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SRI LANKA INSTITUTE of ADVANCED TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Electrical and Electronic


Engineering
Instructor Manual

Training Unit

English 2 - Part 1
Theory

No: AS 012

Training Unit
English 2 - Part 1
Theoretical Part
No.: AS 012

Edition:

2008
All Rights Reserved

Editor:

MCE Industrietechnik Linz GmbH & Co


Education and Training Systems, DM-1
Lunzerstrasse 64 P.O.Box 36, A 4031 Linz / Austria
Tel. (+ 43 / 732) 6987 3475
Fax (+ 43 / 732) 6980 4271
Website: www.mcelinz.com
1

ENGLISH 2 - PART 1

CONTENTS

Page

LEARNING OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................3

TALKING ABOUT EXPERIENCE.................................................................................4


1.1

What do you know? .............................................................................................4

1.2

Putting things together .........................................................................................6

1.3

More things to try ...............................................................................................17

1.4

Reading..............................................................................................................18

I'M SORRY .................................................................................................................25


2.1

What do you know? ...........................................................................................25

2.2

Putting things together .......................................................................................27

2.3

More things to try ...............................................................................................38

2.4

Reading..............................................................................................................40

LIFE STORIES ...........................................................................................................45


3.1

What do you know? ...........................................................................................45

3.2

Putting things together .......................................................................................47

3.3

More things to try ...............................................................................................54

3.4

Reading..............................................................................................................57

MATTERS OF OPINION ............................................................................................64


4.1

What do you know? ...........................................................................................64

4.2

Putting things together .......................................................................................67

4.3

More things to try ...............................................................................................75

4.4

Reading..............................................................................................................76

WHAT SHALL WE DO? .............................................................................................82


5.1

What do you know? ...........................................................................................82

5.2

Putting things together .......................................................................................85

5.3

More things to try ...............................................................................................96

5.4

Reading..............................................................................................................97

ENGLISH 2 - PART 1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

The trainee should


describe experiences in both general and specific terms
be able to lead up to, apologise for and explain why mistakes are made.
be able to give opinions about past and present situations and future courses of
action.
ask for suggestions, make suggestions and ask for and give more information.
be able to talk about plans, for the sake of friendly conversation, in order to make
requests and in order to issue invitations.
be able to write brief answers, refusing invitations politely.
be able to talk and write about ambitions, and ways of achieving ambitions.

1.1

TALKING ABOUT EXPERIENCE

What do you know?

What do these pictures show?


What would you say to the people in the pictures?

John went with some other boys for a short camping trip, beside the sea. But the trip didn't
go very well.

Look at the pictures below. Say what happened.

1.2

Putting things together

John is telling Kevin about his camping trip.

What general question does Kevin ask?


What does John answer?

THE GENERAL QUESTION IS "HOW DID YOUR CAMPING TRIP GO?"


THE ANSWER IS "IT WAS TERRIBLE!

ABSOLUTELY TERRIBLE!"

Here are some examples of general questions and answers?

How did it go?

Fantastic!

How did . go?

Great!

How was it?

Very good/It went very


well
Quite good/It went quite

How was ? (It was)

well
How did you get on?

Not bad/All right/OK

How did you get on in?

Nothing special
Terrible!

Now you make up more questions and answers


Read the beginnings of four conversations, below. Fill in the
blanks, using words from the examples above. A blank can have
any number of words in it.

Conversation 1

George: HOW DID your trip to Cairo go?

Thomas: FANTASTIC/GREAT/VERY GOOD/IT WENT VERY WELL. I really enjoyed it!

Conversation 2

Mary: How WAS the concert?

Leila: ALL RIGHT/OK/NOT BAD/QUITE GOOD Some of it was good, but some of it wasn't
so good.

Conversation 3
John: So, HOW DID YOU GET ON in the exam?

Kevin: (IT WAS) TERRIBLE! I didn't have enough time to answer the questions.

Conversation 4

Simon: Well, George HOW WAS/HOW DID YOU GET ON IN/WITH your holiday in India?

George: QUITE GOOD/VERY GOOD/GREAT/FANTASTIC. But it's nice to be back.

Conversation between John and Kevin


Fill in the blanks below.

Kevin: Well, John. How did your camping trip go?

John: It was terrible! Absolutely terrible!

Kevin: WHY? WHAT HAPPENED?

John: Well, first of all, our car BROKE DOWN on the way.

Kevin: DID YOU MANAGE TO REPAIR IT?

John: Yes, well, in the end we DISCOVERED there was no petrol in the tank. We HAD TO
go and get a can of petrol from a filling station.

Kevin: And WHAT HAPPENED THEN?

John: Well, we PUT up the tent, and that was all right.
But then... you remember there was a bad dust-storm on Thursday night?

Kevin: Yes DID YOU GET covered in dust?

John: Oh yes. Completely covered. It was terrible! And the wind BLEW so hard that the
tent FELL down!

Kevin: DID YOU COME HOME THEN?

John: No, we PUT UP THE TENT again, but then a lot of goats CAME round the tent, and
one WALKED into the tent. And an old shepherd TOLD us to camp somewhere
else. Then our breakfast GOT BURNT, and then my brother GOT STUNG by a
scorpion!

Kevin: WAS HE ALRIGHT

John: Oh yes. We TOOK HIM to a doctor and he was all right. But it was very painful.

When a friend tells us about something that happened, it is important to be a good


listener! But this doesn't mean that we keep quiet. Often, we ask questions.

For example:
Oh! (This shows that we want to hear more)
How did that happen?
Where was it?
When did you get there?
Did you ...?/Was it ?/Where you ?/etc.

Can you give any other examples?

Now you try it. Work with a partner, like this:

YOUR PARTNER

tells you about something he/she did this morning, or yesterday, or


last week, or last summer

YOU

ask your partner questions while he/she is telling the story

YOUR PARTNER

tries to answer your questions

When we listen to a story, we don't just ask questions. We show that we understand the
story. For example, we might say:

Yes
Yeah (with a friend of our own age)
Mm

And if the story is sad, we might say:


Oh dear!
That's a pity!
That's a shame!
I'm sorry it didn't go well/etc.

We can also try to make the person feel better. For example, we might say:

Don't worry.
Never mind.
It'll be better next week.
Perhaps you'll have better luck next time.
etc.

Match the sentences on the left (1-5) with the sentences on the
right (a-e)

1. It's no use. Ill never

(a) Never mind. You can come

pass that exam!

with me to Majorca in the


summer. We'll have a
great time!

2. Our camping trip was

(b) Never mind. You're playing

terrible! It rained

again next week, aren't

all the time!

you? Perhaps you'll win then.

3. Its the worst holiday Ive ever

(c) Dont worry. If you keep going

had in my life!

to the class youll speak it


perfectly.

4. I had a terrible game!

(d) Never mind. Perhaps you'll

I'll have to stop playing

have better weather next

chess if I can't do better

weekend.
than that.

5. I don't know how I'm ever

(e) Don't worry. You can try

going to learn French!

again in the autumn. I'm


sure you'll get a good mark
then.

ANSWERS: 1-(e), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b), 5-(c)

10

Leila went to London for a holiday.


Describe the conversation Leila has with Mary when she comes back

Has Leila had a good holiday?


What words does she use to describe it?
What questions does Mary ask?
How does Mary show pleasure at the things Leila says?

Give examples

ANSWERS:

LELIA HAS HAD A GOOD HOLIDAY.

SHE

DESCRIBES

IT

AS

'WONDERFUL', REALLY FANTASTIC; SHE SAYS 'IT WAS A GREAT HOLIDAY. I'D
LIKE TO GO AGAIN NEXT YEAR'. THE QUESTIONS MARY ASKS ARE; 'HOW WAS
YOUR HOLIDAY?', 'WHAT DID YOU SEE?', 'DID YOU SEE THE QUEEN?', 'DID YOU
BUY LOTS OF THINGS?'

MARY SHOWS PLEASURE BY SAYING: 'THAT'S GOOD'. 'THAT'S NICE'. 'I'M GLAD
YOU HAD A GOOD TIME'. 'THAT'S GREAT!' 'THAT'S VERY GOOD'. 'I'M GLAD YOU
ENJOYED IT'.

Here are some ways of showing pleasure:

Good!
That's (very) good!
Great!
That's great!
I'm glad it went well.
I'm glad you had a good time.
etc.

11

Look at the main Stages of conversations describing experiences.

The words in the boxes are only examples.

Now make up your own conversations on this pattern

12

Work with a partner. Act out a conversation about one of these


situations. You can write out the conversation first, in the space
provided.

You have come back from a holiday. But the holiday didn't go well. The weather was bad.
The food was terrible. The hotel was uncomfortable. All the people in the hotel were much
older than you. Nobody spoke English.

OR

You have come back from a good holiday. The weather was fine. The food was delicious.
You had an exciting time.

Here are some words you can use:

WEATHER:

hot, warm, cool, cold, sunny, rainy, dry

SCENERY:

hills, mountains, trees, sea

BUILDINGS: old, new, modern, beautiful, ugly


HOTELS/RESTAURANTS: room, food, price, expensive, comfortable, uncomfortable

You meet a friend who has just taken an examination.

Here are some words you can use:

DIFFICUITY: easy, difficult


QUESTIONS: I answered all the questions; I couldn't answer the questions
MEMORY:

I remembered the answers; I forgot the answers

MISTAKES:

I made a lot of mistakes; I got the answers right/wrong

TIME:

I didn't have enough time; I had time to answer all the questions; I didn't
finish all the questions

13

You meet a friend who has come back from a shopping expedition in an expensive part of
the City.

Here are some words you can use:

CLOTHES:

dress, suit, trousers, blouse, skirt, shoes

STYLE:

I saw a very nice dress/skirt/pair of trousers;


It was very smart

PRICE:

It was very expensive; It wasn't very


expensive; I got it in a sale

COLOUR:

black, white, yellow, pink, orange, purple;


(dark/light) blue, green, red

MATERIAL:

cotton, wool, silk, nylon, leather

You meet a friend who has got into trouble in class, and who has had to see the teacher
at the end of the lesson.

Here are some words you can use:

WHAT THE TEACHER SAID: He/She asked me why I had done it; He told me not to do it
again; He said he would tell my parents/the headmaster

THE TEACHERS ATTITUDE: He/She was friendly/nice/angry/etc.

PUNISHMENT: He gave me extra homework; He's going to send a letter to my father; etc.

14

You meet a friend who has just been to a football match.

Here are some words you can use:

WINNING AND LOSING: goals, winner, loser; Our team won; Our team lost; It was a
draw.

ORDER OF EVENTS: Our team scored first; The other team equalised; We scored in the
first half; They scored in the second half.

QUALITY

OF

THE

PLAYERS:

Suleiman

played

well;

The

goalkeeper

was

fantastic/terrible/useless.

FEELINGS ABOUT THE MATCH: It was great/terrible; It was a good match.

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1.3

More things to try

If you have a recorder, try to record an interview between a TV


reporter and a person who has had an interesting experience.

If the interview is in English, take a note of the questions the


reporter asks. Show the questions to your teacher.

e.g.

How
Where

did ...?
will ...?

Why
When

Are ...?
can ...?

etc.

Think of some pleasant or unpleasant experience you have had.


Imagine that your partner is a newspaper reporter.

YOUR PARTNER

asks you questions about your


experience.

YOU

tell your partner about your experience

YOUR PARTNER

gives a report (spoken or written) of


your experience to the rest of the class.

Imagine that you were present at some event that is in the news
(something that the newspapers are writing about). Write a report
about the event, as you experienced it.

17

1.4

Reading

In this reading section, people tell of experiences when they had to show great courage.
Before you start reading, discuss these questions:

1. Have you ever been in danger of drowning? Have you ever seen
anyone in danger of drowning? What happened?
2. If you see someone in danger of drowning, what should you do?
What should you be careful about.
3. Do you think you would jump in the sea to help someone who was
waving? Or someone who was screaming?

ANSWERS: (QUESTIONS 1 TO 4)

THESE QUESTIONS ARE ASKED TO PRODUCE A GENERAL DISCUSSION. YOU


ARE ONLY TRYING TO ELICIT TRAINEES OWN OPINIONS.

Dr Robin Cox was talking to a friend near his home one evening when they heard cries
from the sea. This is how he tells his story.

(1) We weren't even sure that they were human at first. It was a windy night, and we
listened hard. Then we started running to the water's edge. It was completely dark, with no
moon.

I waded out, and began to swim. The cries were still coming, (5) but in the darkness I
couldn't judge the distance.

Obviously, the best thing was to get help. I swam back to the beach, and Alan, the friend
who was with me, went to call the rescue boat. But the cries were still coming, and I knew
it would be at least ten minutes before the boat got there. I went (10) into the water again.

I called out, myself, this time, and heard answering shouts. The person wasn't very far
away, but I still didn't know how far. I had to think. I told myself I had my own life to think
of, and a wife and children, and that the sensible thing to do was to get a (15) rope, so
that I could keep contact with the shore.

18

I swam back to the beach and found another man there, and together we tried to find a
lifebelt. But there wasn't one, and now the cries were fainter and more urgent. Someone
once told me that until you have heard the screams of a drowning person, (20) you have
no idea of what it is like. I discovered that for myself that night. It is something biological something nature has arranged. You can't turn your back on those cries, any more than a
mother can turn her back on the cries of her child.

4. What do you think Dr. Cox did next?


5. What do they refer to (line 1)?
6. Explain the meaning of waded (line 4), judge (line 5), fainter and
more urgent (line 18)
7. Why did Dr. Cox want to get a rope? (Explain in your own words).

ANSWERS (QUESTIONS 4 TO 7):

QUESTION 4 - THIS IS FOR DISCUSSION, FOR TRAINEES TO PREDICT. (IN FACT,


HE WENT BACK INTO THE WATER, TO SWIM OUT TO THE PERSON).

QUESTION 5 - 'THEY' REFER TO THE CRIES WHICH ARE IN FACT NOT MENTIONED
DIRECTLY UNTIL LATER. THIS IS A NARRATIVE DEVICE WHICH AROUSES THE
READERS CURIOSITY.

QUESTION 6 - WADED = WALKED THROUGH (DEEP) WATER. JUDGE =


ESTIMATE/GUESS. FAINTER AND MORE URGENT = NOT SO LOUD BUT
DESPERATE.

QUESTION 7 - HE WANTED TO GET A ROPE BECAUSE, WITH A ROPE, A PERSON


ON SHORE MIGHT BE ABLE TO PULL THE DROWNING MAN TOWARDS LAND.

I went in again, hoping for the best. If I lost my life, I lost it. (25) I just kept on swimming. It
was a long way, after all - 100 to 150 yards. Finally I saw a dark shape against the
horizon. Later I discovered it was a 17 year old French girl. I told her: "OK, Do what I tell
you. Keep still and don't struggle. I'm going to get you back to the beach." I didn't realise
she (30) couldn't understand a word.

19

The one thing I remembered from school was that a drowning person can hold you so
tightly that you go down as well. I put the fiat of my hand on the top of her head and held
her away. Then I swam round behind her, caught her hair close to her (35) head, and
pulled her to the beach, both of us on our backs.

It wasn't the best method of life-saving, but it kept her face out of the water, and she didn't
protest. We were both exhausted anyway. I got her near the shore, and we fell down in a
heap in (40) the water. I couldn't even stand up. Fortunately, within a few minutes there
were plenty of people round us.

I felt strangely frightened next day when I took a walk and saw where it had happened. I
still wonder if I would have done the same thing if it had been in the daytime, and the
signal had (45) been purely visual - like a swimmer waving.

8. Explain the meaning of hoping for the best (line 24), If I lost my
life, I lost it (line 24), exhausted (line 38).
9. Why do you think Dr Cox was strangely frightened when he came
to the place the next day.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 8 AND 9

QUESTION 8 - HOPING FOR THE BEST = HOPING FOR GOOD LUCK. IF I LOST MY
LIFE I LOST IT, INDICATES THAT THE WRITER THOUGHT HE MIGHT DIE, BUT
THERE WAS NOTHING ELSE HE COULD DO. EXHAUSTED = SO TIRED THAT HE
HAD NO STRENGTH LEFT. FELL DOWN IN A HEAP = COLLAPSED TOGETHER, ONE
ON TOP OF THE OTHER.

QUESTION 9 - DISCUSS. TRAINEES MAY EXPRESS THE IDEA IN VARIOUS WAYS.


THEY MIGHT SUGGEST THE SCENE REMINDED HIM OF THE NIGHT BEFORE.
PROBABLY IT LOOKED MORE DANGEROUS NOW THAT HE COULD SEE THE
WAVES, THE SEA, ETC.

20

Before you start reading, discuss these questions:

1. Have you ever been on an aeroplane ? Try to describe some


of the things that happen when you go on an aeroplane.

2. What must you do when the aeroplane takes off and lands.
Why must you do it?

3. Many people are worried about travelling by plane. How about


you? Do you think air travel is safe? What kinds of
emergencies can there be? What must you do in case of
emergency.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1 TO 3

QUESTION 1 - CHECK ON TRAINEES - FIND OUT THE PROCEDURES - CHECKINGIN, IMMIGRATION, CUSTOMS ETC.

QUESTION 2 - FASTEN YOUR SEAT BEIT. NO SMOKING. SAFETY REGULATIONS


ETC.

QUESTION 3 - AIR TRAVEL IS SAFE. - SAFER THAN TRAVELLING BY CAR.


OCCASIONALLY THERE ARE ACCIDENTS. MOST OCCUR DURING TAKE-OFF OR
LANDING.

Now read the passage. If you meet a word you don't know, try to
guess the meaning. If you can't guess the meaning, take a note of
the word and check it at the end. But try to keep on reading.

21

Mrs. Maude Wharton and her son Stephen, were on an aeroplane which crashed near
Basle, Switzerland, in April 1973. The plane was carrying women and children on a trip
from England.

(1) There were emergency instructions in the pocket of the seat in front, and I remember
that Stephen read them, but I didn't. The stewardesses had been selling their duty-free
cigarettes, and we were all singing, laughing, and enjoying ourselves, (5) when the place
started to bump and shake. The pilot said there was bad weather ahead, and told us to
fasten our seat belts because we were going to land in ten minutes.

I think we made two attempts to land. Some people were frightened. I think someone
started screaming. On the third (10) attempt there was a bump. I said, "We're down" - and
suddenly we seemed to be going up almost vertically. Then there was a terrible bang. I
thought to myself, "You're dead", and then, "No, I'm alive because I'm thinking". My first
instinct was to shout for Stephen.

(15) The plane had broken into three sections. We were in the middle one, and that may
have saved our lives. It had turned over, so we were hanging upside-down in our seat
belts in total darkness.

The silence after the crash was somehow so strong that you (20) could almost hear it.
Stephen was alive, and so was the woman next to me; she began to cry out for her
husband. A young girl in the seat in front of me was alive. Her mother, on one side of her,
and her aunt, on the other side, were dead. There didn't seem to be a living sound from
the rest of the section.

(25) My duty seemed clear: to keep calm because of the children. I couldn't allow myself
to be myself. The cold was terrible, and there was a terrible pain in my legs. In my heart I
really thought it would be easier just to die. But I remember that I heard Stephen crying
that he didn't want to die yet. I (30) did everything I could to encourage the children. We
prayed. I told them we would soon be in a lovely warm hospital, and we sang as well.

Brenda, the girl in front, told Stephen, "Stop kicking me", and I was delighted because at
least it meant that his legs were (35) alright.

22

It seemed an eternity before help arrived. I managed to move the carpet with my feet, and
saw snow dropping in. I think we were conscious some of the time, but not all the time. A
man who had been in the crash came and held Brenda's hand through (40) the wreckage.

And then there was the sound of a helicopter and, a little later, foreign voices. No one will
ever know how sweet those voices sounded.

4. Check if you have correctly guessed the meaning of these


words:
duty-free, attempt, instinct, conscious, bump, vertically,
eternity, wreckage

5. Who was Stephen?

6. Who was in the helicopter? Why were the voices foreign (line
42)

7. What does Mrs Wharton mean by I couldn't allow myself to be


myself (line 26)

8. Why does she say No one will ever know how sweet those
voices sounded (line 42 - 43)

9. Imagine you are talking to Mrs. Wharton, or Dr. Cox some


months after their experiences, about the things that
happened. Act out the conversation with a partner.

23

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 4 TO 9

QUESTION 4 - DUTY FREE = PAYABLE WITHOUT PAYING NORMAL CUSTOMS


DUTIES. ATTEMPT = TRYING SOMETHING. INSTINCT = SOMETHING WHICH ONE
DOES WITHOUT HAVING TO THINK ABOUT IT. CONSCIOUS = KNOWING WHAT IS
HAPPENING AROUND ONE, AWAKE. BUMP = NOISE (OR FEELING) OF HITTING
AGAINST SOMETHING. VERTICALLY = STRAIGHT UPWARDS. ETERNITY = AN
ENDLESS LENGTH OF TIME. WRECKAGE = BROKEN REMAINS (OF THE PLANE).

QUESTION 5 - STEPHEN WAS MRS. WHARTON'S SON.

QUESTION 6 - IN THE HELICOPTER THERE WERE PROBABLY RESCUE WORKERS


AND A MEDICAL TEAM. THERE VOICES WERE FOREIGN TO MRS. WHARTON
BECAUSE SHE WAS FROM ENGLAND.

QUESTION 7 - SHE MEANS SHE HAD TO CONTROL HER FEELINGS OF FEAR AND
PAIN, AND NOT GIVE IN TO THEM, OR CRY OUT.

QUESTION 8 - SHE SAYS THIS BECAUSE IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANYONE ELSE TO


IMAGINE HOW THE PEOPLE IN THE PLANE FEIT WHEN THEY KNEW THAT THEY
WERE GOING TO BE RESCUED.

QUESTION 9 - AN ACTIVITY WHICH ALLOWS FOR A ROLE PLAYING EXERCISE.

24

2.1

I'M SORRY

What do you know?

Look at these pictures of Kevin and John. What happened?

What did Kevin say when he met John again?


What did John say?

25

ANSWER - KEVIN BORROWED A CASSETTE FROM JOHN. KEVIN'S BABY BROTHER


FOUND THE CASSETTE AND STARTED PLAYING WITH IT. AS A RESUIT, THE TAPE
GOT TANGLED AND BROKEN. WHEN KEVIN MET JOHN AGAIN, HE HAD TO
APOLOGISE FOR THE DAMAGED CASSETTE.

GET TRAINEES TO PUT THIS INTO DIRECT SPEECH.

Mary borrowed an old shopping bag from Leila when she wanted to go shopping.

Look at these pictures

What happened?
What did Mary say when she met Leila again?
What did Leila say?

ANSWER

MARY BORROWED AN OLD SHOPPING BAG FROH LEILA TO GO SHOPPING.


HOWEVER SHE LEFT IT IN THE SHOP.
MARY MIGHT SAY 'LEILA, I'M SORRY BUT I'VE LOST THAT BAG YOU LENT ME. I
THINK I LEFT IT IN THE SHOP'. LEILA MIGHT SAY, 'IT DOESN'T MATTER. IT WAS AN
OLD BAG ANYWAY. I WAS GOING TO BUY A NEW ONE, ETC...'

26

2.2

Putting things together

Look at part of a conversation from Exercise 3. John is talking to


Kevin.

Why is John sorry?


How does John explain what happened?
How does Kevin make John feel better?

ANSWER
JOHN IS SORRY BECAUSE HE HAS BROKEN KEVIN'S ALARM CLOCK/LET KEVIN'S
ALARM CLOCK GET BROKEN. HE EXPLAINS WHAT HAPPENED BY SAYING THAT IT
FELL ON THE FLOOR WHILE HE WAS GETTING UP.

KEVIN TRIES TO MAKE JOHN FEEL BETTER BY SAYING 'NEVER MIND, IT WASN'T
WORKING VERY WELL ANYWAY'.

Read the following conversations

In each conversation one partner is sorry about something. What does the other partner
say to make him or her feel better.

Fill in the blanks in the conversation. Use your own ideas

27

CONVERSATION 1

John: Kevin, I'm very sorry, but that record you lent me got a scratch on it. My little brother
was playing with it.

Kevin: NEVER MIND, IT WAS SCRATCHED ANYWAY.

CONVERSATION 2

Leila: Oh Sophie, I'm sorry, live forgotten to bring those magazines you wanted to read.

Sophie: NEVER MIND, I HAVEN'T TIME TO READ THEM NOW ANYWAY, I HAVE
SOME OTHER MAGAZINES TO READ/I DON'T NEED THEM TILL NEXT
WEEK.

CONVERSATION 3

George: Oh, Jeffrey ...

Jeffrey: Yes?

George: Do you remember that photograph I borrowed from you?

Jeffrey: Yes, I remember

George: Well, live been looking for it, and I can't find it anywhere. I'm really sorry.

Jeffrey: NEVER MIND, I HAVE THE NEGATIVE. I CAN EASILY GET ANOTHER ONE/I
HAVE ANOTHER ONE EXACTLY THE SAME.

28

Now you try it. Work with a partner like this:

YOU

have broken or lost something that belongs to


your partner. You say you are sorry, and say what happened.

YOUR PARTNER

tries to make you feel better.

Make up a conversation and act it out with your partner.

Sometimes when you have lost or broken something, your partner may ask you questions

Look at these examples

Reconstruct brief conversations from these mixed up items

29

Sometimes, people don't say they are sorry immediately. They lead up to it slowly. Look at
this example:

KEVIN:

John

JOHN:

Yes?

KEVIN:

I've got something to tell you

JOHN:

Yes, what is it?

KEVIN:

Do you remember that cassette you lent me?

JOHN:

Yes, what about it?

KEVIN:

Well, I'm very sorry. I don't know how it happened, but I've broken it.

How does Kevin lead up to saying what happened?

30

This is Kevin's brother, Billy.

Billy is a student at a technical college in England. He is 18, and he thinks he knows


everything. He has just passed his driving test. The rest of the family are in England for
the summer. Billy has borrowed his father's car to go for a short drive. But Billy still can't
drive very well.

Read the conversation between Billy and his Father.

Which ending do you think is most likely?

Fill in the words missing from the beginning of the conversation, below.

Billy: DAD

Mr. Hill: Yes?

Billy: Dad, I'VE GOT SOMETHING TO TELL YOU.

Mr. Hill: Yes. What is it?

Billy: It's about THE CAR.

Mr. Hill: What about it?

Billy: Well, I'm afraid there's been an accident

31

Now answer these questions

What has happened?


What questions does Mr Hill ask?
How do you think the conversation will finish?

ANSWER

BILLY HAS HAD AN ACCIDENT WITH HIS FATHERS' CAR.


MR. HILL ASKS 'ARE YOU ALRIGHT?"WHAT HAPPENED?', 'THE WALL?', 'THE WALL
AROUND THE GARDEN?', 'IS THERE MUCH DAMAGE?'

TRAINEES CAN TRY TO GUESS HOW THE CONVERSATION MIGHT END. THERE IS
NO SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER - IRRITATION OR ANGER ARE QUITE POSSIBLE.

We can't always lead up to things slowly. Sometimes your partner asks a direct question,
like this:

Did you remember to buy the food for tomorrow?


Have you got that book I asked you to get me?
Did you remember to post that letter?
Leila, have you done your homework?
Have you washed those dishes yet?

What can you say if you haven't done the thing your partner has asked you to do?

32

Here are some of the ways a conversation might end.

(a)

Your partner might say "never mind" and say why it isn't important.

(b)

You and your partner might get angry and say things like:
Why are you so silly/forgetful/selfish/etc.?
All I ask you to do is post a letter, and you do nothing about it!
Well, it wasn't my fault

(c)

You and your partner might discuss what to do. For example:
I can do it now
Well, can you do if for me now?
etc.

Read the situations below. Write an ending to each conversation


using your own ideas

The headmaster has asked a new teacher at the school to make lists of all the boys in the
classes. But the teacher didn't have time.

Headmaster: Ah, good morning, Mr. Rajai

Mr. Rajai: Good morning, headmaster

Headmaster: Have you written out those lists for me ... the lists of names?

Mr. Rajai: Oh...I'm sorry. I didn't have time this morning

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

33

Mrs. Hill has asked Mr. Hill to buy some food. But Mr. Hill has forgotten to do it.

Mrs. Hill: Did you remember to do the shopping?

Mr. Hill: What shopping?

Mrs. Hill: The food shopping? Did you remember to buy the fish for dinner?

Mr. Hill: No, I'm sorry. I was busy with friends from the office.

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

34

When you say "Sorry", these are some of the stages that can come in the conversation.
(The words in boxes are only examples.)

SHOW FOIL No.: 4

35

Imagine that you have done one of these things:

lost something belonging to your partner

OR
-

broken, damaged or burned something belonging to your partner

Act out the conversation

For example, it could be:

something used in class,

something used at home

like a pen, or a notebook

like a kettle, or a plate

something for entertainment

something to wear, like

like a radio, a record, or

a coat, a pullover, or

a cassette

a scarf

something used for transport,

some food your partner

like a bicycle, a car, or a

is going to eat, like

moped

rice, meat or a cake


36

Choose from these situations. Act out the conversations with a


partner. You can write out the parts first, below.

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

37

Imagine that you have:

forgotten to do something your partner has asked you to do

OR
-

been unable to do something your partner has asked you to do

OR
-

been too tired (or too lazy) to do something your partner has asked you to do

For example, perhaps you have not:

bought something needed at home (e.g. sugar, matches)

given a message to somebody at the office

done something for your school, class or teacher (e.g. homework)

cooked some food for your brother or sister

done some housework for your mother or father

made some arrangement you were asked to make (e.g. invite somebody to dinner,
buy tickets for a concert)

Act out the conversation with a partner. This time, try to act it out
without written preparation

2.3
2.4

More things to try

For one day, try to listen for situations where one person says
"sorry" to another person (in your language), or situations where
one person excuses another person (saying something doesn't
matter, or isn't important).

Report on the situations you observe to the rest of your class.

38

In the street, or in your school, listen for situations where one


person is angry with another person

Why are they angry? How does the conversation end? For example:

Does one person say "sorry" to another?


Do the people just stop talking and walk away from each other?
Do the people stop being angry and discuss what to do?
Does the conversation end some other way?

Report on the situations you observe to the rest of your class. Say
what you think the people you observe should do.

Have you ever offended another person (offend = hurt the feelings of a person)? Or has
another person ever offended you? What happened?

With two or three other students, write a "play" and act it out in
front of the class. Try to include these situations in your play:

Person A offends Person B in some way. (For example, perhaps A says bad things about
B to Person C, and C tells B about it.)

B feels angry with A. (Perhaps they quarrel, or perhaps they just don't talk to each other.)

A and B feel they want to be friends again, and they make peace with each other.

39

2.5

Reading

Before you read the passage, discuss these questions:

1. If you heard that somebody had been saying bad things about you, behind
your back, what would you do?
2. The passage deals with feelings of jealousy What does it mean to feel jealous?
Can you give examples of situations where you might feel this way?

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1 AND 2

QUESTION 1 - DISCUSS 'BEHIND A PERSONS BACK' - DISCUSS HOW PEOPLE


FEEL.

DO

THEY

GET

ANGRY?

UPSET?

WHAT

WOULD

THEY

DO?

CONFRONTATION? LAUCH AT THE MATTER AND LET IT GO? ETC.

QUESTION 2 - DISCUSS JEALOUSLY (THE MEANING HERE - FEELING OF SHOCK,


ANGRY AT NOT BEI NG LIKED SO WELL AS SOMEONE ELSE). TRY TO GET
EXAMPLES FROM TRAINEES.

(1) Mary and Leila were both students at the International School in Gulf City. They were
great friends, and they did lots of things together. Almost everyday they went shopping
together, or visited each other's houses, or helped each other (5) with schoolwork. But
most of all, they loved to talk - about things in the school or people they knew.

One day, a new student came to the school. Her name was Sophie, and her family had
just come to live in the city. She didn't know anybody, and Leila said she would show
Sophie (10) around. Soon, Leila, Mary and Sophie would be seen together every day. It
seemed as if it was a happy friendship for all three of them.

But Mary wasn't happy. She began to feel left out. Often, Leila and Sophie wanted to go to
places where Mary didn't want to go, (15) or do things that Mary didn't want to do. "Two's
company, three's a crowd", thought Mary. And as the days went past, she felt more and
more jealous. Now when Leila and Sophie wanted to go somewhere, Mary often found an
excuse not to go. She stayed behind, by herself, thinking angry thoughts.

40

(20) One morning during the school holidays, Mary was talking to Carmen, who was in the
same class as Leila. When she heard what Carmen had to say, she was furious. "Do you
know what Sophie said about you Mary? She said you were snobbish and too proud to
talk to people. Oh, and she said you spent all your (25) time at school being nice to the
teachers, trying to get a good school report."

3. Can you guess the meaning of Two's company, threes a crowd? Do


you think this saying is true?
4. What do you think of Carmen? Do you think she was a "friend" to
Mary?
5. What do you think Mary should have done next?

ANSWER TO QUESTIONS 3, 4 AND 5

QUESTION 3 - PROVERB MEANS THAT TWO PEOPLE CAN GET ON WELL


TOGETHER, BUT A THIRD PERSON JOINING THEM WILL SPOIL THINGS. DISCUSS.

QUESTION 4 - MOST PEOPLE WOULD PROBABLY REGARD ANYONE WHO PASSED


ON THIS KIND OF CONVERSATION AS NOT A 'FRIEND', BUT RATHER SOMEONE
WHO WANTED TROUBLE. DISCUSS

QUESTION 5 - DISCUSS THIS AS OPINIONS MAY DIFFER. PROBABLY, THE BEST


THING WOULD HAVE BEEN TO CALMLY 'TALK THINGS OVER' WITH SOPHIE.

For Mary this was the last straw. She sat down and wrote a note to Sophie. This is what
the note said.

41

Actually, Sophie had not said these things at all. She had only (30) said that Mary seemed
to have something against her, and that she was sorry about it, and wished they could get
on better. Carmen had invented all the other things herself.

42

6. It was the last straw comes from the saying "It's the last straw that breaks the
camel's back". What does it mean?

7. What do you think put up with means (Mary's letter line 1)?

8. Do you think Mary was right to write the letter.

9. Why do you think Carmen said these things? Have you ever met anyone like
that?

10. In the end, Mary and Sophie became friends again. Write out the letter in which
Sophie explains everything.

11. Act out the conversations in which Mary and Sophie make peace with each
other.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 6 TO 11

QUESTION 6 - THE MEANING OF THE PROVERB IS THAT A PERSON CAN ONLY


ACCEPT A LIMITED AMOUNT OF ABUSE OR DISCOMFORT; THERE COMES A
POINT WHERE EVEN A SMALL EXTRA PROBLEM LEADS A PERSON TO REACT
VIOLENTLY OR ANGRILY. DISCUSS.

QUESTION 7 - ELICIT THIS ANSWER. 'PUT UP WITH' IS A COLLOQUIAL PHRASE


WHICH MEANS TO ENDURE SOMETHING WITHOUT COMPLAINING.

QUESTION 8 - DISCUSS THIS.

OPI N IONS MAY DIFFER.

PROBABLY WRITING A LETTER WAS NOT THE BEST COURSE FOR MARY TO
TAKE.

QUESTION 9 - HERE THERE ARE NO DEFINITE ANSWERS. DISCUSS IN GENERAL.


JEALOUSY IS OFTEN THE ROOT OF SUCH BEHAVIOUR.

43

QUESTION 10 - HERE POSSI B I LITIES ARE ENDLESS. DISCUSSION, 'ACTING-OUT'


TASK , WRITTEN . AN EXAMPLE IS A LETTER -

DEAR MARY,

I'M SORRY THAT YOU THOUGHT THAT I WAS TALK I NG ABOUT YOU BEH I ND
YOUR BACK. I DON'T KNOW WHO CAN HAVE TOLD YOU THIS. I CERTAINLY NEVER
SAID ANYTHING ABOUT YOU, NOT TO ANYONE. PERHAPS I TOLD SOMEBODY
THAT I WAS WORRIED BECAUSE YOU WEREN'T SPEAKING TO ME, AND THAT I
WAS SORRY ABOUT IT.

WHY DON'T YOU COME ROUND TO MY HOUSE AND WE CAN TALK ABOUT IT?
THERE'S NO REASON WHY WE CAN'T BE FRIENDS.

YOURS,

SOPHIE

44

3.1

LIFE STORIES

What do you know?

Look at the photographs of these famous people

Who are they?


Why are they famous?
Do you know anything about their background?
Or how they came to do the things they did?

ANSWERS

NUMBER 1 IS DIANA, THE PRINCESS OF WALES.


NUMBER 2 IS BOB MARLEY, THE SINGER.

45

Imagine that you are a famous person, and you are telling the
story of your life in a book

What kinds of things can you say?

I WOULD GIVE INFORMATION ABOUT MY PARENTS, MY DATE OF BIRTH, PLACE


OF BIRTH, MY CHILDHOOD, MY SCHOOLS, EXPERIENCES AT SCHOOLS AND
FIRST JOBS. I WOULD SAY HOW I FIRST BECAME SUCCESSFUL AND FAMOUS. I
WOULD TALK ABOUT THE PEOPLE WHO HELPED ME, AND ABOUT THOSE
PEOPLE WHO HAVE HAD INFLUENCE ON MY LIFE AND CAREER.

Zinedine Zidane is a footballer. He plays for Juventus. He is a good player, but this is his
last year in football. He is telling a newspaper reporter about how he became famous.

What kinds of questions does the reporter ask?


What kinds of information does Zidane give?
The pictures below may give you some ideas.

46

ANSWERS

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES:


WHEN/WHERE WERE YOU BORN?
WAS YOUR FATHER A FOOTBALLER?
WAS YOUR FAMILY INTERESTED IN FOOTBALL?
WHEN DID YOU FIRST START TO PLAY FOOTBALL?
WHERE DID YOU GO TO SCHOOL?
WHAT WERE YOUR FAVOURITE SUBJECTS AT SCHOOL?
WHEN DID YOU START PLAYING FOOTBALL SERIOUSLY?
WHO HAS HAD THE GREATEST INFLUENCE ON YOUR LIFE?
WHAT WAS YOUR FIRST CLUB?
TELL ME ABOUT YOUR FIRST BIG SUCCESS.
TELL ME ABOUT YOUR PLANS FOR THE FUTURE.
USE ONE OF THE TRAINEES AS ZINDANE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS AND GET
THE REST OF THE TRAINEES TO ASK THE QUESTIONS.

3.2

Putting things together

Zinedine Zidane was born in Algeria in 1972.


As soon as he learned to WALK, he started to play football.
He had FOUR brothers and sisters.
Zidane went to school in FRANCE.
His SPORTS TEACHER helped him to become a good footballer.
WHEN he left school he played for a junior club. Two years
LATER he joined one of the best teams in France.
When he RETIRES, he is going to work with young players in the schools.

Discuss these questions with your teacher.

What was Mustafa's family background?


What were the main influences on him?
What kind of education or training did he have?
What were the main events in his career?
What are his plans now?
47

ANSWERS

ELICIT THESE SORT OF REPLIES:(FAMILY BACKGROUND) THAT HIS FATHER WAS A MECHANIC, HIS FAMILY
WEREN'T RICH, AND HE HAD FOUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS. (INFLUENCES)
THAT HIS FAMILY WERE ALL INTERESTED IN SPORT, HIS BROTHERS ALL PLAYED
FOOTBALL AND THAT THE SPORTS TEACHER HELPED HIM.
(EDUCATION AND TRAINING) THAT HE WENT TO SCHOOL IN FRANCE AND
LEARNED A LOT FROM HIS SPORTS TEACHER. (MAIN EVENTS IN CAREER) THAT
HE PLAYED FOR A JUNIOR CLUB, THEN FOR ONE OF THE BEST TEAMS IN
FRANCE, THEN FOR GULF CITY.
(PLANS) THAT HE IS GOING TO WORK WITH YOUNG PLAYERS IN SCHOOLS
(THROUGH NATIONAL SPORTS ORGANISATION).

Study this passage about the life and work of a famous scientist

Alexander Fleming was born in a little town in Scotland in 1881. His father was a farmer.
When he was five, he went to the village school, which was near his home. When he was
eight, his father died.

The family now had very little money. However, Alexander's brother, Thomas, had gone to
university and had become an eye doctor in London. Thomas wanted Alexander to come
to London too. So in 1895, Alexander went to London to live with his brother.

He still had no money, so he went to work as a clerk in a shipping office. But then a
relative died and left the family some money. Now Alexander could go to Medical School.
At the school he had a famous teacher call Almroth Wright. After graduating from the
Medical School in 1906, Fleming went to work in Wright's laboratory.

During the First World War (1914-1918) Fleming became an army doctor. He saw that
many soldiers were dying from infections caused by bacteria. He wanted to find
something that could kill the bacteria without harming the body.

After the war, Fleming did more research. In 1927 he discovered a fungus called
penicillium, which killed bacteria. He made a liquid from the fungus which he called
penicillin.

48

During the Second World War, penicillin was made in large quantities. It saved thousands
of lives. In 1945 Fleming was given the Nobel Prize for his discovery.

Study the passage again. Try to find examples of these points:

TIMES and PLACES

Fleming's FAMILY BACKGROUND

the INFLUENCES an Fleming's life (the people who helped


him, and the experiences which made him want to do the things he did)

the EDUCATION and TRAINING which Fleming received (at


school, university, etc.)

the main events later in his CAREER

SHOW FOIL No.: 5

ANSWERS

THESE ARE EXAMPLES: VARIATIONS ARE POSSIBLE.


(TIMES AND PLACES) IN A LITTLE TOWN IN SCOTLAND; IN 1881;
WHEN HE WAS 5; WHEN HE WAS 8; IN 1895; WENT TO LONDON DURING THE
FIRST WORLD WAR.
(FAMILY BACKGROUND) HIS FATHER WAS A FARMER; WHEN HE WAS EICHT, HIS
FATHER DIED; BROTHER THOMAS; THE FAMILY HAD LITTLE MONEY, ETC.
(INFLUENCES) BROTHER (EYE DOCTOR); ALMROTH WRIGHT (FAMOUS TEACHER
AT MEDICAL SCHOOL); HIS EXPERIENCES DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR.
(EDUCATION AND TRAINING) VILLAGE SCHOOL, MEDICAL SCHOOL; WENT TO
WORK IN WRIGHT'S LABORATORY. (CAREER) GRADUATION FROM MEDICAL
SCHOOL; WRIGHT'S LABORATORY; WORK AS ARMY DOCTOR; RESEARCH AFTER
THE WAR, DISCOVERY OF PENICILLIUM; NOBEL PRIZE.

49

Look at this table. It gives some of the main points in the lives of
famous people. It gives examples of questions which we often
think about

Remember that these questions are just examples. Try to think of other examples for
yourself.

FAMI LY BACKGROUND

TIMES AND PLACES

What did his father do?

This goes along with all the other

How many brothers and sisters did she

points. It includes

have?

questions like:

Was the family rich or poor?


Where and when was he born?
INFLUENCES
Where did he live?

Who helped him?


Who encouraged him?

Where was she brought up?

Which people did she admire?


What did he see that made him want to
become...?

When did he to go school?

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

When did she leave school?

What school did he go to?


Where did she learn to ...?

Where did he get his first job?

CAREER

When did she become a...?

What did he do later in his life?


Where and when did he die?

What was her greatest achievement?


What did he become?

etc.
PLANS
If the person is still alive,
you may think:
What are his plans for the future?
What does she want to do now?

50

ANSWERS

TRY TO ELICIT FURTHER EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS, SUCH AS: -

(FAMILY BACKGROUND) 'WHERE DID HIS PARENTS COME FROM?' 'WHO WERE
HIS ANCESTORS?'
(INFLUENCES) 'WHO I NFLUENCED HIM?
WHAT KIND OF PEOPLE DID HE SEE AROUND HIM?
WHAT WERE HIS EXPERIENCES?'
(EDUCATION AND TRAINING) 'WHERE DID HE STUDY?"HOW DID HE LEARN ABOUT
.. ?
(CAREER) 'WHEN DID HE BECOME A ?' 'WHAT WAS HIS FIRST JOB?'
'WHAT WAS HIS FIRST SUCCESS?'
(PLANS) 'WHAT IS HE GOING TO DO NOW?"HAS HE GOT ANY SPECIAL PLANS?'
(TIMES AND PLACES) 'DID HE DO THIS AFTER OR BEFORE X?'
'WHERE DID HE LEARN TO . ?' 'WHEN DID THIS HAPPEN .. ?'

Read this description of the life of a singer

Farridah was born in 1951. Her father was a building worker in Damascus, but he died
when Farridah was four years old. Farridah and her mother went to live with Farridah's
aunt, who was a music teacher.

Farridah sang at school concerts when she was a little girl. When she was older, she
listened to records by the famous singer, Feyrouz, and tried to sing in the same style.

Soon after she left school, she got married to a Lebanese businessman. They went to live
in Beirut, and Farridah sang in concerts there.

While Farridah was in Beirut she took lessons in English and French, and learned to sing
in these languages. After spending three years in Beirut, she went to Cairo and made her
first record. Six months later she was famous.

Write answers to these questions about the description of Farridah


which you have just read

51

1. Write three examples of words or phrases which tell you when events happened.

VARIATIONS ARE POSSIBLE

IN 1951. WHEN FARIDAH WAS FOUR, YEARS OLD. WHEN SHE WAS A LITTLE
GIRL. WHEN SHE WAS OLDER.
SOON AFTER SHE LEFT SCHOOL. WHILE FARRIDAH WAS IN BEIRUT AFTER
SPENDING THREE YEARS. SIX MONTHS LATER.

2. Write two examples of phrases which tell you where things happened.

IN DAMASCUS. IN BEIRUT.
IN CAIRO.

3. According to the passage, who influenced Farridah's singing?

FEYROUZ

4. Write down a sentence about Farridah's family background.

HER FATHER WAS A BUILDING WORKER; HE DIED WHEN FARRIDAH WAS


FOUR YEARS OLD. SHE AND HER MOTHER WENT TO LIVE WITH AN AUNT
WHO WAS A MUSIC TEACHER.

5. Perhaps Farridah received some training in singing (though the passage doesn't say
so directly). Where could she have received this? Write down your ideas below.

FROM HER AUNT; OR AT SCHOOL

6. Write down one important event in her career as a singer.

FARRIDAH SANG IN CONCERTS IS BEIRUT. SHE WENT TO CAIRO AND MADE


HER FIRST RECORD.

52

Today, Farridah has come to give a concert in Gulf City. A reporter from the "Gulf
Gazette" has arranged to interview her. The interview is in English.

Work with a partner. Write down questions the reporter might ask,
and answers Farridah might give. You can use your own ideas as
well as information from the passage you read.

THERE CAN BE NO SINGLE 'CORRECT ANSWER' IN THIS ACTIVITY BUT YOU CAN
COMPARE TRAINEES WORK WITH THE PREVIOUS WORK ON THIS TYPE OF
INTERVIEW.

Practise acting out the questions and answers with your partner

This is a reporter called Ann interviewing Farridah.

Are any of the questions and answers the same as the ones you made up?

Do one of these two tasks:

Write out the story of your life, up to the age you are now.

OR

Pretend you are an old man or woman looking back over your life. You have become
famous, and people are interested in the story of your life. Write out the story of your life.

NO SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER - EITHER ALLOW TRAINEES TO CHOOSE TOPIC


OR YOU CAN SET A PARTICULAR TASK.

53

Work with a partner. Pretend you are a famous person, talking to a TV or radio
interviewer. Act out the conversation. You can write it out first

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

3.3

More things to try

When we write about a person, we usually mention background, career and so on. But of
course, we try to answer any of the questions our readers are interested in.

Look at these questions and answers about a famous man from


Arab history. What was his name?

ANSWER

THE NAME OF THE PERSON WAS SALAHUDDIN (USUALLY SAID IN ENGLISH AS


SALADIN)
Where and when was he born?
-

Takrit, 1137

Where was he brought up?


-

Baalbek and Damascus

54

What was he interested in when he was a boy?


-

religious studies rather than military training

How did he learn to become a good soldier?


-

by serving under his uncle, who led armies to Egypt

When did he become a ruler? What countries did he rule?


-

In 1169 he became vizier of Egypt.

By 1186 he was sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen and Palestine.

Why was he a great ruler?


-

He loved learning and religion. He was a great soldier, but he was not cruel, even to
his enemies.

Why do people in Europe remember him?


-

He defeated the armies of Europe when they came to Palestine. Yet he was always
merciful to the people he defeated.

Where and when did he die?


-

Damascus, 1193

Now use these questions and answers and write a short


passage about this man

AN EXAMPLE OF A SHORT PASSAGE WOULD BE SALAHUDDIN WAS BORN IN


TAKRIT IN 1137, BUT HE WAS BROUGHT UP IN BAALBEK AND DAMASCUS. WHEN
HE WAS A BOY HE WAS INTERESTED IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES RATHER THAN
MILITARY TRAINING. HE LEARNED TO BECOME A GOOD SOLDIER BY SERVING
UNDER HIS UNCLE, WHO LED ARMIES TO EGYPT. IN 1169 HE BECAME VIZIER OF
EGYPT, AND BY 1186 HE WAS SUITAN OF EGYPT, SYRIA, YEMEN AND PALESTINE.

55

SALAHUDDIN WAS A GREAT RULER BECAUSE HE LOVED LEARNING AND


RELIGION. AITHOUGH HE WAS A GREAT SOLDIER HE WAS NOT CRUEL, EVEN TO
HIS ENEMIES. IN EUROPE HE IS REMEMBERED BECAUSE HE DEFEATED THE
ARMIES OF EUROPE WHEN THEY CAME TO PALESTINE; YET HE WAS ALWAYS
MERCIFUL TO THE PEOPLE HE DEFEATED. SALAHUDDIN DIED IN DAMASCUS, IN
1193.

Write a short story in English of any well-known figure (statesman,


scientist, actor/actress, sportsman, etc.) Look up information on
the internet, in books and newspapers

THIS CAN BE DONE AS EITHER AN INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP EXERCISE. MATERIAL


CAN BE COLLECTED AND DISPLAYED FOR ALL TO USE, OR INDIVIDUALS CAN
SEEK OUT THEIR OWN MATERIAL FROM BOOKS AND MAGAZINES.

IF DONE AS AN INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE EACH TRAINEE CAN BE ASKED TO READ


HIS ACCOUNT TO THE REST, OMITTING THE WELL-KNOWN FIGURES NAME. THE
REST OF THE TRAINEES HAVE TO GUESS WHO IT IS.

Try to find (in English) an example of a life story. It can be


written by the person himself/herself (= an autobiography) or
by another person (= a biography). Show it to your class.
Report to your class about the most interesting things you find
in it.

56

3.4

Reading

This passage is about the first astronauts - men who went into space.

Before you read the passage discuss the questions below.

1. Do you know the names of any astronauts?


2. What was the nationality of the first man in space?
3. What job do you think most astronauts did before they became astronauts? What
kind of experience did they have?
4. What kind of training do you think astronauts need? Describe some of the things
they have to learn.

ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS 1 TO 4

ALL OF THESE QUESTIONS ARE TO ENABLE TRAINEES TO GIVE THEIR IDEAS


BRIEFLY AND CLEARLY - FACTUALLY 'CORRECT' ANSWERS ARE NOT SO
IMPORTANT. HERE IS SOME BACKGROUND TO HELP.

QUESTION 1 - NAMES MIGHT INCLUDE TITOV (THE SECOND RUSSIAN IN SPACE).


NEIL ARMSTRONG AND VALENTINA TERESHKOVA (THE FIRST RUSSIAN WOMAN
IN SPACE) AS WELL AS THOSE MENTIONED IN THIS PASSAGE.

QUESTION 2 - RUSSIAN

QUESTION 3 AND 4 DISCUSS - TRAINEES SHOULD REALIZE THAT TO BECOME AN


ASTRONAUT, PEOPLE WOULD ALMOST CERTAINLY HAVE TO BECOME PILOTS,
FLYING THE NEWEST FASTEST AEROPLANES. THEY WOULD NEED SCIENTIFIC
TRAINING, TRAINING IN PHYSICAL ENDURANCE, ABILITY TO SURVIVE IN
DIFFICUIT CONDITIONS, ETC.

57

'Flight going normally. Kharasho(= Russian for 'good' or 'I am well').

(1) The message came from somewhere over South America, from a young man who, a
quarter of an hour before, had been lying in the nose of a rocket, waiting to be sent into
space.

After a flight of an hour and forty-eight minutes, Yuri Gagarin (5) landed in the Soviet
Union. In Moscow the time was 10.55, on 12th April 1961. The first man in space was in
good spirits. "One's legs, one's arms, they weigh nothing. Objects just float in the cabin,
and I didn't sit in my chair, I hung in space..."

The man who had just returned from space was round-faced, (10) 157.5cm tall, blue-eyed
and aged twenty-seven.

5. Why did objects "just float in the cabin" (line 7-8).


6. Is there anything surprising about the description of the astronaut (I Ines 9-10).
7. What do you think the next part of the passage will deal with?

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 5 TO 7

QUESTION 5 - . BECAUSE THE SPACECRAFT WAS BEYOND


THE REACH OF GRAVITY, SO OBJECTS HAD NO WEICHT.

QUESTION 6 - IT IS PERHAPS SUPRISING THAT HE WAS ONLY 157.5cm TALL (i.e.


NOT A VERY TALL MAN)

QUESTION 7 - THE ANSWER THAT THE TRAINEES GIVE IS NOT THAT IMPORTANT
IN ITSELF AND WILL DEPEND LARGELY ON GUESSWORK. THEY WILL FIND OUT

58

THE 'CORRECT' ANSWER LATER IN THE READING. (IT DEALS WITH THE FIRST
AMERICAN ASTRONAUT AND COMPARES THE LIVES OF THE AMERICAN AND
RUSSIAN).

Ten months after Gagarin's flight, on 20th February 1962, an American, John Glenn, was
launched into space. In this article we shall look at the first men in space from these two
countries - to compare their backgrounds and their achievements.

(15) In some ways the two men were different. Perhaps the greatest difference was in
their ages. John Glenn was forty when he went into space. Yuri Gagarin was twentyseven. John Glenn was born in an American town, surrounded by the technology of the
twentieth century. Yuri Gagarin was born in a (20) far-away Russian village, with nothing
but fields of grain as far as the eye could see. Both men had always wanted to fly, and
both had managed to join the air force and fly there. But at the time when Glenn was a
fighter pilot in the Pacific, Gagarin was a ten year old refugee, escaping from the invading
(25) German armies. After the war, Yuri was eleven before he got back to school. He
became interested in technology. He went to a technical school in a suburb of Moscow.
Near the school there was a large aeroplane factory.

8. Why does the writer think it is important to mention the technology of the twentieth
century (line 19)?

ANSWER

QUESTION 8 - BECAUSE IT IS IMPORTANT FOR AN ASTRONAUT TO KNOW ABOUT


TECHNOLOGY. THE WRITER TO SHOW THAT GAGARIN HAD TO TRAVEL, AS IT
WERE, FURTHER FROM HIS ORIGINS THAN GLENN DID.

9. Why do you think it was important that there was an aeroplane factory near
Gagarin's school?

ANSWER

QUESTION 9 - (THIS IS A PRE-TEXT QUESTION - ELICIT THE ANSWER) BECAUSE


THIS WOULD BE LIKELY TO INFLUENCE THE YOUNG YURI GAGARIN.

59

Day after day as he sat at his desk, Yuri saw new aeroplanes (30) being tested. Soon he
wanted to become a test pilot himself - but there were many other students with the same
idea. Yuri took a job in a factory, making engine parts, and at last he was accepted by the
Industrial College, and decided that flying would be his life's work. In 1955 he became a
student pilot at (35) the Air Force Training Centre. The course lasted two years. Near the
end of his training he met and married a young medical student, Valentina Ivanovna.

John Glenn was born in Cambridge, Ohio, in 1921. His father was a railwayman. He was
brought up in New Concord, where (140) he did well at High School, and became a
leading member of the football, basketball and tennis teams. Like Gagarin, he soon
wanted to fly, and in 19142, at the age of twenty-one he took a course in flying. He went
on, in wartime, to join the (45) United States Marines.

(145) During the war he became a captain, and after the war he stayed in the Marines .
After more time abroad, including service in Korea, he became a test pilot. He made the
first non-stop supersonic flight across the United States in 1957. In April 1959 he was
chosen to become one of the seven astronauts (50) under "Project Mercury.

From that time, his training was like that of Gagarin. They had to get used to heat and
cold, strong forces of acceleration, and complete weightlessness. They learned how to
survive in water and in deserts. They studied astronomy, meteorology, biology (55) and
geography.

10. Explain the meaning of the "first non-stop supersonic flight States" (line 48).
Answer: It was the first time a man had...).
11. What do you think "Project Mercury" was (line 50)?
12. What is "acceleration"? Give an example of "a force of acceleration" from your own
experience.
13. Why was it important for the astronauts to get used to "heat and
cold...acceleration...weightlessness"? Why did they learn how to survive in water
and in deserts?

60

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 10 TO 13

DISCUSS ALL THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION 10 - IT WAS THE FIRST TIME A MAN HAD FLOWN WITHOUT STOPPING
ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF SOUND.

QUESTION 11 - IT WAS THE PROJECT TO SEND AN AMERCIAN ASTRONAUT INTO


SPACE.

QUESTION 12 - IT IS THE FORCE YOU FEEL WHEN SOMETHING YOU ARE


TRAVELLING IN MOVES FASTER AND FASTER, FOR EXAMPLE, THE FORCE ON
YOUR BACK WHEN A CAR, *MAIN OR AEROPLANE REACHES A HIGH SPEED VERY
QUICKLY.

QUESTION 13 - THEY HAD TO GET USED TO HEAT AND COLD BECAUSE THEY
MIGHT HAVE TO LAND IN DESERTS, OR COLD REGIONS, OR IN HIGH MOUNTAINS;
OR THE TEMPERATURE CONTROLS IN THE SPACESHIP MIGHT BREAK DOWN.
THEY HAD TO GET USED TO ACCELERATION BECAUSE THE FORCES OF
ACCELERATION ARE VERY STRONG WHEN A SPACESHIP IS LAUNCHED. THEY
HAD TO GET USED TO WEIGHTLESSNESS BECAUSE THERE IS NO GRAVITY IN A
SPACESHIP, THEY HAD TO LEARN TO SURVIVE IN WATER BECAUSE THE
SPACESHIP MIGHT PLUNGE INTO THE SEA, FAR AWAY FROM RESCUE SHIPS.

These, then, were the first men in space from the two countries. Much has happened
since these early journeys into, space - the landing of men on the moon, and the
launching of rockets to Mars and Venus. But the first man in space did not (60) live to see
the first men on the moon. A year before that event, Yuri Gagarin died when his jet plane
crashed on 27th March 1968. After a state funeral procession watched by half a million
Russians, his body was placed in the Kremlin wall.

61

14. What is a funeral? What is a funeral procession? (line 62).


15. His body was placed inside the Kremlin wall (line 63). Why?
16. Find examples of these points from the passage. Say them to your teacher:
Times and places
Family background
Influences
Education or training
A point in the later Career of each astronaut

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 14 TO 16

QUESTION 14 - A FUNERAL IS THE CEREMONY HELD WHEN A PERSON HAS DIED.


A FUNERAL PROCESSION IS THE LINE OF PEOPLE OR CARS WHICH
ACCOMPANIES A PERSON'S BODY TO THE PLACE OF BURIAL.

QUESTION 15 - IT WAS PLACED IN THE KREMLIN WALL BECAUSE THAT IS THE


PLACE OF HONOUR, WHERE IMPORTANT MEMBERS OF SOVIET SOCIETY ARE
BURIED. (THE KREMLIN BUILDING IS THE CENTRE OF SOVIET GOVERNMENT)

QUESTION 16 - EXAMPLES OF POINTS


(TIMES AND PLACES) - ON 12th APRIL 1961; IN A FAR-AWAY RUSSIAN VILLAGE;
GLENN'S FATHER WAS A P.AILWAYMAN. (INFLUENCES) - GAGARIN WENT TO
SCHOOL NEAR A LARGE AIRCRAFT FACTORY; (ALSO, HE JOINED HIS COLLEGE
FLYING CLUB).
(EDUCATION AND TRAINING); GAGARIN WENT TO A TECHNICAL SCHOOL IN
MOSCOW, TO AN INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE, TO THE AIR FORCE TRAINING CENTRE
AND HAD SPECIAL TRAINING AS AN ASTRONAUT. GLENN WENT TO HIGH
SCHOOL, TOOK A COURSE IN FLYING, GAINED EXPERIENCE AS A FIGHTER PILOT
AND LATER AS A TEST PILOT, UNDERWENT TRAINING FOR PROJECT MERCURY.
(CAREER) THE OBVIOUS 'HIGH POINT' IN THE CAREER OF EACH MAN WOULD OF
COURSE BE THE FLICHT INTO SPACE FROM EACH COUNTRY.

62

17. Fill in the table for Gagarin and Glenn.

If you cannot find the information, leave the table blank. If you are not sure, put a question
mark after your answer.

Gagarin

Glenn

1934

1921

VILLAGE IN RUSSIA

CAMBRIDGE, OHIO

Year
of
birth:

Place of
birth:

During
the war, he was:

School

Interests at
school:

Age when he
learned to fly:

Date of
first flight in space:

REFUGEE FROM THE


GERMAN ARMY

FIGHTER PILOT

TECHNICAL SCHOOL

HIGH SCHOOL NEW

MOSCOW

CONCORD

FOOTBALL,
FLYING

BASKETBALL, TENNIS,
(FLYING?)

21?

21

12th APRIL 1961

20th FEBRUARY 1962

63

4.1

MATTERS OF OPINION

What do you know?

The students at the International School often discuss things with each other. But do they
always agree with each other?

Do you ever say you opinions to your friends?


What kinds of things do you talk about?
Do you friends usually agree with you?
Do they ever disagree?
What do they say?

64

ANSWER

THE PICTURE IS TO INDICATE THAT THEY DO NOT ALWAYS AGREE. DISCUSS


THIS IN RELATION TO THE QUESTIONS UNDER THE PICTURE. KEEP IT GENERAL
DO NOT GO INTO DETAIL.

Look at the speech-bubbles in the picture

How many conversations can you make from them?

65

ANSWER

THERE ARE 5 CONVERSATIONS

1. 'DID YOU SEE LOVE STORY ON TV LAST NIGHT?' 'YES, BUT I DIDN'T THINK
MUCH TO IT'. 'OH, I THOUGHT IT WAS GREAT.'

2. 'GULF CITY ARE A GREAT TEAM'. 'DON'T BE SILLY! THEY'RE USELESS!'

3. 'THEY SHOULDN'T GIVE US SO MUCH HOMEWORK'. 'YES, YOU'RE RIGHT. WE


NEVER HAVE TIME TO DO IT ALL'.

4. 'WHAT DO YOU THINK OF OMAR SHARIF?' 'I THINK HE'S WONDERFUL!'


OH, I DON'T LIKE HIM AT ALL.'

5. I HATE GEOGRAPHY. IT'S SO BORING!


OH! I LIKE IT. IT'S BETTER THAN HISTORY, ANYWAY'.

66

4.2

Putting things together

Sometimes the students at the International School dont discuss things sensibly.

What do you think the students are talking about?

For example:
ANSWERS

THE STUDENTS ARE TALKING ABOUT 'POP' MUSICIANS - IN PARTICULAR, THEY


MENTION A CERTAIN MUSICIAN WHOM JOHN ADMIRES, AND WHO IS COMING TO
PERFORM IN THE CITY. THEY ALSO MENTION ANOTHER MUSICIAN WHOM SIMON
PREFERS (THE NAMES ARE FICTITIOUS).

67

Mary and Sophie are discussing a film they have seen on TV. But they don't agree about
it.

Here is a short version of the conversation.

Can you make a longer version of this conversation? (Mary asks questions and gives her
opinion).

Make a longer version of the conversation below. Put in questions, etc from Mary. Use the
list at the bottom of the page.

Mary: Did you see the film on television last night?

Sophie: Yes

Mary: WHAT DO YOU THINK OF IT?

Sophie: I didn't like it

Mary: WHY NOT?

Sophie: I thought it was boring

Mary: WHY?

Sophie: It was too long. And the actors weren't good.

Mary: OH, I THOUGHT IT WAS GOOD.


68

Use these expressions to fill in Mary's part. They are not in order.

Oh, I thought it was good.


Why not?
What did you think of it?
Why?

Make up a conversation with your partner

Use these words and stages.

YOU:

Did you see ?


Did you listen to ?
Did you hear ?

YOUR PARTNER:

Yes
Yes, I saw it.
Yes, ... etc.

YOU:

What did you think of it?


How did you like it?

YOUR PARTNER:

I didn't like it much.


I thought it was terrible.

YOU:

Oh? Why not?


Oh? Why?
Oh? Why didn't you like it?

YOUR PARTNER:

(gives a reason)

YOU:

Oh, I rather liked it.


Oh, I enjoyed it.
Oh, I thought it was quite good.

OR

Yes. Perhaps you're right.

69

Write out your conversation here. Act out the conversation.

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Today, Leila is feeling fed-up with everything - especially things at school. She is telling
Sophie about the things she doesn't like.

What do you think she says? What kinds of things do you say when you are unhappy
about everything?

Sophie wants to help Leila to feel happier. So what does she say when Leila complains
about:

the amount of homework she has to do?

a teacher who (Leila thinks) doesn't like her?

another girl who (Leila thinks) has been copying Leila's ideas for the class project

70

Read the conversation between Leila and Sophie and fill in the missing words in the
conversation, below.

Leila: I think the teachers give us far too much homework! There's never ENOUGH TIME
TO DO IT.

Sophie: Yes, THAT'S TRUE. But IT'S JUST BECAUSE WE HAVE EXAMS soon. It'll be
much better after the exams.

Leila: I hope so. And there's another thing I don't like. You know Mrs Hammond, the
Geography teacher?

Sophie: Yes

Leila: Well, I DON'T THINK SHE LIKES me. She's ALWAYS SHOUTING AT ME in her
class.

Sophie: Yes, I KNOW. But SHE JUST WANTS TO MAKE YOU WORK I'm sure she likes
you, really.

Leila: Maybe. Anyway there's something else, something I really don't like.

Sophie: What is it?

Leila: That girl, Rosa Delgado. She's really NASTY! I'M SURE she's been COPYING all
my ideas for the class project.

Sophie: Yes, BUT I DON'T THINK SHE WAS really copying your ideas. She just thought
your ideas were good, and she tried to use them in her own way.

Simon White is the captain of the school football team. He is discussing the team with Mr.
Smith, the school sports teacher. They are discussing which boys to choose for the big
match against another school.

71

Write out the sentences below.

I THINK IT'LL BE A DIFFICUIT MATCH.


I THINK WE SHOULD KEEP JOHN IN THE TEAM.
I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD KEEP KEVIN IN GOAL.
I THINK WE SHOULD GIVE WILLY A CHANCE.

Here are some of the stages in a conversation when people give opinions. (The words in
the boxes are only examples)
SHOW FOIL No.:6

72

With a partner, make up a conversation beginning like this:

I think the English lesson is too long/too short


OR
I think we should get an English test every week/every day/etc.
OR
The food in the cafeteria/Restaurant/ (name any place you both know) is very good/quite
good/terrible/disgusting/ etc.
OR
I think London is wonderful/exciting/beautiful/has too many people/is too noisy/etc. (talk
about any town or City you both know)
OR
Mary/Sam/My cousin/is really nice/generous/kind/clever/mean/ nasty/etc. (talk about any
person you both know)

Write out the conversation

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF HOW THE CONVERSATION MIGHT START:-

I THINK THE ENGLISH LESSON IS TOO LONG.


OH, WHY DO YOU THINK THAT?
WELL, I THINK THERE'S TOO MUCH TO LEARN IN ONE LESSON.
OH, I WOULDN'T SAY THAT, I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE A LONGER LESSON ..
etc.

THINK

AMSTERDAM

IS

WONDERFUL.

WONDERFUL?

IN

WHAT

WONDERFUL?
IT'S VERY EXCITING.
YES, IT'S EXCITING. BUT ITS SO NOISY etc.

Act out one of these situations with a partner. You can talk about it
first with your partner, but try to act it out without writing it out.

73

WAY

You are a teacher, discussing one of the students with another teacher. You think the
student has done good work and should be given a good mark. The other teacher isn't
sure.

You are discussing a film, or TV programme, or popular song with your partner.

You and your partner are on the committee of a club (e.g. a Sports club). You have to
choose a person to do a certain job, or to play in a team.

You and your partner are discussing a singer, actor, sportsman or sportswoman who
is well known in your country.

ANSWER

YOU SHOULD USE THIS TO ELICIT A FEW WORDS OF USEFUL VOCABULARY.

EXAMPLE: - FOR THE FIRST ITEM. WORKED HARD, WRITTEN GOOD ESSAYS,
ANSWERED THE QUEST IONS WELL, GOOD STUDENT, NOT VERY BRICHT
STUDENT, ETC.

74

4.3

More things to try

Often you can read interesting opinions in newspapers.

Find an example.

What do you think of the writer's opinion?

People sometimes disagree about ordinary, everyday things (e.g. what to have for dinner;
who should do a certain job, etc.) But sometimes they may disagree about more general
questions (e.g. ways of dealing with crime, ways of bringing up children etc.).

From discussions in your class, is there any question about which there is a clear
difference of opinion among trainees? (So that perhaps half the class think one thing and
half think another thing).

After this, listen to people in your training centre. What kinds of things do people disagree
about? Are they ordinary, everyday things, or are they more general questions? Report to
your class about the things you hear.

75

4.4

Reading

Most cities in the world have traffic problems. Too many cars come into the cities. There
are not enough parking places for them. The streets are not wide enough for the cars to
drive on. So there are more and more traffic jams in the cities. Sometimes the traffic jams
are so bad that nobody can move at all! Are there traffic jams in your town or city?

Before you read the reading section, look at the questions below.
Discuss with your teacher

1. In five minutes, how many possible things can you think of


which might help to solve traffic problems? Think of as many
possibilities which at first sight seem very unrealistic). Write
down the possibilities on the blackboard. Don't try to decide
yet which ideas are best.

2. Read the letters below. What do they contain? Where might


you see opinions like this? As you read, compare the opinions
with your own opinions.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1 AND 2

QUESTION 1 - READ THE INTRODUCTORY PASSAGE ALOUD - ENSURE TRAFFIC


AND TRAFFIC JAM ARE UNDERSTOOD. READ OUT Q1 AND THEN GENERALLY
DISCUSS. GET AS MANY IDEAS AS POSSIBLE EVEN THOUGH SOME MAY SEEM
IMPRACTICAL. DO NOT EVALUATE OPINIONS AT THIS STAGE.

QUESTION 2 - THIS IS A DISCUSSION ON THE LETTERS.

76

77

We asked our readers what they thought should be done about the traffic problems in Gulf
City. Here is a selection of replies.

78

79

3. Look at the table below. Fill in the table with headings which
sum up the main solutions suggested in each letter.
4. In the same table (but in the next blank column) write down
brief comments to show what you think about the opinions in
each letter (e.g. I agree, or It wouldn't work).

John's letter

The main suggestions in the

What do you think of the

letter.

suggestions?

PUT IN OPINIONS SUCH

BUILD FLYOVERS
BUILD MUITI-STOREY CAR
PARKS

Rushia's
letter

'GOOD IDEA'
'I AGREE'

TURN MAIN SHOPPING


STREETS INTO PEDESTRIAN
STREETS DISCOURAGE

'NOT A GOOD IDEA' 'NOT

CARS IN CITY CENTRE

SAME'

MAKE DRIVERS IN CITY

'IT WOULDN'T WORK' ETC.

CENTRE PAY.

HAVE

MORE BUSES

Ted's letter

AS:-

BAN IMPORT OF NEW


VEHICLES
BUILD AN UNDERGROUND
RAILWAY

80

BROADEN THIS BY A FULL DISCUSSION ON THE VARIOUS LETTERS. DISCUSS


ALL THE POINTS MADE.

5. Imagine that you were writing a letter to the editor of a


newspaper, putting forward your opinion about traffic
problems. Write the letter below.

THIS WILL ENABLE THE TRAINEES TO EXPRESS THEIR OWN IDEAS AND
POSSIBLY USE AND DEVELOP IDEAS FROM THE LETTERS THEY READ.

81

5.1

WHAT SHALL WE DO?

What do you know?

John and Kevin are talking about things they could do or places they could go at the
weekend. Each of them makes suggestions, but they can't agree.

Look at these pictures

ANSWER

1. KEVIN THINKS THAT THEY MIGHT TAKE A TRIP ON THE BEACH. HE THINKS
THEY SHOULD GO ON THEIR MOTORCYCLES.
'SHALL WE GO TO THE BEACH?'/'DO YOU FEEL LIKE GOING TO THE BEACH?'
etc.

82

JOHN DISAGREES BECAUSE HIS MOTORCYCLE ISN'T WORKING. HE HAS TO


REPAIR IT.
'NO I CAN'T. MY MOTORCYCLE ISN'T WORKING. IT NEEDS A SPARE PART.' etc.

Look at these pictures

What do you think are these other suggestions?


Make up the sort of conversation they are having.

83

ANSWERS

2. JOHN MAKES A COUNTER-SUGGESTION. HE THINKS THEY MIGHT GO ON A


BOAT TRIP. HE IMAGINES A BEAUTIFUL DAY, WITH THE SUN SHINING AND A
CALM SEA.
'HOW ABOUT GOING ON/FOR A BOAT TRIP?' / MAYBE WE COULD TAKE A BOAT
OUT'/DO YOU FEEL LIKE TAKING A BOAT OUT? / 'etc. KEVIN DISAGREES. HE
THINKS THE WEATHER MIGHT BE STORMY. HE MIGHT GET SEASICK. 'NO, IT
LOOKS LIKE IT MIGHT RAIN' / 'IT'S GETTING STORMY'/'THE SEA'S TOO ROUGH.
I WOULD BE SEASICK' / etc.

3. KEVIN MAKES A COUNTER-SUGGESTION. HE THINKS IT WOULD BE NICE TO


GO FOR A SWIM. 'HOW ABOUT GOING TO A SWIMMING POOL?' / 'SHALL WE
GO SWIMMING?' / 'DO YOU FEEL LIKE GOING FOR A SWIM?
JOHN THINKS THE SWIMMING POOL WOULD BE TOO CROWDED. PEOPLE
WOULD BE DIVING IN ON TOP OF EACH OTHER. 'NO I DON'T FEEL LIKE IT' /
'IT'LL BE TOO BUSY/CROWDED'/'THERE'LL BE TOO MANY PEOPLE THERE
TODAY' / etc.

4. JOHN MAKES A COUNTER-SUGGESTION. HE THINKS THEY MIGHT GO AND SEE


GULF CITY PLAYING FOOTBALL. 'HOW ABOUT GOING TO THE FOOTBALL?' /
'TO THE MATCH?' / 'SHALL WE GO AND WATCH GULF CITY?'/'DO YOU FEEL
LIKE GOING TO SEE GULF CITY?' / etc.
KEVIN DISAGREES. HE KNOWS THAT GULF CITY ARE PLAYING VERY BADLY.
THEY HAVE PLAYED TEN MATCHES, WON NO MATCHES, DRAWN ONE MATCH
AND LOST NINE MATCHES. HE SAYS, 'NO, I DON'T THINK SO. GULF CITY IS A
USELESS TEAM' / 'THEY'RE NO GOOD' / etc.

84

5.2

Putting things together

What does Kevin suggest?

John: What SHALL WE DO TONIGHT?

Kevin: DO YOU FEEL LIKE going to see "Star Wars"?

John: No, I DON'T THINK SO. I've SEEN IT ALREADY.

How about GOING TO "Superman"?

Kevin: OK. THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

Study these ways of asking for suggestions, making suggestions, and disagreeing

ASK FOR SUGGESTIONS:


What shall we do this afternoon?

SUGGEST:
How about going to the beach?
Maybe we could go to the beach?
Do you feel like going to the beach?
Let's go to the beach.

DISAGREE:
No. I don't think so.
+ REASON for disagreeing.

85

Now you try it. Make up a conversation with a partner, like this:

YOU: ask for suggestions about things you could do tomorrow

YOUR PARTNER: makes a suggestion

YOU: disagree with your partner's suggestions

YOUR PARTNER:

makes another suggestion

Finish the conversation in any way you like

Sometimes, people neither agree nor disagree with suggestions. They hesitate about
what to do.

Read the three conversations following. The conversations are


mixed up, but each conversation has the same stages

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Conversation 3

Di: What shall we do

Di: Shall we go

Di: Where shall we go

this morning?

anywhere special

for the summer

tonight?

holidays?

Jo: Yes, Let's go and

Jo: Maybe we could go

Jo: Do you feel like

have dinner at the Sky

to Majorca.

going for a swim?

Cafe.

86

Di: Mm. I don't know. It

Di: I don't know. It's a bit

Di: Well, I'm not sure if I

gets very crowded in July.

cold today.

have enough money on me.

Jo: Oh, come on, you'll feel Jo:

Oh,

it's

not

that Jo: No, it's nice. I was there


last year.

warm when you're in the expensive.


water.

Write the conversations out correctly, below. The first line is


written for you.

Conversation 1

Di:

Jo:

DO YOU FEEL LIKE GOING FOR A SWIM.

Di:

I DON'T KNOW. IT'S A BIT COLD TODAY.

Jo:

OH, COME ON. YOU'LL FEEL WARM WHEN YOU'RE IN THE WATER

Conversation 2

Di:

Jo:

LET'S GO AND HAVE DINNER AT THE SKY CAF

Di:

WELL, I'M NOT SURE IF I HAVE ENOUGH MONEY ON ME.

Jo:

OH, ITS NOT THAT EXPENSIVE.

87

Conversation 3

Di:

Jo:

MAYBE WE COULD GO TO MAJORCA.

Di:

MM. I DON'T KNOW. IT GETS VERY CROWDED IN


JULY.

Jo:

NO, ITS NICE. I WAS THERE LAST YEAR.

Now pick out the stages ASK FOR SUGGESTIONS, SUGGEST,


HESITATE, PERSUADE in each conversation. Say them to your
teacher.

People often ask for more information when they hear a suggestion.

Look at these examples

88

Read these suggestions. After each suggestion, write a question


asking for more information.

Do you feel like a game of tennis?

WHERE

CAN

WE

PLAY?/IS

THERE

COURT

FREE?/WHEN?/NOW?/ARE YOU A GOOD TENNIS PLAYER? etc.

How about going for a walk?

WHERE TO?/NOW?/HAS IT STOPPED RAINING? etc.

Maybe we could work on this exercise together.

WHICH EXERCISE?/CAN YOU DO IT?/DO YOU UNDERSTAND IT? etc.

Let's phone Kevin and ask him if he can come.

PHONE HIM NOW?/COME WHERE?/WHAT'S HIS NUMBER?/HAS HE GOT A


TELEPHONE? etc.

89

Do you feel like playing netball this weekend? We haven't got enough players in the team.

WHEN IS THE GAME?/WHEN ARE YOU PLAYING?/WHO ARE YOU PLAYING


AGAINST?/WHERE IS THE MATCH BEING PLAYED? etc.

Maybe we would ask my Uncle to lend us his boat.

WOULD HE LEND IT TO US?/WHAT KIND OF BOAT IS IT?/WHERE DOES HE KEEP


HIS BOAT? etc.

How about playing some music this afternoon? I can play the piano, and you can sing.

WHAT KIND OF MUSIC DO YOU WANT TO PLAY?/IS THE MUSIC ROOM FREE?/ARE
YOU A GOOD PIANIST? etc.

THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF THE KIND OF QUESTIONS. THE ANSWERS SHOULD BE


FROM THE TRAINEES 'OWN HEADS'.

90

Here are some of the stages that go with making suggestions. (The words in the boxes
are only examples.)

91

With a partner, choose from the situations below. Act out the
situation with your partner.

You want to go to a concert at which a well-known singer is performing. Your partner


would like to come too, but he/she is worried about what his/her father will say if
he/she comes home late.

Your partner suggests going to visit somebody you both know. But you don't really like
the person very much. However, you don't want to say this directly to your partner.

Your partner suggests going to a cafeteria in town and eating some nice Lebanese
food. You are hungry - but you are not sure about going. Your partner tries to
persuade you.

You think it would be nice to go camping at the weekend. But your partner doesn't like
the idea at all, for several different reasons.

Act out a situation in which you discuss having a game of table tennis or a game of
chess.

Write out parts of the conversation below

EXAMPLE (FOR THE FIRST SITUATION)

A. WHERE SHALL WE GO TONIGHT?


B. LET'S GO TO THE OASIS THEATRE. THERE'S A GOOD CONCERT ON.
A. WHO'S PERFORMING?
B. ANNA SMITH.
A. MM. I'D LIKE TO GO. BUT MY FATHER WILL BE REALLY ANGRY IF I CAME HOME
LATE.
B. BUT IT DOESN'T GO ON LATE. IT FINISHES AT HALF PAST EIGHT. YOU COULD
GO.
A. OH ALRIGHT THEN. WHERE SHALL WE MEET? etc.

92

People don't make suggestions just to friends. They also make more formal suggestions,
for example, at meetings where things have to be decided. (Formal suggestions are called
proposals).

Kevin, John, Sam, Simon and Thomas are discussing whether they should organise a
school concert at the end of the year.

What proposals are made? Give examples.


What is the main problem about having a concert?

How do the students persuade Sam to help them?


In the conversation, certain people take on certain Jobs. (This is common whenever
things have to be decided at meetings.) Who takes on which job?

ANSWERS

SUGGESTIONS MADE INCLUDE 'I THINK WE SHOULD HAVE A CONCERT'; 'I


PROPOSE THAT WE SHOULD PUT KEVIN IN CHARGE OF THE ARRANGEMENTS';'I
PROPOSE THAT SAM SHOULD DO THAT'.
THE MAIN PROBLEM IS GETTING PEOPLE TO TAKE PART. THEY PERSUADE SAM
TO HELP THEM BY TELLING HIM THAT HE IS GOOD AT DRAWING AND REMINDING
HIM THAT HE DID THE POSTERS THE PREVIOUS YEAR.

93

THE JOBS TAKEN ON ARE: KEVIN TO BE IN CHARGE OF GETTING PEOPLE TO


TAKE PART AND ARRANGING THINGS WITH TEACHERS; SAM TO LOOK AFTER
THE ADVERTISING AND DRAW THE POSTERS.

At the end, Kevin says "What's the first thing we have to do?" What do you think the
students have to do now? What kind of things must they decide? What would you do if
you were organising a school concert?

DISCUSS THIS. ELICIT MORE IDEAS.

Imagine that you are having a meeting with three or four other
trainees. You are discussing one of these ideas:

giving a present to a trainee who is going to live in another country, or to a teacher


who is leaving.

organising a class trip to some place of interest.

asking a teacher not to give any homework, because an important Sports match,
festival, or public celebration is taking place that night.

starting a club in your training school. (e.g. for chess, music, swimming, photography,
etc.)

Work with other trainees in your class.


Discuss:

the things you would have to talk about

the questions you might want to ask

the problems that you might have to solve

ways of persuading people that the problems are not too serious

94

Choose one of the ideas. Write out the conversation below. Be


ready to act it out in front of the class.

THERE IS NO SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER. MAKE THE TRAINEES DO THIS IN


SMALL GROUPS, AND DECIDE THE FORM OF CONVERSATION. THEN THE GROUP
CAN ACT OUT THE SITUATION.

95

5.3

More things to try

Listen to people in your training school - the suggestions they


make, and ways of agreeing or disagreeing, or of hesitating

People aren't always persuaded by good reasons. Often, they are persuaded by hearing
something repeated, or by hearing something said loudly, or by listening to a person with
a strong personality.

Report on the kinds of persuasion you hear among trainees at


your training school

MAKE THIS A DISCUSSION.

People often put proposals in writing. For example, they propose ways of dealing with
some problem in their town or country - perhaps ways of dealing with traffic problems, or
ways of improving industry in the country, or improving economic conditions.

Try to find examples of newspaper articles which put forward


proposals. In the articles, try to find examples of:

reasons for the proposal (why certain steps are necessary)

questions which the writer tries to answer

problems which might stand in the way of the proposal

sentences which show that the problems aren't too serious (= sentences which aim to
persuade the reader)

Report on what you find to the rest of your class

GO THROUGH THE IDEA OF WRITTEN PROPOSALS. EXPLAIN IT IS A KIND OF


CONVERSATION WITH AN IMAGINED READER. THE WRITER HAS TO GUESS THE
POINTS THAT THE READER MIGHT WANT TO MAKE.

96

5.4

Reading

Water for the deserts of the earth

"I propose the transport of icebergs from the Antarctic to the Arabian peninsula, to supply
drinking water and water for agriculture."

Before you read the passage discuss these questions:


1. Imagine that you were a member of an international organisation
which received the proposal above. What questions would you want
to ask the writer? What problems do you think there would be in
carrying out the proposal?

ANSWER

QUESTION 1 - DISCUSS. THEY MAY SUGGEST QUESTIONS SUCH AS 'WHO IS THE


PERSON WHO IS WRITING THE PROPOSAL?','DOES HE HAVE ANY EXPERT
KNOWLEDGE?'. AND THEY WILL PROBABLY SAY IN THEIR OWN WORDS SOME OF
THE LATER QUESTIONS (ABOUT THE ADVANTAGES OF USING ICEBERGS
RATHER THAN RIVERS, DAMS, OR DESALINATION OF SEA WATER; WHETHER
SHIPS COULD MOVE ICEBERGS LONG DISTANCES; ABOUT HOW TO PREVENT
MEITING; HOW MANY ICEBERGS WOULD BE NEEDED; HOW TO MOVE WATER TO
THE LAND; COST).

(1) Millions of people in the world do not have enough to eat. But we could easily feed
those people if we could grow crops in the deserts of the Earth. All we need is water huge amounts of fresh water to make the deserts green. Where could we find (5) such
large amounts of water?

More than 95% of the fresh water of the Earth is locked in the ice of the Arctic and
Antarctic. Could we ever transport any of this water? Yes, we could - for thousands of
icebergs break away from the Arctic and the Antarctic every year. Most of
(10) these icebergs are in the Antarctic - in fact the Antarctic produces six times as many
icebergs as the Arctic. Also, the ice in the Antarctic is pure frozen rainwater, which is
perfect for drinking (unlike the ice of the Arctic which contains much more salt).

97

(15) What we need, first of all, is a project to transport icebergs from the Antarctic to a part
of the Earth which is dry, but which could grow a lot of food. This would give us the
knowledge to use icebergs in other dry parts of the world. Arabia is the perfect place for
this first project. Transport of (20) icebergs from the Antarctic to Arabia would follow a
straight line. Also, we know that Arabia was once very fertile, with rain, green fields, and
large numbers of wild animals. If we had enough water, Arabia could become green
again.

But before we start such a project, there are many questions to (25) be answered, of
which the most important are these:

1. Why would it be better to use water from icebergs, rather than water from rivers and
dams, or fresh water extracted from the sea?

2. Could ships move icebergs such great distances?

3. (30) Would the icebergs melt before they reached Arabia?

4. How many icebergs would we need?

5. How could we move water from the iceberg to the land?

6. Would the cost of the project be too great?

2. Look again at the list of questions above. Does the list show that the
writer knows about problems in the project?
3. Can you think of answers to any of the questions above?

98

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 2 AND 3

GET STUDENTS TO GIVE THEIR OPINIONS. THEY MAY FEEL THAT THE WRITER IS
AWARE OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS - BUT HAS OMITTED THE PROBLEM OF
WHETHER THERE MIGHT BE BAD EFFECTS AS WELL AS GOOD ONES. TRAINEES
MAY REALISE THAT THE SCHEME COULD CAUSE CHANGES IN THE CLIMATE,
SOME OF WHICH MIGHT NOT BE GOOD; AND AN IMPROVED CLIMATE IN ONE
PLACE MAY MEAN A WORSE CLIMATE IN ANOTHER PLACE. IN QUESTION 3
ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO GUESS ANSWERS. REMEMBER THAT ANY GUESS IS
BETTER THAN NONE.

I would answer these questions as follows:

(35) Firstly, it is difficult for dry regions like Arabia to get all the water they need from rivers
and dams. And although fresh water can be extracted from sea water, the process uses
huge amounts of energy.

Secondly, it would not be difficult for modern ships to pull an (40) iceberg. Five or six
powerful ships could pull an iceberg of 100 million tonnes about 35 kilometres in a day.

4. What does the process refer to (line 37)? Why does it use a lot of
energy?
5. Can you think of any way of stopping the iceberg from melting too
quickly?
6. How do you think icebergs might change the climate of Arabia?

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 4 TO 6

QUESTION 4 - DISCUSS - THE PROCESS REFERS TO THE METHOD BY WHICH


FRESH WATER IS EXTRACTED FROM SEA WATER. IT USES A LOT OF ENERGY
BECAUSE THE WATER HAS TO BE HEATED (BOILED) SO THAT IT BECOMES
STEAM, THEN CONDENSED BACK TO WATER.

99

FOR QUESTION 5, STUDENTS MAY SUGGEST THAT IF THE ICEBERG WERE


COVERED WITH SOME KIND OF SHINY MATERIAL OR SILVER FOIL; THIS WOULD
PROTECT IT FROM THE HEAT OF THE SUN AND THE SEA.

DISCUSS QUESTION 6 ABOUT CHANGES IN CLIMATE. STUDENTS MAY REALISE


THAT INCREASED WATER AND INCREASED VEGETATION WOULD LEAD TO AN
INCREASE IN NATURAL RAINFALL. THEY MAY ALSO GUESS AT OTHER CHANGES:
THE HUMIDITY OF THE REGION MIGHT BE INCREASED, AND LARGE AMOUNTS OF
COLD WATER MIGHT LEAD TO FOG IN SOME PLACES.

Thirdly, it is true that part of each iceberg would melt during the long journey to Arabia,
which would take nearly one year. But large icebergs can float in the water for more than
three (45) years without melting completely. And we would reduce melting by covering the
iceberg with a shiny material which would reflect the sun's rays.

Fourthly, a typical iceberg in the Antarctic is more than one kilometre long, and contains
more than 100 million tonnes of
(50) fresh water. Fifteen icebergs like this could supply domestic water to the population of
Arabia for one year. Or the water could be used to make large areas of farmland round
the main cities of Arabia.

This would already change the climate of the cities, for the
(55) plants and trees would increase the natural rainfall. Of course, if we wanted to bring
water to the whole of the Arabian desert, we would need many more icebergs. But even
this would not be impossible. And in time we would learn to move much larger icebergs.
Some icebergs are more than 300
(60) kilometres long. A single large iceberg would supply us with water for many months.

Fifthly, one of the biggest problems would be to get the icebergs near enough to land - for
an iceberg needs water 200 metres deep. Perhaps platforms could be built a long way
from (65) the coast, in the deep sea, with pipelines to carry water from the iceberg to
tanks on the land.

100

Finally, there is no doubt that the cost of the project would be very great. But eventually, it
could give water to dry countries more cheaply than any other method. Perhaps it will take
many (70) years before we can begin the project. However, we can study the project now,
and the study will show that we have not forgotten the hungry people of the earth.

The best argument for the project is the hope which it would bring to countries all over the
world. For water in desert places (75) is not simply water - it is the water of life.

7. Do you think the writer's answers to the questions at the beginning


are good answers? Do you think he has dealt with all the main
problems? Are there any important problems which he has not dealt
with sufficiently?
8. Perhaps you can think of a project (real or imaginary) which would
benefit your school, area, city or country. Try to make a written
proposal for the project. (Use this reading passage as a model, but
make your proposal shorter.) Think of questions your readers might
ask, and problems which might arise. Your teacher can give you
some ideas about how to begin.

ANSWERS TO QUESTION 7 AND 8

QUESTION 7 SHOULD ALLOW STUDENTS TO DISCUSS THE PASSAGE AS A


WHOLE. THEY SHOULD REALISE THAT, AITHOUGH THE WRITER HAS ASKED
SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS, FULL ANSWERS WOULD REQUIRE HUNDREDS
OF BOOKS AND MANY YEARS OF STUDY; ALSO THAT IN LARGE PROJECTS LIKE
THIS ONE, THE TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND COSTS ARE OFTEN MUCH GREATER
THAN EXPECTED. AND EFFECTS (ON CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT) IS AN
IMPORTANT OMISSION.

QUESTION 8 ASKS STUDENTS TO CARRY OUT AN IMAGINATIVE WRITTEN TASK.


HERE ARE SOME IDEAS FOR WAYS IN WHICH THE WRITTEN PROPOSAL MIGHT
BEGIN:

I PROPOSE THAT OUR SCHOOL SHOULD ORGANISE A SERIES OF CONCERTS, IN


ORDER TO GET ENOUGH MONEY TO BUY A MINIBUS.

101

I PROPOSE THAT CENTRAL STREET SHOULD BE CLOSED TO CARS, AND SHOULD


BECOME A STREET FOR PEDESTRIANS ONLY.

WE PROPOSE THAT A TUNNEL SHOULD BE BUIIT UNDER LUDWIG STREET, IN


ORDER TO ALLOW PEOPLE TO CROSS FROM ONE SIDE OF THE STREET TO THE
OTHER IN SAFETY.

WE PROPOSE THAT A COMMITTEE SHOULD BE SET UP TO STUDY WATER


POLLUTION IN CITY HARBOUR, AND ITS EFFECT ON MARINE LIFE.

IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT THE PROJECT SHOULD BE COMPLETELY


PRACTICAL OR REALISTIC - IN FACT IT WILL BE MORE INTERESTING IF IT HAS AN
ELEMENT OF FANTASY IN IT - BUT STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO BACK UP
THEIR IDEAS SAYING WHY THE PROJECT IS WORTH CARRYING OUT.

102

AS 012
English 2 - Part 1

Theoretical Test

103

1. TALKING ABOUT EXPERIENCES

Test 1

Read the following sentences and choose the most suitable word or phrase.

1. 'Oh, isn't it lovely! Where .. you buy it?'

(a) do

(b) done

(c) will

(d) did

2. 'I'm glad you . a nice time when you went to Athens'.

(a) had

(b) will have

(c) got

(d) have

3. 'There .. one question I could answer in the whole paper'.

(a) was

(b) would be

(c) wasn't

(d) will be

(c) manage

(d) find

4. 'Did you . to repair it?'

(a) experience

(b) able

5. 'Then we .. the tent and that was alright`.

(a) will put

(b) put up

(c) put through

(d) camped

(c) lots

(d) some

6. 'Did you buy .. of things?'

(a) many

(b) the lot

104

Test 1 continued

7. 'It was a great holiday. Id .. again next year'.

(a) went

(b) will to come

(c) like to, went

(d) like to go

8. 'Don't worry. You can .. in the autumn. I'm sure you'll get a good mark then'.

(a) try again

(b) be trying

(c) try before

(d) again try

9. 'It was a draw. Our team .. .

(a) won

(b) lost

(c) scored the most

(d) played well

10. 'I waded out and began to swim, but in the darkness I couldn't the distance'.

(a) judge

(b) measure

(c) run

105

(d) see

1. TALKING ABOUT EXPERIENCES

Test 2

Complete the following passage by using the following 10 words or phrases. One word or
phrase in each space.

can hold

pulled

her hair

fiat

thing

tightly

swam

her head

both of us

method

question

her nose

walked

The one (1) . I remembered from school was that a drowning person (2)
.. you so (3) .. that you can go down as well. I put the (4)
of my hand on the top of (5) .. and held her away. Then I (6) ..
round behind her, caught (7) .. close to her head, and (8) . her to
the beach, (9) on our backs.

It wasn't the best (10) . of life-saving, but it kept her face out of the water.

106

2. I'M SORRY

Test 1

Put the verb into the correct tense in each of the following sentences.

1. Mary borrowed an old shopping bag from Leila when she wanted
.
(to go - to shop)

2. What Mary say when she . Leila again?


(to do)

(to meet)

3. Mary a ring which Sophie lent her.


(to have)

(to lose)

4. Leila has . to bring a book which she ..


(to forget)

(to promise)

5. I'm very sorry, but your alarm clock .


(to get)
when it fell on the floor.
(to break)

6. He has something .. to John


(to break)

(to belong)

7. .. out the conversation without previous ..


(to act)

(to write)

preparation.

107

8. Then 1 .. round behind him and . his arms.


(to swim)

(to catch)

9. He had only . that John .. to have something


(to say)

(to seem)

against him.

10. 1'm sorry that you that 1 was . about you.


(to think)

(to talk)

108

2. I'M SORRY

Test 2

Here is a conversation between John and Kevin. The conversation is in wrong order.
Read the blocks of conversation carefully then put them into the correct order.

Write the complete conversation out on your Answer sheet on the next page. The
speaking order is given to you.

1. I will run down to the shops now.


2. The food shopping! Did you remember to buy the fish for supper?
3. Hello, Kevin. You got back from the college first.
4. What shopping?
5. You forgot! That's wonderful!
6. Did you remember to do the shopping, John?
7. I forgot. I was busy with friends at the college.
8. All I ask you to do is bring back the fish. I suppose you have been drinking coffee.
9. Look, I'm sorry. I can't remember everything.
10. I've been busy here preparing the rice. Now there's no fish.

109

2. I'M SORRY

Test 2 Answer Sheet

Write the conversation you have just read in the correct order. Put the number of the block
of conversation you have used in brackets after the name.

John():
.

Kevin():
.

John():
.

Kevin():
.

John():
.

Kevin():
.

Pause then

Kevin again():

110

John():
.

Kevin():
.

John():
.

111

3. LIFE STORIES

Test 1

Write one sentence which explains each of the following words or phrases:-

Example:-

Repeat - say again or write the same thing again.

1. background
2. experience
3. career
4. 'has influenced you'
5. 'by serving under' (military)
6. test pilot
7. meteorology
8. 'in good spirits'
9. research
10. reporter

112

3. LIFE STORIES

Test 2

Fill in the gaps in this passage.

Farridah and her mother (1) to live with Farridah's aunt, (2)
a music teacher. Farridah (3) at school
concerts when she was a little girl. When she was older (4) .. to records by
the famous singer, Feyrouz, and (5) .. in the same style.

Soon after she left school, she (6) . to a Lebanese businessman.


They went (7) in Beirut. She took (8) .. in
English and French and learned (9) . in these languages.

After (10) ... three years in Beirut, she went to Cairo.

113

4. MATTERS OF OPINION

Test 1 Answer sheet.

114

4. MATTERS OF OPINION

Test 2

Replace each of the following phrases by a single word which has the same meaning.

Example: -

a situation like a bad dream

nightmare

road going over another road on a bridge

1.

person on foot

2.

total prohibition

3.

done in a quick practical way

4.

barrier; something that stands in the way

5.

trouble, difficulty or inconvenience

6.

people in charge of a town, city or country

7.

able to carry four lines of cars

8.

to get rid of

9.

anything used in road transport; car, lorry,


bus

10...

115

5. WHAT SHALL WE DO

Test 1

Often we ask for suggestions.

For example: What shall we do this afternoon?

Complete the sentences suggesting things to do based on the words below.

1. How for a boat trip?


2. Do .. taking a boat out?
3. .. go swimming?
4. ... and watch Gulf City?
5. .. feel like .. to the beach?

Complete this conversation:-

A: Where shall we go tonight?


B: Let's go to the Oasis Theatre. There's a good (6) on.
A: Who's (7) ..
B: Anna Smith.
A: Mm, I'd like to (8) . but my father (9) angry if I come
home (10)

116

5. WHAT SHALL WE DO?

Test 2

A suggestion has been made: 'I think we should have a Sports meeting' and this is
followed by a number of proposals. For each proposal make a sentence showing why you
should not do the job, followed by a sentence to persuade you.

Example:

'I propose that Sam should be in charge of arrangements'. Sam: But I'm not very good at
organising.
Proposer:

You did a very good job last year when you arranged the party for Mr.

Smith.

1. I propose that Sam does the posters'.


Sam:
Proposer:

2. 'I propose that Simon is in charge of selling tickets'.


Simon:
Proposer:

3. 'I propose that John arranges the marking out of the Sports field'.
John:
Proposer:

4. I propose that Thomas organises the team of track stewards'.


Thomas:
Proposer:

5. 'I propose that Kevin records all the results so that the prize list can be made'.
Kevin:
Proposer:

117

English 2 - Part 1

Solution

118

1. TALKING ABOUT EXPERTENCES

Test 1

1. d.

2. a.

3. c.

4. c.

7. d.

8. a.

9. d.

10. a.

Test 2

1.

thing

2.

can hold

3.

tightly

4.

flat

5.

her hand

6.

swam

7.

her hair

8.

pulled

9.

both of us

10.

method

119

5. b.

6. c.

2. I'M SORRY

Test 1

1. to go

shopping

2.

did

met

3. had

lost

4.

forgotten

promised

5. got

broken

6.

broken

belonging

7. Act

written

8.

swam

caught

9. said

seemed

10.

think

talking

Allow mark for each verb, providing that the spelling is correct.

Test 2

A conversation between Kevin and John.

John(3) Hello, Kevin. You got back from college first.

Kevin (6) Did you remember to do the shopping?

John (4) What shopping?

Kevin (2) The food shopping! Did you remember to buy the fish for supper.

John (7) I forgot. I was busy with friends at the college.

Kevin (5) You forgot! That's wonderful!

Kevin (8) All I ask you to do is bring back the fish. I suppose you have been drinking
coffee.

John (9) Look, I'm sorry. I can't remember everything.

Kevin (10) I've been busy here preparing the rice. Now there's no fish.

John (1) I will run down to the shops now.

120

3. LIFE STORIES

Test 1

1. background - a persons knowledge, education, experience, etc.

2. experience

practical personal knowledge of facts and events.

3. career - the jobs a person has had in their progress through life

4. 'has influenced you' - has had an effect upon you (changed or steered you)

5. 'by serving under' (military) - working for a military commander

6. test-pilot - a person who tests new aeroplanes

7. meteorology - the study of weather

8. 'in good spirits' - to be cheerful and happy

9. research - careful inquiry to discover new facts by scientific study

10. reporter - a person employed to find out facts for newspaper or broadcast.

Test 2

1.

went

6.

got married

2.

who was

7.

to live

3.

sang

8.

lessons

4.

she listened

9.

to sing/speak

5.

tried to sing

10.

spending/staying

121

4. MATTERS OF OPINION

Test 1

Write a conversation based on the framework on the answer sheet, so that there is at
least one sentence in each box. The conversation must flow as in real life.

The situation is that you went to see a film called 'Omar Mukhtar, Lion of the Desert' at the
cinema last night. You are now discussing it with a friend. He has seen the film but you do
not know this. He does not fully agree with you.

122

4. MATTERS OF OPINION

Test 1
This is an example of the sort of answer expected.

123

Test 2

1.

flyover

6.

disturbance

2.

pedestrian

7.

authorities

3.

ban

8.

four-lane

4.

efficiently

9.

abolish

5.

obstacle

10.

vehicles

124

5. WHAT SHALL WE DO?

Test 1

1. about going

4. Shall we go

2. you feel like

5. Do you .. going

3. Shall we

6. concert

9. will be

7. performing

10. late

8. go

Test 2

In this test one mark is given for each correct sentence. Total 10.

There is no one correct answer, but each sentence should be good English and with
correct spelling. The example shows the sort of response.

125

KEY TO EVALUATION

PER CENT

MARK

88 100

75 87

62 74

50 61

0 49

126