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868

Abstracts

asymmetrical biomechanics, the best example is a structural or functional short leg, most often lose the battle
against gravitational forces sooner than those who are musculoskeletally symmetrical.
The role of the clinician is to be aware of such biomechanical changes, diagnose the total condition properly,
assist the individual in normalizing his antigravity biomechanics (posture) and maintaining the dynamic
stabilizing qualities of the musculature that unfortunately diminish with age.
FATIGUE

BEHAVIOR

OF IIMMATURE PRIMATE

CORTICAL

BONE*

T. S. KELLER, J. D. LOVIN, D. M. SPENGLERand D. R. CARTER (Orthopaedic Research Laboratory,


SVAMC, Seattle. WA 98108, U.S.A.)
Strain controlled uniaxial fatigue and monotonic tensile failure tests were conducted on turned cortical bone
specimens obtained from immature primate femora, comparing bone obtained from anatomically different
regions within the same bone. A strain range of 0.006 and strain rate of 0.02 s- resulted in increased hysteresis
and loss of bone stiffness similar lo that reported for mature bone femora. Results showed that bone fatigue
resistance decreased with increasing age in the range 50,000 cycles to I lo0 cycles. The ultimate stress and strain of
the proximal femoral sections were greater than the distal femoral sections. The fatigue resistance and moduli of
the anterior > posterior > lateral > medial sections, indicating that bone fatigue damage accumulates more
rapidly in anatomical regions of bone with few or no muscle insertion sites.
* Research funded by the Veterans Administration.
A THEORETICAL

MODEL

FOR MECHANICALLY

INDUCED

BONE REMODELING

p. T. DAVY and R. T. HART (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, U.S.A. and Tulane

University, New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.)


A unilied model is proposed for relating the remodeling response of bone to the local strain history. The
relationship between strain history and remodeling history is regarded as a feedback-modulated process with
external load history as an input. The local strain history is assumed to elicit a strain remodeling signal which is
modulated by metabolic and genetic factors. The resulting remodeling potential determines rate of recruitment
and activation ofosteoblasts and osteoclasts. The sum of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity determines the rate
at which geometric properties and material properties change thereby producing the feedback to the strain
history. The various relationships in the loop are assumed to be time dependent. Representing these relations as
dilferential equations leads to specific model forms which allow for strain rate effects on remodeling which have
been reported experimentally.
SURFACE STRAIN STUDIES OF THE HUMAN

PATELLA

S. A. GOLDSTEIN,

A.-P. C. WEISS, R. KASMAN and L. S. MATTHEWS (The Biomechanics, Trauma and


Sports Medicine Laboratory, University of Michigan Medical Centre, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. U.S.A.)

middle and distal poles of the anterior surface of fresh human


cadaver patellas in seventeen intact knee joints. Using a custom loading apparatus, strain recordings were made
with the knees flexed from 0 to 90 in 15 increments, at quadriceps loads of 0-I8OON.
After testing, all knees were removed from the loading fixture and a total knee arthroplasty with patellar
replacement was performed using either a domed or bifaceted patellar prosthesis. The experiment was then
repeated. All strain recordings were documented as a function of load, flexion angle, location and prosthetic
replacement.

Three strain gages were cemented on proximal,

ANALYSIS

OF THE GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HUMAN


USING COMPUTER AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY

LONG BONES

D. L. DICKIE and S. A. GOLDSTEIN (The Biomechanics, Trauma and Sports Medicine Laboratory,
Section of Orthopaedic Surgery)
M. J. FLYNN (Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center)
P. BRIDGES(Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan Medical Center)
The study of the strength of bone as the human form has evolved has been of interest in the field of biomechanics
for decades. The spatial distribution of bone material can provide much information regarding bone function.
Due lo the value of many fossils, some bones cannot be physically altered (i.e. sectioned) in order to examine
material distribution characteristics. The application of computed tomography provides a nondestructive
modality with sufficient resolution to accurately determine the geometric properties of bone. Samples of two
ancient Indian populations have been analyzed to compare the effects of pre and post agricultural lifestyles of
bones geometric properties. These properties have been computed directly from the digital CT output data
following an interactive question/response session for each cross section.