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Asexual reproduction

generates offspring that are genetically identical to a single parent.

  • Any reproductive process that does not involve meiosis or syngamy is said to be asexual, or vegetative. The absence of syngamy means that such an event can occur in the sporophyte generation or the gametophyte stage. Because of the lack of new genetic material, an organism clones itself through this process and makes genetically identical organisms. This can be advantageous in some circumstances, but deleterious in others, depending on how the makeup of the plant suits its ecosystem. There are a few major ways in which plants asexually reproduce in their life cycles to secure future generations.

  • New plants can grow by the separation of parts of the original plant. When fragmentation, or division, occurs, an offspring is created by the breakup of a single part of the plant. By planting parts of the tuber of a potato, one can create new organisms with the same genetic makeup. When weeds are broken apart, they can regrow from each fragmented underground stem. In Marchantia, fragmentaion of the thallus gives rise to vegitative reproduction. When rain drops hit the plants, these structures are splashed out and may germinate into completely new plants. With these vegetative structures, many clones can be formed from one original parent. Bulbs and Rhizomes are also examples of asexual reproduction.

  • Special dispersal structures such as a capsule and a hood, and mini adults may also aid a plant when it reproduces asexually. Gemma cups are an example of a dispersal structure that leads to a genetically identical organism. With mini-adults, the morphology of the reproductive unit is similar to that of the parent. A plant may produce plantlets (mini plants) on its stems or leaves that will later germinate into clones of the original.

  • Finally, some plants have developed a way to produce seeds without their flowers being fertilized. In apomixis, an embryo is created from a diploid cell in the ovule. Then the ovules mature into seeds. The dandelion is one plant that uses this form of vegitative reproduction.

  • Asexual reproduction can be advantageous and/or disadvatageous. One positive

aspect is that it can create individuals rapidly and in large quantities. Secondly, bypassing the sexual process can help a plant in times of dryness since motile sperm require water to fertilize the egg. Another advantage lies in the fact that plants with the desired characteristics can be cloned for economic reasons (agriculture). However, if something goes wrong, such as as the occurance of a fatal mutation, the whole society of clones can be terminated. For this reason, farmers are careful in determining how to propagate their vegetation. In conclusion, the asexual process of reproduction is an important one to plants.

Fragmentation

Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. Each fragment develops into a mature, fully grown individual. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as animals (some annelid worms [Which ones?] , turbellarians and sea stars), fungi, and plants. Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as gemma in liverworts. Most lichens, which are a symbiotic union of a fungus and photosynthetic algae or bacteria, reproduce through fragmentation to ensure that new individuals contain both symbiont. These fragments can take the form of soredia, dust-like particles consisting of fungal hyphen wrapped around photobiont cells.

Clonal Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. In echinoderms, this method of reproduction is usually known as fissiparity.

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, andecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans. [1] [2] Regeneration can either be complete [3] where the new tissue is the same as the lost tissue, [3] or incomplete [4] where after the necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. [4] At its most elementary level, regeneration is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. [5][6] Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to themorphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. [7] Regeneration is different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but reproduce by the method of budding.

The hydra and the planarian flatworm have long served as model organisms for their highly adaptive regenerative capabilities. [8] Once wounded, their cells become activated and start to remodel tissues and organs back to the pre-existing state. [9] The Caudata ("urodeles"; salamanders and newts), an order of tailed amphibians, is possibly the most adeptvertebrate group at regeneration, given their capability of regenerating limbs, tails, jaws, eyes and a variety of internal structures. [1] The regeneration of organs is a common and widespread adaptive capability among metazoan creatures. [8] In a related context, some animals are able to reproduce asexually through fragmentation, budding, or fission. [7] A planarian parent, for example, will constrict, split in the middle, and each half generates a new end to form two clones of the original. [10] Echinoderms (such as the starfish), crayfish, many reptiles, and amphibians exhibit remarkable examples of tissue regeneration. The case of autotomy, for example, serves as a defensive function as the animal detaches a limb or tail to avoid capture. After the limb or tail has been autotomized, cells move into action and the tissues will regenerate.

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Sun flower sea star regenerates its arms

Sun flower <a href=sea star regenerates its arms Dwarf yellow-headed gecko with regenerating tail " id="pdf-obj-2-10" src="pdf-obj-2-10.jpg">

Dwarf yellow-headed gecko with regenerating tail