

of New

Thought

Quimby

(such as

the The

Quimby

Manuscri

pts) and

other

New

Thought

authors

authors and

ideas.

Mesoameri

ca (modern

Veracruz

and

Tabasco,

Mexico), c.

1200-400

mostly

extinct

BCE.

Forerunner

of Aztecs

and Maya.

Mostly unknown due to lack of written records. Many gods represent ed in art, including the Olmec Dragon, Maize Deity, Bird Monster, and Were- Jaguar.

unknown, but art indicates importance unknown of fertility (rain, corn, etc.)

sacrifices, large sculptures of human heads, cave none rituals, pilgrimages, ball-courts, pyramids

Founded

by Marcus

1

million

God is Jah, Humans

who

are

Some

Many

Holy Piby

Rastas

practices

(the

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

based on

Jewish

 

Garvey in

the slums

of Jamaica

in the

1920s and

30s

became

incarnate

in Jesus

(who was

black);

Ethiopian

Emperor

Haile

Selassie I

was

messiah.

temples of

Jah.

Salvation is

primarily in

this world

and

consists of

liberation

from

oppression

and return

to Africa.

will

biblical Law.

experienc Abstinence

e

from most

"everlivin or all meat,

g"

(physical

artificial

foods, and

immortali alcohol. Use

ty).

of

Heaven is marijuana

a return

to Eden,

which is

in religious

rituals and

for

"Blackma

n's

Bible").

The

Ethiopian

epic

Kebra

Negast

also

revered.

 

in Africa.

medicine.

 

Wearing of

dreadlocks.

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

Human

consists of

y

Founded by L. Ron Hubbard,

1954,

California

70,000

or

several

million,

depend

ing on

the

body, mind God(s) not and thetan;

specified;

reality

explained

in the

Eight

capable of

great

things.

Gain

spiritual

Auditing, progressing Writings

up various levels until Reincarna "clear".

tion

Focus on

education

and drug

of

Hubbard,

such as

Dianetics

and

Scientolo

 

source

Dynamics freedom by

 

recovery

gy

 

ridding mind of engrams.

programs.

Rooted in

25

(same as

Live in

The dead

24-hour

Christian

Day

the

million

Christianit accordance are in

Sabbath

Bible;

Millerite

y); Ellen

with the

unconscio

observance

writings

Movement

G. White

Bible,

us sleep

starting

of Ellen

of the

considere

including

until the

Friday at

G. White

1830s;

d a

the Old

Resurrecti

sunset;

as

based on

prophet

Testament. on, when

adult

helpful

teachings

The Second believers

baptism by

supplem

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of Ellen G. White; founded in Battle Creek, Michigan in

1863.

will enter

heaven Coming will and the

happen

soon.

wicked

will be

immersion;

church

services

emphasizin

destroyed g sermon

. No hell.

ent

indigenous

religion of

Japan

3-4

million

kami:

ancient

gods or

spirits

Humans are pure by nature and can keep away evil through purification rituals and attain good things by calling on the kami.

Death is

bad and

impure.

Some

humans

become

kami

after

death.

Kojiki Worship and (Records

offerings to

kami at

of

Ancient

shrines and

at home.

Purification

rituals.

Matters);

Nihon-gi

(Chronicl

es of

Japan)

Founded

by Guru

Nanak, c.

1500,

Punjab,

India.

23

million

one God:

Ik Onkar

Overcome the self, align life with will of

God, and become a "saint soldier," fighting for good.

Prayer and meditation on God's name, services at Reincarna temple

tion until

resolve

karma

and

merge

(gurdwara), Adi

turban and

five Ks.

Balance

work,

Granth

(Sri Guru

Granth

Sahib)

with God. worship,

and charity.

No

monasticis

m or

asceticism.

m

c.1850,

USA, UK,

France

11

million

Generally

Body and

based in a spirit are

Christian

separate

A spiritual Sunday existence services.

with

Seances

No

authorita

tive

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access to

texts.

the living.

Doctrine

 

worldview.

Main

focus is

spirits of

deceased

humans.

entities.

Morality

and

contact

with spirits

affect

afterlife.

Condition depends on morality of life and advance ment is

and other

communicat

ion with

departed

spirits.

Spirit

healing.

learned

from

spirit

guides

(advance

d

departed

 

possible.

spirits).

 
 

Possible

Ethical and

 

Based on

4th

century

BCE

Athens

Purpose of

continued philosophic

teachings of Zeno in

unknow

n

writings

Pantheism life is : the logos happiness,

pervades

the

universe.

which is

achieved

by living

existence al training,

of the

Soul, but

not a

personal

  • self- of Zeno,

reflection,

careful

judgment

Seneca,

Epictetus

, Marcus

Aurelius

reasonably. existence and inner

 

.

calm.

Revert

General attitude of

Tao Te

Ching,

Chuang-

Tzu

 
  • 20 Purpose is Pantheism inner

million

back to

detachment and non-

 

based on

(394

- the Tao

harmony,

state of

struggle,

the

million

pervades

peace, and non-

"go with the

teachings

of

all. Yin-

longevity.

being,

of Lao-Tzu, Chinese yang -

Acheived

which is

flow" of the Tao. Tai-chi,

 

c. 550 BCE, religion opposites

by living in

simply

acupunctur

China

in

make up a accordance the other

e, and

 

general unity.

with the

side of

alchemy to

)

Tao.

being.

help longevity.

Unification founded by Over 1

Monotheis Purpose is

Eternal

Blessing

The

Sun Myung million

m, with

true love

life in a

Ceremony

Divine

Moon,

(3

the

and world

spirit

Principle

1954,

million

duality of

peace

world.

(1954)

South

acc. to

God (esp.

instead of

by Rev.

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selfish

love. True love and masculine the

Korea

official

sources

)

and

feminine)

emphasiz

ed. No

Trinity.

kingdom of

God on

earth will

be restored

by the

creation of

"true

families."

Moon.

sm

Result of

merger of

two liberal

Christian

denominati

ons in

1961:

Unitarians

800,00

(who reject 0 Trinity) and Universalis ts (who reject hell). No longer exclusively Christian.

Not

specified.

Members

might

believe in

one God,

many

gods, or

no God.

Ceremonies

for

Not

marriages,

funerals,

Salvation is

"spiritual

health or

wholeness.

" Members

seek "inner

and outer

peace,"

insight,

health,

compassio

n and

strength.

specified. etc. Church

Some

services

believe in have

an

afterlife,

some do

not. Very

few

elements

from

various

religions.

Emphasis

believe in on civil

hell -

rights,

"Universa social

lism"

indicates

justice,

equality and

the belief environmen

that all

will be

saved.

t. Most UUs are anti- death penalty and pro-gay rights.

Many

sacred

texts are

revered

by

various

members

; some

none at

all. The

Bible is

the most

commonl

y used

text.

Based on

ancient

pagan

1-3

million

beliefs, but

Polytheis

m,

centered

on the

"If it harms Reincarna Prayer,

none, do

what you

tion until

casting a

reach the circle,

Summerl

Drawing

No

sacred

text;

foundatio

 

Adhere

 

Origins

nts

God(s)

Human Life Afterlife

Practices

Texts

 

nal texts

 

modern

form

founded

early

1900s.

Founder generally said to be Gerald Gardner.

Goddess and God, each in various forms; also a belief in a Supreme Being over all

will."

and.

Down the

Moon,

reciting

spells,

dancing,

singing,

sharing

cakes and

wine or

beer

include

The

Witch

Cult in

Western

Europe