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, . LXII (2013) .

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THE HISTORICAL REVIEW, vol. LXII (2013) pp. 11-34
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31

(c. 12671273)

Aleksandar Uzelac
THE BEGINNINGS OF NOGAIS RULE
IN THE WESTERN STEPPES AND IN THE LOWER DANUBE
(c. 12671273)
Summary

Numerous works and historical papers are dedicated to the life and
times of Nogai, famous descendant of Genghis-khan. However, many details
from his biography either remain unanalyzed, or deserve to be put in the proper
historical context. In this article attention is cast to one of these questions
beginnings of Nogais rule in the western parts of the Black sea steppes, his
establishment in Dniester-Prut interfluve and spread of his sphere of influence
to the region of the Lower Danube.
Despite frequently repeated opinion Nogai wasnt present, nor he was
a leader of joint Tatar-Bulgarian attack on Byzantine Thrace in 1264/5. He
established himself in the West only after the death of Berke and ascendance
of his successor Mngke-Temr (1266). The chronological timeframe of this
event can be further determined by Nogais first recorded activities in the
region it was his embassy sent to the Mamluk sultan Baybars al Bundukhdari
in Muharram, 669. A.H. (August/September 1270). According to the analysis
of three independent sources: Byzantine historian George Pachymeres, Persian
writer Rashid al-Din Hamadani and Mamluk chronicler Baybars al-Mansuri it
may be concluded that it ensued as part of the complex transfer policies
conducted by Sarai elite under the leadership of Mngke-Temr, aimed at
strengthening Tatar presence in the West. Himself a convertite to Islam, and
although not its ardent proponent, Nogai enjoyed the support of pro-islamic
faction among Juchids, whose prominent member was Chichek-khatun, wife
of Berke and Mngke-Temr. Probably during the reign of Mngke-Temr,
Nogais status was further determined by his elevation to the high position of
the commander of the right hand, i.e. leader of the western parts of Juchid lands.
Early years of Nogais rule in the Western steppes were marked by
hostile and aggressive moves towards neighboring Hungary (12701271) and
Byzantium (c. 1272). However, new Tatar incursions into the Central and
Southeast Europe didnt ensue as consequence of Nogais independent
actions; they were directed from Sarai and they represented the continuation of
the policies of Berke. Even his correspondence with Baibars couldnt be
33

interpreted as his desire towards independence. The diplomatic move was


indeed prompted by Nogai, but also by other influential leaders in the Western
steppes Tok-Buka and Uran-Temur, who were subjected to Mngke Temr.
Only after the Tatar attack on Byzantium, Nogais role changed. In c.
1273. he made an agreement with the emperor Michael VIII Paleologus and
took as his bride the princess Eyphrosyne. The establishment of the political
alliance between Constantinople and Nogai had important consequences in the
Danubian region, where joint condominium and spheres of influences were
delinaeted; in addition, the agreement de facto led to the breaking off in the
connections between Bulgarian Empire and Sarai. A critical look at the
formative years of Nogais reign in the West is important, as it reveals the
gradual emergence of the new Tatar center of power, that eventually, at the end
of the thirteenth century, encompassed whole Carpatho-Danubian region into
its sphere of influence.
Keywords: Nogai, Mngke Temr, Tatars, Ulus Juchi (Golden Horde),
Byzantium, Bulgaria, Lower Danube.
: 30. 04. 2013.
: 02. 09. 2013.

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