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GENERAL ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES

GENERAL ELECTRICAL PROTECTION AND GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS


Electrical Hazards
Lightning an electrical discharge which occurs between clouds and also
from cloud to earth.
Power contact / induction
Acoustic Shock results from abnormally high sound level, the physical
effects of which may vary from minor discomfort to serious injury.
Electric Shock current through the body rather than voltage of the circuit
determines electric shock intensity. Voltage is significant only in so far as
it is one of the factors determining the magnitude of current.
The average resistance of a dry adult human body is approximately
1000 ohms. Wet or damaged skin reduces this figure and 1500
ohms is a conservative figure representing the body resistance for
safety calculations.
Ventricular fibrillation is likely to occur when a 60Hz rms current of
0.030 amperes and above passes through ones chest cavity.
Because of this, any circuit from which in excess of 30ma rms AC or
90ma DC can be drawn through a 1500 ohm resistor (45V RMS AC
OR 135VDC) shall be classified as hazardous.
The potential difference at any time between any exposed structure
(Equipment cabinets, Housings, Supports, etc.) to ground (Floor,
Earth, etc.) or between any exposed structure within the reach of an
adult person (Approx. 1.5 meters) shall be no greater than 45 volts
rms AC or 135 volts DC.
The potential difference at any time between two points on the floor
or earth surface separated by a distance of one pace, or about one
meter, in the direction of maximum potential gradient shall be no
greater than 45 volts rms AC or 135 volts DC.

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Protection Methods
Shielding it is the provision of a grounded electrical conducting material
located such that foreign potential will be intercepted and surge currents
diverted to ground with the least damage to plant equipment possible.
Voltage Limiting prevents development of hazardous potential
difference in communication plant by direct bonding, when permissible or
by use of surge arresters, discharge gaps, diodes, etc. which operate
under abnormal voltage condition.
Current Limiting and Interrupting current in a circuit can be kept from
rising above a predetermined value by the use of a fuse in series with a
circuit. When current flows through a fuse for a specified time with a
magnitude greater than its rating, the fuse will interrupt the current.
Grounding and Bonding used to divert undesired currents before they
reach the equipment being protected and often are installed both at and
some distance away from the protected equipment.
Ground Resistance it is the resistance path of a ground connection
which includes the ground wire and its connection to ground
electrode. The ground electrode, the contact between the electrode
and the earth and the surrounding soil. This value should NEVER
EXCEED 5.0 OHMS FOR EQUIPMENT LOCATIONS, ANTENNA
TOWERS, AND ALL ALLIED INSTALLATIONS, AND 25 OHMS
FOR OUTSIDE PLANT TELEPHONE POLES AND MANHOLES
AS WELL AS CUSTOMER PREMISES.
Made Ground it is an electrode buried in the ground for the purpose
of establishing a low resistance electrical contact with the earth.
Example: driven rods, driven pipes, buried plates, buried cones, or
other similar devices placed in the ground.
Methods and Materials
Lightning Rods is a metal strip or rod, usually of copper or similar
conductive material, designed to protect tall or isolated structures (such
as the roof of a building or the mast of a vessel) from lightning damage.
Fuses and Current Interrupting - a device used in electrical systems to
protect against excessive current.

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Surge Arresters these are normally open circuited devices and pass no
significant current at normal operating potentials.
Grounding and Bonding - provides certain level of safety to humans and
property in case of equipment damages.
Measurements
Ground Resistance Test Methods measurement procedures that is simple
and straight forward and the instruments are mostly direct reading.
Methods for Ground Resistance Measurements
Direct Method or two terminal test the simplest way to make an
earth resistance test.
The fall of potential method or three terminal test
Voltmeter-Ammeter Method
Triangulation Method
Earth Resistivity it is the resistance of parallel faces of a one cubic
centimeter of soil. Expressed in ohm-centimeter.
Determining Good Electrode Location
Drive rods in various locations to such depths as may be required
and measure the resistances while the rods are being driven.
Measure the earth resistivity before driving ground rods then
calculate the number and length of rods required.
How to Improve Grounds
Lengthen the ground-electrode in the earth.
Use multiple rods.
Treat the soil when 1 & 2 are not feasible.
Maintenance and Inspection
Grounding system requirements from year to year can change
depending on the following factors:
A plant or facility can expand in size or change its operation and
such changes create different needs in the grounding system.
As more non-metallic pipes and conduits are installed underground,
such installation becomes less and less dependable as effective
low-resistance ground connections.
In many locations, the water table is gradually falling, and grounds
formerly effective may end up uneffective.

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Ground resistance shall be tested when installed and periodically


afterwards, at least once a year during the dry or non-rainy months and
ALL VALUES OBTAINED SHALL BE NO GREATER THAN THE RULE
REQUIRED. (See protection method).
All ground connections, be it solderless or soldered, shall be checked at
least once a year to be sure they are tight. Physical damage to ground
wires shall be checked at the same time and damages rectified or
damaged conductors replaced.
Do not test grounds during thunderstorm days.
Never take hold of two wires or a wire or rod or probe in such a way that
you complete a circuit through yourself.
Stray earth currents, accidental contacts or ground faults in the power
system may produce an undeterminable difference of potential between
two points, so use rubber gloves and handle ground wires under test as
if they are energized.
GENERAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS
Loading Zones
Heavy Loading Zone this loading shall be taken as the resultant stress
due to wind and dead weight for 240 kph wind velocity.
Medium Loading Zone - this loading shall be taken as the resultant stress
due to wind and dead weight for 200 kph wind velocity.
Light Loading Zone - this loading shall be taken as the resultant stress due
to wind and dead weight for 160 kph wind velocity.

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POWER SOURCES
Storage Batteries and Chargers
Batteries should be located where temperatures range between 15.5 and
32.2 degrees Celsius (60 degrees and 90 degrees Fahrenheit). Higher
temperature will shorten battery life and lower temperature will decrease
the ampere-hour capacity and may damage the battery by freezing
especially when the batteries are in low state of charge.
Lead acid or similar gas emitting battery installations where the
aggregate power (ampere-hour rating, at the 8-hour rate to 1.75 volts per
cell multiplied by the battery voltage) exceeds 5 kilowatts shall be located
in a properly ventilated room separated from the equipment room or
location where people are staying.
Explosion resistant vents shall be provided for all lead acid or similar gas
emitting batteries above 10 ampere-hour capacity and ascertained by
periodic inspection that the vents are free from obstruction.
Ventilation of the battery room is very important especially during high
charging and discharging condition. Although the battery is fitted with an
explosion proof vent, an enclosed room could develop a sufficiently high
concentration of an explosive gaseous mixture which could be ignited by
sparks from adjacent electrical or electronic equipment as well as
accidental sparks or open flame introduced by personnel. All air moved
by ventilation in the battery room or area should be exhausted into the
outside atmosphere and should not be allowed to recirculate into other
confined areas.
Smoking and storing of inflammable materials is prohibited in battery
rooms and NO SMOKING signs should be posted in conspicuous
locations inside and before entering battery rooms.
Batteries, where the corrosive electrolyte maybe added in the field or
customer location, transported by air or boat shall be shipped dry
charged. They may be transported with electrolyte via land
transportation provided electrolyte leakage or spillage are contained with
its crate or carton and proper markers regarding handling precautions
are clearly marked on its crate or carton.
Batteries on racks shall be provided with earthquake bracings which hold
the sides of the batteries and prevent them from falling off the rack.
For noise consideration, grounds may have to be separated as one of
the various possible means to help meet noise objectives and, in such
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case, the grounds may be insulated from each other except at the final
point of earth connection at the master ground bar or earth electrode.
Power cables are sized to limit the voltage drop due to resistance of the
cable and hole heating of the cables to a safe limit. The limits of
minimum voltage are critical to the operation of the equipment; therefore,
it is important that voltage drops in the cabling be carefully controlled.
Attempt should be made to limit the overall voltage drop from the battery
to the working equipment to a maximum of one volt. The final selection of
cable size should be generous since the calculation makes no allowance
for voltage drop due to items such as fuses, switches, etc.
Various battery voltage may be derived by connecting a number of cells
in series and in all cases the rule required is not violated. (See Electrical
Hazards).
Frames of battery chargers, battery enclosures if provided, and all
exposed metallic structures shall be bonded together and grounded,
meeting the required rule. (See Electrical Hazards).
Caustic soda or either acid neutralizing agents should be stored and
available in battery rooms for use in accidental electrolyte or acid
spillage.

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GENERAL ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Access

a point of entry or a means of entry into a circuit

Accessible

admitting close approach because not guarded


by locked doors, elevation or other effective
means.

Accessible part

a part so located that it can be contacted by a


person, either directly or by menas of a probe or
tool, or that is not recessed the required distance
behind an opening.

Accessories

devices that perform a secondary or minor duty


as an adjunct or refinement to the primary or
major duty of a unit of equipment.

Acoustics

the science of sound

Acoustic Shock

the physical pain, dizzeness and sometimes


nausea caused by hearing a sudden very loud
sound. The threshold of pain is about 120 dBm.

Aging

the change in properties of a material with time.

Air Gap

a separating space between two magnetic


materials or conductors.

Alarm

a visual or audible signal which alerts personnel


to the existence of an abnormal condition

Alive

to have an electrical potential or charge different


from that of the earth.

Alpeth

a type of telephone cable sheath featuring a


corrugated aluminium tape applied longitudinally
and a polyethelene jacket overall.

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American Wire Gauge

a scale of cross sectional measurement for nonferrous (copper, bronze, aluminium, etc.) wires

Ampere-Hour

the quantity of electricity represented by a


current of one ampere that flows for one hour.

Anchor

any device which holds something secure; a


device buried in the ground to which anchor rods
and guys are fastened.

Anhydrous Antenna

dry; containing no water. A means for radiating


or receiving radio waves.

Appliance

any device that uses or needs electricity or


usually an alectric current supply to perform a
certain function or operation; any equipment,
usually complete in itself, that transforms electric
energy into another form usually, visual, heat, or
motion at the point of utilization.

Arrester

device which diverts high transient voltage to


ground and away from the equipment thus
protected; the voltage limiting portion of a
protector.

Arrester Gas-Filled

protector consisting of opposing spaced metal


electrodes within a sealed tube or enclosure filled
with gas such as neon or argon.

Assembly

a grouping of components to accomplish a


particular function

Atmosphere, Explosive

air holding in suspension dust, metal particles or


flammable gas in such proportions that may ignite
explosively

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Attachments

all of the plant elements (cables, cross-arms,


brackets, etc) which are fastened to a supporting
structure such as a pole.

Audio

pertaining to frequencies which can be heard by


the human ear.

Automatic

describing the actions of a device or equipment


which are taken without human supervision in
response to certain pre-determined conditions.

Backbone

the main system route, usually the route carrying


the majority of the traffic, and often the longest
series of cascaded hops.

Bandwith

range of frequencies of a device, within which its


performance, in respect to some characteristics
conform to specified limits; the difference between
the upper and lower limits of the operating
frequency of the device.

Baseband

band of frequencies occupied by the aggregate


of all the information signals used to modulate a
carrier.

Battery

a group of two or more cells connected together


to furnish current by conversion of chemical,
thermal, solar or nuclear energy into electrical
energy.

Bond

a low resistance electrical connection between


two cable sheaths, between two ground
connections or between similar parts of two
circuits.

Bus

a conductor or group of conductors, that serve


as a common connection for two or more circuits.

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Cable

assembly of insulated conductors into a


compact form which is covered by a flexible,
waterproof, protective covering.

Circuit

the complete electrical path between terminals


over which telecommunications are provided.

Climbing Space

the vertical space reserved along the side of a


pole or tower to permit ready access for linemen
to equipment and conductors located thereon.

Conductor

anything such as a wire or cable which is


suitable for the carrying of an electric current.

Communication

transmitting and or receiving of information


signals, or messages between two or more points.

dB

abbreviation for decibel which is one-tenth of a


bel. A unit expressing the ratio of two voltages,
currents or powers. It is equal to 20 times the
common logarithm of the ratio of the two voltages
or two currents and 10 times the common
logarithm of the ratio of the two powers.

Dropwire

insulated wires, used to run a subscribers line


from the terminal on the pole to the protector at
the house or building.

Electronics

the branch of science and technology which


deals with the control and utilization of electron
flow.

Electronic Switching

the selective interconnection of channels of


communication by means consisting essentially if
not entirely of electronic circuitry and circuit
elements.

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Explosion proof

one that is designed and constructed to


withstand an explosion og a gas or vapour that
may occur within it or in its immediate vicinity and
to prevent the ignition of the gas or vapour
surrounding or within its enclosure.

Exposed Part

a part which can be inadvertently touched or


approached nearer than a safe distance.

Facility

anything used or available for use in the


furnishing of communication service.

Facilities

the elements used or available for use in the


furnishing of communication service, such as radio
facilities, outside plant facilities, indoor plant
facilities, etc.

Fault

a physical condition that causes a device, a


component or a element to fail to perform in a
required manner.

Fault current

a current that flows from one conductor to


ground or to another conductor owing to any
abnormal connection (including an arc) between
the two.

Flame Proof

apparatus so treated such that it will not


maintain a flame or will not be injured readily
when subjected to flame.

Flame Retarding

property of materials or structures such that they


will not convey flame or continue to burn for longer
times than specified in the appropriate flame test.

Flashover

a discharge through air, around or over the


surface of solid, liquid or other insulation, between
parts of different potential of polarity, produced by

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the application of voltage such that the breakdown


path becomes sufficiently ionized to maintain an
electric arc.
Fuse

a device used for protection against excessive


currents. Consisting of a short length of fusible
metal strip which melts when the current through it
exceeds the rated amount for a definite time.

Ground

a conducting connection, whether intentional or


accidental, by which an electric circuit or
equipment is connected to earth, or to some
conducting body of relatively large extent that
serves in place of the earth.

Ground Bus

a bus to which the grounds from individual


pieces of equipment are connected, and, that, in
turn, is connected to ground at one or more
points.

Ground Ring

a configuration of grounding conductors arrange


around a structure such as building, tower footing,
tower guy anchor etc. normally connected to an
earth ground at one or more points.

Guy

a tension member (of solid or stranded wires)


used to withstand an otherwise unbalanced force
on a pole or other overhead line structures.

Guy, Overhead

a guy extending from a pole or structure or tree


and is sometimes called a span guy.

Guy, Anchor

a guy which has its lower anchorage in the


earth.

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Guy Exposed

a guy which has any part less than 2.5 meters


from the vertical plane of any electric power
conductor of more than 250 volts.

Guy in Proximity

a guy which has any part within a vertical


distance of less than 2.5 meters from the level of
power conductors and a radial distance of less
than 1.8 meters from the surface of a wooden pole
or structure.

Guarded

covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or


otherwise protected by means of suitable covers
or casings, barrier rails or screens, or platform to
remove the likelihood of dangerous contact with or
approach by persons or objects to a point of
danger.

Handhole

an opening in an underground run or system


into which workers reach, but do not enter. A subsurface box having a cover flush with the ground.

Hazard

any condition which imperils life, limb and


property.

Insulated

separated from other conducting surfaces by a


dielectric substance or air space permanently
offering a high resistance to the passage of
current and to disruptive discharge through the
substance or space. When any object is said to be
insulated, it is understood to be insulated in
suitable manner for the conditions to which it is
subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of
this code, uninsulated.

Joint Use

occupancy of poles or structures by two or more


different entities by mutual agreement.

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Lightning Arrester

a device designed to protect apparatus from


high transient voltage, by diverting surge current
to ground and capable of repeating this function
as specified.

Lines, Communication

the channels or conductors and their supporting


or containing components or structures usually
located
outdoors
which
are
used
for
transmission/reception of information/intelligence
in communication service (telephone, telegraph,
data telemetering, video, etc.).

Lines, Power

the conductors and their supporting or


containing structures which are located outdoors
used for transmitting a supply of electrical energy.

Maintenance

all of the work required to keep the plant,


circuits, lines, facilities, systems and services up
to standards. This includes testing, trouble
clearing, repairing, and replacing defective
elements.

Manhole

a subsurface chamber, large enough for a


person to enter, in the route of one or more
conduit runs, and affording facilities for placing
and maintaining in the runs, conductors, cables
and any associated apparatus.

Manual

operated by mechanical force, applied directly


by personal intervention.

Messenger

stranded steel wires in a group which generally


is not a part of the conducting system, its primary
function being to support wires or cables of the
system.

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Noise

any unwanted disturbance in a communication


system which tends to obscure the clarity and
validity of a signal in relation to its intended end
use.

Operating Control

a control, usually a knob, pushbutton or lever,


provided to enable the user to cause the
appliance to perform its intended function, without
the use of tools, when the appliance is in normal
operating condition.

Plant

a general term applied to the whole or portion of


the physical property of a communication
company which contributes to the furnishing of
communication service.

Plant, Inside

all plant which is inside of buildings.

Plant, Outside

all plant which is out of doors not in buildings,


such as poles, conduits, cables, etc. installed
overhead or underground.

Practicable

capable of being accomplished by reasonably


available and economic means.

Protector

a device which provides protection from overvoltage and or over-current.

Protector, Carbon Block

a protector whose voltage limiting element


utilizes carbon blocks.

Protector, Gas Tube

a protector whose voltage limiting element


employs electrodes in a gas filled (neon, argon,
etc.) envelope.

Qualified

persons trained and authorized for the


construction, maintenance and operation of the

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apparatus, circuit or system and responsible for


the safety precautions involved.
Radiant Energy

any energy which radiated in the form of radio


waves, infrared (heat) waves, light waves, x-rays.
etc.

Radiate

the spreading out of radiant energy

Rod, Ground

a metallic rod, driven into the ground to provide


an electrical connection to the earth.

Rod, Lightning

a metallic rod carried above the highest point of


a pole or structure and connected to earth by a
heavy copper conductor intended to carry
lightning currents directly to earth.

Reconstruction

that work which in any way changes the identity


of the plant or station or portions thereof.

Service Drop

the installation from the terminal on the pole to


the protector at the customers premises.

Sag

the maximum departure, measured vertically, of


a wire or cable in a given span from a straight line
between the two points of support of the span at
60 degrees celcius and no wind loading.

Span

the horizontal distance between two adjacent


supporting points of a cable or wire.

Supply Circuit

the branch circuit supplying electrical energy to


the equipment or appliance.

System, Electronic

a configuration or arrangement of one or more


electronic equipment producing the desired
performance.

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Telecommunication

any transmission, emission or reception of signs,


signals, writings, images, sounds or intelligence of
any nature by wire, radio, visual or other
electromagnetic system or such other system that
may in the future become known or developed.

Tensile Strength

the pulling stress required to break a material,


such as a wire, expressed in kilograms of stress
per cross-sectional area.

Tension

mechanical stress caused by forces which tend


to stretch or severe the material stressed.

Tension, Maximum

one-half of the tensile strength for messengers

Allowable

guys, etc. and one-forth of the tensile strength for


communication cables and wires.

Tower Displacement

the horizontal displacement of a point on the


tower axis from its no-wind load position at that
elevation.

Tower Sway

tower sway at any specified elevation shall be


defined as the angular displacement of a tangent
to the tower axis at the elevation from its no-wind
load position at that elevation.

Tower Twist

the horizontal angular displacement of the tower


from its no-wind position at that elevation.

Underground

describing communication facilities installed


below the surface of the earth.

Working Space

the space extending laterally from the climbing


space, reserved for working below, above and
between conductor levels; the space surrounding
a device or equipment.

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1.

An electrical discharge which occurs between clouds and also from cloud
to earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.

2.

Results from abnormally high sound level, the physical effects of which
may vary from minor discomfort to serious injury.
A.
B.
C.
D.

3.

current
voltage
resistance
conductance

The average resistance of a dry adult human body is approximately:


A.
B.
C.
D.

5.

Electrical Shock
Super Sonic
Acoustic Shock
Sonic Boom

The factor that determines the intensity of electric shock is


A.
B.
C.
D.

4.

Thunder
Lightning
Corona
Aurora

10 000 ohms
100 000 ohms
1 000 ohms
100 ohms

Ventricular fibrillation is likely to occur when a 60Hz rms current of


_____amperes and above passes through ones chest cavity.
A.
B.
C.
D.

0.010
0.11
0.030
0.33

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6.

The minimum voltage value that is considered hazardous is:


A.
B.
C.
D.

7.

150V DC
45V DC
135V DC
160V DC

The potential difference at any time between two points on the floor or
earth surface separated by a distance of one pace, or about one meter,
in the direction of maximum potential gradient shall be no greater than
_______.
A.
B.
C.
D.

9.

45V RMS AC
12V RMS AC
24V RMS AC
50V RMS AC

The minimum voltage value that is considered hazardous is:


A.
B.
C.
D.

8.

45
25
15
55

volts
volts
volts
volts

rms AC or 135 volts DC


rms AC or 115 volts DC
rms AC or 105 volts DC
rms AC or 145 volts DC

It is the provision of a grounded electrical conducting material located


such that foreign potential will be intercepted and surge currents diverted
to ground with the least damage to plant equipment possible.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Grounding
Shielding
Bonding
current limiting

10. Prevents development of hazardous potential difference in


communication plant by direct bonding, when permissible or by use of
surge arresters, discharge gaps, diodes, etc. which operate under
abnormal voltage condition.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Current limiting
Resistance limiting
Grounding
Voltage Limiting

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11. The current in a circuit can be kept from rising above a predetermined
value by the use of a fuse in series with a circuit.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Current limiting
Resistance limiting
Grounding
Voltage Limiting

12. This is used to divert undesired currents before they reach the
equipment being protected and often are installed both at and some
distance away from the protected equipment.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Current limiting
Resistance limiting
Grounding
Voltage Limiting

13. It is the resistance path of a ground connection which includes the


ground wire and its connection to ground electrode.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Ground Resistance
Ground Electrode
Ground Path
Resistance Path

14. For equipment locations, antenna towers, and all allied installations, the
ground resistance must never exceed ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.

25 ohms
3 ohms
43 ohms
5 ohms

15. For outside plant telephone poles and manholes as well as customer
premises, the ground resistance must never exceed _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.

25 ohms
3 ohms
43 ohms
5 ohms

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16. It is an electrode buried in the ground for the purpose of establishing a


low resistance electrical contact with the earth.
A. Ground pole
B. Lightning Rods
C. Guy
D. Made Ground
17. It is a metal strip or rod, usually of copper or similar conductive material,
designed to protect tall or isolated structures (such as the roof of a
building or the mast of a vessel) from lightning damage.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Ground pole
Lightning Rods
Guy
Made Ground

18. A device used in electrical systems to protect against excessive current.


A.
B.
C.
D.

fuse
Lightning rod
Surge arrester
Grounding

19. These are normally open circuited devices and pass no significant
current at normal operating potentials.
A.
B.
C.
D.

fuse
Lightning rod
Surge arrester
Grounding

20. Provides certain level of safety to humans and property in case of


equipment damages.
A.
B.
C.
D.

fuse
Lightning rod
Surge arrester
Bonding or grounding

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21. The simplest way to make an earth resistance test is to use:


A.
B.
C.
D.

Direct Method or two terminal test *


Voltmeter-Ammeter Method
Triangulation Method
Three terminal test

22. It is the resistance of parallel faces of a one cubic centimeter of soil


expressed in ohm-centimeter.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Ground resistance
Earth Resistivity
Cubic resistance
Earth density

23. The following are ways to improve grounds except:


A.
B.
C.
D.

Lengthen the ground-electrode in the earth


Use multiple rods
Treat the soil when 1 & 2 are not feasible
Place stones near the rod

24. Ground resistance shall be tested when installed and periodically


afterwards, at least _____ during the dry or non-rainy months and ALL
VALUES OBTAINED SHALL BE NO GREATER THAN THE RULE
REQUIRED.
A.
B.
C.
D.

3 times per year


twice as year
once a year
12 times a year

25. All ground connections, be it solderless or soldered, shall be checked at


least ____ to be sure they are tight.
A.
B.
C.
D.

3 times per year


twice as year
once a year
12 times a year

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26. This loading shall be taken as the resultant stress due to wind and dead
weight for 240 kph wind velocity.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Heavy Loading Zone


Medium Loading Zone
Light Loading Zone
Extra Heavy Loading Zone

27. This loading shall be taken as the resultant stress due to wind and dead
weight for 200 kph wind velocity.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Heavy Loading Zone


Medium Loading Zone
Light Loading Zone
Extra Heavy Loading Zone

28. This loading shall be taken as the resultant stress due to wind and dead
weight for 160 kph wind velocity.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Heavy Loading Zone


Medium Loading Zone
Light Loading Zone
Extra Heavy Loading Zone

29. Batteries should be located where temperatures range between


_______degrees Celsius.
A.
B.
C.
D.

12.5
15.5
15.2
55.5

and
and
and
and

25.2
32.2
52.2
60.3

30. Lead acid or similar gas emitting battery installations where the
aggregate power exceeds ______5 kilowatts shall be located in a
properly ventilated room separated from the equipment room or location
where people are staying.
A.
B.
C.
D.

5 kW
10 kW
1 kW
15 kW

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES

31. Smoking and storing of inflammable materials is prohibited in battery


rooms and NO SMOKING signs should be posted _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.

inside the room only


before entering battery rooms
outside the room only
Both A and C

32. An acid neutralizing agentsuch as _____ should be stored and available


in battery rooms for use in accidental electrolyte or acid spillage.
A.
B.
C.
D.

oil
kerosene
flour
Caustic soda

33. A low resistance electrical connection between two cable sheaths,


between two ground connections or between similar parts of two circuits.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bond
Short
Fuse
Guy

34. The vertical space reserved along the side of a pole or tower to permit
ready access for linemen to equipment and conductors located thereon.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Stairway
Climbing Space
guy
pole

35. Insulated wires, used to run a subscribers line from the terminal on the
pole to the protector at the house or building.
A.
B.
C.
D.

main line
main cable
dropline
dropwire

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GENERAL ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES

36. A physical condition that causes a device, a component or a element to


fail to perform in a required manner.
A.
B.
C.
D.

damaged
hazard
fault
short

37. A current that flows from one conductor to ground or to another


conductor owing to any abnormal connection (including an arc) between
the two.
A. Fault current
B. Dark current
C. Leakage current
D. Dead short
38. An apparatus so treated such that it will not maintain a flame or will not
be injured readily when subjected to flame.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Flame Proof
Flame Retarding
Burn proof
Anti Flame

39. A property of materials or structures such that they will not convey flame
or continue to burn for longer times than specified in the appropriate
flame test.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Flame Proof
Flame Retarding
Burn proof
Anti Flame

40. A discharge through air, around or over the surface of solid, liquid or
other insulation, between parts of different potential of polarity, produced
by the application of voltage such that the breakdown path becomes
sufficiently ionized to maintain an electric arc.
A. Aurora
B. Corona
C. Flashover
D. Arc

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES

41. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, by which an


electric circuit or equipment is connected to earth, or to some conducting
body of relatively large extent that serves in place of the earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.

short
jumper
ground
link

42. A tension member (of solid or stranded wires) used to withstand an


otherwise unbalanced force on a pole or other overhead line structures.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Bond
Short
Fuse
Guy

43. A guy extending from a pole or structure or tree and is sometimes called
a span guy.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Overhead guy
Anchor guy
bla guy
Guy post

44. An opening in an underground run or system into which workers reach,


but do not enter.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Manhole
Rathole
Handhole
finger hole

45. A device designed to protect apparatus from high transient voltage, by


diverting surge current to ground and capable of repeating this function
as specified.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lightning ball
Lightning Arrester
Fuse
Lightning Protector

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GENERAL ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES

46. A subsurface chamber, large enough for a person to enter, in the route of
one or more conduit runs, and affording facilities for placing and
maintaining in the runs, conductors, cables and any associated
apparatus.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Manhole
Rathole
Handhole
finger hole

47. Stranded steel wires in a group which generally is not a part of the
conducting system, its primary function being to support wires or cables
of the system.
A.
B.
C.
D.

guy
support
conduit
messenger

48. A general term applied to the whole or portion of the physical property of
a communication company which contributes to the furnishing of
communication service.
A.
B.
C.
D.

zone
area
plant
division

49. A metallic rod, driven into the ground to provide an electrical connection
to the earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lightning rod
Ground rod
Drop ground
radials

50. A metallic rod carried above the highest point of a pole or structure and
connected to earth by a heavy copper conductor intended to carry
lightning currents directly to earth.
A Lightning arrester
B. Lightning rod
C. Breaker
D. Lightning gap
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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES

51. The installation from the terminal on the pole to the protector at the
customers premises.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Service drop
Subscribers loop
Main line
Local drop

52. The horizontal displacement of a point on the tower axis from its no-wind
load position at that elevation.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Tower displacement
Tower sway
Tower Twist
Tower bend

53. The angular displacement of a tangent to the tower axis at the elevation
from its no-wind load position at that elevation.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Tower displacement
Tower sway
Tower Twist
Tower bend

54. The horizontal angular displacement of the tower from its no-wind
position at that elevation.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Tower displacement
Tower sway
Tower Twist
Tower bend

55. Refers to communication facilities installed below the surface of the


earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.

underneath
underground
earth mat
under earth

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