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RIVER

STEWARD
HANDBOOK
VERSION 3.0

(ABOVE)
Rosy Cheeks
Marty Sheppard

(COVER)
Fall Gathering 2014
Campfire Session
Duncan Berry

Table of Contents
River Steward Handbook

Background on Key Issues

Questions to Guide Your Understanding of Fish Health

11

& Management in Your Homewaters

Advocacy Toolbox

12

River Steward Activities

14

Glossary of Key Terms for Wild & Hatchery Fish

16

Relevant Acronyms 21
River Steward Contact Information

22

Note Page

24

River Steward Code of Conduct

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RIVER
STEWARD
HANDBOOK
VERSION 3.0

edited by

Jake Crawford
Conrad Gowell
Mark Sherwood

Guided by the best-available science,


Native Fish Society advocates for
the protection and recovery of wild,
native fish and the stewardship of
the habitats that sustain them.

River Steward Handbook


What is the purpose of the River Steward Program?
The River Steward Program is an integral part of the Native Fish Societys mission: to protect and
recover wild, native fish and steward the habitats that sustain them. The program puts knowledgeable,
committed volunteers on the ground in key watersheds across the Northwest to monitor and advocate
for the needs of wild fish. The River Stewards are the eyes and ears of the Native Fish Society.
The River Steward concept is not new. The earliest stewards, or riverkeepers, served their communities
as far back as the Middle Ages. They patrolled village streams and rivers to protect them for the benefit
of all inhabitants. The first full-time U.S. riverkeeper was a former commercial fisherman turned activist
hired in 1983 by the Hudson River Fishermens Association to identify polluters who were breaking
environmental laws. During the past 25 years, riverkeeper programs have emerged in large urban rivers
such as the Willamette River in Oregon andclassic angling rivers like Californias Russian River. Native
Fish Societys ambition is to support a region wide network of informed, empowered and effective
River Steward on every watershed with wild fish in the Northwest.
Today, 85 River Stewards safeguard 4,000 stream miles and 100,000 square miles of watersheds in
the Washington, Oregon, Western Idaho and Northern California.
River Stewards advocate on behalf of the wild, native fish in their watershed and provide a watchdog
presence for state, tribal and federal agencies with management authority. The purpose of the River
Stewards and the Native Fish Society itself is to make sure that fish-related governmental policies
are adopted and implemented on behalf of native fish. River Stewards work on proposed policies
with key officials from legislators to agency leaders. Once such policies are approved, the River
Stewards and the NFS closely monitor the implementation of policies and regulations to make sure
wild, native fish benefit.
Policy development and implementation for the protection and restoration of native wild fish
entails the four Hs: Hydropower, Habitat, Hatcheries and Harvest. Each of these four issues needs
to be addressed in every watershed to maintain healthy wild, native fish populations. Traditionally,
emphasis has focused on improving Hydropower dam operations or removing dams altogether
in order that salmon and steelhead can migrate upstream to spawning grounds and downstream to
the ocean. While the problems with the dams have not been eliminated, there have been substantial
improvements. For example, today many Columbia River dams allow water to go over the spillways
rather than through the turbines in order to help move juvenile salmon more safely through the river
to the saltwater.
The second H, Habitat, is being addressed by a large number of governmental and non-governmental
groups. Today, millions of dollars are funded annually to improve salmon habitat from estuaries
to headwaters. In some rivers, dikes and channelization in their estuaries have been removed,
reconnecting floodplains and restoring ecosystem function, which has improved rearing habitats
for juvenile salmon. Hundreds of miles of fencing has been built and maintained in order to keep
livestock out of spawning areas and protect riparian vegetation.
But the toughest nuts to crack have been the remaining two Hs: Hatcheries and Harvest. A number
of rivers are dam free and have excellent habitat, yet the fish are threatened by hatchery operations
(genetic and ecological impacts) and improper harvest regulations. By in large, hatcheries harm,
rather than help wild, native fish and serve only to support unsustainable harvest interests in a
fishery.
Many rivers are inundated with thousands of hatchery-reared salmon, trout and steelhead that, in
turn, imperil wild fish through disease, competition and inter-breeding.
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Moreover, commercial and recreational fishermen often harvest too many wild fish due to
indiscriminate (mixed stock) fisheries. (See sections 3 and 4 in the Background on Key Issue chapter
of this handbook on the specific types of challenges harvest and hatcheries present for recovering
wild, native fish populations.)
Hatchery and harvest issues are the top priority for Native Fish Society River Stewards. Native
Fish Society is one of the few independent, fact-based, groups that directly confronts our current
hatchery and harvest problems. If youre fortunate enough however, to steward a watershed that
doesnt face challenges from hatcheries or harvest, then River Stewards should prioritize habitat
protection, monitoring and hydropower as focus areas.
Who should be a River Steward?
River Stewards come from all walks of life, from mechanics to lawyers to teachers to software
engineers. You dont have to be a fish biologist to be a River Steward. But you do have to be
committed to a particular watershed and its wild, native fish.
To be an effective River Steward you need to be willing to learn about your favorite river, the
challenges and opportunities facing its wild, native fish and have an ability to interact with the key
people and groups in the watershed. As a River Steward you will identify opportunities for change,
prioritize advocacy activities, and use personal knowledge, experience, relationships and the bestavailable science to motivate stakeholders and agencies to improve conditions for wild, native fish.
A River Steward needs to be not only committed and knowledgeable, but also respectful and savvy
in order to be effective. Being right is not enough a River Steward needs to understand how
people and groups interact. The River Steward needs to be able to motivate other people, groups
and institutions.
While it is unlikely that you will always agree with local stakeholders on every issue, remember the old
adage: you can disagree without being disagreeable. As River Steward you should be able to communicate
about the issues involved. You dont have to be a great public speaker or professional writer, but you must
be able to express your thoughts and arguments on a variety of problems and solutions.
Finally, the job of a River Steward should be fun and rewarding. You will get to know a number of
like-minded wild fish advocates. You will feel a sense of accomplishment that you have helped wild
fish, the environment that sustains them, and the communities that form around them.
What a River Steward Does:
A River Steward learns to be a knowledgeable resource about their particular watershed. A River
Steward studies past and current issues related to the river and its fish. They become knowledgeable
by spending time on the water and by spending time in your home office, too. River Stewards learn
from other River Stewards, Regional Coordinators and staff. If you get stumped reach out odds
are someone in the River Steward community has worked on a similar issue and their experience
can prove invaluable. Eventually, a River Steward may become the go-to expert on their particular
watershed and its fish.
A River Steward is a good listener. They ask questions, read both technical and non-technical fishrelated publications, absorbs information on their river and fish and learn to organize and synthesize
this information.
A River Steward communicates. A River Steward not only becomes knowledgeable on their rivers
issues, but also has to communicate this information in both oral and written forms.
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Without communication there can be no effective advocacy. Communication includes talking to


others on the telephone and in person, plus writing letters and e-mail messages to government
agencies, legislators, non-profit organizations and the media.
A River Steward advocates. Once a River Steward knows about the issues at hand, they must act.
In close cooperation with Native Fish Society staff, the River Steward advocates for solutions to
challenges and seeks out opportunities to benefit wild, native fish. This may include lobbying for
changes to angling regulations, reforming or eliminating hatchery operations, protecting habitat
through state and federal designations (like Wild and Scenic River status), improving fish passage
through barrier removal and aligning fisheries management with the best available science through
the development of Conservation and/or Recovery Plans.
Accomplishments to date on the part of the River Stewards include:
Working with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to create a science-based spring
and fall Chinook conservation plans for the Rogue River.
Protecting habitat by stopping destination resorts proposed for the Metolius Basin.
Protecting wild spawners by ending the harvest of wild winter steelhead on the North
Umpqua River.
Unifiying local stakeholders by forming the Molalla River Alliance, which brings public and
private groups; local, state and federal agencies; and land owners together to protect and
restore the Molalla River ecosystem.
Protecting wild steelhead in 1,000 sq. miles of Washington watersheds from the negative
impacts of hatcheries through our work with the Washington Department of Fish and
Wildlife to establish Wild Steelhead Gene Banks on the Sol Duc, Wind, East Fork Lewis,
North Fork Toutle/Green, Grays and Chinook rivers.
Protecting and creating habitat for wild, native fish by facilitating the purchase of land on the
Oregon Coast that was designated as a state park.
Protecting threatened wild steelhead by working with biologists from the National Marine
Fisheries Service to improve low flow closures on the Mendocino and Sonoma Coast.
Conducting watershed restoration and salmonid recovery educational presentations to more
than 500 people annually on Central Oregon Coast watersheds.
Building local coalitions of support to secure State Scenic Waterway designation for the
Molalla & Chetco rivers, protecting 28 river miles from damming, water diversions and
mining.
The Responsibilities of a River Steward:
Effective River Steward become intimately familiar with their watershed, its wild, native fish and
develop a positive working relationship with the state, federal and tribal authorities located in your
area. River Stewards must learn about the life history of the native fish species, where their habitats
are located in the watershed, the challenges that prevent them from being healthy (limiting factors),
and their unique characteristics. River Stewards understand the measurable benchmarks for each wild,
native fish population in their watershed and track the recovery process to make sure it stays on target.
You can find these measurable recovery targets and benchmarks in the Conservation and/or Recovery
Plans developed for each species in your watershed. Ask your local fish biologist for an update.
River Stewards are resident experts on native fish conservation, working with management
agencies to apply scientific criteria for conservation of each wild, native fish population in their
home watershed. They cooperate with other groups to help fund habitat improvement projects.
River Stewards also represent the Native Fish Society at the local level in public meetings, with
news media, and before government decision makers. They communicate with the NFSs River
Steward Program Director prior to providing public statements and provide them with any written
statements of press accounts. (See the Advocacy Toolbox Chapter for more info on how to provide
written or public testimony.)
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River Stewards also work with program staff to seek external funding to support their work in each
watershed. Encouraging your friends and neighbors in the watershed to join the Native Fish Society
as members and volunteer their time and funds toward your initiatives is always a good place to start.
How to Get Started:
First, get acquainted with your river by exploring its watershed and its fish. Put on your hiking boots,
your snorkel and mask, or your waders and really get to know the river, its fish, the riparian zone
and its uplands as well. A river is not just a conduit of water racing downhill, but a part of the entire
landscape. A healthy landscape is a healthy river. Part of understanding your landscape is getting a
map of the watershed that includes land ownership. Seek out your county planning office, regional
Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management offices for such a map.
Second, sit down at your computer and desk. The underpinning of the Native Fish Societys advocacy
is based on sound science, so you should seek out science-based information. Dont be afraid to ask
dumb questions. Ask your local state fish and wildlife biologist about what they believe are the
top challenges facing wild, native fish in your river. The Native Fish Society mentors River Stewards
through scientific education, annual gatherings, and policy issue discussions that will help you work
with agencies and other concerned citizens. Make sure to take advantage of these opportunities.
In addition to research, you should meet with the key people and groups in the watershed, including
state and federal fisheries agencies, regional watershed councils, fishing groups, conservation groups
and private companies that impact the river, such as wood products firms and ranchers. Get to know
those key people at meetings, lunches or on the river.
Help inform our members, supporters and the public about your watershed, its native fish and the
conservation opportunities and challenges youre facing by managing your watersheds webpage
on the Native Fish Society website. Every single watershed with a River Steward gets a webpage
designated for your stream and conservation efforts. Utilize this page to share information, videos,
articles, and post the progress youre making toward your conservation goals. For questions on how
to utilize your page contact River Steward Program staff.
Stewards should develop an annual report of their work. Send it electronically or via hard copy
to River Steward Program staff. In this way NFS can be fully informed of the stewards efforts.
Moreover, stewards are also encouraged to write articles for the biannual NFS newsletter, Strong
Runs, our monthly e-newsletter, Redd It, and for items on the NFS website.
How to Navigate Controversy:
River Stewards will inevitably have to deal with controversial issues. Resource management takes
place in socially polarized communities and often deals with complex problems. Controversy can
invigorate and enhance interest from the broader public, or it can deteriorate into personal attacks
and adversarial relationships. Remember, just because you disagree with someone on one issues
doesnt mean that you disagree with them on all issues. For example, dont let your differences
related to a harvest issue detract from working with them as a partner on a habitat restoration issue.
When you encounter controversy the most important step to take is to clearly establish the facts that
you base your position on. Make clear what the problem is, provide a solution, and show how it is
feasible. Focus on positive talking points (i.e. conserving fish, not preventing extinction) and, when
appropriate, agree to disagree.

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

Background on Key Issues


1. The Native Fish Conservation Policy
The Native Fish Society and its River Stewards provide a grassroots presence with state, tribal and
federal agencies that have management authority over wild fish and their habitat, including NOAA
Fisheries, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and state fish and wildlife departments. In addition, in
the Columbia River basin, NFS also pays close attention to the Bonneville Power Administration
and the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, as these groups fund millions of dollars for
native fish recovery and the construction, operations, monitoring and evaluation of hatcheries.
Specifically, the purpose of NFS is to make sure the government adopts and implments policies
that protect and restore native fish. The word policy is a critical one because a policy determines
what an agency does.
Once a policy is adopted, the agency then issues rules that, in turn, control fish management
operations. Once established, policies and rules can be difficult to change. Consequently, it is vital
that NFS be involved in policy development and implementation. This is the core mission of the
Native Fish Society. NFS works with key officials from legislators to agency leaders on proposed
policies that are consistent with the needs of wild fish.
Once the policy is approved, NFS works with the appropriate agency on the detailed rules that
implement the policy. After that, NFS staff -- and River Stewards -- closely monitor the outcomes
and make adaptive changes as necessary.
2. Policy Implementation and the Four Hs
Policy development and implementation for the protection and restoration of native wild fish
entails the four Hs: hydro, habitat, hatcheries and harvest. The first H is hydro and a number of
governmental, tribal and private entities have improved hydro dam operations, such as increased
flows. Some dams have been removed altogether in order to help fish passage. Native Fish Society
advocates for dam removal when possible and for volitional fish passage when its not. Volitional
fish passage is when fish are able to swim past the barrier under their own power at the time of their
choosing. This is critical for supporting the recovery of self-sustaining populations of wild, native
fish as required under the Endangered Species Act.
The second H is habitat, and likewise many groups (such as local watershed councils, soil and water
conservation districts, Federal Agencies such as Bureau of Land Management and United States
Forest Service, and state programs such as fish and wildlife commissions) have helped to improve
habitat, such as fencing riparian zones on salmon streams and cleaning up water pollution.
Yes, a number of Western rivers are, in fact, clean, free flowing and have intact habitat, yet their
native salmon and steelhead populations remain threatened.
Why? The culprits are the other two Hs hatcheries and harvest. In many rivers, wild salmon and
steelhead populations have not improved despite efforts over the years, and in some cases those
runs are declining, often due to improper hatchery operations and inadequate harvest regulations.
Few groups -- other than the Native Fish Society -- have zeroed in on hatchery operations and
harvest regulations in relation to the needs of wild fish. Some other groups ignore these issues
because stands on such matters are often unpopular or controversial. But the very name of our
organization the Native Fish Society means what it says. Our purpose is to protect and restore
native fish and the habitat that sustains them.
Many governmental agencies are not focused on native fish and biological diversity. Instead, their
collective mission is to secure funding for hatchery operations in order to maintain harvest in
commercial and recreational fisheries.
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In the past native wild salmon, trout and steelhead have largely been ignored, and it was not until
NFS and other conservation groups litigated in federal court under the Endangered Species Act
that the government agencies were forced to pay attention. Today these agencies are beginning to
restructure their missions, but they are still reluctant to build a scientifically sound conservation
program for the needs of native fish.
It is up to NFS to hold the various agencies accountable to the needs of native fish. Just because
a court ruling or legislative directive demands that wild fish should be a top priority doesnt mean
that the agencies implement the ruling or the directive. The NFS has to constantly encourage the
agencies to do the right thing. And River Stewards can help a play a local role in this effort.
For example, a Wild Fish Policy was adopted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife in 1978.
It was never fully implemented, and in 2003 the commission adopted a similar directive called the Native
Fish Conservation Policy. Since then, NFS has said that the standards and criteria of the conservation
plans in that program should be followed for each native fish species in each watershed. As a result,
NFS has, and will continue to, champion the goals of the ODFWs Native Fish Conservation Policy.
The Native Fish Society oversees the implementation of the states native fish policies.
All four of these Hs need to be managed properly in order maintain healthy and productive native
fish. Even a single H can be enough of a stressor to jeopardize the health of a wild, native fish
population.
3: Hatchery Programs
On the surface it would appear that hatcheries are a good thing; hatchery reared salmon, for example,
would supplement wild fish and there would be more fish all the way around.
Historically hatcheries were thought to be suitable replacements for habitat such as when dams were
constructed without passage for fish.
But after 150 years of hatchery operations we have fewer salmon than ever before. In fact, 60% of
wild salmon populations native to the Northwest are either extinct or threatened with extinction. Why?
Hatchery programs have not been able to stem the tide of habitat loss as once thought. Salmon
raised in captivity quickly adapt to their hatchery surroundings and lose their ability to survive
in the wild. At the same time, they contribute to the decline of wild populations by increasing
competition for food and cover, weakening genetic adaptations by spawning with wild fish, and
serving as vectors for disease. The Native Fish Society has an online reference library featuring the
latest research corroborating the harm that hatchery programs have had on wild fish populations.
With more and more scientific evidence demonstrating that hatcheries hurt wild fish why do we as
a society continue to maintain hatcheries?
First, the goal of the commercial and recreational fisheries is to catch fish, and hatcheries are able to
produce salmon without addressing the more difficult, root causes of the decline of wild fish. Many
state, tribal and federal fish managers favor hatcheries because their constituents are commercial and
recreational fishermen, and most of them want to catch fish, regardless of whether or not the fish
are wild or hatchery.
Second, most hatcheries are financed through federal tax dollars because many federal dams have
blocked salmon migrations and the government has mitigated this loss by building and operating
hatcheries. As a result, those federal mitigation funds funnel a great deal of money into the fish agencies.
Last, hatcheries are politically expedient even though they are an economic disaster. The construction
and operations of most hatcheries far outweigh the benefit of harvesting fish. Unfortunately,
taxpayers have been unaware of the true cost benefit analysis of hatcheries. The solution?
River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

We need hatchery reform. The Native Fish Society believes hatcheries have a place in the Northwest,
but not at the expense of native fish.
After years of Endangered Species Act litigation even the federal government has agreed that wild,
native fish come first. According to a 2009 guidance letter from NOAA Fisheries, the protection
and recovery of an ESA-listed fish population should be targeted at the populations native fish.
That letter was sent to the state and tribal fish managers on how they should operate hatcheries
in places where ESA-listed fish. The NFS believes that this guidance letter is scientifically sound
and its recommnedations should be carried out by those managing hatchery programs and harvest
regulations.
All the same, the Native Fish Society is closely monitoring how the fish managers are implementing
this guidance policy. This is where the role of River Stewards is crucial. Talk to your local fish
managers in your watershed and ask them whether or not the agency has complied with the relevant
native fish conservation policies affecting your river.
4: Harvest
Harvest is one of the four Hs that impact the health of salmon and steelhead.
In the last two decades, the Native Fish Society and other conservation groups have forced the
federal and state agencies to improve the first two Hs. For example, once the operators at the
Columbia River dam system paid attention only to hydroelectric generation, flood control, irrigation
and navigation. The needs of the fish were virtually ignored.
Nowadays, federal judges have told the agencies to pay much more attention to the needs of
threatened salmon and steelhead. For instance, the federal dam operators on the Columbia River
system now periodically spill water over the dams in order to speed up the juvenile salmon to the
sea. Releasing water over the spillways, rather than putting the water through the turbines, cost
millions of dollars of foregone hydroelectricity, but NFS, and the courts, believe that it is the right
thing to do, according to the Endangered Species Act.
Likewise, the habitat of hundreds of miles of salmon streams and rivers has been substantially
improved due to millions of dollars funded from the government and utilities. However, major
hatchery and harvest problems remain today. This is where River Stewards roll up their sleeves and
get to work.
Harvest refers to commercial, tribal and recreational fisheries that are based along the rim of the
North Pacific to the Continental Divide. The catch of the salmon and steelhead fisheries accounts
for millions of dollars annually. State and federal agencies regulate these fisheries, and most of them
primarily look after their constituencies and their consumptive desires.
What is the problem?
When wild populations commingle with hatchery fish the wild fish are often overharvested.
For example, in many cases there may be thousands of adult hatchery reared salmon in a particular
run but only a few hundred wild native fish in the same run. If a large number of fish are harvested
in a fishery in that run, then the impact on the native fish can be quite harmful.
What sort of harvest changes do we need to help the wild fish?
Harvest must support not harm the reproductive capacity of wild salmon and steelhead runs
in each river.

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This means that a number of life history attributes of each population needs to be determined and
maintained, such as abundance (# of fish), spatial distribution (where they are located), diversity
(how many different life histories exist per species) and productivity (how successful the fish are
at reproducing). If improperly managed, harvest impacts each one of these factors, undermining
recovery.
Unfortunately, in the past, (and in some instances today) harvest focused on maximization. The
Native Fish Society is not against harvest. But we advocate harvest practices that are sustainable. In
other words, we seek healthy, productive, and diverse populations of wild fish that can be harvested
in perpetuity. In doing so, harvest would be regulated to maintain spawner abundance and diversity.
To address a harvest challenge, a River Steward needs to know the harvest levels in its watershed for
each fish population. Second, the steward and the NFS staff should determine if a particular
harvest regulation should be changed. If so, the steward should collect the scientific, social and
economic information needed to build a persuasive case in order to change the harvest rule. For
example, a harvest change that has been successful in many places is the requirement to use barbless
hooks to limit catch and release mortality. But remember, the harvest proposals and changes should
be based on the needs of the fish, and not on a particular fisheryrecreational, tribal or commercial.
Generally, River Stewards should not advocate a particular fishery such as commercial or
recreational -- or advocate a particular type of terminal tackle, such as flies or lures or bait. Harvest
rules and regulations should be based on the needs of fish, not fishermen.

Questions to Guide Your


Understanding of Fish Health
& Management in Your Homewaters
1. Are the salmonid species in your watershed healthy? To determine this, collect information on
each species productivity, diversity, abundance and spatial distribution.
2. What is the carrying capacity of your watershed? How many fish can the habitat in your watershed
support? Contact your state district biologist to learn what the carrying capacity is for each species
native to your watershed.
3. Once you know the carrying capacity of your watershed we need to ensure that all of the habitat
is being used by wild fish -- does your watershed have a spawner abundance objective? How many
adult spawners are needed to keep the run healthy? Contact your state biologist to learn about
spawner abundance objective.
4. Related to spawner abundance objectives, does current harvest management impede wild fish in
your watershed? For example, do recreational anglers hook more wild fish than fin-clipped hatchery
fish during a particular run? If the run is composed primarily of hatchery reared fish, then there
might be a problem for wild fish.
5. How many hatchery fish are spawning with wild fish in your watershed (pHOS: percent hatchery origin
spawners)? NOAA Fisheries recommends that no more than 5 percent of the spawning population be
hatchery-reared fish. The natural stray rate for wild fish is less than one percent per brood.

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6. Hatchery-reared fish that naturally spawn in a watershed negatively impact the reproduction of
wild fish, even if a hatchery uses native broodstock fish. Does your watershed provide some type
of separation between the two types of fish? If not, why? One of Native Fish Societys primary
goals is to make sure that fish management policy and actions deliver wild spawners and exclude
hatchery-reared spawners.
7. What is the nutrient enrichment goal for your watershed? Decomposing salmon provide nutrients
vital for ecosystem function (they feed hundreds of plants and animals). For coho salmon, the
estimate is 200 spawners per mile. A natural nutrient enrichment goal per watershed (wild salmon
spawning and dying) is more important than relying on the human-powered distribution of hatchery
fish carcasses.
8. How does the habitat impact the productivity of wild, native fish? Habitat is organized like links
in a chain that support the life history requirements of the fish. If a link is broken the fish cannot
complete their life cycle; if a link is damaged the populations reproductive capacity is reduced.
Habitat investments provide a greater benefit when they address the limiting factors of the habitat
for each species affected.
9. With this information develop conservation goals for each species with targets for productivity,
diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, spawner escapement, pHOS, mechanisms for separating
wild and hatchery fish, nutrient enrichment, and habitat protection. Keep track of your progress
toward these goals.

Advocacy Toolbox
The Native Fish Society has developed a multitude of tools to enhance the effectiveness of the River
Steward Program. Some of these tools include regional contact lists, up to date science libraries,
information on organizing and attending field trips, trainings, action alerts and media outreach,
access to a network of experienced stewards, regional coordinators to organize larger efforts among
stewards, a website to showcase and communicate your work to the public on, and full time staff
members to assist your efforts. Below are a few tips and guidelines to take full advantages of these
tools:
How to Develop Key Contacts:
Protecting and enhancing wild fish includes a host of governmental and non-governmental
organizations. Virtually all of these groups have websites, which may be helpful. Search engines,
such as Google can be a tremendous aid when you are in search of specific scientific or contact
information. Utilize, and build upon, regionally curated contact lists held by regional coordinators.
In the back of this handbook you will find a roster of River Steward contact information, we also
encourage you to add key contacts in the notes section of this handbook. Keeping a well organized
local contact list and to-do list are key to staying active and organized as a River Steward.
Additionally, look for other advocates from the following partner organizations that might be
involved in your area:






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American Whitewater
American Rivers
Trout Unlimited
Pacific Rivers
Wild Steelhead Coalition
Audubon
River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

How to Increase your Understanding Through Research:


The first place to go for research on wild fish is Native Fish Societys Science Library, where peerreviewed scientific literature is available. Found on our website at nativefishsociety. org the Science
Library contains a wealth of information and it is constantly updated. In addition, look to your local
library, the Bonneville Power Administrations library and other websites on the various state and
federal agencies. Much of this information is not available on a spoon-fed basis, so you may have to
dig for it, but that can be challenging and fun. Reach out to program staff or regional coordinators
if you are looking for something specific.
How to Attend and/or Organize a Field Trip
One of the easiest ways to get involved is to attend and/or organize a field trip. Getting on the
ground can illuminate successful solutions, or emphasize the ongoing problems to native fish
decline. Either way, having direct experience will strengthen your ability to advocate. Sign up on
partner websites, such as local watershed councils, for updates and opportunities, and relay those
opportunities to staff so others can also become notified. If you want to lead a field trip, reach out
to staff so they can help put together a press release, including information on who, when, where,
what, and why.
How to Reach the Media:
Reach out to traditional and non-traditional media so that you can broaden your message. Sometimes
you may want to initiate a press release on the part of a particular proposed action. Other times, the
media may come to you asking for answers on a particular issue.
Either way, be straightforward and honest with the media representative. Dont try to spin the
issue. In many cases, the reporters will have had little experience on the issue and you should
help them with background if they are interested. Talk to the Native Fish Society River Steward
Program Director and Communications Director about media relations, too. You should provide an
additional contact at NFS.
If you want to write a press release, see the suggestions above on how to write comments on
government proposed actions. In addition, write a first sentence on who, what, where, when and
how. Keep the release to less than 300 words.
Blogging and Social Media:
Blogging and social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook can be an effective way to
advocate for wild fish and spread your message to other passionate anglers and fish conservationists.
A number of River Stewards have active blogs. Blogs, such as the Osprey can be ready by thousands
of people per month and is a good example of how effective this form of communication can be.
The easiest blogging platform is Blogger (blogger.com). Setting up a blog at Blogger is free and easy.
If you do setup a blog, contact NFS to have us list it on our Stewards blogging page. Twitter and
Facebook are also useful platforms for advocacy, and both are free as well.

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

13

How to Write Comments on Proposed Governmental Actions:


Below are some key points for creating a written comment to a governmental agency on a proposed
policy relating to wild fish in your watershed.
First, discuss the issue and comment opportunity with River Steward Program staff.
Clearly address the individual, agency and present the exact proposed action.
The first paragraph should be a summary of your argument. Following the summary
paragraph you can elaborate on your message, but dont be long-winded. Keep it to two or
three pages.
Base your argument on facts, not opinion. Facts include scientific, legal or economic analyses.
Provide alternatives to the proposed action. Advance your proposal by asking questions.
Dont be overly technical in your writing. Your writing should convey that you are
knowledgeable but not a know-it-all. Avoid jargon and acronyms.
Be yourself. Write in your own words, not someone elses.
Your comments should not appear to be a mass mailing.
Make it clear that you are familiar with the location and the issue. Mention if you live on or
near the watershed
Conclude with a summary of your critique of the proposed action.
Review your comments with River Steward Program staff.
Send your comments to the agency both electronically and hard copy.
Testifying:
The first time that you testify before a governmental hearing, you may be nervous, so organize and
rehearse your comments in advance. Here are a few things to consider on how to testify:
First, discuss your testimony with the River Steward Program Director
Always, always be polite and be yourself.
Learn to summarize your message. You may know volumes about the particular issue,
but the hearing officer or chairman doesnt have an hour to listen to you. Hone your key
arguments. Practice at home on how to articulate your position in two minutes. Then
elaborate it and say it in five minutes.
If you want, you can elaborate your testimony in written form and give the clerk a copy
to him or her for the record.
Remember who your audience is and tailor your message. In some cases, the audience
may be fish biologists and so they will be the experts and not you. At other times, the
audience may know very little about fish, so you may be the expert.
Make it clear who you are and that you are a Native Fish Society River Steward. Make
it clear that you live and work in the watershed and that you are familiar with it and the
people in the area. If you have lived in the area for years, include that.
Sometimes humor can be effective, but dont try to be a comedian.
If a panel member asks you a question and you dont know the answer dont make it
up! Tell the person that you will get back to him or her.
Be constructive. If you are providing comments in opposition, suggest an alternate
solution
Stick to the facts, not opinions.

14

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

River Steward Activities


Here are a few ideas about specific activities you can seek out as River Stewards. Our staff and River Steward
community have experience with all of these activities and can provide training and information.

Public Comments
In-person at public meetings
Written submitted electronically or by mail
Angling regulation changes

Compliance Monitoring
Endangered Species Act
Native Fish Conservation Policy
Wild fish escapement
pHOS

Data Collection
Spawning surveys, redd counts
Snorkel surveys, presence /absence
Water temperature and water quality monitoring
Water Typing

Boots on the Ground


River Cleanups
Monofilament Recycling Tube Placement
Lead Watershed Tour
Prevent Habitat Degradation
Support Habitat Restoration

Community Events
Host Film Showings
Conservation Themed Gatherings
Kids Education, In Class and On the Water
Salmon Watch
Outreach and Education

Service Roles
Serving on Advisory Boards
Stakeholder Working Groups
Stakeholder on Conservation and Recovery Planning
Collaborate with other groups as fish/area representative

Common Threats to Look for in Your Watershed


Overharvest: Catch and release mortality, by-catch, mixed stock fisheries

Hatchery Interactions: Genetic introgression, ecological competition, high stray rates

Resource Extraction: Logging, mining, gravel extraction

Infrastructure Development: Dam building, road building, water withdrawal, wastewater discharges

Invasive Species, Parasites/Disease

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

15

Glossary of Key Terms for Wild & Hatchery Fish


1. Abundance. A measure, or relative index, of the number of fish that represent the size of
a salmonid population or of a component of the population expressed as numbers of fish. For
anadromous populations, this number is normally expressed in terms of adult spawners and is
compiled by monitoring and evaluation of fish populations over time.
2. Adfluvial. Fish that spawn in tributary streams where young rear from 1 to 4 years before
migrating to another lake or river system, where they grow to maturity.
3. Anadromous. A fish that is born in freshwater, spends its life at sea and then returns to freshwater
in order to spawn.
4. Asynchronous. The populations of salmonids are not having peaks and declines in abundance
at the same time.
5. Biological Diversity. The variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; including genetic and ecological diversity within species, between species and
of ecosystems.
6. Broken links. The interruption of habitat connections across the full range of a species life
history. When one of section of the watershed is impaired (from headwater tributaries to the
estuary and ocean) the productivity of the species will be impacted and reduce its success.
7. Carrying Capacity. An estimate of salmon productivity based on available habitat.
8. Conservation Hatchery Program: The use of artificial propagation to conserve genetic
resources of a fish population at extremely low population abundance, and potential for extinction,
using methods such as captive propagation and cryopreservation.
9. Conservation Limit. River specific spawner abundance objective (Atlantic salmon mgt. Canada).
10. Density Dependent Mortality. Competition among rearing juvenile salmonids causing lower
smolt yield.
11. Depressed. Means below an established goal, such as fish production or escapement, shown in a
management plan or below the level of production or escapement that the Commission determines
to be an optimal level.
12. Distribution. Distribution refers to identifying the spawning, rearing and migration areas, as
well as an understanding of the life cycle of wild fish and when they occupy these areas.
13. Domestication. The genetic and behavioral adaptation of salmonids when they are spawned
and reared in an artificial environment. Hatchery fish perform better in the hatchery environment
than wild fish, but have poor performance in the natural environment compared to wild fish.
Hybrids between hatchery and wild fish have an intermediate performance in both environments.
Domestication selection in a fish hatchery can cause a 20% reduction in fitness in the first generation.
Those that survive best in a hatchery environment are the ones that can deal, for whatever reason,
with hatchery conditions. But the same traits that help them in the hatchery backfire when they
return to a wild river, where their ability to produce surviving offspring is much reduced.

16

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

14. Equilibrium Abundance. Average maximum number of spawners a population can sustain
given the habitat capacity and natural mortality.
15. Escapement. A numerical threshold for the portion of a stock or group of stocks that is
protected from harvest and allowed to spawn to meet management objectives and perpetuate the
stock.
16. Fitness. The relative reproductive success of a fish, equal to the average contribution to the
gene pool of the next generation.
17. Genotype. The combination of genes possessed by an individual.
18. Hatchery-origin. Fish that have been incubated, hatched or reared in a hatchery or other
artificial production facility regardless of parentage.
19. Home Stream Theory. Dr. Willis Rich in the 1930s based on tagging individual salmon. At
the time it was believed that salmon returned to streams to spawn randomly, but Richs work shows
that they return to their home stream to spawn and said that management on that basis is necessary
to avoid depletion of salmonids.
20. Inbreeding Depression. Reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of
inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability
to survive and reproduce itself. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a
breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression.
21. Integrated Hatchery Program. A hatchery program in which a high proportion of wild
individuals are incorporated in the hatchery broodstock each generation, maintaining genetic
similarity of wild and hatchery stocks, but potentially resulting in greater reproductive interactions
between the two and impacts on reproductive success.
22. Integrated Hatchery Strategy. A broodstock management strategy where the intent is for
returning adults of wild- and hatchery-origin to be reproductively integrated to form a single,
composite stock. This requires wild-origin adults in the hatchery broodstock, and hatchery-origin
adults may spawn naturally with wild salmonids. Evaluation of this hypothesis indicates that the wild
population is harmed reducing reproductive success by 20 40% and by removing wild spawners
to support the hatchery program.
Challenges: It has been conclusively shown in recent research programs that both
segregated and integrated hatcheries have productivity, genetic, ecological and mixed
stock fishery impacts that are harmful to wild stocks in a one-year program, and this
prevents their use for recovery.
23. Iteroparous. The ability of a fish to spawn multiple times. (Ex: steelhead)
24. Lamba. Increase in population growth.
25. Life history. In addition to the life cycle of each wild fish species, life history refers to their
strategies for survival.

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

17

26. Limiting Factors. In biology, limiting factors are resources or environmental conditions
that limit the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or population of organisms.
Examples of biological and physical limiting factors for wild fish include, but are not limited to,
water temperature or availability, habitat degradation, predation, harvest, competition, and access to
spawning grounds.
27. Local Adaptation. Because salmonids return to their natal streams to reproduce and where
their progeny rear, the fish become adapted to the ecological conditions of their natal habitat and
their fitness is high. Transplanting populations, i.e. hatchery fish, and strays are not adapted to the
stream and survival rates are lower than native, wild populations.
28. Natural-Origin. Fish that are produced by spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless
of parentage.
29. Natural-origin Broodstock. These are natural-origin fish that are used in a controlled
environment for hatchery production.
30. Optimum. Means the desired fish production level as stated in management plans or set by
specific Commission action.
31. Out of basin stock. These are a stock of fish that are not indigenous to the watershed they
are being released, and are often used to provide harvest-oriented fisheries in segregated hatchery
programs. Also called Stock Transfer, a management program that moves fish among watersheds
for harvest fisheries. Scientific evaluation recommends a stock transfer policy be adopted by fishery
agencies, but it has not been adopted because it impedes management flexibility to provide fisheries
even though it increases risks to native wild fish populations that are locally adapting to their home
watersheds.
32. Outbreeding Depression. Occurs when offspring from crosses between individuals from
different populations have lower fitness than progeny from crosses between individuals from the
same population.
33. Phenotype. Any characteristic of an organism that is determined by the organisms genes,
genotype and the environment.
34. Philopatry. The tendency of an organism to stay in, or return to, its home area. The causes of
philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, is
probably the most common form. The term philopatry derives from the Greek home-loving,
and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering
grounds.
35. Production. The number or pounds of fish raised in a hatchery or resulting from natural
spawning and rearing in freshwater, estuarine, or ocean habitats; also used in reference to harvest.
36. Productivity. Productivity refers to the maximum survival rate, and relates to the birth, growth
and death rates of a population of fish. Productivity in fish is often measured through biological
indices such as fish density or biomass, and is used to measure habitat quality and capacity.

18

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

37. Population. A group of fish originating and reproducing in a particular area at a particular time,
which do not interbreed to any substantial degree with any other group reproducing in a different
area or in the same area at a different time.
38. Recruitment. A representation of the number of new juvenile fish reaching a size or age that
meets a reproductive stage or can be targeted for exploitation. In fisheries specifically, recruitment
typically refers to the age a fish can become a viable target for the commercial, subsistence, or sport
fishery for a given species.
39. Reproductive success. The number of juvenile offspring (less than a year old) produced by a
reintroduced adult. Relative reproductive success is typically used to compare hatchery-origin fish
relative to wild-origin fish when both groups are allowed to spawn in the wild.
40. Residualism. The failure of some hatchery-reared salmonid juveniles to out-migrate as smolts
with the rest of their cohort. Residualized steelhead may adversely affect natural fish populations
through predation, predator attraction and competition. Since the purpose of hatcheries is to
produce adult fish for harvest, Residualism reduces the adults available for harvest, increases the
cost per adult harvested, and contributes to genetic and ecological impacts on wild, native fish.
To combat residual impacts on wild fish the fishery agencies promote sport harvest of hatchery
residuals, which also has an impact on wild, native fish from angling mortality.
41. River Specific Management. Management adult spawner abundance designed for each river
with egg deposition objectives.
42. Segregated Hatchery Program. A hatchery program in which only hatchery individuals are
used in hatchery broodstocks and greater domestication selection may occur (including intentional
selection to alter spawn timing of hatchery stocks to reduce expense of hatchery production by
producing smolts in a year or less). It is assumed that earlier spawning timing of hatchery fish
will minimize reproductive interactions between hatchery and wild steelhead. However, evaluation
shows that this goal fails to reduce genetic and ecological impacts to wild steelhead.
43. Segregated Hatchery Strategy. A broodstock management strategy where the intent is for the
hatchery stock to have no reproductive interactions with wild stocks. Also referred to as an Isolated
Hatchery Strategy.

Challenges: It has been conclusively shown in recent research programs that both segregated
and integrated hatcheries have productivity, genetic, ecological and mixed stock fishery impacts
that are harmful to wild stocks in a one-year program, and this prevents their use for recovery.
44. Smolt-to-adult Returns (SAR). Refers to the number of returning adults as a percentage of
smolts released, and is an indicator of relative reproductive success for a given population.
45. Stock. A group of fish within a species substantially reproductively isolated from other groups
of the same species.

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

19

46. Stray Rate. Straying is natural for anadromous salmonids and is important for colonizing
habitats such as rivers where dams have been removed. It is also important to the genetic health of
locally adapting populations. Natural stray rates are <1% to <3%. For hatchery fish stray rate refers
to the proportion of straying adults into the natal habitats of native fish, resulting in a negative
impact. Measuring the percentage of Hatchery Origin Spawners (pHOS) is a tool for determining
the stray rate of a hatchery population and the potential genetic and ecological impact on native
wild salmonids.
47. Straying. This is the tendency of salmon and steelhead to utilize waterways they are not natal to
for spawning or rearing. It is natural, and low numbers of strays per generation may be important
genetically. Natural stray rates are less than 1 to 3 %, but stray rates of more than that have no
scientific justification. However, in order to justify hatchery operations, the fishery agencies have
adopted stray rates of 10% or more. Hatchery steelhead and other salmonid adults that stray to other
locations rather than return to their release site may spawn with natural fish, and thereby reduce the
fitness of the natural population through genetic and ecological impacts such as competition for
food and space. Stray hatchery fish in non-natal streams and releases of hatchery fish to watersheds
through stock transfers and off site releases contributes to the loss of natal species reproductive
success. In addition, on the Columbia River transporting juveniles by barge or trucks downstream
of dams increases stray rates, especially for steelhead.
48. Supplementation. The release of hatchery fish to augment the numbers of naturally
returning fish. Often, the goal of supplementation programs is to increase the abundance of a wild
population rather than only producing fish for harvest. Evaluation points out that supplementation
with hatchery fish contributes to genetic and ecological impacts to the native population and wild
population rebuilding is not proven.
Supplementation is the use of artificial propagation in an attempt to maintain or increase
natural production, while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population and keeping
the ecological and genetic impacts on non-target populations within specified biological limits
(Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project)
49. Viable Population. Do not consider any population with fewer than 500 individuals to be
viable, regardless of its intrinsic productivity. A self-sustaining population of fish with fewer than
500 individuals are at a high risk for inbreeding depression and a variety of other genetic concerns.
50. Watershed. A watershed is the land that water flows through on its way to a stream, river, lake
or ocean. No matter where you stand on land, you are in a watershed.

20

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

Relevant Acronyms
BACI
Before and after control impact
BY
Brood Year
CWA
Clean Water Act
CWT
Coded-wire tag
ESA
Endangered Species Act
DPS
Distinct Population Segment (refers to steelhead populations)
EMAP
Environmental monitoring assessment program
ESU
Evolutionarily Significant Unit
HE
Heterozygosity the total genetic variability
HGMP
Hatchery Genetic Management Plan
HSRG
Hatchery Scientific Review Group
MVP
Minimum Viable Population
NMFS
National Marine Fisheries Service
Ne
Effective breeding population (the number of successful spawners)
Nb
Successful breeding individuals by brood year
pHOB
The percentage of hatchery-origin fish used as hatchery broodstock
pHORs
The percentage of hatchery-origin recruits. The number of HORs

equals the sum of HOS + HOB + hatchery-origin fish intercepted
in
fisheries.
pHOS
The percentage of hatchery-origin fish spawning naturally.
PNI
The proportion of natural influence in a breeding population.
pNOB
The percentage of natural origin fish used as hatchery broodstock.
pNOS
The percentage of natural origin fish spawning naturally.
PVA
Population viability analysis
R/S
Adult recruits per spawner
RRS
Relative Reproductive Success
QET
Quasi extinction threshold represents abundance of adults that

funcationally indicates extinction. This is set at 50 adult spawners per year

and based on concerns about loss of genetic diversity and demographic

stochasticity.
SAR
Smolt to adult ratio
SAS
Smolt to adult survival
VSP
Viable Salmonid Population

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

21

Watershed
Hunter Creek
Salmonberry
Washougal
Snohomish
Lower Deschutes
Siletz
Nestucca
Mid Yakima
Snake River Lower Hell's Canyon
Washougal
Snoqualamie
Sycan
Klickitat
Skagit
Green/Duwamish
Nestucca, Tillamook Bay Rivers
Johnson Creek
Wood, Williamson, 7 Mile
Williamson
Hood
Lower Deschutes
South Umpqua
Lower Eel
Wenachee
Coos Bay
McKenzie
Molalla
John Day
Sandy
Salmonberry
Necanicum
Hunter Creek
Rogue
North Umpqua
Van Duzen
Clearwater
South Coast, Lower Umpqua
Rogue, Umpqua, Illinois
Lower Columbia Tributaries
Stilliguamish
Yakima

City
Gold Beach
Cornelius
Beaverton
Everett
The Dalles
Berrien Springs
Woods
Seattle
Verdale
Washougal
Seattle
Klamath Falls
Hood River
Deming
Seattle
Portland
Portland
Klamath Falls
Chiloquin
Parkdale
Bend
Tiller
Bend
Leavenworth
Coos Bay
Eugene
Molalla
Maupin
Maupin
Lincoln City
Portland
Gold Beach
Ashland
Grants Pass
Carlotta
Clarkston
Reedsport
South Beach
Chinook
Bellingham
Snoqualamie

State Zip
OR 97444
OR 97113
OR 97007
WA 98201
OR 97058
MI 49103
OR 97112
OR 98102
WA 99037
WA 98671
WA 98116
OR 97603
OR 97031
WA 98244
WA 98136
OR 97202
OR 97236
OR 97601
OR 97624
OR 97041
OR 97702
OR 97484
OR 97703
WA 98826
OR 97420
OR 97402
OR 97038
OR 97037
OR 97037
OR 97367
OR 97201
OR 97444
OR
OR 97526
CA 95528
WA 99403
OR 97467
OR 97366
WA 98614
WA 98229
WA 98065

Phone
541-373-0487
971-533-5861
503-750-7633
425-870-9020
541-506-9115
503-930-6140
503-965-3672
206-276-3705
509-999-9474
503-580-2465
206-601-0132
541-226-8685
925-451-4299
360-510-0483
206-399-1143
971-400-3444
503-901-4186
541-892-0900
541-880-4629
541-399-3677
541-647-4960
541-825-3070
530-921-1563
509-881-7799
541-941-1822
541-953-5968
503-759-3374
541-419-2105
503-819-4035
541-614-1252
503-866-0181
801-979-0881
541-890-3848
541-738-1867
707-768-3189
509-758-5529
541-271-4260
541-261-5041
360-777-8295
360-224-4043
425-373-6417

riverflyguide@gmail.com
steinberg.sal@gmail.com
kstonebraker@stonebrakermcquary.com
CALLS ONLY
pjtronquet@aol.com
wweberg@centurytel.net
scott@theconfluenceflyshop.com
derek@emergingrivers.com

Email
davejlacey2010@gmail.com
jenalemke@gmail.com
stevenlent@mac.com
brycealevin@gmail.com
steve.flyandfield@gmail.com
matthew.lund0@gmail.com
Kentmac@sonic.net
bobmargulis@gmail.com
michaelmjmathis@comcast.net
johnmcc316@gmail.com
dave@emeraldwatersanglers.com
crymcm@gmail.com
4mcqueen@gmail.com
ed@cascadesfly.com
menaulc@gmail.com
spencer@spencermiles.org
bartonltd@yahoo.com
CALLS ONLY
MarshalMoser@gmail.com
dbpeirce@me.com
dave@merrill-osullivan.com
stanley@surcp.org
dr.riverdrifter@gmail.com
riversnorkel@gmail.com
yankeecreekforestry@gmail.com
brentross@gmail.com
markschmidt@buildersplans.com
littlecreekjd@earthlink.net
littlecreekjd@earthlink.net
rivergraphics@spiritone.com
ers@traskgroup.com
kettleballing@gmail.com

2016 River Steward Program Contact Information


RIVER STEWARDS
Last
First
Lacey
Dave
Lemke
Jena
Lent
Steve
Levin
Bryce
Light
Steve
Lund
Matt
MacIntosh
Kent
Margulis
Bob
Mathis
Michael
McConnaughey John
McCoy
Dave
McMahon
Crystal
McQueen
Matt
Megill
Ed
Menaul
Chris
Miles
Spencer
Mills
Bart
Miranda
Ed
Moser
Marshall
Peirce
Daniel
Petersen
Dave
Petrowski
Stanley
Revel
Dustin
Ricketts
Russ
Robinson
Jake
Ross
Brent
Schmidt
Mark
Sheppard
Mia
Sheppard
Marty
Sherman
Joyce
Shoemaker
Eric
Smith
James
Sohl
Bryan
Stangeland
Mark
Steinberg
Sal
Stonebraker
Keith
Thurber
James
Tronquet
Peter
Weber
Walt
Willison
Scott
Young
Derek

City
Portland
Ashland
Molalla
Tualatin
Yachats
Portland
Brookings
Olympia

State
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
WA

Zip
97221
97520
97038
97062
97498
97212
97415
98502

Email
christie.adelsberger@gmail.com
ryallred@gmail.com
andrasoutfitters@me.com
pvtapple@yahoo.com
wiatlas@gmail.com
watershedfishbio@yahoo.com
CALLS ONLY
CALLS ONLY
scott.baumer@gmail.com
duncan@fishpeopleseafood.com
bbobbitt01@gmail.com
sunny.bourdon@gmail.com
springcreekwoodworking@gmail.com
Eacall@comcast.net
dave@oregonoutdoorexcursions.com
brice.crayne@gmail.com
caddiseug@yahoo.com
derekday@gmail.com
dougderoy@gmail.com
downingdd@yahoo.com
pdunham@wtechlink.us
scotty@westwind.org
ian.fergusson@comcast.net
dave@oregongrowers.com
cdgehr@yahoo.com
gena@onda.org
hickman.steelhead@gmail.com
holloway.ty88@gmail.com
m.homeyer@comcast.net
kjigou@gmail.com
chrisjhnsn8@gmail.com
kjsteelhead@gmail.com
skannry@gmail.com
jonathan@edcoonline.com
alan.lhommedieu@gmail.com

Email
bmbakke@gmail.com
jake@nativefishsociety.org
tom@molalla.net
peter.donahower@gmail.com
pengelmeyer@peak.org
conrad@nativefishsociety.org
mark@nativefishsociety.org
southsoundriversteward@gmail.com

Phone
503-246-5890
720-253-8485
503-829-6208
503-314-9217
541-547-4097
971-237-6544
303-898-8988
253-380-2583

City
Klamath Falls
Medford
Talent
La Grande
Vancouver
Portland
Banks
Banks
Lake Oswego
Otis
Olympia
Brookings
Sisters
Kingston
Lyons
Longview
Eugene
Olympia
Portland
Covelo
Pendleton
Neotsu
Portland
Hood River
Ashland
Bend
Portland
Springfield
Issaquah
Smith River
Bellingham
Bellingham
Hydesville

Zip
Phone
97601 541-363-6833
97504 541-951-4892
97540 530.227.4837
97850 541-663-6094
V6J 2E7778-938-6883
97202 503-960-8288
97106 503-707-4588
97106 503-705-9464
97035 503-680-1260
97368 206-697-0204
98501 612-220-0625
97415 970-219-8662
97759 541-410-1309
98346 360-981-2948
97358 503-798-8340
98664 360-430-2201
97401 541-342-7005
98506 206-914-1599
97202 310-893-4689
95428 707-227-6208
97801 541-276-1469
97364 971-221-6913
97212 503-957-8875
97031 503-701-4112
97520 541-621-3650
97702 541-330-2638
97214 971-275-2269
97477 541-729-0692
98029 206-240-3542
95567 541-944-6135
98225 360-734-2527
98228 360-319-7806
95547 707-497-9165
360-848-6900
97011 503-622-4289
Brightwood

State
OR
OR
OR
OR
BC
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
WA
OR
OR
WA
OR
WA
OR
WA
OR
CA
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
WA
CA
WA
WA
CA
WA
OR

2016 River Steward Program Contact Information


STAFF & REGIONAL COORDINATORS
Last
First
Watershed
Bakke
Bill
Columbia
Crawford
Jake
Southern District Manager
Derry
Tom
Molalla
Donahower
Peter
Mid-Columbia Regional Coordinator
Engelmeyer
Paul
Mid-Oregon Coast Regional Coordinator
Gowell
Conrad
River Steward Program Director
Sherwood
Mark
Communications Director
Small
Jason
Puget Sound Regional Coordinator
RIVER STEWARDS
Last
First
Watershed
Adelsberger
Christie
Sprague, Lost
Allred
Ryan
Klamath
Andras
Rachel
Bear Creek Tributaries
Appleton
John
Grand Ronde
Atlas
William
North Puget Sound
Baker
Rowan
Tillamook, Forest & Marine Policy
Barrow
Ethan
Trask
Barrow
Wendy
Trask
Baumer
Scott
15 Mile
Berry
Duncan
Salmon
Bobbit
Bradley
South Puget Sound
Bourdon
Sunny
Chetco, Smith
Bronstein
Adam
Metolius
Call
Ed
North Puget Sound
Carpenter
Dave
North Santiam
Crayne
Brice
SF Toutle
Daughters
Chris
McKenzie
Day
Derek
South Puget Sound
DeRoy
Doug
Navarro, Gualala, Garcia
Downing
Dane
MF & NF Eel, Black Butte
Dunham
Pat
John Day
Evens
Scotty
Salmon
Fergusson
Ian
Salmonberry
Gee
David
Hood
Gehr
Charles
Rogue
Goodman-Campbell Gena
Upper Deschutes
Hickman
Jeff
Clackamas
Holloway
Ty
Umpqua
Homeyer
Mark
Snohomish/Skykomish
Igou
Kellen
Winchuck
Johnson
Chris
Nooksack
Johnson
Ken
Skagit
Kannary
Samantha Upper Van Duzen
Knapp
Jonathan Stilliguamish
L'Hommedieu
Alan
Sandy

Notes

24

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

Notes

River Steward Handbook V. 3.0

25

Notes

River Steward Code of Conduct


As a River Steward you are a representative of the Native Fish Society and wild, native fish. As such,
it is your duty to act professionally and respectfully. The role of a River Steward includes being a
researcher, monitor, communicator and advocate. Success for wild fish involves winning the trust
and support of people from all walks of life. It is not just what you say that matters, but how you
say it.
Always remember to speak with the River Steward Program Director about any major policy changes
or proposals. As the River Steward Program continues to grow, it is critical that River Stewards work
collaboratively to be successful.
If disputes arise among River Stewards, we encourage you to be charitable and peacemaking for the
sake of our shared value of wild fish. Conflicts that cannot be resolved between stewards should
be brought before the River Steward Program staff whose responsibility it is to mediate the dispute
and help seek resolution.

Congratulations & Welcome Aboard


By reviewing the River Steward Handbook and serving as a River Steward you are connecting with
a regional network of knowledgeable advocates dedicated to improving conditions for wild, native
fish. In doing so, you join the long tradition of Americans working to forge positive environmental
change in our diverse watersheds. Communities look to leaders like you to tackle complex issues
with compassion, ensure science guides decision-making, and to mentor the next generation of
River Stewards. We hope the tools and information contained in this Handbook help you share
ideas, collaborate with partners, and form lasting relationships that ultimately sustain native fish long
into the future.
And one last thingConservation happens for a place, enjoy the watersheds you advocate for. At
the Native Fish Society we are incredibly proud of you for being involved.

(BACK COVER)
Night Snorkeling
Mark Caffee

Here is your country.


Cherish these natural
wonders, cherish the natural
resources, cherish the
history and romance as a
sacred heritage, for your
children and your childrens
children. Do not let selfish
men or greedy interests skin
your country of its beauty, its
riches or its romance.
T. Roosevelt