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Introduction to Formation Evaluation By Abiodun Matthew Amao Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE
Introduction to Formation Evaluation By Abiodun Matthew Amao Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE

Introduction to Formation

Evaluation

By

Abiodun Matthew Amao

Lecture Outline • What is formation evaluation? • Why do we evaluate formation? • What

Lecture Outline

Lecture Outline • What is formation evaluation? • Why do we evaluate formation? • What do

What is formation evaluation?

Why do we evaluate formation?

What do we evaluate?

What data are we interested in?

Who needs these data?

What tools and methodology?

Summary

References

What is formation evaluation? • Formation evaluation is the application of scientific principles, engineering

What is formation evaluation?

What is formation evaluation? • Formation evaluation is the application of scientific principles, engineering

Formation evaluation is the application of scientific

principles, engineering concepts and technological

innovations in the exploration and prospecting of hydrocarbon resources in geological formations in an environmentally sustainable and responsible manner.

It involves detailed and systematic data acquisition,

gathering, analysis and interpretation both qualitatively and quantitatively while applying scientific and engineering principles.

It is an ever growing and evolving field of petroleum engineering

Petrophysicists are engineers or geologists that

specialize in the profession of formation evaluation.

Why do we evaluate formation? • We want answers to the following questions: • Is

Why do we evaluate formation?

Why do we evaluate formation? • We want answers to the following questions: • Is there

We want answers to the following questions:

Is there any oil or gas there?

Where are they located?

How much of it?

How much can we produce, which answers the

question, “How much money can we make?”

What do we evaluate? • We evaluate a reservoir; a reservoir is the “container” storing

What do we evaluate?

What do we evaluate? • We evaluate a reservoir; a reservoir is the “container” storing the

We evaluate a reservoir; a reservoir is the

“container” storing the hydrocarbon.

A conventional reservoir will be characterized

by the following properties;

Trap/Cap Rock

Source Rock

Porous and Permeable media

Hydrocarbons (Gas or Oil)

What data are we interested in? • Rock Type • Porosity • Fluid Saturation (Volumes)

What data are we interested in?

What data are we interested in? • Rock Type • Porosity • Fluid Saturation (Volumes) •

Rock Type

Porosity

Fluid Saturation (Volumes)

Fluid Type

Reservoir Structure

Permeability (Ease of fluid flow within porous media)

Reservoir Pressure (Drive)

Scale in Formation Evaluation Order of Magnitude (Meters) Formation Evaluation Technique Purpose 10 6
Scale in Formation Evaluation Order of Magnitude (Meters) Formation Evaluation Technique Purpose 10 6

Scale in Formation Evaluation

Order of Magnitude (Meters)

Formation Evaluation Technique

Purpose

10

6

Satellite Imagery

 

10

5

Basin Geologic Studies

Gross Structure

10

4

Seismic, gravity, magnetics

10

3

Borehole gravimeter, Ultra long spacing electric logs

Local Structure

10

2

Drill Stem Tests

Productivity and Reserves

10

1

Wireline Formation tests

10

0

Full diameter cores (Whole Core)

Local Porosity, permeability and Lithology

10

-1

Sidewall cores, LWD, Wireline

10

-2

Core-plug analysis, micro-logs

 

10

-3

Cutting analysis, mud logging

Local Hydrocarbon Content

10

-4

Core analysis

Rock Properties

10

-5

X-ray mineralogy

Rock and clay typing

10

-6

Scanning Electron Microscope

Micro-structure

7

Who Needs What Data? Discipline Data Geophysicist Time-Depth relationship for seismic profile Geologist

Who Needs What Data?

Who Needs What Data? Discipline Data Geophysicist Time-Depth relationship for seismic profile Geologist

Discipline

Data

Geophysicist

Time-Depth relationship for seismic profile

Geologist

Stratigraphy, Structural Sedimentary features,

Mineralogy, bedding planes

Reservoir Engineer

Porosity, permeability, fluid contacts, reservoir pressure, producibility

Drilling Engineer

Reservoir targets, offset log data if any

Production Engineer

Rock mechanical properties, reservoir pressures, flow potential, flow assurance issues, fluid types

Manager

Hydrocarbon in place, recoverability, cost of development, profitability

Government

Keeps a record of All data, field development plan

(Regulator)

(FDP), Profitability for the national economy

What tools and methodology? Seismic Survey Well Mud Testing Logging (PTA) Formation Evaluation Formation Fluid

What tools and methodology?

What tools and methodology? Seismic Survey Well Mud Testing Logging (PTA) Formation Evaluation Formation Fluid
Seismic Survey Well Mud Testing Logging (PTA) Formation Evaluation Formation Fluid MWD/LWD Sampling Coring
Seismic
Survey
Well
Mud
Testing
Logging
(PTA)
Formation
Evaluation
Formation
Fluid
MWD/LWD
Sampling
Coring and
Wireline
Core
Logging
Analysis
Data from Seismic Survey • Vertical Seismic profile of the earth • Structure of reservoir

Data from Seismic Survey

Data from Seismic Survey • Vertical Seismic profile of the earth • Structure of reservoir •

Vertical Seismic profile of the earth

Structure of reservoir

Location of traps and seals

Depth of structure and geologic layer

Presence of fluids

3D high resolution surveys

Time Lapse seismic (4D Seismic)

Seismic surveys Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 11

Seismic surveys

Seismic surveys Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 11
Seismic surveys Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 11
Seismic surveys Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 11
Seismic surveys Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 11
Data from Mud Logging • Mud logging : Analyzing, evaluating and monitoring drill cuttings and

Data from Mud Logging

Data from Mud Logging • Mud logging : Analyzing, evaluating and monitoring drill cuttings and circulating

Mud logging: Analyzing, evaluating and monitoring

drill cuttings and circulating mud during the drilling

process. Data we can get include;

Lithology, mineralogy and their estimated depths

Hydrocarbon shows and type

Chromatographic analysis of gas

Hazardous gas e.g. H 2 S

Rate of penetration

Fossil record

Overpressure zones

Drill cutting porosity

Mud Logging Units Mud Log Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 13

Mud Logging Units

Mud Logging Units Mud Log Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 13
Mud Log

Mud Log

Data From MWD/LWD • Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD) : These

Data From MWD/LWD

Data From MWD/LWD • Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD) : These describes

Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While

Drilling (LWD) : These describes continuous measurement

taken by down-hole sensors during drilling. The tools (subs) are made up with the BHA (bore hole assembly) drill string. It is an indirect measurement. Data gotten;

Porosity, Lithology

Acoustic

Formation Pressure and Temperature

Resistivity

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Hole deviation from vertical, azimuth from geographic coord.

Tool face angle, ROP etc.

Gamma Ray

MWD/LWD Tools Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 15

MWD/LWD Tools

MWD/LWD Tools Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 15
MWD/LWD Tools Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 15
Data from Wireline Logging • Most versatile of the formation evaluation methods, it is an

Data from Wireline Logging

Data from Wireline Logging • Most versatile of the formation evaluation methods, it is an indirect

Most versatile of the formation evaluation methods, it is an indirect measurement; we can get the following data;

Open Hole Logging

Cased Hole Logging

Porosity

Flow rates

Fluid Sample (Types)

Fluid types

Water Saturation

Pressure

Hydrocarbon movability

Residual oil saturation

Lithology

Cement evaluation (Bonding)

Formation dip and structure

 

Sedimentary Environment

Travel times of elastic waves

Permeability

Fracture and Vugs

Rock mechanical properties

Truck, Skid, Tools and Cable Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 17

Truck, Skid, Tools and Cable

Truck, Skid, Tools and Cable Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 17
Truck, Skid, Tools and Cable Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 17
Data from Core Analysis • Coring: Get unaltered formation sample, bring it to the surface

Data from Core Analysis

Data from Core Analysis • Coring: Get unaltered formation sample, bring it to the surface with

Coring: Get unaltered formation sample, bring it to the

surface with its native fluid, preserve both and transport to a

laboratory for detailed analysis.

Conventional Coring- Used of core bit and BHA

Wireline Cores: Sidewall core guns and Rotary sidewall coring tool

Data gotten from cores are; (These are direct measurements done on the core samples)

Routine core analysis: Porosity, Permeability, Lithology, grain density, Fluid saturation etc.

Special core analysis: Relative permeability, pore-size distribution, mineralogy, SEM, CT-Scan, Electrical properties,

mechanical properties, Capillary pressure, etc.

Tools for Coring on Different Scale Sidewall Core Guns Core bits Monday, September 09, 2013

Tools for Coring on Different

Scale

Tools for Coring on Different Scale Sidewall Core Guns Core bits Monday, September 09, 2013 Well
Sidewall Core Guns Core bits
Sidewall Core Guns
Core bits
Data from Fluid Sampling • Reservoir fluid is sampled using the following methodology; – Drill

Data from Fluid Sampling

Data from Fluid Sampling • Reservoir fluid is sampled using the following methodology; – Drill stem

Reservoir fluid is sampled using the following methodology;

Drill stem testing (DST) or Production Tests

Wireline formation testers

LWD Formation Testers

Surface Samples at the wellhead or separator

Data acquired include;

Fluid Type,

PVT data, Fluid Composition from Lab tests

Pressure and temperature

Viscosity, GOR, API

Asphaltene and wax content

Presence of H 2 S

Formation Tester Telemetry Hydraulics Electronics Packer Drawdown / Pump Large Volume Pump Tank Carrier Borehole

Formation

Tester

Formation Tester Telemetry Hydraulics Electronics Packer Drawdown / Pump Large Volume Pump Tank Carrier Borehole
Telemetry Hydraulics Electronics Packer Drawdown / Pump Large Volume Pump Tank Carrier Borehole Exit V.P.C.
Telemetry
Hydraulics
Electronics
Packer
Drawdown / Pump
Large Volume Pump
Tank Carrier
Borehole Exit
V.P.C.
Extraction manifold
Tank
Tank
Packer Drawdown / Pump Large Volume Pump Tank Carrier Borehole Exit V.P.C. Extraction manifold Tank Tank
Packer Drawdown / Pump Large Volume Pump Tank Carrier Borehole Exit V.P.C. Extraction manifold Tank Tank
Well Testing (Pressure Transient Analysis) • Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA), is the recording of variation

Well Testing (Pressure Transient Analysis)

Well Testing (Pressure Transient Analysis) • Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA), is the recording of variation of

Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA), is the recording of

variation of pressure with time through a wellbore in a

reservoir after a disturbance (shut-in, open to flow etc.) to normal well operations. It is also called;

Well Testing

Flow Tests

Well testing is possible because pressure and flow rate

can easily be measured in a well and an analysis of the

measurement history reflects reservoir parameters.

Pressure measurement can be;

Static (one time measurement)

Last the Duration of a Well test

Continuous e.g. Downhole pressure gauges in wells

Reservoir Properties Obtainable from Various Tests Well Test Reservoir Properties Obtainable Drill Stem Tests

Reservoir Properties Obtainable from Various Tests

Reservoir Properties Obtainable from Various Tests Well Test Reservoir Properties Obtainable Drill Stem Tests

Well Test

Reservoir Properties Obtainable

Drill Stem Tests

Reservoir Behavior, Skin, Permeability, Fracture Length, Reservoir pressure, reservoir limit,

boundaries

Drawdown Tests

Reservoir Behavior, Skin, Permeability, Fracture Length, reservoir limit, boundaries.

Buildup Tests

Reservoir Behavior, Skin, Permeability, Fracture

Length, Reservoir pressure, boundaries

Step-rate Tests

Formation parting pressure, Permeability, Skin

Falloff Tests

Mobility in various banks, Skin, Reservoir pressure, Fracture length, Location of fronts, boundaries.

Interference and Pulse Test

Communication between wells, Reservoir behavior,

porosity, Interwell permeability, vertical

permeability

Layered Reservoir Tests

Properties of individual layers, Horizontal K, Vertical K, Skin, Average layer pressure, outer boundaries

Multiple Formation Testers

Monday, September 09, 2013

Pressure profile

Well Test Analysis PGE 493

23

Typical Well Test Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 24

Typical Well Test

Typical Well Test Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 24
Typical Well Test Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE 492 24
Summary • Lots of evaluation tools are available in petroleum engineering, engineers have to be

Summary

Summary • Lots of evaluation tools are available in petroleum engineering, engineers have to be aware

Lots of evaluation tools are available in petroleum

engineering, engineers have to be aware of these

tools, the data and the scale of the acquired data, relative to the reservoir.

It is best to integrate all available data when

analyzing Petrophysical data; the whole picture must be consistent.

Different companies have different names for their proprietary tool, but tool’s scientific principles are

the same.

References • Richard Bateman, “Open - hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation”, IHRDC Publishers New

References

References • Richard Bateman, “Open - hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation”, IHRDC Publishers New York

Richard Bateman, “Open-hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation”, IHRDC Publishers New York

Crombe et. Al., “Innovations in Fluid Sampling”, Schlumberger Oilfield Review, Autumn 1998.

Baker Atlas Training Manual, Montrose Training Center, Montrose

Scotland, 2001.

Introduction to Formation Evaluation By Abiodun Matthew Amao Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE
Introduction to Formation Evaluation By Abiodun Matthew Amao Monday, September 09, 2013 Well Logging PGE

Introduction to Formation

Evaluation

By

Abiodun Matthew Amao