Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Grammar Reference

Party =parties
Irregular plural nouns (S)

To form the possessive of plural nous


that do not end in-s, add S.
The children S school is near the park.
The womens group meets here.
Who + be
Who ? is used to ask about people

Some nouns have an irregular plural


Form.
Tooth=teeth
Man=men
Foot=feet

UNIT 3
Prepositions of place

Who is your favorite actor?


Who are they?
Possessive adjectives
Possessive adjectives show possession
Possessive adjectives replace possessive
nouns.
Nicoles bag is expensive. / Her bag
Is expensive
Possessive adjectives are used
with nouns.
my book
their house
The possessive its has no apostrophe.
Its feathers are blue.+ be
Plural forms of noun
To the plural of most nouns, add S.
Student = students
To form the plural of nouns,
Ending in a vowel +-y, add-s
Toy=toys
To form the plural of nouns ending
in a consonant +-y, change y to i
and add es.

Prepositions are words that specify


Place, direction, and time.
They are usually followed by a noun or
Pronoun.
My desk is next to yours.
They never come before verbs.
Prepositions of place indicate the place
or location of a thing, person, or place
My backpack is under my chair.
My mom is standing next to my
teacher.
The park is near my school.
There is/ there are
Use there (+ a form of be) to say that
Something exists or doesnt exist.
Use there is with singular nouns.
Theres a language center at my
school.
Use there are with plural nouns.
There arent any good restaurants
near my school.

Grammar Reference

130

In statements with there, the real subject


comes after the verb.
Theres a park next to my school. (In
129
This sentence, the subject is park.)
A/An
A and an are called indefinite articles.
Use a or an before a singular count
noun.
a computer an eraser
Use a before a noun that begins with a
Consonant sound.
a pencil
a university (university begins with a
y
sound, a consonant)
Use an before nouns which begin with a
Vowel sound.
an orange
an hour( h is silent)
an MP3 player ( M has the short e
sound)
Do not use a or an before noncount
nouns.
Theres food on the table.
There is/ There are: Yes / No questions
To change There is /There are
Statements into Yes/No Questions, switch
the positions of There and the verb be.

Statements
Theres a bird in

This / that, these / those

This, that, these, and those are


called
demonstrative pronouns or demonstrative
adjectives.

They are called demonstrative


pronouns
when they are used alone.
This is my backpack.

They are called demonstrative


adjectives
when they are followed by nouns.
This backpack is mine.

Use this, that, these, and those to


point
Oust something or someone

Use this to point out an object or


person
Close to the person speaking
This is a new DVD. (The person
Speaking is either holding or is near a
DVD.)

Use these to point out several objects


Or people that are close to the person
Speaking.
These are new DVDs. (The person
Speaking is either holding or is near
Two or more DVDs,)

Use that to point out an abject or a


Person thats far or at a distance from the
Person speaking.
Thats my uncles house. (The person
Speaking is far from the house he or
She is pointing to.)
Yes/No
questions

Use those
to point out several objects
Is
there
a
bird
in
or

that tree.
There are three
pencils on the desk.

That tree?
Are there three
Pencils on the
desk?

People that are far or at a distance from


The person speaking.
Those are my cousins. (The person
Grammar
Speaking is far from the people he or
She is pointing to.)

UNIT 5
The simple present: Yes/ No question
Base form
Do I
Do you

Use do with I, you, we, and they.

Reference
The simple present: information
questions

Short
answers questions
Information
Yes/No questions
Where
do
you
work?
I work at the bank.
Yes, you do.
Why
does
he
work
hard?
Because he wants.
No, you dont.
When
Yes,
I do.does she work?
What
do they do?
No, I dont.

to be successful.
On weekends.
Theyre students.

Does he

Yes,
does.
As
he he
name
implies, information
No, he doesn
Questions (or Wh -questions) ask for
t.
Information.

Does
work?

she Yes, she does.


For information in the simple
Present, follow this sequence:
No, she
Question word + do or does, +
Doesnt.
Subject + main verb (base form).

Does it

Yes, it does.
Use the third person singular form of
No, it doesnt.
The verb when who or what begins a
Who
likes
Yes,
we math?
do.
What
after February?
No,comes
we dont.

Do we
Do they
For simple present yes/no questions,
Use do or does before the subject. Use
The base form of the main verb after the
Subject.
The sequence of the subject and the verb
In yes/no question is: Do or Does+
Subject + main verb (base form).
Use do or does for the short answers.

Do
notthey
use do.
do or does when who or
Yes,
What begins a question about subject.

Grammar Reference

Vowel + -y, add s.


Key=keys
Toy=toys

Yes/No questions with can

134

To form the plural of nouns ending in


-f or fe, remove the f or fe and add
133
To change the statements with can into
-ves.
Yes/No questions, switch the position of
Knife=knives
The subject and can.
To form the plural of nouns ending in a
Consonant + -o, add es.
Statements
Yes/No questions
Tomato=tomatoes
I can ice skate.
skate?
ToCan
formyou
theice
plural
of nouns ending a
They can juggle.
Can they juggle?
Vowel + -o, add s.
Stereo=stereos
Some nouns have an irregular plural
Use can to ask about the ability to do
Form.
Something.
Foot=feet
Can he swim?
Man=men
Can they speak Chinese?
Child=children
Use can or cant in short answers.
Some nous have the same plural and
UNIT 6
Singular form.
There is a sheep on his farm.
Singular and plural nouns
There are two sheep on his farm.
Some nouns are always plural and are
Used with a plural verb form.
The plural form of most nouns is formed
Pajamas pants clothes
By adding- S.
Dog=dogs
Student=students
To form the plural of nouns en ding in
-ss,-ch,- sh, or x, add es.
Class=classes
Match=matches
Dish=dishes
Box=boxes
To form the plural of nouns ending in a
Consonant + - y, change the y to i and
Add es.
Country=countries
To form the plural of nouns ending in a

New bike?
If you had a new bike, what would
You do?

Grammar
Use were for all persons (I, she, you,
we, and they) when the verb in the if
clause is a form of be.
If I were famous, Id use my fame to
promote a good cause.
If he were her, hed help us.
Could and might can also be used in the
result clause to express possibility.
If I had time, I could learn to sing.
If I had time, I might learn to sing.
Yes/No questions
To change second conditional statements
Into Yes/No questions, switch the
Positions of the subject and would in the
Main clause.
Statements
He would make the soccer

Team if he practiced more.

Yes/No questions
Would he make the
soccer team if he
practiced more?

Information questions
The word order in second conditional
Information questions is:
Question word + would + subject + verb
the if clause.
OR
The if clause + comma + question word
+ would + subject + verb.
What would you do if you had a

If the if clause comes first, use a comma


Before the result clause.
Reference
If you had a billion dollars, what would
You buy?
The third conditional
Use the third conditional to talk about
a past event that did not happen. This
event has no possibility of coming true.
If I had been taller, I would have been
Much better at basketball.
Use the third conditional to talk a bout
past unreal conditions and their results.
The condition and result may be untrue,
imagined, or impossible
If I had gone to the game, I wouldve
seen Gerrys 100th career goal. (The
Speaker didnt go to the game.)
Use the past perfect in the if clause and
Would have, might have, or could have +
The past participle in the result clause.
If clause
result clause
If I had studied harder, I could have
received an A.
Use might have or could have in the
Result clause if the result is uncertain.
I might have practiced more if I had
the time
I could have practiced more if I had
the time
Use could have in the result clause to
Express ability.
If I had practiced harder, I could have
done better in the race.
Use the third conditional to express
regret about something that happened in

the past.
If I had known it was going to rain,
I wouldve brought my umbrella.
(I regret not bringing my umbrella.)

Grammar Reference
UNIT 8

Yes/No questions

134
133

To change statements in the third


Conditional into Yes/No questions, switch
The positions of the subject and would in
The main clause.

Statements
He would have made

the soccer team if


he had practiced more.

Yes/No questions
Would he have
made
the soccer team if he
han practiced more?

Information questions
In information questions in the third
Conditional, the if clause or the result
Clause can come first. The word order is
Either:
Question word + would+ subject + have
+ Past participle + if clause
OR
If clause + question word + would +
Subject + have +past participle
What would you have done if you had
Won a new bike?
If you had won a new bike, what would
You have done?
If the if clause comes first, use a comma
Before the won a billion dollars, what
Would you have bought?

Relative clauses

Relative clause are introduced by


relative pronouns. Who is used to refer to
people, which is used to refer to places
or things that is used to refer to people
places, or things, and whose is used to
refer to a possession or relationship.
Thats the girl who called yesterday.
The test, the which I studied for last night
Was cancelled.
Heres your jacket that I borrowed
Is that the boy whose dog was lost?
A defining relative clause gives
information that is essential to the
meaning of a sentences. Do not use a
comma to separate a defining clause
from the rest of the sentences. Defining
relative clauses are also called restrictive
relative clauses.
People who live in warmer climates
tend to be more easygoing
Non-defining relative clauses provide
Extra information. Use a comma before
And after the clause to separate it
From the rest of the sentence. Non
Defining relative clauses are also called
nonrestrictive relative clauses.
Her house, which is near the beach,
Is worth a lot of money.

Grammar Reference

Relative clauses

Time clauses act as adverbs, they tell us


when something happens.
Time clauses begin with time words and
phrases such as while, when, as soon as,
before, and until.
Time clauses are not complete
sentences, they must be added to a main
clause.
Use a comma after a time clause when
the time clause comes first.
As soon as this show ends, III do my
Homework.
When the main clause is in the future,
the
time clause is in the simple present.
main clause time clause

III call you when Im ready


Time clauses in the past are often
Introduced by before.
He left before he heard the news.
Use either the simple present or simple
Past with until.
We waited until he finished his
Homework.
III wait until he finishes his homework.

Grammar Reference
UNIT 4

135

The passive voice: Present


in a passive construction, the object
of an action becomes the subject of a
sentence.
My best friend gave me this present.
(active construction)
This present was given to me by my
Best friend. (passive construction)
In a passive voice construction, a by
phrase is used to show the doer of the
action. The by phrase may be
omitted
135
if the information isnt
important or
doesnt matter.
The results of the investigation were
broadcast on TV. (Who did the
broadcasting isnt important to know.)
The form of the present passive voice is
is/are + the past participle of a main
verb.
Breakfast isnt served until seven.
Youre expected to be polite.
Use the passive voice,
- if the doer the action is unknown or
isnt important.
Millions of cars are sold each year.
- When the doer of the action is
obvious

from the context and, therefore,


unnecessary to mention.
The man was arrested. (We know or
Can assume that the arrest was made
By the police).
To talk about historical events where
you want to highlight the event or
action rather than who did the action.
America was discovered in 1492.
(We want to stress the event and the
date of discovery rather than the
discoverer.)

To change passive voice statements into


Yes/No questions, switch the positions of
the subject and the form of be.
Statements
The floors are cleaned

on Thursdays.
The mall is closed
on holidays.

Yes/No questions
Are the floors cleaned
on Thursday?
Is the mall closed
on holidays?

For information questions in the passive


voice, the word order is:
Question word + form of be + subject +
the past participle.
Where is English spoken?
The passive voice: Past

The past form of the passive voice is


was/were + the past participle of a verb.
They were delivered fresh from the
farm today.
The movie was made over a period
of
four years.
To change passive voice statements into
Yes/No questions, switch the positions of
the subject and the form of be.
For information questions in the passive

voice, the word order is:


Question word + form of be + subject +
the past participle.
When was this milk bought?

and reported speech.


DIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH
He said hed do it
sometime today.
sometime that day.
He
said,
shes He said she was coming
coming
back next week.
back
the
following
He said, II11 do it

Grammar Reference
UNIT 4
Reported speech
130 129
Direct speech states the exact words a
person used. Use quotations around the
speech you are quoting.
They said, We will be late.
Reported speech reports what someone
said without using the exact words.
In reported speech, that can be used
before the reported, that can be used
before the reported speech
They said (that) they would be late.
The verb tenses often change between
direct and reported speech.
DIRECT SPEECH
Simple present

She said I live


in Georgia.
Simple past
She said, I chose a
blue skirt.

REPORTED SPEECH
Simple past
She said (that) she
lived in Georgia.
Past perfect
She said she had
chosen a blue skirt.

Adverbs often change between direct

There are sometimes pronoun changes


between direct and reported speech.
DIRECT SPEECH
She said, Please
clean
You room.
He said, I did
My homework.

REPORTED SPEECH
She told me to
clean my room.
He said that he had
done his homework.

Should, could and might do not change


in reported speech.

DIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
Dad
said,
You Dad said (that) I
should
clean your room.
should clean my room.

You do not have to change the tense in


reported speech when you are
reporting:
a) a general truth or scientific law.
DIRECT SPEECH
They said, the Earth
revolves around the saun.

REPORTED SPEECH
They said the Earth
revolves around
the sun.

b) Something that is still true.


DIRECT SPEECH
The teacher said, You
dont have any
homework tonight.

REPORTED SPEECH
The teacher said
(that) we dont have
Any homework tonight.

MOM: Your music is too loud!


TINA: What did Mom just say?
JEFF: She said that your music is
too loud.
c) Something that was just said.

The passive voice: Pent