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SME 2123

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS II
Dr. Zaini Ahmad
B.Eng (Hons)(Mech), M.Sc (Structures &
Crashworthiness), Ph.D (Structural Impact)
Department of Applied Mechanics & Design,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
Tel : (+607) 553 4647(Office)
Tel : (+6012) 717 0581 (Mobile)
Email: azaini@fkm.utm.my

Mechanics of Solids II

Strain Analysis

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain)

General state of strain at a point in a body is represented


by 3 normal strains x y z and 3 shear strains . x y z

The normal and shear strain components will vary


according to the orientation of the element

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain)

Plane strain one dimension is very large compared to the other


two (z = 0, xz = 0 and yz = 0) (e.g. tunnel, dam, retaining wall, etc)

Retaining wall

Earth dam

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain)
dx dx ' cos
dy dy ' sin
dx ' x dx cos y dy sin xy dy cos

x ' x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)

Strain transformation equations: x'


y'

x y

2
x y

x y

2
x y

cos 2
cos 2

xy
2

xy

sin 2
sin 2

2
2
2
x' y'
xy
x y
sin 2

cos 2
2
2
2

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)

Principal strain: xy
tan 2 p
x y

1, 2

x y
2

x y xy


2 2

Maximum In-Plain Shear Strain - the associated average


normal strain:x y

tan 2 S

xy

max in -plane
2

x y

xy

, avg

x y
2

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)
Example 1:A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a state of plane strain

6
6
6
defined by x 350 10 , y 200 10 , xy 80 10 which tends to distort the

element. Determine:i)

The principal strain at the point and the associated orientation of the element

and show the state of strain on the principal plane

ii) The maximum in-plane shear strain at the point and the associated orientation
of the element and sketch the distorted element.

iii) The equivalent strains acting on an element oriented at the point clockwise
60o from the original position

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)
Orientation of the element:6
xy

80
(
10
)

tan 2 P
350 200(10 6 )

y
x
2 P 8.28 and - 8.28 180 171.72

1, 2

x y
2

P 4.142and 85.92
x y xy

350 20010 6

350 200 80
6

10
2

1 203(10 6 )
2 353(10 6 )
Substitute = -4.14o into strain transformation eq.
to determine the deformation of the element

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)
Orientation of the
element:x y
350 200
tan 2 s

80

xy
s 40.9 and 131

For maximum in-plane shear strain,

max in plane
2

x y xy


2 2

max in plane 556 10 6

avg

x y
2

350 200 6
(10 ) 75(106 )
2

Strain Analysis
(Plane Strain Transformation)
x'

x y

x y

xy

cos 2
sin 2
2
2
2
350 200 350 200
80
x'

cos 2(60o ) sin 2(60o ) 27.86


2
2
2
x' y'

x y
sin 2 xy cos 2

2
2
2

x' y'

80
350 200
o
o

sin 2(60 ) cos 2(60 ) 258.16
2
2
2

x y x y
xy
y'

cos 2
sin 2 (* if = -60o is used)
2
2
2
x y x y
xy
y'

cos 2
sin 2 (* if = -60o+90o=30o is used)
2
2
2
y ' 177.86

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)

Solve problems involving the transformation of strain using


Mohrs circle

It has a center on the axis at point C(avg, 0) and a radius R

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
Example 2:The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the components

x 250106 , y 150106 , xy 120106

Determine the maximum in-plane shear strains and the orientation of an


element.

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
250 (150) 6

10 5010 6
2
250 (150) 2 120 2
10 6 208.810 6
R


2
2

From the coordinates of point E, we have

avg

x ' y ' max in plane

x ' y ' max in plane

208.8 10 6

418 10 6

To orient the element,


we can determine the clockwise
angle,

60
2 s1 90 tan 1
90 28.35
250 50

s 36.7
1

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
Example 3:The state of strain at the point on the gear tooth has the components .
x 520 106 , y 760 106 , xy 750 106
Use the strain transformation equations to determine:a) The in-plane principal strains
b) The maximum in-plane shear strain and average normal strain
In each case, specify the orientation of the element and show how the strains
deform the element within the x-y plane

Ans (1 = 622, 2 = -862, avg =-120)

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)

Absolute maximum shear strain

Circle with the largest radius

It occurs on the element oriented 45o about the axis

abs max max min


max min
avg
2

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)

For plain strain:-

abs max x ' z ' max max

abs max x ' y ' max max min

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
Example 4:The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the strain components,

x 400106 , y 200106 , xy 150106

Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear
strain.

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
From the strain components, the centre of the circle is on the axis at

avg
Since

xy
2

400 200 6
10 100 106
2

6
6
75 106 , the reference point has coordinates A 40010 ,7510

Thus the radius of the circle is

R 400 100 752 106 309 109

Computing the in-plane principal strains, we have

max 100 309106 209106

min 100 309106 409106

Strain Analysis
(Mohrs Circle - Plane Strain)
From the circle, the maximum in-plane shear strain is

max in plane abs max min 209 409106 618106


max

6
6
From the above results, we have max 209 10 , int 0 , min 409 10

Thus the Mohrs circle is as follows,

Strain Analysis
(Strain Rosettes)

Normal strain in a tension-test specimen can be


measured using an electrical-resistance strain gauge
strain rosettes.

The strain-transformation equation for each gauge: a x cos 2 a y sin 2 a xy sin a cos a
b x cos 2 b y sin 2 b xy sin b cos b
c x cos 2 c y sin 2 c xy sin c cos c

Strain Analysis
(Strain Rosettes)

Two types of typical strain measurement using strain


rosettes 45o and 60o rosettes

Strain Analysis
(Strain Rosettes)
Example 5:The state of strain at point A on the bracket is measure using the strain rosette
as shown. Due to the loadings, the readings from the gauge give a = 60(10-6),
b = 135(10-6) and c = 264(10-6). Determine the in-plane principal strains at the
point and the directions in which they act.

Strain Analysis
(Strain Rosettes)
Measuring the angles counter-clockwise, a 0, b 60 and c 120
By substituting the values into the 3 strain-transformation equations, we have

x 60106 , y 246106 , xy 149106

Using Mohrs circle, we have A(60(10-6), 74.5(10-6)) and center C (153(10-6), 0).

2
R 153 60 74.52 10 6 119.1 10 6

1 272 106 , 2 33.8 106 , p2 19.3

Strain Analysis
(Strain Rosettes)
Example 6:The 45o strain rosette is mounted near the tooth of the wrench. The following readings
are obtained for each gauge give a = 800(10-6), b = 520(10-6) and c = -450(10-6).
Determine (a) the in-plane principal strains and (b) the maximum in-plane shear strain
and associated average normal strain. In each case, show the deformed element due
to these strains.

Ans (1 = 889, 2 = -539, max/2 =1428, avg =175)

Strain Analysis
(Material Property Relationship)

Generalized Hookes Law:For a tri-axial state of stress, the general form for
Hookes law is as follow:

1
1
1
x v y z , y y v x z , z z v x y
E
E
E

Valid only for a linearelastic materials

Hookes law for shear stress and shear strain is


written as

xy

1
xy
G

yz

1
yz
G

xz

1
xz
G

Strain Analysis
(Material Property Relationship)

Relationship involving E, v and G:-

E
G
21 v

Bulk modulus - a measure of the stiffness of a volume


of material

E
k
31 2v

Strain Analysis
(Material Property Relationship)
Example 7:The copper bar is subjected to a uniform loading along its edges. If
it has a = 300 mm, b = 50 mm, and t = 20 mm before load is applied,
find its new length, width and thickness after application of the load.
Take Ecu 120 GPa , vcu 0.34

Strain Analysis
(Material Property Relationship)
From the loading we have

x 800 MPa , y 500 MPa , z 0

The associated normal strains are determined from the generalized Hookes law,
x

x
E

v
y z 0.00808 , y y v x z 0.00643 , z z v x y 0.000850
E
E E
E E

The new bar length, width, and thickness are therefore

a' 300 0.00808300 302.4 mm


b' 50 0.0064350 49.68 mm
t ' 20 0.00085020 19.98 mm

Strain Analysis
(Material Property Relationship)
Example 7: Final exam question
A cantilevered T-structure made from 40
mm-diameter bars, supports forces 1 kN and
3 kN. The material is mild steel which the
elastic modulus is 200 GPa, the shear
modulus is 75 GPa and Poissons ratio is 0.3.
Point E which is on the side of the bar AB, is
to be analyzed.
i) Find the principal stresses at point E and
sketch the orientation and deformation
of the element in this condition
ii) Find the in-plane maximum shear stress
at point E and sketch the orientation and
deformation of the element in this
condition.
iii) At point E, calculate the normal strain in
the direction 30o to the axial direction as
shown in this figure

Strain Analysis
Assignment 1:-

Three strain gauges were fixed onto a surface of a automotive frame.


Under loading, the readings of the gauges were:-

a P1
a)

b)

c)

b P2

c P3

25o

x
By sketching Mohrs circle and using trigonometry method,
determine the value of the principal strains and maximum shear
strain, and draw the orientation and the element under these
P5o
a
conditions. Verify your answers using the strain transformation
equations.
Calculate x, y and xy using material properties relation. By
plotting Mohrs circle on graph paper, determine the values of
the principle stresses and maximum shear stress, and draw the
orientation and the element under this condition. Also, verify your
answers using the stress transformation equations (E = 200
GPa, G = 75 GPa, v = 0.35)
Determine the values of the normal stress, shear stress, normal
strain and shear strain at direction P4o (clockwise) from the xaxis and draw the orientation of element for each condition
Due date for submission: 11 Oct 2013

Strain Analysis
Group 1
P1= 220
P2= -130
P3= 100
P4= 25o
P5= 65o

Group 2
P1= -220
P2= 130
P3= 150
P4= 20o
P5= 45o

Group 3
P1= 150
P2= -180
P3= -110
P4= 38o
P5= 60o

Group 4
P1= 190
P2= -100
P3= -95
P4= 30o
P5= 53o

Group 5
P1= 150
P2= -130
P3= -100
P4= 32o
P5= 50o

Group 6
P1= -300
P2= -180
P3= 110
P4= 30o
P5= 75o

Group 7
P1= 280
P2= 100
P3= -150
P4= 40o
P5= 55o

Group 8
P1= -190
P2= 130
P3= -120
P4= 55o
P5= 70o

Group 9
P1= -300
P2= -200
P3= -95
P4= 35o
P5= 80o

Group 10
P1= 320
P2= -230
P3= -130
P4= 15o
P5= 77o