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PRA RANCANGAN PABRIK

PEMBUATAN PUPUK UREA DENGAN BAHAN BAKU GAS


SINTETIS
DENGAN KAPASITAS 120.000 TON / TAHUN

TUGAS AKHIR
Diajukan Untuk Memenuhi Persyaratan
Ujian Sarjana Teknik Kimia

OLEH :

ERIKA MONA P.SIRAIT


NIM: 050405065

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA


FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN
2010

Universitas Sumatera Utara

INTISARI

Gas sintesis merupakan gas yang diperoleh dari suatu proses, misalnya dari
proses penyulingan minyak bumi atau dari proses gasifikasi batubara. Gas sintesis ini
biasanya diekspor secara utuh dan dapat ditingkatkan nilai tambahnya dengan
mengubahnya menjadi produk turunan misalnya produk-produk petrokimia seperti
pupuk. Gas sintesis sebagai bahan baku pada pra-rancangan pabrik ini diperoleh dari
produk samping pengilangan minyak bumi. Pra-Rancangan pabrik pembuatan Pupuk
urea dari gas sintesis ini memiliki kapasitas 120.000 ton/tahun dengan 330 hari
kerja. Pabrik pembuatan Pupuk Urea ini membutuhkan nitrogen, hidrogen dan
karbon dioksida sabagai bahan baku dengan volume bahan baku total 40.742,4518
ton/tahun. Lokasi pabrik pembuatan pupuk urea ini direncanakan didirikan di Dumai,
Riau dengan luas areal 14.920 m2, tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan 169 orang dengan
bentuk badan usaha Perseroan Terbatas (PT) yang dipimpin oleh seorang direktur
utama dengan struktur organisasi sistem garis dan staf.
Hasil analisa ekonomi Pabrik Pupuk Urea adalah sebagai berikut:

Total Modal Investasi

Rp 871.308.635.435 ,-

Biaya Produksi

Rp 609.185.838.889 ,-

Hasil Penjualan

Rp 893.452.764.917 ,-

Laba Bersih

Rp 198.009.413.978 ,-

Profit Margin

31,66 %

Break Even Point

50,53 %

Return on Investment

22,73 %

Pay Out Time

4,4 tahun

Return on Network

37,88 %

Internal Rate of Return

35,23 %

Dari hasil analisa aspek ekonomi dapat disimpulkan bahwa Pabrik Pembuatan
Pupuk Urea Dari Gas Sintesis ini layak untuk didirikan.

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DAFTAR ISI
Hal
KATA PENGANTAR ............................................................................................i
INTISARI ............................................................................................................ iii
DAFTAR ISI ........................................................................................................iv
DAFTAR TABEL ................................................................................................ vi
DAFTAR GAMBAR ............................................................................................. x
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ........................................................................................ xi
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN ............................................................................ I-1


1.1 Latar Belakang ............................................................................ I-1
1.2 Perumusan Masalah .................................................................... I-2
1.3 Tujuan Perancangan ..................................................................... I-3
1.4 Manfaat Perancangan .................................................................... I-3

BAB II

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ..................................................................... II-1


2.1 Urea ............................................................................................. II-1
2.2 Macam-Macam Proses Sintesis Urea .............................................. II-2
2.3 Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Sintesis Urea......................... II-2
2.4 Gambaran Umum Gas Sintesis ..................................................... II-3
2.5 Proses Produksi Amonia Secara Umum ...................................... II-4
2.6 Proses Produksi Urea Secara Umum .......................................... II-9
2.7 Deskripsi Proses ...................................................................... II-11
2.8 Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Urea ..................................................... II-14
2.9 Sifat-sifat Reaktan dan Bahan Pembantu .................................. II-15

BAB III

NERACA MASSA ............................................................................III-1

BAB IV

NERACA ENERGI ......................................................................... IV-1

BAB V

SPESIFIKASI PERALATAN ........................................................... V-1

BAB VI

INSTRUMENTASI DAN KESELAMATAN KERJA ................... VI-1


6.1

Instrumentasi ............................................................................ VI-1

6.2

Keselamatan Kerja Pabrik ......................................................... VI-8

6.3

Keselamatan Kerja Pada Pra Rancangan


Pabrik Pembuatan Urea ............................................................ VI-9

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BAB VII UTILITAS...................................................................................... V11-1


7.1

Kebutuhan Steam (Uap) ........................................................... VII-1

7.2

Kebutuhan Air ......................................................................... VII-2

7.3

Kebutuhan Bahan Kimia ........................................................ VII-13

7.4

Kebutuhan Listrik .................................................................. VII-13

7.5

Kebutuhan Bahan Bakar ........................................................ VII-14

7.6

Unit Pengolahan Limbah........................................................ VII-15

7.7

Spesifikasi Peralatan Utilitas .................................................. VII-19

BAB VIII LOKASI DAN TATA LETAK PABRIK ...................................... VIII-1

BAB IX

BAB X

8.1

Lokasi Pabrik .......................................................................... VIII-1

8.2

Tata Letak Pabrik .................................................................... VIII-6

8.3

Perincian Luas Areal Pabrik .................................................... VIII-7

ORGANISASI DAN MANAJEMEN PERUSAHAAN .................. IX-1


9.1

Organisasi Perusahaan .............................................................. IX-1

9.2

Manajemen Perusahaan............................................................. IX-3

9.3

Bentuk Hukum Badan Usaha .................................................... IX-5

9.4

Uraian Tugas, Wewenang dan Tanggung Jawab........................ IX-7

9.5

Sistem Kerja ............................................................................. IX-9

9.6

Jumlah Karyawan dan Tingkat Pendidikan .............................. IX-10

9.7

Sistem Penggajian ................................................................... IX-13

9.8

Fasilitas Tenaga Kerja ............................................................. IX-14

ANALISA EKONOMI ...................................................................... X-1


10.1 Modal Investasi........................................................................... X-1
10.2 Biaya Produksi Total (BPT)/ Total Cost (TC).............................. X-4
10.3 Perkiraan Rugi/labaUsaha ........................................................... X-5

BAB XI

KESIMPULAN ................................................................................ XI-1

DAFTAR PUSTAKA ........................................................................................... xiv


LAMPIRAN A PERHITUNGAN NERACA MASSA
LAMPIRAN B PERHITUNGAN NERACA PANAS
LAMPIRAN C PERHITUNGAN SPESIFIKASI PERALATAN
LAMPIRAN D PERHITUNGAN SPESIFIKASI PERALATAN UTILITAS
LAMPIRAN E PERHITUNGAN ASPEK EKONOMI

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10.4 Anal

DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 1.1

Data kebutuhan Urea di Indonesia ......................................................... I-2

Tabel 2.1

Kualitas Urea yang dihasilkan............................................................... II-3

Tabel 3.1

Neraca massa Reaktor Amonia (R-101) .............................................. III-2

Tabel 3.2

Neraca massa Flash Drum (F-101) ..................................................... III-2

Tabel 3.3

Neraca massa Reaktor Urea (R-201) ................................................... III-2

Tabel 3.4

Neraca massa Knock Out Drum (F-201) ...............................................

III-3
Tabel 3.5

Neraca massa Low Pressure Decomposer (S-201) ............................. III-3

Tabel 3.6

Neraca massa Knock Out Drum (F-202)............................................. III-4

Tabel 3.7

Neraca massa Evaporator I (FE-301) ................................................. III-4

Tabel 3.8

Neraca massa Evaporator II (FE-302) ................................................ III-5

Tabel 3.9

Neraca massa Prilling Tank (TK-402)................................................ III-5

Tabel 3.10 Neraca massa Neraca massa Screening (C-403) ................................ III-6
Tabel 4.1

Neraca Panas Reaktor (R-101) ............................................................ IV-2

Tabel 4.2

Neraca Panas Total Neraca Panas Flash Drum (F-101) ....................... IV-2

Tabel 4.3

Neraca Panas Neraca Panas Reaktor (R-201) ...................................... IV-2

Tabel 4.4

Neraca Panas Knock Out Drum (F-201) ............................................. IV-3

Tabel 4.5

Neraca Panas Low Pressure Decomposer (S-201) ............................... IV-3

Tabel 4.6

Neraca Panas Knock Out Drum (F-202) ............................................. IV-3

Tabel 4.7

Neraca Panas Evaporator I (FE-301) ................................................... IV-4

Tabel 4.8

Neraca Panas Evaporator II (FE-302).................................................. IV-4

Tabel 4.9

Neraca Panas Mealting Tank (TK-401) ............................................... IV-4

Tabel 4.10 Neraca Panas Total Prilling Tower (TK-402) ...................................... IV-5
Tabel 4.11 Neraca Panas Heater (E-101).............................................................. IV-5
Tabel 4.12 Neraca Panas Heater (E-102).............................................................. IV-5
Tabel 4.13 Neraca Panas Refrigrator (E-103) ....................................................... IV-6
Tabel 4.14 Neraca Panas Heater (E-104).............................................................. IV-6
Tabel 4.15 Neraca Panas Heater (E-201).............................................................. IV-6
Tabel 4.16 Neraca Panas Heater (E-202).............................................................. IV-7
Tabel 4.17 Neraca Panas Water Condenser (E-301) ............................................. IV-7

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Tabel 4.18

Neraca Panas cooler (E-302).......................................................... IV-7

Tabel 6.1

Daftar Instrumentasi pada Pra Rancangan Pabrik Pembuatan Urea . VI-4

Tabel 7.1

Kebutuhan Uap ............................................................................. VII-1

Tabel 7.2

Kebutuhan Air Pendingin .............................................................. VII-2

Tabel 7.3

Pemakaian air untuk berbagai kebutuhan ...................................... VII-4

Tabel 7.4

Kualitas Air Sungai Rokan, Riau .................................................. VII-4

Tabel 7.5

Perincian Kebutuhan Listrik ........................................................ VII-12

Tabel 8.1

Perincian Luas Areal Pabrik .........................................................VIII-7

Tabel 9.1

Jadwal Kerja Karyawan Shift ....................................................... IX-10

Tabel 9.2

Jumlah Karyawan dan Kualifikasinya ............................................ IX-11

Tabel 9.3

Gaji Karyawan ............................................................................... IX-13

Tabel LA-1

Neraca Massa Reaktor (R-101) ....................................................... LA-3

Tabel LA-2

Hasil Perhitungan Pbuble dan Pdew ..................................................... LA-4

Tabel LA-3

Hasil Iterasi Flash Drum (F-101) .................................................... LA-5

Tabel LA-4

Hasil Perhitungan Flash Drum (F-101) ........................................... LA-5

Tabel LA-5

Neraca Massa Flash Drum (F-101) ................................................. LA-6

Tabel LA-6

Neraca Massa Reaktor (R-201) .................................................... LA-12

Tabel LA-7

Neraca Massa Knock Out Drum (F-201) ....................................... LA-13

Tabel LA-8

Neraca Massa Low Pressure Decomposer (S-201) ........................ LA-15

Tabel LA-9

Neraca Massa Knock Out Drum (F-202) ....................................... LA-16

Tabel LA-10

Neraca Massa Evaporator I (FE-301) ............................................ LA-18

Tabel LA-11

Neraca Massa Evaporator 2 (FE-302)............................................ LA-20

Tabel LA-12

Neraca Massa Prilling Tower (TK-402) ........................................ LA-21

Tabel LA-13

Neraca Massa Screening (C-403) .................................................. LA-23

Tabel LB-1

Data Kapasitas Panas Komponen Gas ............................................. LB-1

Tabel LB-2

Data Panas Perubahan Fasa Komponen ........................................... LB-1

Tabel LB-3

Data Panas Reaksi Komponen......................................................... LB-1

Tabel LB-4

Kapasitas panas liquid amonia ........................................................ LB-2

Tabel LB-5

Estimasi kapasitas panas liquid karbamat ........................................ LB-2

Tabel LB-6

Estimasi Kapasitas panas solid karbamat ......................................... LB-2

Tabel LB-7

Kapasitas panas liquid urea ............................................................. LB-2

Tabel LB-8

Kapasitas panas solid urea............................................................... LB-3

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Tabel LB-9

Panas Pembentukan ................................................................... LB-3

Tabel LB-10

Sifat fisika bahan baku ............................................................... LB-3

Tabel LB-11

Data steam dan air pendingin yang digunakan ............................ LB-4

Tabel LB-12

Data kapasitas panas refrigrant yang digunakan......................... LB-4

Tabel LB-13

Panas masuk alur 8 .................................................................... LB-5

Tabel LB-14

Panas masuk alur 10................................................................... LB-5

Tabel LB-15

Panas Keluar alur 11 .................................................................. LB-6

Tabel LB-16

Neraca panas Reaktor (R-101) ................................................... LB-7

Tabel LB-17

Panas keluar alur 12 fasa cair ..................................................... LB-7

Tabel LB-18

Panas keluar alur 14 fasa cair ..................................................... LB-8

Tabel LB-19

Panas keluar alur 13 fasa gas ...................................................... LB-8

Tabel LB-20

Neraca panas Flash Drum (F-101) .............................................. LB-9

Tabel LB-21

Panas masuk alur 16..................................................................LB-10

Tabel LB-22

Panas masuk alur 18..................................................................LB-10

Tabel LB-23

Panas masuk alur 21..................................................................LB-10

Tabel LB-24

Panas keluar alur 19 fasa gas .....................................................LB-11

Tabel LB-25

Panas keluar alur 19 fasa cair ....................................................LB-11

Tabel LB-26

Neraca panas Reaktor (R-201) ..................................................LB-13

Tabel LB-27

Panas masuk alur 19 fasa gas ....................................................LB-14

Tabel LB-28

Panas masuk alur 19 fasa cair ....................................................LB-14

Tabel LB-29

Panas keluar alur 22 ..................................................................LB-15

Tabel LB-30

Panas keluar alur 24 ..................................................................LB-15

Tabel LB-31

Neraca panas Knock Out Drum (F-201) ....................................LB-16

Tabel LB-32

Panas masuk alur 25..................................................................LB-17

Tabel LB-33

Panas keluar alur 26 ..................................................................LB-17

Tabel LB-34

Neraca panas Low Pressure Decomposer (S-201) .....................LB-18

Tabel LB-35

Panas keluar alur 25 ..................................................................LB-19

Tabel LB-36

Panas keluar alur 27 ..................................................................LB-20

Tabel LB-37

Panas keluar alur 26 ..................................................................LB-20

Tabel LB-38

Neraca panas Knock Out Drum (F-202) ....................................LB-20

Tabel LB-39

Panas keluar alur 28 ..................................................................LB-21

Tabel LB-40

Panas keluar alur 30 ..................................................................LB-22

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Tabel LB-41

Panas keluar alur 29 ..................................................................LB-22

Tabel LB-42

Neraca panas Evaporator I (FE-301) .........................................LB-24

Tabel LB-43

Panas masuk alur 31..................................................................LB-24

Tabel LB-44

Panas keluar alur 34 ..................................................................LB-25

Tabel LB-45

Panas keluar alur 33 ..................................................................LB-26

Tabel LB-46

Neraca panas Evaporator II (FE-302) ........................................LB-27

Tabel LB-47

Panas masuk alur 36..................................................................LB-28

Tabel LB-48

Panas masuk alur 42..................................................................LB-28

Tabel LB-49

Panas keluar alur 38 ..................................................................LB-29

Tabel LB-50

Neraca panas Melting Tank (TK-401) .......................................LB-30

Tabel LB-51

Panas masuk alur 37..................................................................LB-30

Tabel LB-52

Panas masuk udara Prilling Tower (TK-402) ............................LB-31

Tabel LB-53

Panas keluar alur 40 ..................................................................LB-32

Tabel LB-54

Panas keluar udara Prilling Tower (TK-402) .............................LB-32

Tabel LB-55

Neraca panas Prilling Tower (TK-302) .....................................LB-32

Tabel LB-56

Panas keluar alur 8 ....................................................................LB-33

Tabel LB-57

Neraca panas Heater (E-101) ....................................................LB-34

Tabel LB-58

Panas keluar alur 10 ..................................................................LB-35

Tabel LB-59

Neraca panas Heater (E-102) ....................................................LB-36

Tabel LB-60

Panas keluar alur 12 ..................................................................LB-37

Tabel LB-61

Panas keluar alur 12 ..................................................................LB-37

Tabel LB-62

Neraca panas Refrigrator (E-103) .............................................LB-38

Tabel LB-63

Panas keluar alur 15 ..................................................................LB-39

Tabel LB-64

Neraca panas Heater (E-104) ....................................................LB-40

Tabel LB-65

Panas keluar alur 18 ..................................................................LB-41

Tabel LB-66

Neraca panas Heater (E-201) ....................................................LB-42

Tabel LB-67

Panas keluar alur 21 ..................................................................LB-43

Tabel LB-68

Neraca panas Heater (E-202) ....................................................LB-44

Tabel LB-69

Panas keluar alur 36 ..................................................................LB-45

Tabel LB-70

Neraca panas Water Condenser (E-301)....................................LB-46

Tabel LB-71

Panas keluar alur 40 ..................................................................LB-47

Tabel LB-72

Neraca panas Cooler (E-302) ....................................................LB-48

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Tabel LC-1

Komposisi umpan reaktor .........................................................LC-25

Tabel LD-1

Perhitungan Entalpi Tinggi Menara Pendingin ......................... LD-17

Tabel LE-1

Perincian Harga Bangunan dan Sarana Lainnya .......................... LE-1

Tabel LE-2

Harga Indeks Marshall dan Swift ................................................ LE-3

Tabel LE-3

Estimasi Harga Peralatan Proses ................................................. LE-6

Tabel LE-4

Estimasi Harga Peralatan Utilitas dan Pengolahan Limbah .......... LE-8

Tabel LE-5

Biaya Sarana Transportasi..................................................... ....LE-11

Tabel LE-6

Perincian Gaji Pegawai ............................................................. LE-15

Tabel LE-7

Perician Biaya Kas .................................................................... LE-17

Tabel LE-8

Perincian Modal Kerja .............................................................. LE-19

Tabel LE-9

Aturan Depresiasi sesuai UU RI No.17 tahun 2000 ................... LE-20

Tabel LE-10

Perkiraan Biaya Depresiasi sesuai UU RI No.17 tahun 2000 ..... LE-21

Tabel LE-11

Data perhitungan IRR ............................................................... LE-29

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 8.1

Perincian Luas Areal Pabrik ...................................................... VIII-9

Gambar 9.1

Bagan struktur organisasi perusahaan pabrik


Pembuatan Urea ........................................................................ IX-15

Gambar LD-1 Spesifikasi screening ................................................................. LD-1


Gambar LD-2 Grafik Entalpi dan Temperatur Cairan pada Cooling Tower (CT).LD-17
Gambar LD-3 Kurva Hy terhadap 1/(Hyi Hy) .............................................. LD-18
Gambar LE-1 Grafik BEP (Break Even Point)................................................. LE-29

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

LAMPIRAN A PERHITUNGAN NERACA MASSA ..................................... LA-1


LAMPIRAN B PERHITUNGAN NERACA PANAS ...................................... LB-1
LAMPIRAN C PERHITUNGAN SPESIFIKASI PERALATAN ..................... LC-1
LAMPIRAN D PERHITUNGAN SPESIFIKASI PERALATAN UTILITAS... LD-1
LAMPIRAN E PERHITUNGAN ASPEK EKONOMI ..................................... LE-1

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