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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
A highway is any public road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also
includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to freeway.
A freeway is defined as divided highway facility having two or more lanes in each direction for
the exclusive use of traffic. All freeways are highways, but not every highway is a freeway.
A freeway is a "controlled-access" highway also known as an express highway that's
designed exclusively for high-speed vehicular traffic. Traffic flow on a freeway is unhindered
because there are no traffic signals, intersections, or at-grade crossings with other roads,
railways, or pedestrian paths.
The main difference between freeways and multilane highways is that in the case of freeways,
these roads are separated from the rest of the traffic and can only be accessed by ramps (slip
roads). Opposing directions of traffic on a freeway are physically separated by a central
reservation (median), such as a strip of grass or boulders, or by a traffic barrier. Traffic across a
freeway is carried by overpasses and underpasses.
Table 1.1 Comparison chart

At-Grade Crossings
Intersections or Traffic
Signals
Ingress or Egress

Freeway

Highway

No

Possible

No

Possible

Regulated via slip roads

From Intersections

(Ramps)

or ramps

In India, these highways measured over 92851.02km as of 2014 including over 1000km of
limited-access expressways. Out of 71,000 km of National Highways 22,900 plus km are 4 or 6
lane and remaining 50,000 km are 2 lane.
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The capacity of a facility is the maximum hourly rate at which persons or vehicles reasonably
can be expected to traverse a point or a uniform section of a lane or roadway during a given time
period under prevailing roadway, traffic, and control conditions. Capacity analysis examines
segments or points (such as signalized intersections) of a facility under uniform traffic, roadway,
and control conditions. These conditions determine capacity; therefore, segments with different
prevailing conditions will have different capacities. Hence a traffic stream is given due
consideration.
Traffic stream can be defined as vehicles moving on the road network, which could be a
highway, freeway, major district road etc. It includes a combination of driver and vehicle
behavior. The driver or human behavior being non-uniform, traffic stream is also non-uniform in
nature.
Traffic Stream parameters can be classified as macroscopic and microscopic.
Macroscopic characteristics are flow, density and speed, i.e. which characterize the traffic as a
whole, while microscopic characteristics can be listed as time headway or space headway, i.e.
which study the study the behavior of individual vehicle in the stream with 1respect to each
other.
1.1.2 Speed
Speed is considered as quality measurement of travel as the drivers and passengers will be
concerned more about the speed of the journey rather than the design aspect of the traffic,
Mathematically,

v =d/t

Where v is the speed of the vehicle in m/s, d is the distance travelled in m in time t seconds.
Speed of different vehicles will vary with respect to time & space.
1.1.2.1 Types

i.

of speed

Spot speed
Spot speed is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specified location. Spot speed
can be used to design the geometry of road like horizontal and vertical curves, super
elevation etc. location and size of signs, design of signals, safe speed, and speed zone
determination, require the spot speed data. Accident analysis, road maintenance, and

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congestion are the modern fields of traffic engineer, which uses spot speed data as the
basic input. Spot speed can be measured using pressure contact tubes or direct timing
procedure or radar speedometer or by time-lapse photographic method. It can be
determined by speeds extracted from video images by recording the distance travelling
by all vehicles between a particular pair of frames.

ii.

Running speed
Running speed is the average speed maintained over a particular course white the
vehicle is moving and is found by dividing the length of the course by the time duration
the vehicle was in motion.

iii.

Journey speed
Journey speed is the effective speed of the vehicle on a journey between two points and
is the distance between the two points divided by the total time taken for the vehicle to
complete the journey including any stopped time. Uniformity between journey and
running speeds denotes comfortable travel conditions.

iv.

Time mean speed


It is defined as the average speed of all the vehicles passing a point on a highway over
some specified time period.
In simple terms, if we measure speed of vehicles v1, v2, v3, vn/n, where n represents
the number of vehicles passing the fixed point.
Time mean speed can be sampled by loop detectors and other fixed-location speed
detection equipment. Time mean speeds do not provide reasonable travel time estimates
unless the speed of the point sampled is representative of the speed of all other points
along a roadway segment, or unless there are a large number of closely-spaced
detectors along the segment.

v.

Space mean speed


It is defined as the average speed of all the vehicles occupying a given section of a
highway over some specified time period.
If for n no of vehicles, the time taken to cover a distance of d is t 1, t2..tn then,
total distance travelled is n x d and total time is sum of individual time taken by each of
the vehicle.

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Space Mean Speed = (n x d) / (t1+t2+t3 .. tn )


Both mean speeds will always be different from each other except in the unlikely event
that all vehicles are travelling at the same speed. Time mean speed is a point
measurement while space mean speed is a measure relating to length of highway or
lane.
The Space Mean Speed and Time Mean Speed are related to one another by the
following relation:
u=u +
As a rule of thumb time mean speed is about 2% more than space mean speed i.e. u
1.02u .
1.1.3 Flow
It is defined as number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway or a given lane during a
specific time interval. The measurement is carried by counting the number of vehicles passing a
particular point in one lane in a defined period t. Hence, flow is given by

q= nt/t where q

=the rate at which vehicles passing a fixed point(vehicles per hour).


1.1.4 Density
It is defined as the number of vehicles occupying a given length of highway or lane. It is also
termed as concentration and is generally expressed as number of vehicles per km.
k = n/x
Where: k is density
x= length of the road as determined through photograph
n = number of vehicle with in this length
1.1.5 Time

Headway

The microscopic character related to volume is the time headway or simple headway. Time
headway is defined as the time different between any two successive vehicles when they cross a
given point. Time headway (th)= difference between the time when the front of a vehicle arrives
at a point on the highway and the time the front of the next vehicle arrives at the same point (in
seconds).
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Ht =t*hs
Where: t average travel time per unit distance
hs = average space headway
1.1.6 Space

Headway

It is defined as the distance between corresponding points of two successive vehicles at any
given time. It involves the measurement from a photograph, the distance from rear bumper of
lead vehicle to rear bumper of following vehicle at a point of time. If all the space headways in
distance x over which the density has been measured are added,
hi = t
But the density (k) is the number of vehicles n at a distance of x, that is
n
K=
x
s = x/n
Where, s is average distance headway. The average distance headway is the inverse of density
and is sometimes called as spacing.
Space headway (hs) = difference in position between the front of a vehicle and the front of the
next vehicle (in meters)
Average Space Headway (Hs)= Space Mean Speed X average Time Headway
hs =vs * ht
Note that density and space headway are related.
k =

1
h

1.1.7 Spacing
It is defined as the difference between successive vehicles in a traffic lane measured some
common reference point on the vehicle such as front bumper or front wheels.
1.1.8 Clearance
Clearance is the minimum clear distance between nearest ends of two successive vehicles.

Clearance = (spacing)- (average vehicle length)

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Gap = (headway) - (time equivalence of the average vehicle length)

1.2 Speed-Flow-Density

Relationship

Speed flow, and density are all related to each other. The relationships between speed and
density are not difficult to observe in the real world. While the effects of speed and density on
flow is not quite as apparent.
Under uninterrupted flow conditions, speed, density, and flow are all related by the following
equation.
=
q= Flow (vehicles/hour)
v= Speed (kilometers/hour)
k=Density (vehicles/kilometer)
Because flow is the product of speed and density, the flow is equal to zero when one or both of
these terms is zero. It is also possible to deduce that the flow is maximized at some critical
combination of speed and density.
Two common traffic conditions illustrate these points
The first is the modern traffic jam, where traffic densities are very high and speed is very low.
This combination produces a very low flow.
The second condition occurs when traffic densities are very low and drivers can obtain free flow
speed without any undue stress caused by other vehicles on the roadway. The extremely low
density compensates for the high speeds, and the resulting flow is very low.

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1.2.1 Speed

Density Relationship

Fig.-1 Speed Density Relationship


An assumption is made that, under uninterrupted flow conditions, speed and density are linearly
related. This relationship is expressed mathematically and graphically below. See fig.-1.
V = A B x k
Where: V= speed
A, B= constants determined from field observations
k= density
As noted above, you can determine the values of the constants A and B through observations.
The constant A represents the free flow speed, while A/B represents the jam density.
1.2.2 Flow-Density

Relationship

Fig.-2 Flow Density Relationship


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Inserting speed-density relationship into the general speed-flow-density relationship (q = k x v )


yields the following equations :
q=(a-b x k) x k or q= a x k b x k2
This new relationship between flow and density provides an avenue for finding the density at
which the flow is maximized.
dq/dk=A-2xBxK
setting dq/dk=0 yields:
K=A/(2xB)
Therefore, at the density given above, the flow will be maximized.
where : q= flow (vehicles/hour)
a, b = constants
k= density (vehicles/mile, vehicles/ kilometer)
At the density given above, the flow will be maximized.
Some characteristics of an ideal flow-density relationship are listed below:
1. When the density is zero, flow will also be zero, since there is no vehicle on the road.
2. When the number of vehicles gradually increases the density as well as flow increases.
3. When more and more vehicles are added, it reaches a situation where vehicles cant
move. This is referred to as the jam density or the maximum density. At jam density,
flow will be zero because the vehicles are not moving.
4. There will be some density between zero density and jam density. When the flow is
maximum.
1.2.3 Flow-speed

Relationship

Fig.-3 Flow Speed Relationship


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Substituting this maximized value of k into the original speed-density relationship yields the
speed at which the flow is maximized.
V=A-B x (A/(2xB)) OR V=A/2
This indicates that the maximum flow occurs when traffic is flowing at half of free flow speed
(A).
Substituting the optimum speed and density into the speed flow density relationship yields the
maximum flow.
q=(A/2)x (A/(2xB) or q = A2/4xB)
1.3 Categories

Of Traffic Flow

This can be classified as:


1.3.1Uninterrupted Flow
It can occur on facilities that have no fixed element, such as, traffic signals, external to the traffic
stream that cause interruptions to traffic flow. Traffic flow conditions are thus the result of
interactions among vehicles in the traffic stream and between vehicles and the geometric
characteristics of the guide way/roadway system .also, the driver of the vehicles does not expect
to be required to stop by factors external to the traffic stream.
1.3.2 Interrupted Flow
Interrupted traffic flow refers to flow of those streams where vehicular motion is interrupted by
due to various reasons; these reasons are usually attributes of the transportation facilities. These
are: Traffic signals, stop signs and other controls. The traffic slows down while coming across
them; on some occasions even stop.
Interrupted flow occurs on transportation facilities that have fixed elements causing periodic
interruptions to traffic flow .such elements include traffic signals, stop signs and other types of
controls. These devices cause traffic to stop (or significantly slow down) periodically
irrespective of how much traffic exists. Naturally, in this case, the driver expects to be required
to stop as and when required by fixed elements that are part of the facility.
This means: Driver has to slow down, this is irrespective of the traffic volume, the attribute to
slow down is transportation facility, not the driver.
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(a) AADT
It stands for average annual daily traffic. The average 24- hour traffic volume at a given
location over a full 365- day year, i.e. the total number of vehicles passing the site in a
year divided by 365.

(b) AAWT
It stands for average annual weekday traffic. The average 24- hour traffic volume at a
given location on weekdays over a full year. It is computed by dividing the total weekday
traffic volume for the year by 260.

(c) ADT
It stands for average daily traffic, An average 24-hour traffic volume at a given location
for some period of time less than a year it may be measured for six months, a season, a
month, a week, or as little as two days. An ADT is a valid number only for the period
over which it was measured.

(d) AWT
It stands for average weekday traffic. An average 24-hour traffic volume occurring on
weekdays for some period of time less than one year, such as for a month or a season.
1.4 Level

Of Service

Although speed is a major concern of motorists using a freeway facility, it remains nearly
constant over a wide range of flows. Freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream and
proximity to other vehicles are equally important and are used, in preference over speed, in
describing the level of service. Besides, density increases throughout the range of flows up to
capacity, and therefore provides a better measure of effectiveness. The densities used to define
levels of service for basic freeway sections are as follows:

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Level of Service

DensityRange (pc/mi/ln)

A
B
C
D
E
F

1.

0-11
11-18
19-26
27-35
36-45
> 45

LOS A:- Free flow operation; free flow speeds prevail. Vehicles completely unimpeded
in their ability to maneuver within the traffic stream; average spacing of 528ft. The
effects of incidents are local and minimum.

2.

LOS B:- Reasonably free flow; generally free flow speed; ability to maneuver within the
traffic stream slightly restricted; average spacing 330ft. the effects of minor incidents and
point breakdowns are still easily absorbed.

3.

LOS C:- Provides flow with speeds still at or near free-flow speed; freedom to maneuver
within the traffic stream noticeably restricted ;average spacing 220ft .local deterioration
due to incidents is substantial and queues may be expected to form behind any significant
blockage minor incidents may still be absorbed.

4.

LOS D:- Speeds begin to decline slightly with increasing flow ; density begins to increase
somewhat quickly; Freedom to maneuver is more noticeably limited; average spacing
165ft. minor incidents can be expected to cause queuing.

5.

LOS E:- Describes operation at capacity at its highest density values; operations are
volatile and virtually no useable gaps exist in the traffic stream;; maneuverability within
the traffic stream is extremely limited ; average spacing 110ft at speeds still over 49 mph.
Any disruption of the traffic stream , such as vehicles entering from a ramp or a vehicle
changing lanes, can establish a disruption wave that propagates throughout the upstream
traffic flow.

6.

LOS F:- Describes breakdowns in vehicular flow at points of recurring congestion such
as merge , weave, or lane drop locations. It can also be caused by traffic incidents. In all
cases, breakdowns occur when the ratio of arrival flow rate to actual capacity exceeds
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1.0. LOS F operations within a queue are the result of a breakdown or bottleneck at a
downstream point. LOSF also describes conditions at the point of breakdown or
bottleneck and the queue discharge flow that occurs at speeds lesthan50mph.whenever
LOSF conditions exist there is a potential to extend upstream queues for significant
distances.
1.5 Basic

Conditions For Different Road Networks

S.No. Basic Conditions


1
Lane Width
2
Median
3
4
5
6
7
8

Freeway
12 ft minimum
Must

Lateral Clearance Min 6ft - left shoulder


Min 2ft - median
No. of Lanes
10 or more
Interchange
spacing
2 miles or greater
Direct Access
BFFS = 70mph for
Speed
urban
75mph for rural
Passing Zones
-

1.6 Highway

Multi-LaneHighway
12 ft
May or may not be

Two-LaneHighway
12 ft minimum
May or may not be

TLC
12
ft
maximum 6 ft on
each side
6 ft minimum
No

FFS >= 60mph


-

45 - 65mph
No

Capacity Manual

The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) is a publication of the Transportation Research Board of
the National Academics of Science in the United States. It contains concepts, guidelines, and
computational procedures for computing the capacity and quality of service of various highway
facilities, including freeways, highways, arterial roads, roundabouts, signalized and unsignalized
intersections, rural highways, and the effects of mass transit, pedestrians, and bicycles on the
performance of these systems.
There have been five editions with improved and updated procedures from 1950 to 2010, and
two major updates to the HCM 1985 edition, in 1994 and 1997. The HCM has been a worldwide
reference for transportation and traffic engineering scholars and practitioners, and also the base
of several country specific capacity manuals.
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
The intent under this heading is to understand the research that has already been carried out in
the field of Transportations Engineering related to Highway Capacity and Level of Service.
There are a number of sources which publish these research papers. These sources are
engineering magazines, e-journals from websites like Springer, MCTL, ASP, IRJES etc.
Following are a number of abstracts most related to the topic.
1. HamdyFaheem (et.al.), Analysis of Traffic Characteristics at Multi-lane Divided Highways,
Case Study from Cairo-Aswan Agriculture Highway, International Refereed Journal of
Engineering and Science (IRJES), ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821, Volume 3,
Issue 1 (January 2014), PP. 58-65.
Abstract:
This paper presents an analysis into traffic characteristics on rural multi-lane highways.
Empirical data from study sites on Cairo-Aswan agriculture four-lane divided highway were
used in this investigation. Four separate however relevant analyses are presented in this paper.
The first analysis investigates the impact of lane position (Median Lane (ML), Shoulder Lane
(SL)) on Average Travel Speed (ATS). The second analysis looks at the relationship between
ATS and different traffic characteristics. The third analysis examines the impact of lane position
on traffic stream relationships. The fourth and last analysis inspects the impact of lane position
and traffic level on headway characteristics. It was found that the lane position has a significant
impact on ATS. The best model that shows the relationship between ATS and traffic
characteristics include density, percentage of heavy vehicles and lane position variables. The
lane position also has a significant impact on traffic stream relationships. Finally lane position
and traffic level have a considerable impact on headway characteristics.
Inference:
In this study analysis has been carried out on the relationship between ATS and different traffic
characteristics. It has been found that effect of the lane position has a significant effect on ATS.
Finally the effect of lane position and traffic level on headway characteristics has been discussed.
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2. Kelley Klaver Pcheux (et.al.), User Perception of Level of Service at Signalized


Intersections:

Methodological Issues,

The Pennsylvania

State University,

USA,

Transportation Research Circular E-C018: 4th International Symposium on Highway


Capacity.
Abstract:
This paper addresses methodological issues faced in the development of a study to assess two
issues related to user perception of level of service (LOS) at signalized intersections: (1) the
appropriateness of the current Highway Capacity Manual levels of service for signalized
intersections in terms of users time-estimating capabilities and LOS perceptions; and (2) the
factors affecting users LOS perceptions at signalized intersections.

The paper presents a

conceptual model of perceived LOS and describes how this model was used to identify data
needs and to develop the experimental design and procedure. The purpose of this paper is not to
present and discuss results of the research, but to lay the groundwork for the results to come. By
doing this, the authors hope to instill confidence in the research methods so that the subsequent
results and recommendations will be credible. Further, the authors make methodological
recommendations for future driver-perception studies of level of service at signalized
intersections.
Inference:
The paper presents a conceptual model of perceived LOS and describes how this model was used
to identify data needs and to develop the experimental design and procedure. The purpose of this
paper is not to present and discuss results of the research, but to lay the groundwork for the
results to come. By doing this, the authors hope to instill confidence in the research methods so
that the subsequent results and recommendations will be credible. Further, the authors make
methodological recommendations for future driver-perception studies of level of service at
signalized intersections.
3. Dr. Satish Chandra, Capacity Estimation Procedure For Two-Lane Roads Under Mixed
Traffic Conditions, Special Publication.

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Abstract:
Data collected at more than 40 sections of two-lane roads in different parts of the country are
analyzed. The effect of influencing parameters like gradient, lane width, shoulder width, traffic
composition, directional split, slow moving vehicles and pavement surface conditions, on
capacity of two-lane roads under mixed traffic conditions is evaluated gradient, lane width,
shoulder width, traffic composition, directional split, slow moving vehicles and pavement
surface conditions, on capacity of two-lane roads under mixed traffic conditions is evaluated and
adjustment factors for each of these conditions are proposed. Based on these adjustment factors,
a systematic procedure to evaluate capacity of a two-lane road under mixed traffic conditions is
presented in this paper
Inference:
In this paper. The effect of influencing parameters like gradient, lane width, shoulder width,
traffic composition, slow moving vehicles and pavement surface conditions, on capacity of twolane roads under mixed traffic conditions is evaluated.
4. Hashim Mohammed Alhassan (et.al.), Extent of Highway Capacity Loss due to Rainfall,
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Civil,
Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6 No:12, 2012.
Abstract:
Traffic flow in adverse weather conditions have been investigated in this study for general
traffic, week day and week end traffic. The empirical evidence is strong in support of the view
that rainfall affects macroscopic traffic flow parameters. Data generated from a basic highway
section along J5 in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was synchronized with 161 rain events over a period
of three months. This revealed a 4.90%, 6.60% and 11.32% reduction in speed for light rain,
moderate rain and heavy rain conditions respectively. The corresponding capacity reductions in
the three rainfall regimes are 1.08% for light rain, 6.27% for moderate rain and 29.25% for heavy
rain. In the week day traffic, speed drops of 8.1% and 16.05% were observed for light and heavy
like conditions. The moderate rain condition speed increased by 12.6%. The capacity drops for
week day traffic are 4.40% for light rain, 9.77% for moderate rain and 45.90% for heavy rain.
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The weekend traffic indicated speed difference between the dry condition and the three rainy
conditions as 6.70% for light rain, 8.90% for moderate rain and 13.10% for heavy rain. The
capacity changes computed for the weekend traffic were 0.20% in light rain, 13.90% in moderate
rain and 16.70% in heavy rain. No traffic instabilities were observed throughout the observation
period and the capacities reported for each rain condition were below the no rain condition
capacity. Rainfall has tremendous impact on traffic flow and this may have implications for
shock wave propagation.
Inference:
In this study effect of adverse weather conditions have been investigated the evidence is strong
in support of the view that rainfall affects macroscopic traffic flow parameters.
5. Douglas S. McLeod, Multimodal Arterial Level of Service, Florida Department of
Transportation, USA
Abstract:
The concept of quality of service from a user perspective of a transportation facility or service is
a fundamental concept of the Highway Capacity Manual. In determining quality of service of an
arterial, six levels of service thresholds are defined in the based on average through vehicle
speed. In fact, the arterial level of service is not so much describing the quality of transportation
service provided by the facility, as much as the quality of service provided to through motorized
vehicles (i.e., automobile users). Although this quality of service concept does address the
primary mode of travel, it does not address the quality of service the arterial provides to other
major potential modes: transit, pedestrian and bicycle. Proposed levels of service for pedestrians
and bicyclists are essentially based on how crowded the respective modal facilities are. However,
recent research on pedestrian and bicycle quality of service indicate that the most important
factors are lateral separation of the mode from motorized vehicles, and motorized vehicle
volume, speed, and type. For scheduled fixed route bus users the most important factors for
quality of service along an arterial are frequency of transit vehicles (headways and hours of
service) and pedestrian access. This paper presents methods of determining the level of service to
scheduled fixed route bus users, pedestrians and bicyclists on arterials as well to through
vehicles. It is based on level of service research for the individual modes, with a more
comprehensive arterial approach based on research being conducted in Florida. It also presents
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Floridas proposed multimodal arterial quality of service approach at a planning level and how
future editions of the Highway Capacity Manual could be structured to take a more multimodal
analysis approach.
Inference
The arterial level of service is not so much describing the quality of transportation service
provided by the facility, as much as the quality of service provided to through motorized vehicles
(i.e., automobile users)
6

Joern Kroll, Assessing the Environmental Quality of Walking: Steps Towards a PersonCentered Level of Service, Transportation Research Board 2000, Highway Capacity
Manual. National Research Council, Washington, DC.

Abstract:
In this essay it has been briefly examined that current methodologies of assessing level of
service (LOS) their strengths and weaknesses, and suggest ways to arrive at a more satisfactory
service level. It has been analysed that pedestrian facilities has been outlined as an array of
alternative assessment methods, ranging from basic to complex.. I hope that by understanding
and going beyond existing LOS methodologies, the transportation community can assemble
building blocks for a methodology that more adequately assesses the service level for walking
and the level of service walking provides in return
Inference
In order to assess the rich spectrum of the walking experience, it has been introduced the
subjective or personal dimension of walking as a perspective that the main objective, so far, has
been marginalized by motor vehicle bias and limitation on easily quantifiable performance
dimensions.
7. Jake Kononov (et.al.), Level of Service of Safety Conceptual Blueprint and Analytical
Framework, Transportation Research record.
Abstract:

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Paper in the areas of conceptual development and the diagnostics of safety problems. The
concept of level of service of safety (LOSS) in the framework of safety performance function is
introduced, and the problem of diagnostics is addressed. LOSS reflects how the roadway
segment is performing in regard to its expected accident frequency and severity at a specific
level of annual average daily traffic. It provides a comparison of accident frequency and severity
only with the expected norms; it does not, however, provide any information related to the nature
of the safety problem itself. If the safety problem is present, LOSS will describe only its
magnitude. The nature of the problem is determined through diagnostic analysis by direct
diagnostics and pattern recognition techniques, which are also discussed.
Inference:
Transportation Research record, it is the Paper in the areas of conceptual development and the
diagnostics of safety problems. The concept of level of service of safety (LOSS) in the
framework of safety performance function is introduced, and the problem of diagnostics is
addressed. LOSS reflects how the roadway segment is performing in regard to its expected
accident frequency
8. Arpan Mehar (et.al.), Speed and Acceleration Characteristics of Different Types of Vehicles
on Multi-Lane Highways, European Transport / Trasporti Europei (2013) Issue 55, Paper no
1, ISSN 1825-3997.
Abstract:
This paper presents speed and acceleration characteristics of different types of vehicles on fourlane and six-lane divided highways under mixed traffic conditions. These characteristics are very
intrinsic to the particular vehicle category plying on a roadway. Mean speeds of standard cars
and big utility cars are compared using two tailed t-test and are found to be different on four-lane
highway with earthen shoulders and paved shoulders. Average mean speeds of standard car are
also compared on two classes of highway. F-test indicates that the mean speed of standard cars
on six-lane divided highway is significantly higher than that on four-lane highway. Acceleration
data were collected using GPS based V-Box device, and speed-acceleration profiles are
established for each type of vehicle. Average acceleration of a vehicle is related with speed
through an exponential relationship. Average acceleration rate of standard car on six-lane
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highway is found significantly different from that on four-lane divided highway. Acceleration of
heavy vehicle is examined in three different loading conditions and relations are established for
calculating average and maximum acceleration of a vehicle type at the given operational speed.
Inference:
Speed and acceleration data were collected on six sections of four-lane divided inter-urban
highways and two sections of six-lane divided highways in India. Average acceleration rate of
standard car on six-lane highway is found significantly different from that on four-lane divided
highway.
9. Giuseppe Guido (et.al.), Level of Safety on Two-Lane Undivided Rural Highways, 2012,
Applied Mechanics and Materials, 253-255, 1705, DOI - 10.4028/ www.scientific.net/
AMM.253-255.1705
Abstract:
Due to the great increase of congestion levels on transportation infrastructures researchers and
practitioners have focused on the study of safety performance on road network to identify unsafe
locations and assess the effectiveness of different count ermeaures introduced at a given site to
reduce unacceptable accident risk. Safety performance measures represent an useful tool for
evaluating road safety conditions on the basis of objective parameters deducible from the vehicle
kinematics. The focus of the present paper is on the assessment of the safety level on two-lane
rural highway with a particular attention on rear-end interactions among different pairs of
vehicles belonging to the traffic stream. The roadway safety performance study is based on the
traffic conflict technique applied to vehicle maneuvers obtained experimentally from a frame by
frame analysis of video-taped traffic data. The authors also explored qualitatively the possible
relationship between safety level and traffic level of service. This aspect is very important
because this kind of roads represents a large part of non-urban highways in many countries
Inference:
Due to the great increase of congestion levels on transportation infrastructures researchers and
practitioners have focused on the study of safety performance on road network to identify unsafe
locations and assess the effectiveness of different counter meaures introduced at a given site to
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reduce unacceptable accident risk The roadway safety performance study is based on the traffic
conflict technique applied to vehicle maneuvers obtained experimentally from a frame by frame
analysis of video-taped traffic data.

2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF GAP AND NEED FOR STUDY


Based on the literature review it is observed that most studies have been carried out on highways
and not on city roads. Especially in Chandigarh and surrounding areas not much work is done.

Page 20 of 74

CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
We have read and understood the various studies that have been carried out (mentioned in the
literature review, section 2). Also we have highlighted the gaps in the same, and this has left a
few questions unanswered. Hence, these questions have become the basis to define our problem
and lead us to deduce our objectives.
The traffic operational conditions within a traffic stream. Also it is to be studied the
characteristics and capacity for
3.2

Objectives

To carry out speed studies at specified location for roads sections

To ascertain the variations in speed w.r.t. time.

To determine density and traffic volume at specified locations.

To establish speed volume density interrelationship.

To find level of service and highway capacity at specified locations.

To study variation in level of service and capacity w.r.t. time.

3.3 Methodology
The above mentioned studies shall be made by conducting survey at Tribune Chowk(entry
point)to Hallomajra Chowk(exit point).
3.3.1 Selection

of Survey Points

For each site location we will have survey teams at points identified as entry point and exit
point.Also two teams will be located at specified distance beyond and before entry and exit
points resp. For any particular site the surveys will be carried out at all the four locations
simultaneously.

Page 21 of 74

3.3.2 Frequency

and Duration of Survey

The period in which these are conducted should be so selected as to trap representative
characteristics of the traffic .
a) Morning5.00a.m to 10:30a.m
b) Evening 5.00p.m.to 10.30p.m
3.3.3 Requirements

of Survey Teams

The survey teams must be equipped with recording devices, stop watch and markers to create
marks on the road, a specified distance apart. The time recorded for vehicles to cross that
specified distance will help in calculating the space mean speed of the vehicles.
3.3.4 Analysis
This part deals with processing and presenting the data collected from the surveys.
3.3.4.1 Analysis

of Traffic Count

Hourly volumes of traffic passing through various survey points are obtained by tabulating the
traffic volume counts in the forms(as per IS 102:1988) as shown below.
Form 1 Origin and Destination Survey - Hourly Summary Sheet of Traffic Count
Date:
Name of City:
Survey Station:
Direction of Travel:
Fast Moving Vehicles
Slow Moving Vehicles
Moto
Other
Cycles
Cars,
Cycles
Slow
and
Trucks,
Jeeps,
Animal
Period
and
Moving
Scooters Total
Truck- Buses
Vans,
Drawn
Total
CycleVehicles
Trailers
ThreeVehicles
rickshaws
(please
wheelers
specify)
1
7.00am to 8.00am
8.00am to 9.00am
9.00am to
10.00am

Page 22 of 74

10

Grand
Total
(6 +
10)

11

Form 2 Origin and Destination Survey - Traffic Counts


Name of the

Sheet

Date:

Town:

No.:

Survey Station:

Name of the Enumerator:

Hours:

Direction of
Location (km):

Travel:

From:

To:

Cars,
Time
Interval

Trucks,
Truck-

Buses

Trailers

Other Slow

Jeeps,

Motor

Cycles and

Animal

Moving

Vans,

Cycles and

Cycle-

Drawn

Vehicles

Three-

Scooters

rickshaws

Vehicles

(please

wheelers

specify)

Form 3 Origin and Destination Survey - Route Wise Analysis of Through Traffic
Date:

Route No:

Route Course:

Name of Town:
Number of vehicles
Cars,
Period (between

Trucks,

hours)

trucktrailers

Buses

Jeeps,

Motor

Vans,

cycles and

Three-

scoters

Total

wheelers
7.00am - 9.30am
1.00pm - 3.30pm
5.00pm to 6.30pm

Page 23 of 74

3.3.4.2 Speed-Flow

Characteristics

From the data collected, speed-flow characteristics of the existing facility will be ascertained.
This will help in defining the level of service.
Form 4 Analysis of Observed and Estimated* Travel Speeds and Delays
Name of Town:

Date:
Average
Average

Route

Length

Section

(kms)

Hourly
Traffic
Volume
(veh/hr)

Average Average Average


Travel

Travel

Free

Time

Speed

Speed

(mins)

(kmph)

(kmph)

Travel
Time
with
Free
Speed
(mins)

*From Speed-Volume Relationship


Vest = Vt KQ
where:

v = estimated speed, kmph


Vt = average free speed,
kmph
K = a coefficient
Q = average hourly traffic volume in vehicles per
hour

Page 24 of 74

Average Delay
(mins)

CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
4.1 Introduction
The experimental program was designed to study the traffic fromTribune Chowk to Hallomajra
Chowk, Chandigarh in both directions. This study was conducted for a time span of one week,
from 19th June 2015 to 25th June 2015 from 6 am to 8pm. For the purpose of this study we had a
team consisting of 10 people, 5 each in either direction i.e. two teams with 5 people in each of
them were on both sides of the road stretch.
Out of the five people in each team three were responsible for counting the traffic (traffic
included cars, two-wheelers, LCVs, HCVs etc.). These threewere positioned near the traffic
lights on either side of the road:

for Tribune Chowk, just ahead of the rotary in the ChandigarhDelhi direction

for Hallomajra Chowk, just ahead of the traffic lights, in the direction towards
Chandigarh.

They were responsible for counting and recording the number of vehicles crossing the location
under consideration.
The rest (two)team members were positioned in approximately the mid of the stretch. They were
responsible for the measurement of the speed of the speed of the vehicles. Two lines spaced at a
distance 20 m apart were marked on the road (near the middle of the stretch). Using a stop-watch
one of the team members observed the time taken by the various vehicles to pass the 20 m
distance depicted by the marked lines, while the other team member recorded these readings in
his log book. This activity was carried out in both the directions or on both sides of the road.
The details of the experimentation are described in the below heads.

4.2Traffic

Count

The first phase of the experimentation or the traffic survey included counting the traffic. We
fixed the locations at the entry points for traffic on both sides of the road stretch under
consideration. Two teams each consisiting of 3 members were deployed at the locations.
Selection of the observation points was crucial as this road being a perifpheral road and only way
of commute for Chandigarh Delhi movement, it carries a very high traffic volume. In this
Page 25 of 74

regard the observation point for the traffic count was chosen near the traffic lights. This aided in
ease of counting of the traffic as the traffic light turned green, the traffic of one side entered
through the point of observation, this traffic was accelerating, i.e. the speed of traffic at the point
of observation was low, hence aiding in the ease of traffic count. The traffic count was done
manually and the observations were recorded in a log book. Duties were assigned to each
member of the team. One was responsible for recording the readings in the notebook while the
other two counted the traffic and got their observations recorded. The two members counting the
traffic divided the traffic count in 2 parts for their ease and for more accuracy in counting. One
counted all the two- wheelers, cycles/cycle-rikshaws and three-wheelers. The responsibility of
counting the cars/jeeps/SUVs, buses, trucks, tractor-trolleys was assigned to the other member.

Fig.- 4.1 Tribune Chowk, Chandigarh

Fig.- 4.2 Traffic Study at Tribune Chowk


Page 26 of 74

Fig.- 4.3 Traffic Moving towards Hallomajra Chowk


The observations were recorded in a tabular form on hourly basis as shown in the tables below.
Table 4.1 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (19th June 2015)

Time
6-7
7-8
8-9
9-10
10-11
11-12
12-13
13-14
14-15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20
Total No.
of
Vehicles

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

28
16
10
12
18
21
71
25
29
17
20
30
11

33
51
65
58
28
44
40
96
65
46
58
62
67
42

2
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
3

5
1
2
1
2
4
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
4

Traffic Count
Car/
Three
LCV
Jeep/
Wheeler
SUV
17
324
116
31
645
127
45
1145
224
47
1284
329
41
645
132
54
587
87
56
330
128
70
457
189
51
274
144
42
231
93
36
347
102
40
859
285
51
793
193
19
523
215

308

755

18

38

600

Multi
axle

8444

2364

Two Wheeler
(Scooter/
Motor Bike)
195
289
534
821
346
273
267
325
186
123
214
423
325
297

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw
87
96
82
74
38
20
17
25
21
19
23
27
25
12

4618

566

Page 27 of 74

Table 4.2 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (19th June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

20

63

14

312

45

118

42

7-8

18

75

54

478

63

196

15

8-9

13

58

34

634

178

216

25

9-10

22

56

43

956

214

365

37

10-11

19

44

27

321

164

294

22

11-12

42

64

92

435

176

395

45

12-13

46

68

73

417

160

496

20

13-14

55

46

12

52

568

121

555

25

14-15

62

38

33

295

128

110

19

15-16

24

40

45

301

102

241

21

16-17

17

37

60

631

133

425

35

17-18

20

50

85

134

324

728

95

18-19

35

46

54

1098

192

521

87

19-20

76

26

16

31

827

224

347

25

Total No.
of
Vehicles

469

711

34

63

697

8620

2224

5007

513

Time

Page 28 of 74

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Table 4.3 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (20th June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

32

35

35

258

72

156

84

7-8

15

60

31

267

105

195

124

8-9

19

53

39

365

123

231

93

9-10

14

56

41

412

134

265

51

10-11

16

31

48

226

81

182

37

11-12

28

39

51

195

54

132

22

12-13

20

45

48

172

67

154

18

13-14

64

87

63

165

96

123

16

14-15

21

54

45

254

103

188

21

15-16

25

42

31

271

45

196

19

16-17

19

55

38

556

78

321

23

17-18

22

51

45

725

197

563

41

18-19

31

58

52

894

156

594

46

19-20

19

32

21

632

108

332

19

Total No.
of
Vehicles

345

698

19

52

588

5392

1419

3632

614

Time

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Page 29 of 74

Table 4.4 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (20th June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

12

75

17

276

45

78

42

7-8

24

60

54

396

56

120

15

8-9

17

51

31

324

74

156

26

9-10

13

45

44

347

81

214

42

10-11

21

42

37

210

47

167

33

11-12

45

56

48

225

34

181

19

12-13

48

61

39

196

39

172

20

13-14

51

42

28

214

27

145

11

14-15

65

35

33

265

29

166

15

15-16

31

41

36

332

25

213

21

16-17

22

51

41

472

40

326

27

17-18

24

65

47

568

67

403

52

18-19

37

49

43

642

55

512

66

19-20

59

22

51

413

61

343

45

Total No.
of
Vehicles

469

695

25

27

549

4880

680

3196

434

Time

Page 30 of 74

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Table 4.5 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (21st June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

25

29

27

139

16

34

7-8

18

46

22

198

16

57

56

8-9

12

59

25

235

26

96

41

9-10

55

36

324

33

156

35

10-11

17

31

44

178

41

172

31

11-12

31

40

46

156

35

123

18

12-13

22

43

33

144

21

129

15

13-14

65

85

35

161

16

143

17

14-15

27

53

38

185

18

152

12

15-16

25

41

47

210

22

168

14

16-17

16

55

31

321

34

211

21

17-18

22

65

42

423

42

234

33

18-19

34

62

45

378

45

257

27

19-20

14

39

26

281

28

232

10

Total No.
of
Vehicles

337

703

23

40

497

3333

386

2146

364

Time

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Page 31 of 74

Table 4.6 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (21st June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

16

59

15

142

11

21

10

7-8

21

71

21

156

45

118

23

8-9

12

62

29

312

86

231

44

9-10

55

41

276

82

265

51

10-11

17

46

48

164

41

182

37

11-12

39

61

51

135

32

131

22

12-13

48

67

35

127

35

154

21

13-14

51

48

32

139

29

123

16

14-15

65

35

41

167

37

188

23

15-16

25

42

44

178

42

196

19

16-17

19

35

38

213

61

321

21

17-18

16

51

45

298

65

563

41

18-19

33

44

52

237

72

594

46

19-20

16

22

11

58

324

68

332

19

Total No.
of
Vehicles

386

698

23

53

550

2868

706

3419

391

Time

Page 32 of 74

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Table 4.7 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (22nd June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

31

35

22

293

167

48

93

7-8

22

55

35

578

246

213

112

8-9

13

64

47

1274

642

992

95

9-10

10

61

51

1096

845

845

58

10-11

19

31

39

791

293

346

12

11-12

29

42

52

325

215

215

15

12-13

22

43

61

205

214

112

25

13-14

65

71

67

396

364

193

17

14-15

31

58

48

259

196

234

26

15-16

27

39

34

212

146

122

14

16-17

15

52

31

325

235

217

21

17-18

21

56

45

535

327

258

31

18-19

33

61

56

487

236

236

29

19-20

16

49

19

237

139

139

16

Total No.
of
Vehicles

354

717

24

50

607

7113

4265

4170

586

Time

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Page 33 of 74

Table 4.8 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (22nd June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

23

56

39

326

52

124

51

7-8

19

68

21

425

97

185

24

8-9

15

53

28

842

186

315

29

9-10

18

51

53

659

235

517

31

10-11

21

45

32

249

149

196

18

11-12

38

62

39

421

137

258

41

12-13

44

61

21

457

191

395

23

13-14

56

52

29

512

124

423

19

14-15

59

34

25

326

131

190

22

15-16

28

48

32

246

102

218

16

16-17

19

35

41

768

141

515

37

17-18

24

67

85

1525

345

824

69

18-19

31

62

71

892

182

645

58

19-20

66

37

14

34

652

219

463

17

Total No.
of
Vehicles

461

731

27

47

550

8300

2291

5268

455

Time

Page 34 of 74

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Table 4.9 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (23rd June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

31

35

21

293

33

54

64

7-8

18

46

38

612

87

226

89

8-9

11

61

52

854

192

548

78

9-10

14

56

59

1014

254

731

57

10-11

19

29

45

683

223

351

41

11-12

29

41

52

495

124

248

25

12-13

22

43

61

294

173

126

23

13-14

65

81

67

423

195

224

31

14-15

31

62

48

256

151

197

28

15-16

27

44

45

198

116

128

24

16-17

15

51

33

344

112

241

19

17-18

20

59

42

721

243

261

25

18-19

29

65

54

624

146

448

32

19-20

16

39

22

495

198

283

18

Total No.
of
Vehicles

347

712

24

41

639

7324

2247

4066

554

Time

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Page 35 of 74

Table 4.10 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (23rd June 2015)
Traffic Count
Time

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

6-7

23

65

35

283

42

124

51

7-8

17

71

19

425

71

187

25

26

674

186

195

31

43

867

231

288

42

21

294

175

186

23

47

412

182

175

38

8-9

15

60

9-10

12

55

10-11

21

47

11-12

38

59

12-13

46

73

24

376

149

158

15

13-14

51

45

29

532

133

152

22

14-15

68

39

23

278

145

197

17

15-16

29

42

25

316

95

259

24

16-17

24

46

39

462

109

326

39

17-18

22

57

71

876

245

378

86

18-19

37

51

62

754

266

659

64

19-20

72

20

29

652

157

412

28

Total No.
of
Vehicles

475

730

18

16

493

7609

2186

3696

505

Page 36 of 74

Table 4.11 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (24th June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

29

27

71

276

32

37

65

7-8

19

55

92

614

97

169

69

8-9

14

64

57

825

185

495

76

9-10

10

61

62

1078

271

721

55

10-11

15

31

41

652

214

365

37

11-12

28

42

35

324

132

226

125

12-13

26

43

23

216

164

134

19

13-14

65

78

29

397

191

196

28

14-15

31

62

18

246

156

213

25

15-16

27

43

21

187

125

161

17

16-17

15

52

24

316

106

247

21

17-18

23

56

29

657

132

353

34

18-19

31

`61

20

485

231

312

37

19-20

13

35

17

341

152

189

18

Total No.
of
Vehicles

346

710

28

39

539

6614

2188

3815

546

Time

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Page 37 of 74

Table 4.12 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (24th June 2015)
Traffic Count
Time

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

6-7

25

61

22

196

34

124

45

7-8

21

77

46

289

68

138

23

62

39

425

161

186

32

40

537

194

297

38

8-9

16

9-10

13

55

10-11

21

43

35

221

122

256

19

11-12

44

62

74

358

143

275

37

12-13

49

65

62

372

152

231

13

13-14

57

41

41

`421

137

327

21

14-15

59

43

29

289

145

191

17

15-16

19

44

42

276

97

235

22

16-17

17

31

58

452

127

386

38

17-18

26

57

71

894

321

652

76

18-19

41

42

69

668

176

758

65

19-20

67

23

40

521

245

317

23

Total No.
of
Vehicles

425

714

25

43

668

6308

2122

4373

469

Page 38 of 74

Table 4.13 Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (25th June 2015)
Traffic Count
Time

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

21

245

92

162

84

35

489

131

246

91

66

49

912

193

614

67

51

1178

294

712

61

48

692

145

344

45

50

425

112

251

27

Truck

Bus

6-7

26

31

7-8

21

54

8-9

13

Tractor
Trolley

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

9-10

16

63

10-11

21

32

11-12

37

41

12-13

25

45

59

289

136

216

21

13-14

68

98

67

396

203

294

29

14-15

22

71

43

244

166

192

20

15-16

27

42

37

211

121

121

22

16-17

15

61

31

332

125

233

26

17-18

21

64

45

576

174

375

31

18-19

32

59

49

612

151

342

37

19-20

16

52

24

497

225

274

19

Total No.
of
Vehicles

360

779

31

49

609

7098

2268

4376

580

Page 39 of 74

Table 4.14 Traffic Count of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (25th June 2015)
Traffic Count

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle

LCV

Car/
Jeep/
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)

6-7

15

59

21

246

52

127

38

7-8

21

71

38

346

95

194

21

62

41

516

186

245

27

53

827

235

412

31

32

342

176

298

21

Time

8-9

14

9-10

10

58

10-11

21

41

11-12

40

67

57

397

145

241

47

12-13

48

59

78

354

168

276

18

13-14

61

41

45

495

127

374

16

14-15

67

33

29

269

143

190

19

15-16

19

39

41

223

114

241

23

16-17

21

35

57

689

142

515

46

17-18

27

62

78

1216

345

984

67

18-19

31

48

71

987

214

721

58

19-20

69

27

10

34

576

195

463

26

Total No.
of
Vehicles

464

702

34

52

675

7483

2337

5281

458

Page 40 of 74

Cycles/
Cycle
Rikshaw

4.3 Speed Observation


The second phase of the experimentation was to study the speed of the various vehicles
following the road stretch under consideration. This activity was simultaneous to the phase one
of the experimentation. As explained before a separate team consisting of 2 members was
constituted for this. Two such teams were formed for traffic speed observation or speed study
and each was present on either side of the road. Two lines 20 m apart were marked on the road
using chalk and stop watch was used to measure the time taken by the vehicles to cross that 20 m
distance. The teams positioned themselves at a location near the mid of each stretch where the
speed of the vehicles was maximum. One team member made the observations using the stop
watch and conveyed his readings to the other team mate who in-turn recorded them in the log
book.

Fig.- 4.4 Road Marking being carried out for Speed Study

Page 41 of 74

Fig.- 4.5 Marking for Speed Study

Fig.- 4.6 Recording the Observations in the Log Book


The observations were recorded in a tabular form on hourly basis as shown in the tables below.

Page 42 of 74

Table 4.15 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (19th June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

38.00

52.00

25.00

28.00

59.00

67.00

38.00

60.00

8.00

7 to 8

32.00

45.00

22.00

25.00

55.00

62.00

35.00

58.00

7.64

8 to 9

19.40

21.00

12.10

16.20

24.00

28.23

16.70

30.45

9.45

9 to 10

21.66

22.30

12.00

16.50

26.20

30.40

17.00

29.66

8.22

10 to 11

27.32

40.90

21.00

23.00

45.44

56.44

32.77

55.00

8.12

11 to 12

35.40

50.00

22.55

26.90

55.88

63.40

34.88

54.90

10.00

12 to 13

36.42

51.67

22.50

26.77

54.88

68.00

34.77

57.92

9.33

13 to 14

31.72

44.77

21.00

23.65

52.40

59.36

32.88

55.82

7.77

14 to 15

44.00

55.88

22.32

25.42

52.63

62.11

31.43

58.34

8.38

15 to 16

41.39

53.66

22.00

27.35

57.32

64.37

35.46

64.67

9.54

16 to 17

39.54

42.00

21.71

24.98

56.77

65.12

37.91

61.22

7.68

17 to 18

26.50

29.56

18.33

22.97

46.00

58.72

31.92

49.36

8.21

18 to 19

24.18

32.00

19.00

18.75

39.91

55.39

30.00

46.57

7.54

19 to 20

35.00

43.21

23.67

22.97

51.12

59.00

32.21

56.31

7.20

Time

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Page 43 of 74

Table 4.16 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (19th June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

38.00

52.00

25.00

28.00

59.00

67.00

38.00

60.00

7.81

7 to 8

32.00

45.00

22.00

25.00

55.00

62.00

35.00

58.00

8.56

8 to 9

38.34

40.41

24.29

23.74

34.81

55.44

26.71

60.45

6.42

9 to 10

35.00

38.42

22.93

22.99

25.71

41.40

18.66

42.00

5.77

10 to 11

42.16

46.45

29.09

38.32

40.99

59.00

29.88

61.14

6.17

11 to 12

27.99

44.33

26.75

25.00

38.00

59.00

29.99

61.89

7.61

12 to 13

25.00

46.00

27.00

28.91

37.56

58.22

25.62

64.00

5.60

13 to 14

38.83

40.12

25.00

27.21

32.11

53.00

26.31

59.09

6.09

14 to 15

45.55

53.00

24.71

26.00

56.77

60.21

33.22

65.00

7.24

15 to 16

37.99

50.00

24.11

28.66

59.00

64.00

42.55

66.00

4.76

16 to 17

37.66

41.00

24.00

22.33

32.33

58.00

24.66

57.13

5.41

17 to 18

25.31

29.11

21.11

21.18

25.00

34.23

17.00

35.60

5.13

18 to 19

29.91

31.23

20.00

19.16

24.26

32.22

17.50

32.44

6.89

19 to 20

37.66

39.00

23.11

22.15

35.78

52.00

23.66

54.00

5.21

Time

Page 44 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.17 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (20th June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

40.45

50.62

23.14

29.87

60.00

71.71

38.22

65.00

8.90

7 to 8

32.00

45.00

22.00

25.00

55.00

62.00

35.00

58.00

5.76

8 to 9

21.00

21.00

12.10

16.20

24.00

28.23

16.70

30.45

6.77

9 to 10

20.00

22.50

12.30

16.50

25.00

29.00

16.89

31.00

5.92

10 to 11

28.00

42.50

21.00

22.25

53.00

61.00

31.15

51.50

4.56

11 to 12

31.50

45.89

22.56

25.49

54.55

60.00

33.00

57.45

5.79

12 to 13

40.00

47.50

22.00

27.67

57.00

70.00

37.50

64.00

6.81

13 to 14

31.50

44.00

21.45

24.00

54.50

61.00

34.30

57.00

7.62

14 to 15

39.00

48.00

22.60

28.30

58.80

72.00

37.00

64.78

5.32

15 to 16

40.00

51.00

24.00

31.20

61.50

72.00

39.00

66.50

4.18

16 to 17

31.76

42.00

23.00

24.75

54.00

61.50

37.00

59.00

6.19

17 to 18

25.33

41.00

20.00

21.50

51.44

58.75

29.35

50,78

5.00

18 to 19

27.99

34.89

17.80

18.70

49.76

50.67

27.83

39.77

7.24

19 to 20

34.37

48.15

20.05

23.45

54.60

61.50

34.67

57..50

4.00

Time

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Page 45 of 74

Table 4.18 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (20st June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

40.45

50.62

23.14

29.87

60.00

71.71

38.22

65.00

8.71

7 to 8

32.00

45.00

22.00

25.00

55.00

62.00

35.00

58.00

6.54

8 to 9

42.40

50.12

12.10

21.18

24.00

55.33

25.71

60.46

7.11

9 to 10

45.12

54.13

12.30

20.25

25.00

50.22

17.17

56.56

5.76

10 to 11

28.00

42.50

21.00

22.25

53.00

61.00

31.15

51.50

6.78

11 to 12

31.50

45.89

22.56

25.49

54.55

60.00

33.00

57.45

6.42

12 to 13

40.00

47.50

22.00

27.67

57.00

70.00

37.50

64.00

5.00

13 to 14

24.11

45.22

26.00

25.00

34.56

55.00

29.09

60.00

7.89

14 to 15

42.00

48.71

23.22

29.00

58.33

62.55

39.11

67.99

5.00

15 to 16

34.34

44.55

23.22

28.66

53.22

60.00

40.00

63.61

6.11

16 to 17

33.42

39.77

21.00

22.00

32.00

54.21

21.09

52.13

5.12

17 to 18

24.20

30.20

22.33

21.18

22.18

35.60

19.00

35.32

7.65

18 to 19

32.23

30.00

21.00

22.17

23.23

30.00

19.50

35.66

6.91

19 to 20

38.00

44.00

25.70

25.00

34.00

51.00

22.00

59.00

6.19

Time

Page 46 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.19 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (21st June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

42.77

50.00

23.14

31.00

56.55

65.15

36.40

58.92

7.34

7 to 8

35.19

45.00

22.00

26.12

55.00

62.00

35.00

57.00

6.32

8 to 9

25.00

22.89

14.34

15.21

22.23

29.81

15.71

32.17

5.19

9 to 10

25.75

21.18

13.79

17.88

24.21

30.40

17.00

30.15

6.00

10 to 11

26.41

40.90

21.00

23.00

48.00

57.00

35.00

49.89

4.13

11 to 12

45.54

46.12

20.11

30.88

53.90

64.11

30.20

52.87

5.21

12 to 13

45.62

47.63

20.13

29.11

55.00

62.00

37.00

53.00

7.23

13 to 14

38.00

44.43

20.00

24.11

56.89

60.00

34.00

53.22

5.55

14 to 15

40.00

56.23

23.78

33.00

55.00

61.10

32.89

56.77

4.23

15 to 16

46.18

55.00

21.00

29.12

58.15

67.00

37.83

62.13

6.71

16 to 17

41.00

39.33

20.00

22.17

57.18

63.00

37.93

58.14

7.91

17 to 18

31.12

35.17

17.91

20.00

48.14

55.16

32.10

50.00

8.88

18 to 19

26.15

32.00

19.55

18.75

37.18

55.39

30.00

44.33

5.42

19 to 20

31.50

49.16

20.05

23.45

54.60

57.83

34.67

59.00

5.00

Time

Page 47 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.20 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (21st June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

44.00

52.11

24.14

28.00

54.21

62.00

33.45

63.00

7.71

7 to 8

35.65

48.00

29.00

23.21

59.00

60.00

34.00

60.00

8.90

8 to 9

37.00

39.43

25.00

21.20

39.99

61.89

25.00

65.00

6.06

9 to 10

40.00

45.24

23.75

20.19

24.00

45.00

20.66

48.00

7.62

10 to 11

43.32

47.45

29.00

38.32

40.00

59.00

29.00

60.00

6.90

11 to 12

28.34

45.00

27.00

28.90

40.41

59.00

30.00

60.00

7.21

12 to 13

25.00

46.00

27.00

28.00

39.91

60.30

25.00

65.99

6.11

13 to 14

45.41

48.55

23.00

25.00

38.09

59.87

27.00

60.00

5.82

14 to 15

44.41

50.00

25.77

22.00

54.23

54.00

30.77

60.90

7.23

15 to 16

40.00

53.00

30.00

19.20

57.00

60.65

45.00

62.00

5.18

16 to 17

42.44

48.77

20.00

21.00

36.88

55.67

20.99

61.33

6.92

17 to 18

21.00

30.00

22.43

24.50

26.77

32.78

16.00

32.00

7.00

18 to 19

26.33

30.99

23.24

25.00

22.18

34.44

18.90

36.00

6.99

19 to 20

36.00

35.00

22.00

20.00

32.86

49.90

22.00

55.09

6.00

Time

Page 48 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.21Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (22nd June 2015)

Time

Two
Multi
Car /
Wheeler Cycle /
Tractor
Three
Truck
Bus
axle
LCV
Jeep /
(Scooter
Cycle
Trolley
Wheeler
Vehicles
SUV
/ Motor Rikshaw
Bike)
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
(Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr)

6 to 7

44.10

55.00

19.77

29.00

54.19

62.00

35.90

58.92

8.00

7 to 8

39.81

40.65

22.00

26.12

52.00

62.00

35.00

59.13

6.77

8 to 9

19.40

21.00

15.98

16.20

24.00

29.81

16.70

32.17

5.70

9 to 10

28.00

22.99

13.79

17.88

24.21

32.00

17.00

34.00

6.00

10 to 11

32.76

40.90

21.00

23.00

45.00

52.66

38.13

44.18

5.11

11 to 12

49.99

41.00

20.11

30.88

49.99

60.09

32.04

55.91

4.09

12 to 13

45.62

45.66

20.13

28.00

55.00

55.14

37.00

60.00

6.55

13 to 14

39.00

47.00

23.00

23.89

53.22

56.19

34.00

58.18

5.00

14 to 15

44.12

56.23

23.78

33.00

58.00

55.00

37.19

61.14

4.70

15 to 16

42.00

51.00

22.85

29.12

58.15

63.25

37.83

59.99

6.19

16 to 17

48.64

39.33

20.00

22.00

50.00

63.00

34.00

55.00

5.99

17 to 18

30.13

30.00

17.91

21.00

48.14

50.78

32.10

55.00

6.12

18 to 19

26.15

32.00

19.55

18.75

37.18

55.39

30.00

44.33

7.17

19 to 20

31.50

45.53

20.05

23.45

55.00

59.00

34.67

62.00

7.93

Page 49 of 74

Table 4.22 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (22nd June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

48.00

55.64

22.14

23.91

58.00

65.88

36.00

67.00

9.16

7 to 8

38.00

49.90

24.55

29.00

50.41

59.87

32.31

60.61

6.51

8 to 9

39.19

50.77

15.10

23.33

23.00

55.13

24.16

60.35

7.19

9 to 10

40.00

42.41

12.30

16.50

25.00

45.66

19.33

50.90

6.71

10 to 11

39.00

50.65

23.00

24.45

51.00

62.00

29.00

61.50

5.12

11 to 12

31.50

45.89

22.56

25.49

54.55

60.00

33.00

54.00

7.81

12 to 13

37.00

45.00

22.00

25.00

57.00

60.00

39.00

58.44

6.44

13 to 14

25.33

50.12

29.90

23.21

37.00

52.00

27.71

56.67

5.22

14 to 15

47.00

46.00

21.00

28.33

55.19

58.44

37.12

62.14

7.13

15 to 16

37.11

49.00

28.00

21.34

58.90

54.91

44.16

68.73

6.11

16 to 17

40.00

45.00

24.00

19.10

35.77

48.08

24.00

47.11

5.44

17 to 18

28.20

29.00

19.33

20.00

23.00

33.00

20.10

34.11

6.54

18 to 19

32.00

30.00

21.00

22.17

23.23

30.00

19.50

35.00

6.23

19 to 20

36.00

42.00

22.74

21.72

34.00

50.32

23.00

56.67

5.29

Time

Page 50 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.23 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (23rd June 2015)

Time

Two
Multi
Car /
Wheeler Cycle /
Tractor
Three
Truck
Bus
axle
LCV
Jeep /
(Scooter
Cycle
Trolley
Wheeler
Vehicles
SUV
/ Motor Rikshaw
Bike)
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
(Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr)

6 to 7

48.76

43.92

23.14

29.98

56.55

57.14

36.40

55.78

9.32

7 to 8

35.19

45.00

22.00

26.12

55.00

62.00

35.00

57.00

8.75

8 to 9

21.00

29.88

15.98

16.20

24.00

25.66

18.38

35.99

5.00

9 to 10

26.88

24.00

17.00

19.66

30.00

30.40

19.18

31.00

7.77

10 to 11

24.11

39.00

23.76

27.19

52.30

51.00

31.10

53.00

6.92

11 to 12

42.00

44.78

22.00

30.88

56.00

54.13

30.20

52.78

6.13

12 to 13

49.17

44.00

20.13

27.00

52.09

56.00

37.00

59.00

5.16

13 to 14

39.00

47.00

23.00

23.89

53.22

56.19

34.00

58.18

4.93

14 to 15

44.12

57.00

23.78

27.99

58.00

52.18

37.19

57.87

7.00

15 to 16

45.00

49.99

22.85

29.12

58.15

63.25

37.83

64.00

5.13

16 to 17

48.64

39.33

20.00

22.00

50.00

63.00

34.00

55.00

7.05

17 to 18

35.00

30.00

17.91

26.45

48.14

49.87

32.10

50.55

5.03

18 to 19

24.36

29.81

20.21

19.76

37.18

55.00

30.00

44.33

6.67

19 to 20

32.00

42.22

20.05

21.48

55.00

58.00

34.67

60.00

5.42

Page 51 of 74

Table 4.24 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (23rd June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

50.10

52.00

25.00

28.10

55.11

62.00

35.44

58.43

12.00

7 to 8

35.00

47.77

29.00

22.00

51.00

58.91

35.00

63.00

8.00

8 to 9

39.91

45.00

25.00

21.20

39.99

60.71

25.00

63.32

5.54

9 to 10

45.00

40.24

23.75

20.19

24.00

45.00

20.66

48.00

6.62

10 to 11

50.32

46.77

26.00

37.00

40.00

61.11

24.90

59.00

7.54

11 to 12

46.00

38.09

24.33

27.09

38.40

55.00

28.13

57.10

8.21

12 to 13

35.00

42.00

25.00

23.22

37.00

56.56

30.15

63.49

8.66

13 to 14

48.56

44.31

19.78

28.00

40.00

54.00

29.99

54.43

5.58

14 to 15

51.00

43.31

21.71

25.60

49.96

57.00

32.00

59.90

9.22

15 to 16

47.18

55.00

28.23

21.25

55.00

54.00

40.00

60.00

8.84

16 to 17

43.19

47.11

21.22

21.00

38.71

50.00

22.00

52.56

6.66

17 to 18

30.00

22.76

21.00

23.33

25.70

30.00

19.00

32.00

6.00

18 to 19

24.00

30.99

25.00

23.23

22.18

35.00

21.89

35.35

6.34

19 to 20

35.00

36.00

22.00

20.00

32.86

50.91

24.55

55.09

6.41

Time

Page 52 of 74

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Table 4.25 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (24th June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

42.00

50.18

23.14

31.00

53.00

60.90

36.40

62.00

7.45

7 to 8

35.19

46.70

24.18

26.00

58.91

62.00

35.00

59.19

8.09

8 to 9

26.00

22.77

15.98

16.20

24.00

29.81

16.70

32.17

6.51

9 to 10

30.16

28.93

13.00

17.88

24.00

32.99

17.00

35.00

5.22

10 to 11

26.41

40.90

21.00

23.00

48.00

57.00

35.00

49.89

6.43

11 to 12

47.00

46.12

25.66

31.18

55.24

64.11

30.20

59.12

5.19

12 to 13

45.62

47.63

20.13

29.11

55.00

62.00

37.00

53.00

6.86

13 to 14

42.00

43.00

23.00

25.00

56.82

49.44

35.00

50.00

5.67

14 to 15

44.12

54.22

21.25

27.99

55.00

52.18

35.92

55.78

7.61

15 to 16

47.18

50.15

29.11

29.12

58.15

63.25

37.83

64.00

5.84

16 to 17

49.00

37.75

22.88

22.00

52.00

59.83

34.00

62.67

7.38

17 to 18

37.91

32.11

20.23

21.45

48.14

47.09

32.10

49.44

5.69

18 to 19

24.36

29.00

20.21

20.25

37.18

49.00

32.00

50.67

6.10

19 to 20

35.17

35.71

22.05

21.48

49.34

56.71

31.22

60.00

7.23

Time

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Page 53 of 74

Table 4.26 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (24th June 2015)

Time

Two
Multi
Car /
Wheeler Cycle /
Tractor
Three
Truck
Bus
axle
LCV
Jeep /
(Scooter
Cycle
Trolley
Wheeler
Vehicles
SUV
/ Motor Rikshaw
Bike)
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
(Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr)

6 to 7

49.39

53.33

28.18

30.00

50.00

60.00

32.00

61.00

8.11

7 to 8

42.00

46.00

29.00

25.00

53.22

58.19

31.32

64.10

6.17

8 to 9

39.11

40.11

27.00

29.33

42.00

55.00

24.33

62.00

7.89

9 to 10

45.85

50.22

23.75

20.00

24.00

44.16

20.00

48.00

7.66

10 to 11

49.54

52.00

26.00

34.21

35.17

62.00

34.00

64.12

5.00

11 to 12

38.31

42.13

25.13

24.19

37.15

55.00

28.70

55.66

6.92

12 to 13

41.00

50.00

31.12

25.13

37.10

52.13

23.00

62.10

5.91

13 to 14

47.44

52.00

20.00

21.00

33.00

52.00

21.00

59.00

6.16

14 to 15

51.11

55.00

26.79

25.00

49.95

50.00

32.00

55.00

5.81

15 to 16

37.00

50.09

25.18

21.20

55.10

62.14

42.09

57.14

5.23

16 to 17

35.32

42.00

23.00

22.34

35.00

55.00

24.62

58.19

5.72

17 to 18

25.71

31.00

20.00

19.47

25.17

35.38

18.45

35.19

6.81

18 to 19

26.00

32.00

21.00

25.00

22.00

32.00

37.72

38.13

5.93

19 to 20

33.14

38.18

22.00

26.15

32.00

49.10

25.32

50.10

6.09

Page 54 of 74

Table 4.27 Speed Study of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (25th June 2015)

Truck

Bus

Tractor
Trolley

Multi
axle
Vehicles

LCV

Car /
Jeep /
SUV

Three
Wheeler

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Speed
(Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler
(Scooter
/ Motor
Bike)
Speed
(Km/Hr)

6 to 7

42.13

50.00

23.14

32.88

52.31

60.09

36.40

61.55

8.33

7 to 8

32.99

47.78

25.00

30.00

53.20

61.00

35.00

62.22

5.20

8 to 9

21.89

25.20

15.98

16.20

24.00

31.82

17.28

32.00

6.10

9 to 10

25.26

22.17

14.00

19.00

26.41

32.33

17.00

34.44

7.43

10 to 11

26.37

40.90

22.00

19.98

48.00

40.16

35.00

55.88

6.88

11 to 12

45.54

46.12

20.11

30.88

53.90

64.11

30.20

52.87

7.21

12 to 13

47.00

49.92

22.00

28.14

55.00

55.00

37.00

59.00

5.73

13 to 14

44.16

47.88

27.56

24.00

52.23

49.44

35.00

53.92

5.88

14 to 15

42.00

54.00

25.00

26.00

55.00

52.00

35.92

55.78

7.71

15 to 16

45.17

49.18

29.11

23.20

58.15

59.79

37.83

62.11

6.00

16 to 17

49.00

37.00

23.00

24.00

52.00

58.00

34.00

58.00

5.70

17 to 18

37.91

32.00

19.17

21.00

45.32

47.09

33.19

49.44

7.00

18 to 19

24.36

29.00

20.21

20.25

37.18

43.00

32.00

52.00

6.90

19 to 20

35.17

40.00

28.00

21.48

48.88

56.71

31.22

60.00

5.00

Time

Cycle /
Cycle
Rikshaw
Speed
(Km/Hr)

Page 55 of 74

Table 4.28 Speed Study of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (25th June 2015)

Time

Two
Multi
Car /
Wheeler Cycle /
Tractor
Three
Truck
Bus
axle
LCV
Jeep /
(Scooter
Cycle
Trolley
Wheeler
Vehicles
SUV
/ Motor Rikshaw
Bike)
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
Speed
(Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr) (Km/Hr)

6 to 7

39.82

52.09

27.14

29.18

54.00

60.00

32.00

61.00

7.92

7 to 8

32.00

52.54

26.13

25.44

54.33

54.00

31.32

59.99

6.91

8 to 9

39.92

31.00

25.00

25.00

39.99

54.55

25.00

60.19

7.74

9 to 10

46.66

40.11

20.19

22.18

25.00

50.00

21.00

55.62

5.19

10 to 11

43.00

44.57

29.00

37.32

40.00

57.11

27.15

58.77

6.12

11 to 12

38.32

40.00

21.21

32.00

42.00

62.00

30.00

58.58

6.11

12 to 13

35.00

40.12

25.00

26.00

37.70

58.00

24.11

62.00

5.90

13 to 14

49.43

50.12

23.00

25.00

35.03

54.77

27.00

55.00

7.54

14 to 15

42.10

50.00

27.88

21.00

55.18

50.00

34.34

56.91

5.03

15 to 16

45.67

49.91

32.00

23.20

54.10

56.71

40.13

57.60

6.12

16 to 17

45.67

43.00

21.00

25.00

35.00

52.15

22.00

63.00

5.99

17 to 18

21.23

28.05

21.21

28.10

27.88

29.00

18.00

32.00

6.17

18 to 19

25.31

32.00

24.00

25.00

24.18

32.11

19.20

37.00

5.41

19 to 20

32.40

35.00

22.55

24.55

33.00

52.15

20.00

55.56

6.90

Page 56 of 74

25.39

24.94

23.44

23.23

13.70

13.54

17.90

17.83

25.72

25.58

31.07

31.02

17.30

17.26

32.18

32.05

6.65

6.49

27.34

27.13

40.86

40.84

21.54

21.50

23.06

22.90

48.53

48.37

53.61

52.75

34.02

33.86

51.33

51.06

6.02

5.71

10 to 11 9 to 10

6.14

6.39

32.11

32.20

16.85

16.88

28.94

29.05

23.73

23.75

16.05

16.06

14.42

14.64

23.06

23.39

21.71

21.96

8 to 9

6.73

6.93

58.60

58.65

33.79

35.00

61.86

61.86

54.80

54.87

26.25

26.34

22.68

22.74

44.92

45.02

34.45

34.62

7 to 8

8.14

8.19

60.19

60.31

36.80

36.82

63.11

63.43

55.81

55.94

30.18

30.25

22.83

22.92

50.05

50.25

43.44

43.83

6 to 7

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time

CHAPTER 5

OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Introduction

Now the readings noted, we will accomplish each of the objectives.

From tables 4.15 to 4.28, the space mean speed and time mean speed of the various vehicles (as

observed) has ben tabulated as below.

Table 5.1 Space Mean Speed and Time Mean Speed of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh (at various
hours of the day)
Multi
Car/
Cycle/
Tractor
Three
Two
Trucks
Buses
Axle
LCV's
Jeep/
Cycle
Trolley
Wheeler Wheeler
Vehicles
SUV's
Rikshaws

Page 57 of 74

25.36

25.30

31.24

31.12

19.50

19.47

19.32

19.29

39.37

38.97

51.98

51.57

30.26

30.20

46.00

45.67

6.72

6.64

33.53

33.45

43.43

42.97

Page 58 of 74

21.99

21.68

22.54

22.50

52.65

52.52

58.39

58.35

33.33

33.26

59.55

59.21

5.97

5.66

6.28

6.74

6.84

58.31

5.89

6.23

63.28

63.34

37.63

6.03

6.42

58.49

58.64

35.23

35.36

57.33

5.89

6.06

55.04

55.19

34.16

34.17

55.58

55.95

54.12

54.18

24.07

6.61

6.81

57.76

57.99

36.73

36.75

60.65

61.16

54.82

54.85

27.95

27.97

20.95

5.82

6.23

55.03

55.13

31.44

31.53

61.22

61.42

54.14

54.21

29.41

29.58

21.72

21.87

45.58

45.72

41.42

42.42

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler

6.56

50.59

58.43

35.46

37.66

64.51

58.08

55.98

56.06

28.55

24.08

22.51

21.00

47.60

47.72

43.80

44.21

Three
Wheeler

50.63

31.80

35.55

61.84

64.70

58.48

58.51

28.10

28.81

23.16

22.72

45.38

45.44

37.37

37.91

Car/
Jeep/
SUV's

31.84

52.08

61.92

53.00

53.14

23.06

28.32

24.06

23.22

54.35

54.51

42.38

42.48

LCV's

52.49

47.84

47.90

21.89

23.13

21.42

24.42

51.35

51.43

43.70

43.85

Tractor
Trolley

22.05

18.73

21.51

39.46

39.53

42.92

43.94

Time

Buses

18.78

32.45

32.83

31.27

31.99

19 to 20 18 to 19 17 to 18 16 to 17 15 to 16 14 to 15 13 to 14 12 to 13 11 to 12

Trucks
Multi
Axle
Vehicles
Cycle/
Cycle
Rikshaws

34.00

32.78

45.23

45.02

25.59

25.26

26.28

26.14

43.32

41.85

59.32

58.91

29.20

28.06

62.86

62.78

6.23

6.08

39.87

36.72

47.21

46.87

23.81

23.38

24.92

24.72

35.68

35.50

54.38

54.27

26.87

26.56

57.74

57.66

6.33

6.20

7.11

6.11

6.23

59.19

6.36

6.48

49.43

49.87

19.55

6.75

6.85

61.63

61.68

25.11

25.13

56.73

7.24

7.37

60.45

60.53

33.34

33.42

59.17

59.28

53.87

8.59

8.77

62.08

62.20

34.85

35.02

63.84

64.08

55.57

55.76

28.01

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler

7.18

57.71

59.43

29.05

19.64

45.73

56.86

32.91

53.99

24.79

28.15

24.81

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Three
Wheeler

57.81

30.30

29.30

60.13

45.92

24.66

34.83

23.28

24.95

25.61

24.96

52.50

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Car/
Jeep/
SUV's

30.40

58.47

60.17

42.09

24.67

20.14

23.57

20.17

25.95

47.61

52.54

43.77

44.25

LCV's

58.57

42.55

42.88

31.66

20.33

18.32

21.93

41.38

47.74

34.91

35.24

Time

Multi
Axle
Vehicles

43.58

26.66

33.12

25.80

19.85

43.78

42.41

39.35

39.41

6 to 7

Tractor
Trolley

26.88

24.05

26.16

47.00

44.40

42.12

42.52

7 to 8

Buses

24.22

42.85

47.20

40.82

42.19

8 to 9

Trucks

43.05

33.58

34.57

13 to 14 12 to 13 11 to 12 10 to 11 9 to 10

Table 5.2 Space Mean Speed and Time Mean Speed of Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh (at various
hours of the day)
Cycle/
Cycle
Rikshaws

Page 59 of 74

27.97
27.63
31.03
31.01
22.18
22.04
23.10
22.92
23.04
23.00
32.25
32.15
22.03
20.78
35.65
35.58
6.39
6.34

35.46
35.35
38.45
38.19

Page 60 of 74
22.87
22.81
22.80
22.57
33.50
33.46
50.77
50.75
22.93

inder consideration with respect to the various times of the day.


22.81
55.07
54.96
6.01
5.96

6.38

5.83

5.89

55.42

5.84

6.05

61.90

62.15

41.90

6.39

6.67

60.84

61.12

33.86

34.08

55.66

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Two
Wheeler

6.47

33.67

55.92

22.67

41.99

58.71

56.03

54.06

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Three
Wheeler

33.75

18.13

22.77

53.11

58.92

55.97

54.23

24.97

25.28

24.20

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Space Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Time Mean Speed (Km/Hr)

Car/
Jeep/
SUV's

18.22

32.68

53.30

34.96

56.05

22.87

23.36

26.93

24.44

49.15

49.43

45.91

46.17

LCV's

32.86

24.96

35.10

21.70

21.82

21.93

27.25

50.03

50.22

39.43

39.90

Multi
Axle
Vehicles

25.10

22.22

22.54

21.01

22.03

43.60

43.81

39.24

39.67

Time

Buses

21.06

28.33

28.59

24.71

25.09

19 to 20 18 to 19 17 to 18 16 to 17 15 to 16 14 to 15

Trucks
Tractor
Trolley
Cycle/
Cycle
Rikshaws

From the above tables it can be inferred that the time mean speed is more than the space mean

speed. The increase observed was of the order of 5-7%. Higher changes were observed in the

case of 2 wheelers Bikes, scooters, cycles etc.

These values were then used to determine the variations in the speeds of the various vehicles

5.2 Variation

in Speeds with Change in Time

The variation in speeds of the vehicles under consideration can be observed from the following
charts (Chart 5.1 to Chart 5.4). These further helped in comparing the speeds of the vehicles.

Variation in Speed with Time:


Vehicles Entering Chandigarh
Spped (Km/Hr)

60
45
Trucks
30

Buses
Three Wheelers

15

Cycle/ Cycle Rikshaws


Tractor Trolley

0
0

12

16

20

24

Time (of Day)

Chart 5.1

Variation in Speed with Time:


Vehicles Entering Chandigarh
70.00
Speed (Km/Hr)

60.00
50.00
40.00

Car/ Jeep/ SUV's

30.00

Two Wheelers

20.00

LCV's

10.00

Multi Axle Vehicles

0.00
0

12

16

20

24

Time (of Day)

Chart 5.2
Above charts (Chart 5.1 and Chart 5.2) depict the variation in the speed of the vehicles with
change in time of the day for vehicles entering Chandigarh. It can be inferred that there was an
increase in the speed of the vehicles during noon, which furher dipped in the afternoon during
luch hours, and increased near the evening and dipped again around 6pm to 7pm. Cycles / cycle
Page 61 of 74

rikshaws moved at approx. the same speed throughout the day. Cars / Jeeps / SUVs were the
fastest followed by two-wheelers and buses.

Variation in Speed with Time:


Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh

Spped (Km/Hr)

60
45
Trucks
30

Buses
Three Wheelers

15

Cycle/ Cycle Rikshaws


0

Tractor Trolley
0

12

16

20

24

Time (of Day)

Chart 5.3

Variation in Speed with Time:


Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh

Speed (Km/Hr)

75
60
45

Car/ Jeep/ SUV's

30

Two Wheelers

15

LCV's
Multi Axle Vehicles

0
0

12

16

20

24

Time (of Day)

Chart 5.4
For traffic exiting Chandigarh, the speeds in the evening were much lower than the speeds at
which the vehicles entered Chandigarh (in the evening). Cycles/ Cycle rikshaws however were
observed t move at a slow and a constant speed.

Page 62 of 74

Charts 5.1 to 5.4 show the variation in speeds of the various vehicles under consideration. These
can also be used to understand the traffic volume (or density) as lower speeds depict higher
traffic density on the stretch.
5.3 Variation

in Traffic Count with Time

The traffic count was done by converting the number of various vehicles in PCU or passenger
car unit. The conversion factors as shown in the table below were used for the different verhicles
under observation.
Table 5.3 Values for PCU
Car

1.0

Motorcycle

0.5

Bicycle

0.2

LCV

2.2

Bus, Truck

3.5

3 Wheelers

0.8

Charts 5.5 and 5.6 below project the traffic (count) entering and exiting Chandigarh.

Traffic Count of Vehicles Entering Chandigarh

Traffic Count
in PCU's

2000
1500
1000
500
0

Time of Day
Chart 5.5
Page 63 of 74

It can be inferred from chart 5.5 that the amount of traffic entering Chandigarh is more during
morning hours, which reduces during the afternoon and again increases in the evening but not as
much as that entering in the morning.

Traffic Count for Vehicles Exiting Chandigarh

Traffic Count
in PCU's

2000
1500
1000
500
0

Time of Day
Chart 5.6
Chart 5.6 depicts that the traffic exiting Chandigarh was much higher during the eveing hours as
compared to that in the morning. The traffic count follows a sinusoidal curve, i.e. it increases in
the morning hours then decreases in the afternoon and this again increases during the evening.
5.4 Flow-Density-Speed

(or Q-K-V) Relationship

The maximum hourly flow takes place between 8am to 9am.


The peak flow observed was 3129 veh/hour.
And, the corresponding space mean speed was 21.03 Km/hr.
Hence, by the relation,
Q = K x V,
Where: Q is rate of traffic flow in Veh/hr.
K is the density of traffic in Veh/Km.
V is the space mean speed in Km/Hr.
Density, K = 148.79 Veh/Km.

Page 64 of 74

Similarly, the Q-K-V relationship was established at various hours of the day, based on the
Greenberg Model. This can be represented by the following charts.

Speed Density Relationship


60.00
Speed (Km/Hr)

50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0.00

200.00

400.00

600.00

800.00

1000.00

Density (Veh/Km)

Chart 5.7
From the above chart (5.7) it was observed that the jam density, i.e. density at which the speed
reaches zero, was 287 Veh/Km.
Hence, KJ = 830 Veh/Km
According to the Greenberg Model,
Vs = C ln(KJ/K)

---- (1)

For 148.79Veh/Km density (K), speed was 21.03 Km/Hr (Vs).


C = 12.23 Km/Hr, this is the speed at which maximum flow occurs.
Based on this data, the Flow-Density and the Speed-Flow relationships can be derived as under
(Chart 5.8 and Chart 5.9).

Page 65 of 74

Flow Density Relationship

Flow (Veh/Hr)

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0.00

200.00

400.00

600.00

800.00

1000.00

Density (Veh/Km)

Chart 5.8

Speed Flow Relationship


60.00

Speed (Km/Hr)

50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Flow (Veh/Hr)

Chart 5.9
5.4.1 Comparison

Between Different Traffic Steam Models

The Q-K-V relationship was derived using Greenberg Model because of its better goodness-of-fit
for pratical data. Also it is useful for heavy traffic conditions, which suited our site conditions.
When compared to Greenshield Model, following were the observations:

Page 66 of 74

Speed Density Relationship


Speed (Km/Hr)

80
60
40
Greenberg Model
20

Greenshield Model

0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

Density (Veh/Km)

Chart 5.10

Speed Flow Relationship


60

Speed (Km/Hr)

50
40
30
Greenberg Model
Greenshield Model

20
10
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

Flow (Veh/Hr)

Chart 5.11

Page 67 of 74

Flow Density Relationship


10000

Flow (Veh/Hr)

8000
6000
Greenberg Model

4000

Greenshield Model
2000
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

Density (Veh/Km)

Chart 5.12
On comparing it was observed that the curves satisfied all the requirements of Greenshield
model, but the flow was coming out to be much higher than that as observed in the Greenberg
Model. Hence, Greenberg model met the practical requirements more, as the linear relationship o
Speed and Density is not possible in the field.
5.5 Determination

of Level of Service (LOS)

The highway under consideration can be classified as a Multilane Highway.


For the side of the highway entering Chandigarh
Free flow speed, from field data observation was 21.03 Km/Hr for peak hour flow.
Vp = V / (PHF x N x fHV x fp)
Where: Vp is 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h/ln)
V is volume (number of vehicles passing a point in 1 hr)
N is the number of lanes
PHF is the peak-hour factor
fHV is the heavy vehicle adjustment factor
fp is the driver population factor.
Calculation of Vp:
i.

V = 3129 Veh/Hr

Page 68 of 74

ii.

PHF = 0.95 (consider)

iii.

N=3

iv.

Calculation of fHV:
fHV = 1 / (1+PT*(ET-1)+PR*(ER-1))
ET = 1.5, ER = 1.2, PT = 0.02525, PR = 0.01502
fHV = 0.985

v.

fP = 1 (for commuter traffic, with reference to Highway Capacity Manual)

Hence, Vp = 3129 / (0.95 x 3 x 0.985 x 1) = 1114.61 pc/h/ln

Chart 5.13 Speed Flow Curves with LOS Criteria


From the above chart (Chart 5.13), it can be deduced that the level of Service (LOS) for the
highway (stretch under consideration) is F. This is the level of service at peak hours of 8 am to 9
am.
Density = Vp / (average passenger-car speed) = 1114.61 / 21.03 = 53 pc/Km.
This LOS moved to C and D category in afternoon (i.e. from 1 pm to 2 pm), and evening (i.e.
from 5 pm to 6 pm) respectively.

Page 69 of 74

For the side of the highway exiting ChandigarhFree flow speed, from field data observation was 23.57 Km/Hr for peak flow.
Again, Vp = V / (PHF x N x fHV x fp)
i.

V = 2783 Veh/Hr

ii.

PHF = 0.95 (consider)

iii.

N=3

iv.

Calculation of fHV:
fHV = 1 / (1+PT*(ET-1)+PR*(ER-1))
ET = 1.5, ER = 1.2, PT = 0.0334, PR = 0.0280
fHV = 0.978

v.

fP = 1 (for commuter traffic, with reference to Highway Capacity Manual)

Hence, Vp = 2783 / (0.95 x 3 x 0.978 x 1) = 998.46 pc/h/ln


From the above chart (Chart 5.13), it can be deduced that the level of Service (LOS) for the
highway (stretch under consideration) is F. This is the level of service at peak hours of 5pm to
6pm.
Density = Vp / (average passenger-car speed) = 998.3 / 23.57 = 42.36 pc/Km.
This LOS moved to D category in the morning (i.e. from 9am to 10am), and afternoon (i.e. from
2 pm to 3 pm).

Page 70 of 74

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
6.1 Conclusion
Chandigarh was a city of rotaries and now due to exponential increase in traffic, traffic signals
have been installed all over the city. There are rising problems of congestion in the city during
peak hours, hence this study was conducted to understand the current situation of traffic in
Chandigarh (at the peripheral road) from Tribune Chowk to Hallomajra Chowk and its impact on
the existing roadway conditions.
1. The roadway stretch under consideration was classified as a multilane highway.
2. The traffic entering and (or) exiting Chandigarh included trucks, buses, heavy and light
commercial vehicles, cars / jeeps, two wheelers, three wheelers and cycles / cycle
rikshaws.
3. The traffic volume was observed to be very high in the morning hours for vehicles
entering Chandigarh, and this value was comparable to the count of vehicles exiting
Chandigarh in the evening.
4. The traffic volume follows a sinusoidal curve when observed over the whole day, in both
the cases, i.e. for vehicles entering and exiting Chandigarh.
5. The speed observation highlighted the speeds of the various vehicles. During noon there
was increase in the speed of the vehicles, which dipped during afternoon (or lunch hours),
and increased near the evening, which further dipped at time 6 pm to 7 pm.
6. The increase in speed highlighted decrease in traffic volume and vice versa.
7. The worst case scenario, i.e. at the peak traffic flow (for both the cases traffic entering
Chandigarh and traffic exiting Chandigarh) the LOS of the road stretch under
consideration was F indicating congestion or queuing for long distances.
8. The LOS improved in the afternoon and evening for the side of the road approaching
Chandigarh, while it was better during morning and afternoon hours of the day for the
side of the road exiting Chandigarh.
Hence, it can be concluded form the investigation that there is a lot of congestion and queuing
during peak hours of the day i.e. morning hours for traffic flow towards Chandigarh, and during
evening hours for traffic flow away from or exiting Chandigarh. Therefore, alternate measures
Page 71 of 74

are required to provide a smooth traffic flow since industrial development in and around
Chandigarh will only worsen the situation in the future. These alternate measures can be building
new roads of improving the exisiting roads.
Also encouraging people to follow public transport is the most economical solution.
Alternatively, keeping office timing of different offices, like government offices and private
companies different, by a gap of around 30 minutes, so that the traffic is divided over a longer
time instead of congesting at a particular hour.
6.2 Limitations

& Future Scope

1. The experimentation was conducted on the road stretch between Tribune Chowk and
Hallomajra Chowk. This road stretch deals with the traffic from Haryana and Delhi.
Other peripheral roads like the stretch betweenHousing Board Chowk and Railway
Station Chowk, which deals with the traffic entering Chandigarh from Himachal Pradesh,
or other peripheral roads connecting Punjab can be investigated.
2. The study was conducted for a time spanning 7 days. The time period of investigation can
be increased to months, as the traffic flow changes during vacation season.

Page 72 of 74

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1.

Abtahi, S. M., Tamannaei, M., and Haghshenash, H. (2011). Analysis and Modeling
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2.

Agyemang-Duah, K and Hall, F.L. (1991). Some Issues Regarding the Numerical
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3.

Arkatkar, S. S., and Arasan, V. T., (2010). Effect of Gradient and its Length on
Performance of Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions, Journal of
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Banks, J. H. (1991a). Two-Capacity Phenomenon at Freeway Bottlenecks: A Basis


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5.

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10. Lorenz, M. and Elefteriadou, L. (2001). A Probabilistic Approach to Defining


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