Anda di halaman 1dari 53

# Chapter 9: Unsymmetrical Faults

## ELCT 551: Power System Analysis & Design

Outlines
1. Unsymmetrical faults:
Single-phase-to-ground short circuit
Phase-to-phase short circuit
Phase-to-phase-to-ground short circuit

## 2. Phase shifts in delta-wye transformers

3. Ungrounded Power Delivery Systems

## 1. Unbalanced Short Circuits

Procedure:
Set up all three sequence networks
Interconnect networks at point of the
fault to simulate a short circuit
Calculate the sequence I and V
Transform to ABC currents and voltages

## Short circuits considered:

1. single phase to ground = single line to
ground
2. phase to phase = line to line short
circuits
3. phase to phase to ground = double
phase to ground = double line to
ground = line to line to ground
4

## Cause of Unsymmetrical Faults

Underground-line case:

## 1.1 Single-phase-to-ground short

Let phase a be the faulted phase:
Va = 0 and Ib = Ic = 0.
Then I0 = I1 = I2 = Ia/3 and
V0 + V1 + V2 = Va = 0.
Connect sequence networks in series
at the fault (terminals), calculate I0,
and Ia = 3 I0
6

## Single-phase-to-ground short circuit on

E

V1
V2

I0 = I1 = I2

V0

I0
7

Example 1
Wye-connected synchronous
generator with neutral solidly
grounded with single-phase-toground short circuit at terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%
X''d = 25%, X0 =10%
Use X''d for both positive and
negative sequence reactance
8

Example 1

j0.25 V1
j0.25 V2

I0 = I1 = I2

V
j0.10 0

Example 1
I0 = 1.0/(j0.60) = 1.667 /-90
Ia = 3 I0 = 5.00 /-90 pu
Note: 3-phase short circuit gives
4.00 per unit current, so most
generators are not solidly
grounded
10

## 1.2 Phase-to-phase short circuit on

Let phase b be shorted to phase c:
Ia = 0, Ic = -Ib and Vb = Vc
Then V1 = V2 = (Va -Vb )/3
I0 = 0 and I1 = -I2 = j Ib/3
Connect the positive and negative
sequence networks in parallel at the
fault, calculate I1
11

V1

V2

I1 = -I2
Calculate I1

## Then Ib = -j3 I1 and Ic = j3 I1

12

Example 2
Wye-connected synchronous generator
with phase-to-phase short circuit at
terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%, X''d = 25%,
X0 =10%

1.0

j0.25

V1

j0.25

V2

I1
13

Example 2
I1 = -I2 = 1/j0.50 = 2.00 /-90 pu
Ib = -j3 I1 = 3.46 /180 pu
Ic = j3 I1 = 3.46 /0 pu
V1 = 1.0 j 0.25 I1 = 0.50 /0 pu
V2 = -j 0.25 I2 = 0.50 /0 pu
Va = 1.00 /0 pu
Vb = Vc = 0.50 /180 pu
14

## 1.3 Phase-to-phase-to-ground short

Let phase b be shorted to phase c and
also to ground: Ia = 0 and Vb = Vc = 0
Then V0 = V1 = V2 = Va/3
I0 + I1 + I2 = 0
Connect all three sequence networks in
parallel at the fault, calculate I0, I1 and I2.
Then the symmetrical component
transformation gives Ib and Ic
15

V1

V2

V0

I1 = -I2 - I0

16

Example 3
Wye-connected synchronous generator with
neutral solidly grounded with two phase-toground short circuit at terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%, X''d = 25%,
X0 =10%

1.0

j0.25

V1

j0.25

V2

j0.10

V0

I1
17

Example 3
I1 = 1.0/(j0.321) = 3.11 /-90
V1 = 1.0 j0.25 I1 = 0.222 /0
V0 = V1 = V2
I2 = 0.889 /90
I0 = 2.22 /90
Ia = 0.00 pu
Ib = 4.81 /136.1 pu
Ic = 4.81 /43.9 pu
Va = 3V1= 0.666 /0 < 1 /0
18

## 1.4 Single-phase-to-ground short circuit

Construct a Thevenin equivalent
circuit for each sequence network.
Let phase a be the faulted phase: Va
= 0 and Ib = Ic = 0.
Then I0 = I1 = I2 = Ia/3
and V0 + V1 + V2 = 0.
19

## Single-phase-to-ground short circuit on

Connect the sequence equivalents in
series at the fault (terminals),
calculate I0, and Ia = 3 I0. This
current is total fault current.
Line and other apparatus currents
are found by solution of the
sequence networks.
20

G1

T1

T2

G2

1f sc

V1

V2

V0

Eth

I0
= I1
= I2

V1

Z1th

Z2th

V2

I0
= I1
= I2

V0

Z0th

21

## G1: 100 MVA, 13.8 kV,

X" = 15%, X0 = 7.5%, Xn = 10%
G2: 50 MVA, 13.2 kV,
X" = 25%, X0 = 8.0%
T1: 100 MVA, 13.8 : 115 kV,
X = 8.0%
T2: 50 MVA, 13.2 : 115 kV,
X = 8.0%
Line: X1 = 36.4 ohms, X0 = 118 ohms
22

## Convert to per unit on 100 MVA base:

Line impedance:
Z1 = j 0.275, Z0 = j 0.895
T1: X = 0.08
T2: X = 0.16
G1: X1=X2=0.15, X0=0.075, Xn=0.10
G2: X1 = X2 = 0.50 , X0 = 0.16
The circuit diagram shows the
sequence networks connected to
simulate the 1f-ground fault
23

1.0
V1
j0.15 j0.08 j0.275 j0.16 j0.50
V2
j0.15 j0.08 j0.275 j0.16 j0.50
j0.30

I0
= I1
= I2

V0

24

1.0
V1

j0.23 j0.935
V2

I0

j0.23 j0.935

V0
j0.08 j1.055
25

## Z1th = Z2th = j(0.23||0.935) = j0.1846

Z0th = j(0.08||1.055) = j0.0744
Zth = Z1th+Z2th+Z0th = j0.4435

## I0 = 1/Zth = -j 2.255 per unit

If = 3 I0 = -j 6.76 per unit
26

## Use current division to find current

from T1 in each sequence network:
|I0| = 2.2551.055/(1.135) = 2.096
|I1| = |I2| = 2.2550.935/(1.165)
= 1.810
And the transformation back to the
line current from T1 gives:
Ia = -j(1.810 + 1.810 + 2.096)
= -j 5.72 per unit
27

## Note that on the LV side of T1, the

zero-sequence line current is zero
(due to the delta connection).
The positive and negative sequence
currents are shifted in phase by 30
degrees, but in opposite directions.
This is considered on the next slide.
28

## 2. Phase shifts in delta-wye

transformers
Consider the delta-wye step-up
transformer shown below:
The positive sequence shows a phase
shift of 30 (HV side leading LV side)
The negative sequence has a phase shift
of -30

29

c
b a

Vca
Vbc

Winding connection
for delta-wye
transformer

## VCA VCN VAB

VAN
Vab
VBN
VBC

Positive
sequence +30
phase shift

30
30

c
b a

Vbc
Vca

Winding connection
for delta-wye
transformer

VBC

VBN

VCA
Vab
VCN

VAN Negative
VAB sequence -30
phase shift

30
31

## Consider the previous example, compute

the currents at generator G1: Due to the
delta-wye transformer:
The zero-sequence current is zero due to
the transformer connection
There is phase shift in positive and negative
sequences

32

## Due to the delta-wye transformer:

The zero-sequence current is zero due to
the transformer connection
The LV side positive sequence current is
shifted by 30
The LV side negative sequence current is
shifted by +30

33

## On the HV side of T1 (all in per unit):

I0 = -j 2.2551.055/(1.135) = -j 2.096
I1 = I2 = -j 2.2550.935/(1.165)

= 1.810 /-90
On the LV side of T1:

I0 = 0

## I1 = 1.810 /-90 - 30 = 1.810 /-120

I2 = 1.810 /-90 + 30 = 1.810 /-60
34

Ia = I0+I1+I2

## = 3.14 /-90 per unit

Ib = I0+a2I1+aI2
= 3.14 /90 per unit

Ic = I0+aI1+a2I2
= 0.00 per unit
35

c
b a

C
A

Ia
IA
= 3.14 /-90 = 5.72/-90
per unit
per unit

IB = I C
= 0.29/-90
per unit

## Note that IB and IC create small

circulating currents in the delta side of
both transformers (only one is shown)
36

## Many process industries have trouble

with unplanned process shut-down
due to faults
Since the most common fault is a short
circuit from single phase to ground, why
not use an ungrounded system?
E-Ship
System?

37

## Ungrounded Power Delivery Systems

Ungrounded system is supplied from a
delta-delta or wye-delta step-down
transformer with the LV system is
ungrounded

38

T1
G1

T2

1f-gnd sc

Motor

ungrounded system

## The process can continue to

operate with a single phase ground
fault until it can be shut down in an
orderly fashion.
39

Ungrounded system
E

V1
V2

V0

I0 = 0
Ia = 3I0 = 0
No ground fault
current

40

## The fault changes the voltages to

ground, so the system must be
insulated for full line-line voltage.
Include stray capacitance to ground,
and there is an RLC series circuit that
can produce high-frequency
transients that may be lightly
damped. This can cause problems
with transient overvoltages.
41

V1 E
V2

I0

V0

42

E

C0

## If the fault is a repetitive, arcing

short-circuit, large transient voltages
to ground can be produced. This
may damage insulation and lead to
burn-down of the system
43

## The solution is to use high-resistance

grounding to limit the single phase to
ground short circuit current to a very
small value, but greater than the
charging current.
The process can continue to operate,
but now transient voltages are
damped much better and present less
danger.
44

G1 T1

T2

1f-gnd sc
Motor

## Now every part of the system is

grounded and the plant step-down
transformer provides high-resistance
grounding to its distribution circuits.
45

V1 E

V2

I0

V0

46

## High-resistance grounding limits

Industrial plant low-voltage systems can use
high-resistance grounding scheme
Industrial medium-voltage systems usually
have too much charging current to operate
with fault in place must trip

47

Discussion
Many other faults have been analyzed
using symmetrical components
See, for example, Electrical Transmission
and Distribution Reference Book,
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1964

48

## To extend matrix analysis to unsymmetrical

faults use the fact that the Thevenin
impedances are the diagonal elements of
the Zbus matrix:
Znn = Thevenin impedance for a fault at
bus n
* Section 9.5 in Textbook (Glover)

49

## Construct a Zbus matrix for each sequence

network Zbus 0, Zbus 1 and Zbus 2 (= Zbus 1
usually)
Connect the Thevenin impedances for the
sequence networks in the appropriate
interconnection to simulation the fault
(like Figure 9.15 in textbook)

50

## Single phase-ground short circuit at bus n

fault current
In-0 = In-1 = In-2 = Vf/(Znn-0 + Znn-1 + Znn-2+ 3 ZF)
Phase-phase short circuit at bus n fault
current
In-1 = -In-2 = Vf/(Znn-1 + Znn-2 + ZF)
In-0 = 0
51

## Double phase to ground short circuit:

See equations 9.5.6 9.5.8 in
Textbook
Calculate the voltages at bus k for
fault at n :
Vk 0 0 Zkn 0
V V 0
k 1 F
Vk 2 0 0

I n 0

Zkn 1
0 I n 1
0
Zkn 2 I n 2
0

52

## Once the bus voltages in each sequence

network are known, any currents can be
calculated (line currents, generator currents,
etc.)
Remember to modify phase angles of
voltages to account for delta-wye
transformer banks (which is not shown
explicitly above)

53