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Chapter 9: Unsymmetrical Faults

ELCT 551: Power System Analysis & Design

Outlines
1. Unsymmetrical faults:
Single-phase-to-ground short circuit
Phase-to-phase short circuit
Phase-to-phase-to-ground short circuit

2. Phase shifts in delta-wye transformers


3. Ungrounded Power Delivery Systems

1. Unbalanced Short Circuits


Procedure:
Set up all three sequence networks
Interconnect networks at point of the
fault to simulate a short circuit
Calculate the sequence I and V
Transform to ABC currents and voltages

Unbalanced Short Circuits

Short circuits considered:


1. single phase to ground = single line to
ground
2. phase to phase = line to line short
circuits
3. phase to phase to ground = double
phase to ground = double line to
ground = line to line to ground
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Cause of Unsymmetrical Faults


Overhead-line cases:

Underground-line case:

1.1 Single-phase-to-ground short


circuit on an unloaded generator
Let phase a be the faulted phase:
Va = 0 and Ib = Ic = 0.
Then I0 = I1 = I2 = Ia/3 and
V0 + V1 + V2 = Va = 0.
Connect sequence networks in series
at the fault (terminals), calculate I0,
and Ia = 3 I0
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Single-phase-to-ground short circuit on


an unloaded generator
E

V1
V2

I0 = I1 = I2

V0

I0
7

Example 1
Wye-connected synchronous
generator with neutral solidly
grounded with single-phase-toground short circuit at terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%
X''d = 25%, X0 =10%
Use X''d for both positive and
negative sequence reactance
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Example 1

j0.25 V1
j0.25 V2

I0 = I1 = I2

V
j0.10 0

Example 1
I0 = 1.0/(j0.60) = 1.667 /-90
Ia = 3 I0 = 5.00 /-90 pu
Note: 3-phase short circuit gives
4.00 per unit current, so most
generators are not solidly
grounded
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1.2 Phase-to-phase short circuit on


an unloaded generator
Let phase b be shorted to phase c:
Ia = 0, Ic = -Ib and Vb = Vc
Then V1 = V2 = (Va -Vb )/3
I0 = 0 and I1 = -I2 = j Ib/3
Connect the positive and negative
sequence networks in parallel at the
fault, calculate I1
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Phase-to-phase short circuit on an


unloaded generator

V1

V2

I1 = -I2
Calculate I1

Then Ib = -j3 I1 and Ic = j3 I1


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Example 2
Wye-connected synchronous generator
with phase-to-phase short circuit at
terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%, X''d = 25%,
X0 =10%

1.0

j0.25

V1

j0.25

V2

I1
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Example 2
I1 = -I2 = 1/j0.50 = 2.00 /-90 pu
Ib = -j3 I1 = 3.46 /180 pu
Ic = j3 I1 = 3.46 /0 pu
V1 = 1.0 j 0.25 I1 = 0.50 /0 pu
V2 = -j 0.25 I2 = 0.50 /0 pu
Va = 1.00 /0 pu
Vb = Vc = 0.50 /180 pu
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1.3 Phase-to-phase-to-ground short


circuit on an unloaded generator
Let phase b be shorted to phase c and
also to ground: Ia = 0 and Vb = Vc = 0
Then V0 = V1 = V2 = Va/3
I0 + I1 + I2 = 0
Connect all three sequence networks in
parallel at the fault, calculate I0, I1 and I2.
Then the symmetrical component
transformation gives Ib and Ic
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V1

V2

V0

I1 = -I2 - I0

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Example 3
Wye-connected synchronous generator with
neutral solidly grounded with two phase-toground short circuit at terminals:
Xd = 150%, X'd = 35%, X''d = 25%,
X0 =10%

1.0

j0.25

V1

j0.25

V2

j0.10

V0

I1
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Example 3
I1 = 1.0/(j0.321) = 3.11 /-90
V1 = 1.0 j0.25 I1 = 0.222 /0
V0 = V1 = V2
I2 = 0.889 /90
I0 = 2.22 /90
Ia = 0.00 pu
Ib = 4.81 /136.1 pu
Ic = 4.81 /43.9 pu
Va = 3V1= 0.666 /0 < 1 /0
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1.4 Single-phase-to-ground short circuit


on an unloaded power system
Construct a Thevenin equivalent
circuit for each sequence network.
Let phase a be the faulted phase: Va
= 0 and Ib = Ic = 0.
Then I0 = I1 = I2 = Ia/3
and V0 + V1 + V2 = 0.
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Single-phase-to-ground short circuit on


an unloaded power system
Connect the sequence equivalents in
series at the fault (terminals),
calculate I0, and Ia = 3 I0. This
current is total fault current.
Line and other apparatus currents
are found by solution of the
sequence networks.
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G1

T1

T2

G2

1f sc

V1

V2

V0

Eth

I0
= I1
= I2

V1

Z1th

Z2th

V2

I0
= I1
= I2

V0

Z0th

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G1: 100 MVA, 13.8 kV,


X" = 15%, X0 = 7.5%, Xn = 10%
G2: 50 MVA, 13.2 kV,
X" = 25%, X0 = 8.0%
T1: 100 MVA, 13.8 : 115 kV,
X = 8.0%
T2: 50 MVA, 13.2 : 115 kV,
X = 8.0%
Line: X1 = 36.4 ohms, X0 = 118 ohms
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Convert to per unit on 100 MVA base:


Line impedance:
Z1 = j 0.275, Z0 = j 0.895
T1: X = 0.08
T2: X = 0.16
G1: X1=X2=0.15, X0=0.075, Xn=0.10
G2: X1 = X2 = 0.50 , X0 = 0.16
The circuit diagram shows the
sequence networks connected to
simulate the 1f-ground fault
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1.0
V1
j0.15 j0.08 j0.275 j0.16 j0.50
V2
j0.15 j0.08 j0.275 j0.16 j0.50
j0.30

I0
= I1
= I2

V0

j0.075 j0.08 j0.895 j0.16 j0.16

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1.0
V1

j0.23 j0.935
V2

I0

j0.23 j0.935

V0
j0.08 j1.055
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Z1th = Z2th = j(0.23||0.935) = j0.1846


Z0th = j(0.08||1.055) = j0.0744
Zth = Z1th+Z2th+Z0th = j0.4435

I0 = 1/Zth = -j 2.255 per unit


If = 3 I0 = -j 6.76 per unit
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Use current division to find current


from T1 in each sequence network:
|I0| = 2.2551.055/(1.135) = 2.096
|I1| = |I2| = 2.2550.935/(1.165)
= 1.810
And the transformation back to the
line current from T1 gives:
Ia = -j(1.810 + 1.810 + 2.096)
= -j 5.72 per unit
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Note that on the LV side of T1, the


zero-sequence line current is zero
(due to the delta connection).
The positive and negative sequence
currents are shifted in phase by 30
degrees, but in opposite directions.
This is considered on the next slide.
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2. Phase shifts in delta-wye


transformers
Consider the delta-wye step-up
transformer shown below:
The positive sequence shows a phase
shift of 30 (HV side leading LV side)
The negative sequence has a phase shift
of -30

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c
b a

Vca
Vbc

Winding connection
for delta-wye
transformer

VCA VCN VAB


VAN
Vab
VBN
VBC

Positive
sequence +30
phase shift

30
30

c
b a

Vbc
Vca

Winding connection
for delta-wye
transformer

VBC

VBN

VCA
Vab
VCN

VAN Negative
VAB sequence -30
phase shift

30
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Consider the previous example, compute


the currents at generator G1: Due to the
delta-wye transformer:
The zero-sequence current is zero due to
the transformer connection
There is phase shift in positive and negative
sequences

32

Due to the delta-wye transformer:


The zero-sequence current is zero due to
the transformer connection
The LV side positive sequence current is
shifted by 30
The LV side negative sequence current is
shifted by +30

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On the HV side of T1 (all in per unit):


I0 = -j 2.2551.055/(1.135) = -j 2.096
I1 = I2 = -j 2.2550.935/(1.165)

= 1.810 /-90
On the LV side of T1:

I0 = 0

I1 = 1.810 /-90 - 30 = 1.810 /-120


I2 = 1.810 /-90 + 30 = 1.810 /-60
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Ia = I0+I1+I2

= 3.14 /-90 per unit


Ib = I0+a2I1+aI2
= 3.14 /90 per unit

Ic = I0+aI1+a2I2
= 0.00 per unit
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c
b a

C
A

Ia
IA
= 3.14 /-90 = 5.72/-90
per unit
per unit

IB = I C
= 0.29/-90
per unit

Note that IB and IC create small


circulating currents in the delta side of
both transformers (only one is shown)
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3. Ungrounded Power Delivery Systems

Many process industries have trouble


with unplanned process shut-down
due to faults
Since the most common fault is a short
circuit from single phase to ground, why
not use an ungrounded system?
E-Ship
System?

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Ungrounded Power Delivery Systems


Ungrounded system is supplied from a
delta-delta or wye-delta step-down
transformer with the LV system is
ungrounded

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T1
G1

T2

1f-gnd sc

Motor

Static loads
ungrounded system

The process can continue to


operate with a single phase ground
fault until it can be shut down in an
orderly fashion.
39

Ungrounded system
E

V1
V2

V0

I0 = 0
Ia = 3I0 = 0
No ground fault
current

40

The fault changes the voltages to


ground, so the system must be
insulated for full line-line voltage.
Include stray capacitance to ground,
and there is an RLC series circuit that
can produce high-frequency
transients that may be lightly
damped. This can cause problems
with transient overvoltages.
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V1 E
V2

I0

V0

42

R1th L1th R2th L2th


E

C0

If the fault is a repetitive, arcing


short-circuit, large transient voltages
to ground can be produced. This
may damage insulation and lead to
burn-down of the system
43

The solution is to use high-resistance


grounding to limit the single phase to
ground short circuit current to a very
small value, but greater than the
charging current.
The process can continue to operate,
but now transient voltages are
damped much better and present less
danger.
44

G1 T1

T2

1f-gnd sc
Motor
Static loads

Now every part of the system is


grounded and the plant step-down
transformer provides high-resistance
grounding to its distribution circuits.
45

V1 E

V2

I0

V0

46

High-resistance grounding limits


Industrial plant low-voltage systems can use
high-resistance grounding scheme
Industrial medium-voltage systems usually
have too much charging current to operate
with fault in place must trip

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Discussion
Many other faults have been analyzed
using symmetrical components
See, for example, Electrical Transmission
and Distribution Reference Book,
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1964

48

To extend matrix analysis to unsymmetrical


faults use the fact that the Thevenin
impedances are the diagonal elements of
the Zbus matrix:
Znn = Thevenin impedance for a fault at
bus n
* Section 9.5 in Textbook (Glover)

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Construct a Zbus matrix for each sequence


network Zbus 0, Zbus 1 and Zbus 2 (= Zbus 1
usually)
Connect the Thevenin impedances for the
sequence networks in the appropriate
interconnection to simulation the fault
(like Figure 9.15 in textbook)

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Single phase-ground short circuit at bus n


fault current
In-0 = In-1 = In-2 = Vf/(Znn-0 + Znn-1 + Znn-2+ 3 ZF)
Phase-phase short circuit at bus n fault
current
In-1 = -In-2 = Vf/(Znn-1 + Znn-2 + ZF)
In-0 = 0
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Double phase to ground short circuit:


See equations 9.5.6 9.5.8 in
Textbook
Calculate the voltages at bus k for
fault at n :
Vk 0 0 Zkn 0
V V 0
k 1 F
Vk 2 0 0

I n 0

Zkn 1
0 I n 1
0
Zkn 2 I n 2
0

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Once the bus voltages in each sequence


network are known, any currents can be
calculated (line currents, generator currents,
etc.)
Remember to modify phase angles of
voltages to account for delta-wye
transformer banks (which is not shown
explicitly above)

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