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Flamenco

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For other uses, see Flamenco (disambiguation).

 

Flamenco

 
Flamenco Flamenco dancer with traditional dress Stylistic origins <a href=Andalusian Cultural origins Andalusia , Spain Typical instruments Flamenco guitar classical guitar palillos palmas cajón Subgenres New Flamenco ( flamenco nuevo ) Fusion genres Flamenco chill (with downtempo ) Other topics  Music of Spain " id="pdf-obj-0-21" src="pdf-obj-0-21.jpg">

Flamenco dancer with traditional dress

Stylistic origins

Cultural origins

Cultural origins <a href=Andalusia , Spain " id="pdf-obj-0-36" src="pdf-obj-0-36.jpg">

Typical instruments

 

Subgenres

 

Fusion genres

 

Other topics

 

Flamenco (Spanish pronunciation: [flaˈmeŋko]) is an artform native to the Spanish regions of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia. It includescante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance), jaleo (vocalizations), palmas (handclapping) and pitos (finger snapping). [1]

First mentioned in literature in 1774, the genre originates in Andalusian music and dance styles. [2][3][4] Flamenco is strongly associated with the gitanos (Romani people of Spain)however,

unlike Romani music of eastern Europe, the style is distinctively Andalusian and the fusion of the various cultures of southern Spain is clearly perceptible in Flamenco music. Although there are many theories on its influences and origins, the most widespread highlights a Morisco heritage, the ethnic and cultural melting pot that was Andalusia during the early modern period (locals, Moors,

Castilian settlers, Romanis, Jews etc

..

)

fostering its development over time. [5] Flamenco music, as a

theatrical representation of Andalusian musical tradition, was first recorded in the late 18th century but the genre underwent a dramatic development in the late 19th century. [6]

In recent years, flamenco has become popular all over the world and is taught in many non-Hispanic countries, especially United States and Japan. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies than there are in Spain. [7][8] On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. [9]

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Etymology[edit]

There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term (summarized below) but no solid evidence for any of them. [10] The word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century.

The Spanish word flamenco could have been a derivative of "fire" or "flame", as it is connected to the 'Cante' and the dance's solemn, passionate nature. The word flamenco may have come to be used for certain behaviour in general, which could possibly have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers. [11]

Another theory, proposed by Andalusian historian Blas Infante in his 1933 book Orígenes de lo Flamenco y Secreto del Cante Jondo suggests that the word flamenco comes from the Hispano- Arabic term fellah mengu, meaning "expelled peasant"; Infante argued that this term referred to the ethnic Andalusians of the Islamic faith, the Moriscos, who in order to avoid forced exile and religious persecution, joined with the Roma newcomers. [12][13]

Palos[edit]

Main article: Palo (flamenco)

Palos (formerly known as cantes) are flamenco styles, classified by criteria such as rhythmic pattern, mode, chord progression, stanzaic form and geographic origin. There are over 50 different palos, some are sung unaccompanied while others have guitar or other accompaniment. Some forms are danced while others are not. Some are reserved for men and others for women while some may be performed by either, though these traditional distinctions are breaking down:

the Farruca, for example, once a male dance, is now commonly performed by women too.

There are many ways to categories Palos but they traditionally fall into three classes: the most serious is known as cante jondo (or cante grande), while lighter, frivolous forms are calledcante chico. Forms that do not fit either category are classed as cante intermedio. [citation needed] Cante jondo has clear traces of Arabic and Spanish folk melodies, as well as vestiges of Byzantine, Christian and Jewish religious music. [14]

These are the most known palos: [15]

Alegrías

Bulerías

Bulerías por soleá (soleá por bulerías)

Caracoles

Cartageneras

Fandango

Fandango de Huelva

Fandango Malagueño

Granaínas

Malagueñas

Mineras

Peteneras

Rondeñas

Rumba

Saeta

Seguiriyas

Sevillanas

Tangos

Tanguillos

Tientos

Villancicos

Music[edit]

There are many great guitartists who have dedicated their professional expertise and been a part of the Flamenco scene, such as Paco Peña, Paco De Lucia, Ramon Montoya, Pepe Romero, Pepe Martinez and The Romeros to name a few. They are the backbone of helping to create the ambiance to this much loved tradition of Spanish song and dance.

Structure[edit]

A typical flamenco recital with voice and guitar accompaniment, comprises a series of pieces (not exactly “songs”) in different palos. Each song of a set of verses (called copla, tercio, orletras), which are punctuated by guitar interludes called falsetas. The guitarist also provides a short introduction which sets the tonality, compás and tempo of the cante. [16] In some palos, these falsetas are also played with certain structures too; for example, the typical sevillanas is played in an AAB pattern, where A and B are the same falseta with only a slight difference in the ending. [17]

Harmony[edit]

Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode (which can also be described as the modern Phrygian mode (modo frigio), or a harmonic version of that scale with a major 3rd degree), in addition to the major and minor scales commonly used in modern Western music. The Phrygian mode occurs in palos such as soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas, tangos and tientos.

Descending E Phrygian scale in flamenco music, with common alterations in parentheses

Descending E Phrygian scale in flamenco music, with common alterations in parentheses

A typical chord sequence, usually called the "Andalusian cadence" may be viewed as in a modified Phrygian: in E the sequence is AmGFE. [18] According to Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic function of dominant while Am and Gassume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively. [19]

Guitarists tend to use only two basic inversions or "chord shapes" for the tonic chord (music), the open 1st inversion E and the open 3rd inversion A, though they often transpose these by using a capo. Modern guitarists such as Ramón Montoya, have introduced other positions: Montoya himself started to use other chords for the tonic in the modern Dorian sections of

severalpalos; F♯ for tarantas, B for granaínas and Afor the minera. Montoya also created a new palo as a solo for guitar, therondeña in C♯ with scordatura. Later guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura.

There are also palos in major mode; most cantiñas and alegrías, guajiras, some bulerías and tonás, and the cabales (a major type of siguiriyas). The minor mode is restricted to theFarruca, the milongas (among cantes de ida y vuelta), and some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general traditional palos in major and minor mode are limited harmonically to two-chord (tonicdominant) or three-chord (tonicsubdominantdominant) progressions. (Rossy 1998:92) However modern guitarists have introduced chord substitution, transition chords, and evenmodulation.

Fandangos and derivative palos such as malagueñas, tarantas and cartageneras) are bimodal:

guitar introductions are in Phrygian mode while the singing develops in major mode, modulating to Phrygian at the end of the stanza. (Rossy 1998:92)

Melody[edit]

Dionisio Preciado, quoted by Sabas de Hoces [20] established the following characteristics for the melodies of flamenco singing:

1. Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
1.
Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
1. Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
1. Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
1. Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
  • 2. Portamento: frequently, the change from one note to another is done in a smooth transition, rather than using discrete intervals.

  • 3. Short tessitura or range: Most traditional flamenco songs are limited to a range of a sixth (four tones and a half). The impression of vocal effort is the result of using differenttimbres, and variety is accomplished by the use of microtones.

  • 4. Use of enharmonic scale. While in equal temperament scales, enharmonics are notes with identical pitch but different spellings (e.g. Aand G); in flamenco, as in unequal temperament scales, there is a microtonal intervalic difference between enharmonic notes.

  • 5. Insistence on a note and its contiguous chromatic notes (also frequent in the guitar), producing a sense of urgency.

  • 6. Baroque ornamentation, with an expressive, rather than merely aesthetic function.

  • 7. Apparent lack of regular rhythm, especially in the siguiriyas: the melodic rhythm of the sung line is different from the metric rhythm of the accompaniment.

  • 8. Most styles express sad and bitter feelings.

  • 9. Melodic improvisation: flamenco singing is not, strictly speaking, improvised, but based on a relatively small number of traditional songs, singers add variations on the spur of the moment.

Musicologist Hipólito Rossy adds the following characteristics (Rossy 1997: 97):

Flamenco melodies are characterized by a descending tendency, as opposed to, for example, a typical opera aria, they usually go from the higher pitches to the lower ones, and fromforte to piano, as was usual in ancient Greek scales

In many styles, such as soleá or siguiriya, the melody tends to proceed in contiguous degrees of the scale. Skips of a third or a fourth are rarer. However, in fandangos and fandango-derived styles, fourths and sixths can often be found, especially at the beginning of each line of verse. According to Rossy, this is proof of the more recent creation of this type of songs, influenced by Castilian jota.

Compás[edit]

Compás is the Spanish word for metre or time signature (in classical music theory). It also refers to the rhythmic cycle, or layout, of a palo.

The compás is fundamental to flamenco. Compás is most often translated as rhythm but it demands far more precise interpretation than any other Western style of music. If there is no guitarist available, the compás is rendered through hand clapping (palmas) or by hitting a table with the knuckles. The guitarist uses techniques like strumming (rasgueado) or tapping thesoundboard (golpe). Changes of chords emphasize the most important downbeats.

Flamenco uses three basic counts or measures: Binary, Ternary and a form of a twelve-beat cycle that is unique to flamenco. There are also free-form styles including, among others, thetonás, saetas, malagueñas, tarantos, and some types of fandangos.

Rhythms in 2

 

4

or 4

4.

These metres are used in forms like tangos, tientos, gypsy

rumba, zambra and tanguillos.

Rhythms in 3

 

4.

These are typical of fandangos and sevillanas, suggesting their

origin as non-Roma styles, since the 3

4

and 4

4

measures are not common in ethnic Roma music.

12-beat rhythms usually rendered in amalgams of 6

8

+ 3

4

and sometimes 12

8.

The 12-beat cycle is the most common in flamenco, differentiated

by the accentuation of the beats in different palos. The accents do not correspond to the classic concept of the downbeat. The alternating of groups of 2 and 3 beats is also common in Spanish folk dances of the 16th Century such as the zarabanda, jácara and canarios.

There are three types of 12-beat rhythms, which vary in their layouts, or use of accentuations: soleá, seguiriya and bulería.

 

1.

peteneras and guajiras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. Both palos start with the strong accent on 12. Hence the meter is 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...

2.

The seguiriya, liviana , serrana, toná liviana, cabales: 121 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12.

3.

soleá, within the cantiñas group of palos which includes

the alegrías, cantiñas, mirabras, romera, caracoles and soleá por bulería (also " bulería por soleá"): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112. For practical reasons, when transferring flamenco guitar music to sheet music, this rhythm is written as a regular 3

4.

The Bulerías is the emblematic palo of flamenco: today its 12-beat cycle is most often played with accents on the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th beats. The accompanying palmas are played in groups of 6 beats, giving rise to a multitude of counter-rhythms and percussive voices within the 12 beat compás.

Flamenco Bulerías with emphasis as [12] 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10]11
Flamenco Bulerías with emphasis as [12] 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10]11 – also the rhythm for the song America
in West Side Story

Forms of flamenco expression[edit]

Toque (guitar)[edit]

Main article: Flamenco guitar

<a href=Paco de Lucía , one of the most commercially successful exponents of flamenco . " id="pdf-obj-6-19" src="pdf-obj-6-19.jpg">

Paco de Lucía, one of the most commercially successful exponents of flamenco. [21]

The origins, history and importance of the flamenco guitar is covered in the main Wikipedia entry for the Flamenco guitar

Cante (song)[edit]

Main article: Cante flamenco

Flamenco performance by the La Primavera group

Flamenco performance by the La Primavera group

The origins, history and importance of the cante is covered in the main Wikipedia entry for the cante flamenco.

Baile (dance)[edit]

El baile flamenco is known or its emotional intensity, proud carriage, expressive use of the arms and rhythmic stamping of the feet (similar totap dance). As with any dance form, many different styles of flamenco have developed.

In the twentieth century, flamenco danced informally at gitano (Roma) weddings and celebrations in Spain was considered the most "authentic" form of flamenco. There is less virtuoso technique in gitano flamenco, but the music and steps are fundamentally the same. The arms are noticeably different from classical flamenco, curving around the head and body rather than extending, often with a bent elbow.

Flamenco, Córdoba

Flamenco, Córdoba

"Flamenco puro" is considered the form of performance flamenco closest to its gitano influences. In this style, the dance is always performed solo, and is improvised rather than choreographed. Some purists frown on castanets (even though they can be seen in many early 20th century photos of flamenco dancers).

"Classical flamenco" is the style most frequently performed by Spanish flamenco dance companies, tending to exhibit more clearly the characteristics derived from the Seguidilla, a traditional Spanish

dance. It is danced largely in a proud and upright way. For women, the back is often held in a marked back bend. Unlike the more gitano influenced styles, there is little movement of the hips, the body is tightly held and the arms are long, like a ballet dancer. In fact many of the dancers in these companies have trained in ballet as well as flamenco. Flamenco has both influenced and been influenced by ballet, as evidenced by the fusion of the two created by 'La Argentinita' in the early part of the twentieth century and later, by Joaquín Cortés.

In the 1950s Jose Greco was one of the most famous male Flamenco dancers, performing on stage worldwide and on television including the Ed Sullivan Show, and reviving the art almost singlehandedly.

Modern flamenco is a highly technical dance style requiring years of study. The emphasis for both male and female performers is on lightning-fast footwork performed with absolute precision. In addition, the dancer may have to dance while using props such as castanets, shawls and fans.

"Flamenco nuevo" is a recent style in flamenco, characterized by pared-down costumes (the men often dance bare-chested, and the women in plain jersey dresses). Props such as castanets, fans and shawls are rarely used. Dances are choreographed and include influences from other dance styles.

The flamenco most foreigners are familiar with is a style that was developed as a spectacle for tourists. To add variety, group dances are included and even solos are more likely to be choreographed. The frilly, voluminous spotted dresses are derived from a style of dress worn for the Sevillanas at the annual Feria in Seville.

In traditional flamenco, young people are not considered to have the emotional maturity to adequately convey the duende (soul) of the genre. Therefore, unlike other dance forms, where dancers turn professional early to take advantage of youth and strength, many flamenco dancers do not hit their peak until their thirties and will continue to perform into their fifties and beyond.





Theatre Flamenco Work Sample

References[edit]

in

... continuous evolution together with rhythm, the poetic stanzas, and the ambiance". Ríos Ruiz Ayer y hoy del cante flamenco, Ediciones ISTMO, Tres Cantos (Madrid), 1997, ISBN 84-7090-311-X

21. Jump up^ Koster, Dennis (1 June 2002). Guitar Atlas, Flamenco. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 5.ISBN 978-0-7390-2478-2. Retrieved 4 March 2013.

Sources[edit]

 

ÁLVAREZ CABALLERO, Ángel: El cante flamenco, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, Second edition, 1998. ISBN 84-206-9682-X (First edition: 1994)

 

ÁLVAREZ CABALLERO, Ángel: La Discografía ideal del cante flamenco, Planeta, Barcelona, 1995. ISBN 84-08-01602-4

BANZI, JULIA LYNN (Ph.D.): "Flamenco Guitar Innovation and the Circumscription of Tradition" 2007, 382 pages; AAT 328581, DAI-A 68/10, University of California, Santa Barbara.

COELHO, Víctor Anand (Editor): "Flamenco Guitar: History, Style, and Context", in The Cambridge Companion to the Guitar, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 1332.

MAIRENA, Antonio & MOLINA, Ricardo: Mundo y formas del cante flamenco, Librería Al-Ándalus, Third Edition, 1979 (First Edition:

 

Revista de Occidente, 1963)

 

MARTÍN SALAZAR, Jorge: Los cantes flamencos, Diputación Provincial de Granada, Granada, 1991 ISBN 84-7807-041-9

MANUEL, Peter. "Flamenco in Focus: An Analysis of a Performance of Soleares." In Analytical Studies in World Music, edited by Michael Tenzer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 92119.

ORTIZ NUEVO, José Luis: Alegato contra la pureza, Libros PM, Barcelona, 1996. ISBN 84-88944-07-1

RÍOS RUIZ, Ayer y hoy del cante flamenco, Ediciones ISTMO, Tres Cantos (Madrid), 1997, ISBN 84-7090-311-X

ROSSY, Hipólito: Teoría del Cante Jondo, CREDSA, Barcelona, 1998. ISBN 84-7056-354-8 (First edition: 1966)

CABA LANDA, Pedro y Carlos CABA LANDA, Carlos. Andalucía, su comunismo y su cante jondo. 1ª Ed Editorial Atlántico 1933. 3ª Edición, Editorial Renacimiento 2008. ISBN 978-84-8472-348-6

External links[edit]

 
 
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