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Modeling

Emissions
Controls for RCCI Engines

Vitaly Prikhodko, Zhiming Gao, Sco> J.


Curran, C. Stuart Daw, Robert M. Wagner,
and James E. Parks
Oak Ridge NaHonal Laboratory
Presented by Stuart Daw

ERC- 2013 Symposium


June 5-6, 2013
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

Outline
Background, Objective, Approach
Steady-state experimental measurements of RCCI engine-out
emissions from a light-duty, multi-cylinder engine
Drive-cycle simulations of engine-out exhaust from an RCCIenabled vehicle
Preliminary experimental measurements of oxidation catalyst
performance with RCCI exhaust
Summary

Background
ReacHvity controlled compression igniHon (RCCI)
allows precise reacHon and heat-release control
A low-reacHvity fuel is introduced early and premixed
with air.
A high-reacHvity fuel is injected into the premixed
charge before igniHon.

RCCI increases engine operaHng range for premixed


combusHon

Global fuel reacHvity (phasing)


Fuel reacHvity gradients (pressure rise)
Equivalence raHo straHcaHon
Temperature straHcaHon

RCCI oers both benets and challenges to


implementaHon of LTC
Diesel-like eciency or be>er
Low NOx and soot
Controls and emissions challenges

PFI

Lean
GDI

Gasoline
HCCI

PPC

High = Promotes Auto-Ignition

RCCI

Diesel
HCCI

PCCI

Diesel

Stoich
GDI

Fuel Reactivity

DI

Gasoline

Low = Prevents Auto-Ignition

Adapted from Hanson, UW-M Engine Research Center

ObjecHve and Approach



ObjecHve
Understand the emissions benets and challenges of RCCI-enabled mulH-cylinder
engine over transient city and highway drive cycles

Approach
Characterize experimental RCCI engine-out emissions from a light-duty mulH-
cylinder engine
UHlize drive-cycle simulaHons to idenHfy important dierences in engine-out
emissions for RCCI compared to convenHonal diesel combusHon
Experimentally characterize catalyHc oxidaHon of RCCI engine-out emissions
IdenHfy potenHal abertreatment challenges posed by RCCI

Emissions Constraints

Steady-state mulH-cylinder LD engine experiments


to characterize RCCI engine-out exhaust

MulH-cylinder experimental setup for RCCI exhaust measurements


2007 GM 1.9-L 4-cylinder diesel engine

See Curran et al, Int. J. Engine Res., 13(3), 216 , 2012 and Prikhodko et al,
SAE 2013-01-0515.

OEM diesel fuel system with DI injectors


Dual-fuel system with PFI injectors
OEM variable geometry turbocharger
Original stock piston modied for RCCI in recent studies

Microprocessor-based control system (DRIVVEN)


Full control of DI & PFI fuel systems & engine parameters
Integrated combusHon analysis toolkit
Cylinder-to-cylinder balancing (IMEP, CA50, MPRR)

Fuels: UTG/ULSD and UTG/B20


CerHcaHon 96-octane gasoline (UTG-96)
B20 (SME/USLD) or ULSD only
Number of cylinders
CIDI base
conguraHon

Bore (mm)

82.0

Stroke (mm)

90.4

Compression raHo
DI specicaHons

**

PFI
specicaHons

15*/17**

Number of nozzle holes

Included spray angle ()

148

Number of nozzle holes

Cone angle ()

15

SeparaHon angle ()

22

Steady-state engine data from this engine are available (tabulated


form) on the CLEERS website
http://www.cleers.org/databases/filepage.php?fileid=30

Contact Vitaly Prikhodko (vy5@ornl.gov) for help

AddiHonal details available from Curran et al, Eciency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in
a Light-Duty Diesel Engine, SAE 2013-01-0289

RCCI could not be successfully implemented at all engine condiHons,


requiring dual-mode operaHon*
Self-imposed constraints for RCCI operaHon
Cylinder pressure rise < 10 bar/deg
CO emissions < 5000 ppm

BTE

300

Torque (Nm)

Run convenHonal diesel combusHon (CDC)


outside RCCI operaHng range
In RCCI range, higher fuel eciency, lower
NOx/PM, higher CO/HC

Green points = experimental


RCCI locations

200

300

150

4
3

100
2

RCCI

50

10

NOx

NOx, g/kWh
9

300

1500

2000

2500
Speed (rpm)

3000

3500

60

HC

50

5
150

4
3

100

RCCI

CDC
Torque (Nm)

Torque (Nm)

200

50

250

CDC

4000

HC, g/kWh

8
250

CDC

0
1000

350

7
6

250

CDC/RCCI dual-mode operaHon

BTE Difference

40

200
30
150
20

100

RCCI

2
50

10

1
0

1500

2000

2500
3000
Speed (rpm)

3500

4000

0
1000

1500

2000

*Data shown for UTG-96/B20, modied pistons

2500
3000
Speed (rpm)

3500

4000

RCCI had dramaHc eects on exhaust temperature


CDC only

CDC/RCCI

T exhaust (C)

CDC/RCCI

The characterisHcs of engine-out PM were greatly altered during


RCCI operaHon
Although smoke number decreased signicantly during RCCI, PM mass actually
increased compared to PCCI
Analysis of RCCI PM samples revealed much of the mass came from high levels of
volaHle hydrocarbons

CDC

PM mass
(mg/min)*

0.137

PCCI

0.025

RCCI

0.040

Engine Condition: 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar BMEP (Prikhodko et. al., SAE 2010-01-2266)
*Samples shown for UTG-96/ULSD, stock pistons

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RCCI HC species were also quite dierent compared to CDC


and PCCI
Engine Condition: 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar BMEP*

Higher carbonyl emissions


More mono-aromatics (*)
reflects gasoline vs. diesel PICs

*Results for UTG-96/ULSD, stock pistons


As gasoline-to-diesel ratio changes over the speed/load map, HC composition shifts
between diesel-like and gasoline-like
SAE 2010-01-2266

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Drive-cycle simulaHons of an RCCI-enabled LD vehicle

12

To understand the impact of drive cycle transients on engine-out


exhaust characterisHcs, we simulated a vehicle with Autonomie*
Autonomie is a plug-and-play powertrain and vehicle
model architecture and development environment
funded by DOE to support the rapid evaluaHon of
new powertrain/propulsion technologies with
steady-state maps (www.autonomie.net)
We also used a simplied low-order correcHon
methodology to esHmate transient exhaust
properHes from steady-state engine maps (Gao
et.al., Int. J. Engine Res., 11(2), 2010)
Simulated 1580 kg convenHonal mid-size passenger
sedan
AutomaHc transmission
1.9-L GM diesel engine with & without RCCI enabled

Evaluated 4 dierent drive cycles


UDDS (aka LA4 or FTP-72) city
HWFET less than 60 mph highway
US06 (aka Supplemental FTP) high-speed, high-
acceleraHon
NY City low-speed stop-and-go
Hot start only
*SimulaHon for UTG-96/B20, modied pistons

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Engine maps include:


v Fuel consumption
v E/O temperature
v E/O NOx, HC, CO, Smoke

Autonomie + Transient Correction

We found that RCCI operaHon is possible for a large fracHon of each


drive cycle
RCCI-enabled engine
increases fuel economy
over city and highway
drive cycles

14

RCCI
results

Fuel
economy
benefit
(relative %)

Drive cycle
by distance
(%)

Drive
cycle by
time
(%)

Total
diesel
fuel
(%)

Diesel
during
RCCI
(%)

UDDS

+14

72

55

56

41

HWFET

+15

88

86

44

37

US06

+8

66

56

66

31

NYCC

+13

69

36

65

43

The fuel eciency benets of RCCI were clear (example results


below for simulated hot-start UDDS)
RCCI on
8.0
0.8
CDC only
0.6
7.0
RCCI/CDC
0.4
6.0
0.2
5.0
0.0
4.0

RCCI/CDC

40%
30%

BTE

CDC only

20%
10%
0%
0

10

20

30

40

50

Transinet fuel (g/s) Cumulative fuel (kg)

Engine Efficiency

50%

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0

200

400

CDC only
RCCI/CDC

CO2

8
6
4
2
0

Diesel @ CDC only


Diesel @ CDC/RCCI
Gasoline @ CDC/RCCI

4.0

Fuel by type

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0

200

400

600

800 1000 1200 1400

Time (s)
15

800 1000 1200 1400

RCCI on
5.0

Fuel Comsumption (g/s)

CO2 Emissions (g/s)

10

600

Time (s)

Power (kW)
RCCI on
12

Total fuel

200

400

600 800 1000 1200 1400


Time (s)

As expected from the steady-state experiments, engine-out NOx and


smoke dropped dramaHcally, but CO and HC were much greater
Simulated emissions for hot-start UDDS

NOx

600

800 1000 1200 1400

RCCI on
400
120
CDC only
90 RCCI/CDC
350
60
300
30
250
0
200
Transinet CO (mg/s) Cumulative CO (g)

Transinet NOx (mg/s) Cumulative NOx (g)

RCCI on
80
2.4
CDC only
1.8
70 RCCI/CDC
1.2
60
0.6
50
0
40
30
20
10
0
0
200 400

150
100
50
0
0

200

400

16

800 1000 1200 1400

RCCI on
240
60
CDC only
45
210
RCCI/CDC
30
180
15
150
0
120
Transinet HC (mg/s) Cumulative HC (g)

Transinet PM (mg/s) Cumulative PM (g)

Time (s)

600

Time (s)

Time (s)

RCCI on
16
0.4
CDC only
PM Indicated by
0.3
14
RCCI/CDC
smoke
0.2
12
0.1
10
0.0
8
6
4
2
0
0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

CO

HC

90
60
30
0
0

200

400

600

800 1000 1200 1400

Time (s)

NOx & Smoke PM benets with RCCI were cycle dependent


The Smoke PM reducHons were signicant for all cycles
The NOx reducHon benet of RCCI wasnt so good for city cycles
NOx benet from RCCI vs. CDC reduced at low loads

There were large increases in CO & HC for all cycles


Implies more need for catalyHc oxidaHon abertreatment
Change
with RCCI activated

PM*

NOx

HC

CO

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

UDDS

56

+242

+154

HWFET

68

21

+302

+140

US06

33

+312

+137

NY City

62

+4

+219

+152

* The PM reduction estimates based on filter smoke number

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Simulated transient engine-out exhaust temperatures dropped


signicantly when RCCI was enabled
Largest impact was on transient temperature spikes
Considerable Hme was spent with engine-out temperature below 200oC
Current abertreatment catalysts dont perform well below 200C

Exhaust Temperature (oC)

RCCI on

500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Hot-start UDDS cycle

CDC only

RCCI/CDC

200

400

600

800 1000 1200 1400

Time (s)
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UDDS
(mph)

300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Preliminary characterizaHon of oxidaHon catalyst


performance with RCCI engine-out exhaust

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Experimental DOC measurements with engine exhaust


Modified 2007 GM 1.9-L multi-cylinder diesel
engine as before
UTG-96 Gasoline/ULSD fuels
Dual-fuel system with PFI injectors for
gasoline
OEM diesel fuel system
OEM variable geometry turbocharger
Measurements at 5 speeds and loads

2300 rpm, 4.2 Bar BMEP (mid RCCI range)

2000 rpm, 6.0/2.0 Bar BMEP

1250 rpm, 5.0/2.0 Bar BMEP

Comparison of CDC, PCCI, and RCCI

Exhaust aftertreatment
1.25-liter model DOC
Supplied by Emerachem
300 csi, 100 g/ft3 Pt, 0 g/ft3 Pd
3 hrs degreening in engine exhaust at 730C

20

RCCI PM mass was highly reduced in the DOC

Particle Mass Emissions (g/hp-hr)

Cell 2, 6-7,
6-9, 6-10,
GM
engine
Engine
Condition:
2300
rpm,
4.2 bar BMEP*

0.14

Reduction by DOC
Conventional Diesel: 30 6%
Diesel PCCI: 9 18%
Dual-Fuel RCCI: 47 9%

0.12
0.10

0.06
0.04

DOC was effective for


RCCI despite lower
exhaust temperature
CDC: 411C
PCCI: 408C

0.02

RCCI: 247C
0

Engine
Post
Post
2
3
4
Out
DOC
DOC
Conventional Diesel
Diesel PCCI
Engine
1
Out

Engine
5
Out

Post
6

DOC

Dual-Fuel RCCI

RCCI post-DOC emissions 0.014 0.001 g/hp-hr


*Data shown for UTG-96/ULSD, stock pistons
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The DOC reduced PM


mass by 50% with
RCCI vs. 30% with
CDC and 10% with
PCCI

0.08

0.00

Engine-out PCCI and


RCCI mass were similar
in magnitude but

The fraction of very small particles (nuclei mode) was reduced


~35% by the DOC
6/7

Conv: Engine Out


Conv: Post DOC
PCCI: Engine Out
PCCI: Post DOC
Dual: Engine Out
Dual: Post DOC

dN/dlogdp (#/cm3)

1e+9
1e+8
1e+7
1e+6
1e+5
1e+4
1

10

100
dp (nm)

Number of RCCI particles >30 nm ~100


times less than CDC and PCCI
Enhanced fuel and air mixing
High HC concentration with lack of
soot surface area for adsorption

Small RCCI PM appears to be more


susceptible to vaporization and
oxidation at 250 C

Engine Condition: 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar BMEP*

*Data shown for UTG-96/ULSD, stock pistons


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Conversion (%)

The light-o temperature for HC and CO oxidaHon appeared to be


higher for RCCI exhaust*

100

Speed/Load
(rpm/bar)

90

1250/2.0

80

1250/5.0

35

70

2000/2.0

34

60

2000/6.0

49

50
40

HC (RCCI)

30

CO (RCCI)

20

HC (CDC)

10

CO (CDC)
100

150
200
250
300
Inlet Exhaust Temperature (C)

80% HC and 100% CO


conversion at 190C at
convenHonal combusHon
No catalyst acHvity in
RCCI below 200C

0
350

*Data shown for UTG-96/ULSD, modied pistons

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Exhaust T
(C )

Implies that dierent HC/


CO composiHon (parHally
oxygenated HC species?)
may aect oxidaHon
kineHcs and RCCI light-o

Summary
RCCI was only possible over a limited speed-load range in our LDD engine and thus mulH-
mode capability was required for full-range operaHon
During steady-state RCCI, engine-out NOx and PM decreased dramaHcally but HC and CO
greatly increased
Drive-cycle simulaHons indicate that RCCI can be used a large fracHon of the Hme in both
city and highway operaHon
RCCI Smoke PM reducHon is substanHal for both city and highway driving
RCCI NOx reducHon is greatest for highway driving and less for city driving
Increases in HC and CO are large for both types of driving
RCCI exhaust temperatures are signicantly lower for both types of driving

Both PM and HC characterisHcs were very dierent for RCCI


RCCI PM contained higher levels of volaHle liquids but appeared to oxidize well above 200 deg C
The relaHonship among Smoke, Soot, and PM for RCCI is sHll not fully resolved
RCCI HCs appeared to have higher lighto temperature (dierent kineHcs)

Adequate post-engine oxidaHon of HC and CO poses a signicant challenge


Low exhaust temperature and less reacHve HCs may require new catalyst formulaHons and
associated models
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Acknowledgements
Gurpreet Singh
Ken Howden

Office of Vehicle Technologies


US Department of Energy

Contacts
Robert Wagner

Scott Curran

Zhiming Gao

(865) 946-1522
curransj@ornl.gov

(865) 946-1339
gaoz@ornl.gov

(865) 946-1239
wagnerrm@ornl.gov

Vitaly Prikhodko

Stuart Daw

James Parks

(865) 946-1459
vy5@ornl.gov

(865) 946-1341
dawcs@ornl.gov

(865) 946-1283
jii@ornl.gov

Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center


Oak Ridge National Laboratory

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