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DPSP
DIRECTIVEPRINCIPLESOFSTATE
POLICY(PARTIV,Articles3651)
TheDirectivePrinciplesaretheneedsofthecommunity.
DPSPwasborrowedfromIrishConstitution.
ThesearetherecommendationstothestateinLegislative,ExecutiveandAdministrative
matters. (State means Legislative and Executive organs of the Central and State
governments,alllocalauthoritiesandallotherpublicauthoritiesinthecountry).
InGOI(GovernmentofIndia)1935ActInstrumentsofInstructionsenumeratedand
intheIndianConstitutiontheyarecalledDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicy.
DPSPembodytheconceptofawelfarestate.
TheDirectivePrinciplesaretheoperativepartoftheConstitution.
The Directive Principles of State Policy constitute a very comprehensive economic,
socialandpoliticalprogramformoderndemocraticstste.
TheideaoftheprinciplesisthatrealizingthehighidealsofJustice,liberty,equalityand
FraternityasoutlinedinthePreamble.

Directive Principles of State Policy are nonjustifiable in nature. (They are not legally
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enforceablebythecourtsfortheirviolation).
Article36:Itdefinesthestate.IthasthesamemeaningasgiveninArticle12ofPartIII
(fundamentalrights)oftheIndianConstitution.
Article37:TheDirectivePrinciplesarefundamentalsinthegovernanceofthecountry.
Itshallbethedutyofthestatetoapplytheseprinciplesinmakinglaws.
Article37alsocontainsaclauseofthatmentionsthenonjusticiabilityoftheDirective
Principles.ItmadeitclearthattheJudiciaryshouldnotcompelthestatetoperformaduty
underthedirectiveprinciplesofstatepolicy.
Article 38: The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and
protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and
political,shallinformalltheinstitutionsofsociallife.
Note:Article38isthekeystoneorthecoreoftheDirectiveprinciples.
Article39:TheRighttoadequatemeansoflivelihoodforallcitizens,equalPayforequal
workforbothmenandwomen.
Article40:ToorganizeVillagePanchayats.
Article41:Righttowork,PublicAssistanceintheeventofunemployment.
Article42:Theprovisionforjustandhumaneconditionsofworkandmaternityleave.
Article43:Livingwageforworkers.
Article44:UniformCivilCodeforthewholecountry.
Article45:Provisionforearlychildhoodcareandeducationtochildrenbelowtheageof
6years.
Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,
ScheduledTribesandotherbackwardclasses.
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Article47:Toprohibittheconsumptionofintoxicatingdrinksanddrugs.Itisthedutyof
thestatetoraisethelevelofnutritionandthestandardoflivingtoimprovepublichealth.
Note: In India Gujarat, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Lakshadweep prohibited
manufacture,saleandconsumptionofalcohol.InGujaratthelawisinforcesinceMay1,
1960. Gujarat is the only state in India that has the deathpenalty for those who found
guiltyofmakingandsellingspurious(fake)liquorwhichcausesdeath.Thiswasdone
byamendingtheBombayProhibition(GujaratAmendment)Bill2009.

Note: the Bombay Prohibition Act 1949 is still in operation in both Maharashtra and
Gujarat.
Note:TheBangaramIslandistheonlyplaceinLakshadweepwheretheconsumptionis
permitted.

ImpactofProhibitioninHaryana:Afterthe1996assemblyelectionstheHVP(Haryana
VikasParty)imposedbanonliquorbytheCMBansilalandithadaverybadimpactin
the1998LokSabhaelectionswhereitwononly1LokSabhaseatfromthestate(Outof
10).Intheyear1998thegovernmentliftedtheban.
Article 48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry and prohibition of cow
slaughter.
Article49:Protectionofmonuments,placesandobjectsofNationalimportance.
Article50:SeparationofJudiciaryfromExecutive.
Article 51: To promote international peace and security, just and honorable between
nations,respectforinternationallaw.
86th Amendment of 2002 changed the subject matter of Article 45 and also made
elementaryeducationafundamentalrightunderArticle21A.(Thiscameintoeffect
onApril1,2010).WiththistheChildrenbetweentheagegroupof6and14areentitled
forfreeeducation.

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B N Rau (Constitutional advisor) recommended that the rights to be divided into


justifiableandnonjustifiable.AccordinglyPartIIIandPartIVcameintothepicture.
In Champakam Dorairajan case (1951) the Supreme Court ruled that in case of any
conflictbetweenFundamentalRightsandDPSP,theFundamentalrightswouldprevail.
In Golaknath case (1967) the Supreme Court held that Fundamental Rights cannot be
amendedfortheimplementationofDPSP.
In Keshavananda Bharati case (1973): The Supreme Court declared that there is no
essential dichotomy between the Fundamental rights and the Directive principles. They
complementandsupplementeachother.

42ndamendmentof1976accordedsupremacytoDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicyover
Fundamentalrights.

InMinervaMills(1980)casethestatusofDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicywasmade
subordinatetotheFundamentalrights.

MISCELLANEOUS:

DR B R AMBEDKAR: The Directive Principles are the novel feature of the Indian
Constitution. The Directive Principles along with the Fundamental rights contain the
PhilosophyoftheConstitutionandisthesouloftheConstitution.
DR BR AMBEDKAR: A state just awakened from freedom with its many
preoccupationsmightbecrushedundertheburdenunlessitwasfreetodecidetheorder,
thetime,theplaceandthemodeoffulfillingthem.
JAWAHARLAL NEHUS STATEMENT IN 1951: The DPSP represent a dynamic
movetowardsacertainobjective.TheFundamentalrightsrepresentsomethingstatic,to
preservecertainrightswhichexist.Bothareright.But,somehowandsometimeitmight
sohappenthatdynamicmovementandthatstaticstandstilldonotquitefitintoeachother.

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Article38isthekeyoftheDirectivePrinciples.

DrBRAmbedkarwasstronglyinfavorofUniformCivilCode.
InSRBommaivsUnionofIndiacasein1994theSupremeCourturgedthegovernment
toenactaUniformCivilCodetopromoteNationalIntegration.
TheSupremeCourt(1994)statedthattheArticle44hadremainedadeadletter.
The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and the DPSP are the integral parts of the Indian
Constitution.Allthethreearemeantforbuildinganegalitarian(equal)societyandinthe
conceptofsocioeconomicjustice.
If The Fundamental Rights represent the donts, the DPSP represents the Dos of the
executiveandlegislaturethenthereisconflict.

JAWAHARLAL NEHUS STATEMENT IN PARLIAMENT IN 1955: The


responsibility for economic and social welfare policies of the nation should lie with the
Parliament and not with the Courts. In case of contradiction it was for Parliament to
removethecontradictionandmakeFundamentalrightssubservetheDirectivePrinciples
ofStatePolicy.

ASessionsCourtinDelhionforcedmarriageofaMuslimwoman:Thestatements
weregivenonJanuary1,2013whiledismissingananticipatorybailapplicationmovedby
amaulviaccusedofforcingayoungMuslimgirlintoaweddingwithamarriedmanwho
allegedlyrapedhersubsequently.AccordingtomaulvitheShariahpermittedaMuslimto
keep4wivesatatimeandthatthegirlconsentedtothemarriage.ThejudgeKaminiLau
noted that the girl had not signed the marriage certificate. Her parents were not present
nor were there any witness. According to the judge the Indian Legal system provides
sufficientspaceforreligiousfreedombutwheneveranysuchregressivereligiouspractice
comeintoconflictwiththerightsofthecitizensasenshrinedintheIndianConstitution,it
becomesobligatoryforcourtstoensurethatitisthemajestyoflawandtheconstitutional
mandate that prevails. Judge made it very clear that in Islamic societies Polygamous
marriages are permitted but only in certain circumstances, that is primarily in situations
where a mansdeath hasleft hiswidow withno means orsupport. Polygamy isneither
mandatory nor encouraged but merely permitted. The Korans conditional endorsement
stresses that self interest or sexual desire should not be the reason for entering into a
polygamous marriage. It is a practical duty that is associated with the social duty of
Islamic men to protect the social and financial standing of widow and orphans in their
community.
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