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Anda di halaman 1dari 79

according to EN 1999-1-1 Eurocode 9

Torsten Hglund

Royal Institute of Technology

Stockholm

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Eurodode 9 gives the design values of resistance at the ultimate limit state, e.g.

M Rd =

M Rk

Wel f o

M1

M Rd

M Rk

f o = Rp0.2

M1 = 1,1

Wel

section modulus

For class 4 cross sections (slender sections, sections with large width/thickness

ratio) Wel is replaced by Weff for the effective cross section. However, if the

deflection at the serviceability limit state is decisive then a simplified method may

be used; see page 17.

EUROCODES

In a section with reduced strength due to welding (heat affected zone, HAZ)

M Rd =

Wel u,haz f u

M2

M Rd

fu

u, haz

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Material properties

4

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Except for massive sections and very stocky sections local

buckling will occure in compressed parts at failure. However,

the behaviour is different depending on the slenderness = b/t

where b is the width and t is the thickness of the cross section

part.

If > 3 where 3 is roughly 6 for an outstand part and 22 for

an internal part, then local buckling will occure before the

compressive stress reach the 0,2 % proof stress fo. Such a

section part is called slender and the cross section is

referred to as Class 4 cross section.

Collapse load

tf,eff

For very slender sections there is a

post-buckling strength allowed for

by using an effective cross section.

f0,2

Buckling load

tw,eff

(4)

>

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

is < 3 and > 2 where 2 is roughly 4,5 (16),

then the cross section belong to class 3, non

slender section. Then buckling will occur for a

stress equal to or somewhat larger than fo and

some part of the cross section closer to the

neutral axis (webs) may be larger than

according to the theory of elasticity (linear stress

distribution).

If for the most slender part is less than 2

then also parts of the cross section close to

the neutral axis will reach fo (class 2).

large enough for redistribution of bending

moment using plastic global analysis (class 1).

(3)

f0,2

<

<

EUROCODES

buckling class A and fo = 250 N/mm2. For buckling class

B and welded sections the limits are smaller.

Buckling

class

= 250/f o

A, without weld

A, with weld

B, without weld

B, with weld

Internal part

1/

2/

11

9

13

10

16

13

16,5

13,5

(Buckling class is

defined later)

3/

Outstand part

1/

2/

3/

22

18

18

15

3

2,5

3,5

3

6

5

5

4

4,5

4

4,5

3,5

bf

outstand

internal

tw

mm

bf = 70

Loading

tf = 14

bw = 90

Axial compression

tw = 4

fo = 250 Bending

1

web

flange

flange

web

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

For outstand cross section parts, b is the width of the flat part outside the fillet. For internal parts b is the flat part between the fillets,

except for cold-formed sections and rounded outside corners.

EUROCODES

Stress gradient

= bw/tw where

= 0,70 + 0,30

if 1 > > -1

= 0,80/(1- )

if < -1

z2

If the part is less highly stressed than the most severely stressed

fibres in the section, a modified expression may be used for

= (250 /f o ) ( z1 / z 2 )

bf

Example 2: Give cross section class

internal

tw

mm

bf = 140

tf = 10

bw = 180

tw = 6

fo = 250

Loading

1

Axial compression

Bending

EUROCODES

10

10

buckling) is the same for cross section class 1, 2 and 3

N Rd = Af o / M1

This effective cross section is build up of section with effective

thickness teff for the cross section parts that belong to class 4.

teff = c t

C1

C2

( / ) ( / ) 2

Buckling

class

Internal part

C2

C1

Outstand part

C1

C2

A, without weld

A, with weld

B, without weld

B, with weld

32

29

29

25

10

9

9

8

220

198

198

150

24

20

20

16

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

11

cross section class. For class 2 cross section the resistance is given by

M Rd,2 = M pl = Wpl f o / M1

but Mpl is a good approximation.

For class 3 cross section the resistance is somewhere between

Mpl and Mel where

Wel = I / e

M Rd,3 = M el + ( M pl M el )

3

3 2

For class 4 cross section the resistance is

M Rd,4 = Weff f o / M1

EUROCODES

12

The effective cross section is different for axial force and bending moment.

No effective cross section is needed for the combined loading axial force and

bending moment. The combination is solved using interaction formulae.

bf

tf

t e,f

tw

bw

t e,f

bc

te,w

t e,w

te,f

y

tw

tw

t e,f

tf

Effective section

for axial compression

Effective section

for y- axis bending

Effective section

for z- axis bending

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

13

tf,eff

hw

there might be a shift in the neutral axis.

For axially compressed extruded profiles

this shift is ignored i.e. the axial force is

taken as acting in the centre of the

effective cross section. For cold-formed

sections the shift should be allowed for by

adding a bending moment MEd = NEdeN

where eN is the shift in neutral axis for

gross and effective cross section.

bw

effective cross section is also symmetric.

tf,eff

the effective thickness of the cross

section parts.

between fillets need to be reduced,

however, for simplicity, the whole

flange or web may be reduced.

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

14

To find the effective cross section for bending moment is sometimes a tricky task

and is not presented here in detail. Just a few comments:

Local buckling may only occur on the compression side. For a member in

bending, even if the cross section is symmetric, the effective section is

asymmetric

The neutral axis of the effective cross section is shifted closer to the tension side

and the compressed part of the cross section is increased

In principle an iteration procedure should be used, however, only two steps are

necessary

E.g. for an I-section the first step is

to calculate the effective thickness of

the compression flange and calculate

the neutral axis for that section. The

second step is to calculate the

effective thickness of the web based

on this neutral axis. This is then the

effective cross section.

EUROCODES

bf

15

bw

tf

tw

mm

bf = 70

tf = 14

bw = 90

tw = 4

Compression, web c =

c =

Loading

Axial compression

Bending

C1

C2

( / ) ( / ) 2

web

C1 = 32,

32

220

= 0,988

2

22,5 22,5

Compression and

= 70 / 14 = 5

bending, flange

Which formula

to be used?

M Rd,3 = M el + ( M pl M el )

M Rd,4 = Weff f o / M1

flange

web

flange

C 2 = 220 = 90 / 4 = 22,5

= 1, 3 = 22

Use gross cross section

3 = 6, 2 = 4,5

M Rd,2 = Wpl f o / M1

3

3 2

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Web slenderness

16

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

17

17

that the deflection at the serviceability limit state is often decisive. Then

conservative design at the ultimate limit state can often be accepted.

For class 1, 2 and 3 cross section the resistance according to the theory of

elasticity could be used e.g.

M Rd =

Wel f o

M1

For class 4 cross section the resistance could be given by

W f

M Rd = c el o

M1

where c is the reduction factor for local buckling for the cross section part

with the largest value of / 3. This might be rather conservative but no

effective cross section need to be determined.

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Buckling class

curves are not depending on the shape of the cross section (as for steel)

Buckling curve depends on material and longitudinal welding

Material buckling class A or B depends on the - diagram for small

strains (proportional limit - 0,2-proof stress ratio, fp/fo)

Buckling class is given in Table 3.2 a and b

18

EUROCODES

19

fo

fo

t

b

beff

beff

teff

EUROCODES

20

to define start and stop of effective widths especially important for aluminium profiles.

Simple calculations

Easier to allow for

combination of local

buckling and HAZ

for local buckling and HAZ softening is used.

lag where effective width

is used

beff

beff

CL

may be taken into account by first reducing

the flange width to an effective width, then

reducing the thickness to an effective

thickness for local buckling basing the

slenderness on the effective width for

shear lag. (National choice)

3

4

b0

b0

EUROCODES

21

u,haz for ultimate strength

Example: Extruded profile, t < 5

Alloy

6082

7020

Temper

0,2 % p.

strength

Ultimate

strength

T4

0,91

0,78

T5

0,54

0,69

T6

0,50

0,64

T6

0,71

0,80

o,haz

Temper

0,2 % p.

strength

Ultimate

strength

H14

0,37

0,64

H16

0,30

0,56

5754

H14

0,53

0,63

6082

T6

0,48

0,60

Alloy

u,haz

3005

o,haz

u,haz

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

22

bhaz mm

T1 < 60oC

40

TIG, t<6

30

bhaz

20

MIG

10

0

10

15

20

25

t mm

When 60 oC < T1 < 120oC

multiply with

1 + (T1 - 60) / 120

1 + (T1 - 60) / 80

6xxx alloy

7xxx alloy

welds are laid

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

23

2z + t w

b

b haz

o,haztf

tf

in the heat affected zone HAZ should be allowed for.

The cross section classification is made as for extruded

sections, except that the limits 1, 2 and 3 are

somewhat smaller.

min(o,haztw; ctw)

proof stress.

If the cross section belong to class 4 the effective

thickness is the lesser of c t and o,haz t within bhaz and

c t besides HAZ.

Question 1: If a welded section is symmetric and

belong to class 3 is then the reduced cross section

due to HAZ asymmetric?

Question 2: If a welded section is symmetric and belong

to class 4 is then the reduced cross section usually

asymmetric?

teff = c tf

min(o,haztf; ctf)

bc

t haz = o,haz t

where o,haz is the reduction factor for the 0,2 %

b haz

within the widths bhaz of the HAZs

c tw

tw

Bending moment

Qu.

yes

1

2

no

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

tension force resistance is the lesser of

a) The strength in the sections beside the weld and

the HAZ

b) The strength in the HAZ

c) The strength of the weld

24

a)

and the HAZs is based on the 0,2 % proof strength

fo whereas the strength in the HAZs is the ultimate

strength u,hazfu and in the weld fw, but with larger

partial factors M2 = Mw = 1,25.

So ,for a member in tension the resistance is

the lesser of

N o,Rd = f o A / M1

b) N u,Rd = u,haz f u A / M2

c) N w,Rd = f w Aw / Mw

a)

b)

c)

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

25

HAZ and the weld for a tension member in EN-AW

6082-T6 with a but weld with Aw = A made of filler

metal 5356 (M2 = Mw)

Table 8.8

Table 3.2b

a)

b)

f w = 210 N / mm 2

N

with an attachment?

a) N o,Rd = f o A / M1

b) N u,Rd = u,haz f u A / M2

c) N w,Rd = f w Aw / Mw

c)

a)

b)

EUROCODES

26

a) The strength in the sections beside the holes

b) The strength in the section with the holes

1

b1

b

Anet = min:

line 1

t (b - 2d)

2

line 2

t (b - 4d + 2s /(4p))

2

t (b1 + 20,65s1 4d + 2s /(4p)) line 3

s

1

s1

2

a) N o,Rd = f o A / M1

b)

Note 0,9

The net area Anet shall be taken as the gross area less

appropriate deductions for holes, see figure.

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

27

(Flexural) buckling

Axial force

Torsional buckling

S

G N

Bending moment

Mz

My

bending

moment

Torsional-flexural buckling

Mz

My N

My

My

Lateral-torsional buckling

Flexural buckling

Lateral-torsional buckling

S

G

N

My

EUROCODES

Flexural buckling

28

EI

N cr =

2. Yield load

N y = Aeff f o

Ny

=

N cr

3. Slenderness parameter

2

lcr

from formulae or diagram

transverse welds

N b,Rd = N y / M1

6. Resistance

1

0,9

1Class

2

A

Class B

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

EUROCODES

29

Buckling class A

where

A1 = A Ahaz (1 o,haz )

Buckling class B

=1

if

0,2

if

> 0,2

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

30

depending on where the weld is placed along

the member.

If the welds are at the ends then = 1 in the

formula for flexural buckling (1). However, then

a check is also needed of the section

resistance at the ends where = o.(2)

Utilization grade

30

NEd

Ny/ M1

(1) N b,Rd = N y / M1 and

(2) N Rd = o N y / M1 where

u,haz f u / M2

o =

f o / M1

NEd

oNy/ M1

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

31

then the resistance at that section is found

for = x (3). Furthermore the resistance for

the member without weld should also be

checked. (1)

If the weld is at the centre of the member

then x = o.

(1) N b,Rd = N y / M1 and

(3) N b,Rd = x N y / M1

x =

+ (1 ) sin(xs / lcr )

Utilization grade

haz = o

(6.68a)

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

32

(1) For sections containing reinforced outstands such that mode 1 would

be critical in terms of local buckling, the member should be regarded as

"general" and Aeff determined allowing for either

or both local buckling and HAZ material.

2) For sections such as angles, tees and cruciforms, composed entirely

of radiating outstands, local and torsional buckling are closely related.

When determining Aeff allowance should be made, where appropriate,

for the presence of HAZ material but no reduction should be made for

local buckling i.e. c = 1.

1

Formulae for critical load

Ncr are given in Annex I

of Eurocode 9 part 1-1.

0,9

1

2

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

Aeff f o

N cr

0,2

0,1

0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

T

1 Cross section composed of radiating outstands,

2 General cross section

EUROCODES

33

lcr /2

lcr

lcr

L

lcr

lcr

lcr /2

The buckling length should be taken as lcr = kL. The figure gives guidance for k.

End conditions

1. Held in position and restrained in rotation at both ends

2. Held in position at both ends and restrained in rotation at one end

3. Held in position at both ends, but not restrained in rotation

4. Held in position at one end, and restrained in rotation at both ends

5. Held in position and restrained in rotation at one end, and partially

restrained in rotation but not held in position at the other end

6. Held in position and restrained in rotation at one end, but not held in

position or restrained at the other end

EUROCODES

34

Critical moment

My

Fz

EK w

M cr =

EI y GK v +

L

L2

My

Slenderness parameter

LT =

Wel,y f o

M cr

Reduction factor LT

LT

0,9

1

2

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

Resistance

M b,LT = LTWel,y f o / M 1

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2 Class 3 and 4 cross sections

LT

2,0

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

35

circumstances

a) Bending takes place about the minor principal axis (symmetric profiles)

b) Hollow sections with h/b < 2

c) Rotation is prevented

d) The compression flange is fully restrained against lateral movement

throughout its length

e) The slenderness parameter LT between points of effective lateral

restraint is less than 0,4.

b

h

a)

h/b<2

b)

LT < 0,4

c)

d)

e)

EUROCODES

36

forces is made for the loading components separately. No classification is made

for the combined state of stress.

N Ed

x N Rd

y

yc

M y,Ed

0 M y,Rd

1,00

N Ed

N

z x Rd

c M z,Ed

+

0 M z,Rd

zc

1,00

2 A cross-section can belong to different classes for axial force, major axis bending

and minor axis bending. The combined state of stress is accounted for in the

interaction expressions. These interaction expressions can be used for all classes

of cross-section. The influence of local buckling and yielding on the resistance for

combined loading is accounted for by the resistances in the denominators and the

exponents, which are functions of the slenderness of the cross-section.

3 Section check is included in the check of flexural and lateral-torsional buckling

All exponents may conservatively be given the value 0,8. Alternative expressions

depend on shape factors y or z and reduction factors y or z.

EUROCODES

37

1,0

1,0

y = 0

N Ed

N Rd

Ec 3

Ec 9

y =1,0

y = 0,62

0,5

y = 0

NEd

NRd

y = 0,62

Klass 3

0,5

y = 1,23

Ec 3

Ec 9

y =1,0

Klass 2

y = 1,23

0,5

M y,Ed

M y,Rd

1,0

0

0

0,5

M y,Ed

M y,Rd

1,0

EUROCODES

Design section

emax

38

e1

M1 N

e +v

e1

M1

e

e +v

vmax

vmax

bending moment

M2

N

Basic case

M2 < M1

e2 M2 N

Max(e + v) occur in the

span if N is large and/or

the slenderness of the

member is large

e2

Max(e + v) occur at the

end if M1 is large and/or

the slenderness of the

member is small

EUROCODES

N Ed

x N Rd

y

yc

M y,Ed

0 M y,Rd

39

1,00

1

K

+

B

0 = 1

1

x =

x

+ (1 ) sin

lcr

1

varies according to a sine curve

x and so also the first term K in the

M1,Ed

My,Rd

N Ed

max

y x N Rd

is found for

yc

NEd

MEd

max

+

xNRd My,Rd

NEd

NRd

M2,Ed

My,Rd

interaction formula

In principal all sections along the member

need to be checked. However

NEd

NRd

NEd

NRd

M y ,Ed

+

0 M y,Rd

x

cos

lc

( M Ed,1 M Ed,2 ) N Rd

1

=

M Rd

N Ed (1/ 1)

but x 0

EUROCODES

40

Equivalent moment

40

used. Then for different bending moment distribution different coefficient are

needed. One example is given below.

M y, Ed

N Ed

+ k yy

1

y N Rk / M1

M y,Rk / M1

C my

Cmy

k yy =

N

1 y Ed

N cr, y

k yy =

M1

N Ed

Cmy = 0, 79 + 0, 21 + 0, 36( 0, 33)

N cr,y

1,6 2

C yy = 1 + wy 1 2

Cmy y 1 + y

wy

1 y N Ed C yy

N cr, y

wy =

Wpl, y

Wel, y

1,5

EUROCODES

N Ed

x N Rd

y

yc

M y,Ed

0 M y,Rd

B

41

NEd

NRd

1,00

max

x

NEd

MEd

+

xNRd My,Rd

NEd

NRd

0 = 1

1

x =

x

+ (1 ) sin

NEd

NRd

lcr

EUROCODES

42

For members with transverse (local) weld two checks should be made

1. As if there were no weld

Ny

N cr

N Ed

x N Rd

yc

M y,Ed

+

1,00

0 M y,Rd

x.haz =

o =

0 = 1

x =

+ (1 ) sin

x

lcr

haz

haz = o

+ (1 ) sin(xs / lcr )

u,haz f u / M2

f o / M1

xs

K

x

NEd

Ny /

M1

NEd

x,haz haz Ny/

B

MEd (x)

My / M1

M Ed (xs)

0 M y / M1

M1

for

= haz

EUROCODES

Lateral-torsional buckling

43

N Ed

z x N Rd

c

zc

M y,Ed

+ M z,Ed

+

1,00

LT

xLT M y,Rd

0 M z,Rd

As for flexural buckling all exponents may conservatively be given the value

0,8. Alternative expressions depend on shape factors y or z and reduction

factors y or z.

The shape factors are:

For class (1 and) 2 cross sections

= Wpl/Wel

= Weff/Wel

EUROCODES

Lateral-torsional buckling

44

N Ed

z x N Rd

M y , Ed

+

LT x, LT M y,Rd

My

c = 0,8 or 0 z where

0 = 1 or z2 y2 but 1 0 2

c = 0 where

0 = 1 or z2 but 1 0 1,56

x and x,LT are coefficients which allow for HAZ across the

member and/or of the moment distribution along the member. If

there are no cross welds and constant moment then both are = 1

else

x =

o

z + (1 z ) sin

x

lcr

x,LT =

o

LT + (1 LT ) sin

x

lcr

My

EUROCODES

Design of frames

45

L

lcr

qEd

MI

HEd

I0

(a)

+

(b)

a) Equivalent buckling

length method

(c)

c) Alternative method

+

(e)

A-A

(g)

(f)

(d)

Lcr

L cr

b) Equivalent sway

imperfection method

MII

MII

N Rk

N Rk

N Rk

N cr

EUROCODES

46

L

lcr

qEd

MI

HEd

I

(a)

(b) Equivalent column length

(c) First order bending moment

+

(b)

I0

(c)

allowed for by the critical buckling length.

EUROCODES

47

A

MII

(d)

+

(e)

Lcr

Lcr

MII

(f)

A-A

(g)

(e) Initial local bow imperfection and buckling length for flexural buckling

(f) Second order moment including moment from sway imperfection

(g) Initial local bow and buckling length for lateral-torsional buckling

EUROCODES

48

The effect of initial sway imperfection and bow imperfection may be replaced

by systems of equivalent horizontal forces introduced for each columns.

NEd

NEd

NEd

NEd

NEd

4NEde0d

L

8NEde0d

L

e0,d

L2

4NEde0d

L

NEd

NEd

NEd

NEd

NEd

qeqv L2

8

8 N Ed e0, d

L2

EUROCODES

Initial sway

0 =

1

200

49

= 0 h m

h =

2

h

but

2

h 1,0

3

m = 0,51 +

h = height in m meters

m = number of column in a row including only those columns which carry a vertical

load NEd > 50 % of the average value for the columns

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

EUROCODES

Alternative method

50

L

qEd

HEd

I0

I

N Rk

In principle

N cr

N Rk

N cr

e0,d

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

51

51

Plastic global analysis

1. Plastic global analysis may be used only where the structure has sufficient

rotation capacity at the actual location of the plastic hinge, whether this is in the

members or in the joints. Where a plastic hinge occurs in a member, the member

cross sections should be double symmetric or single symmetric with a plane of

symmetry in the same plane as the rotation of the plastic hinge and it should

satisfy the requirements for cross section class 1.

2. Where a plastic hinge occurs in a joint the joint should either have sufficient

strength to ensure the hinge remains in the member or should be able to sustain

the plastic resistance for a sufficient rotation.

3. Only certain alloys have the required ductility to allow sufficient rotation capacity.

4. Plastic global analysis should not be used for beams with transverse welds on

the tension side of the member at the plastic hinge locations.

5. For plastic global analysis of beams recommendations are given in Annex H.

6. Plastic global analysis should only be used where the stability of members can

be assured.

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Torsion

52

Shear centre

the shear centre

The deflection due to twisting

may be larger than the

deflection due to bending

2. Calculate the deflection in those

directions

3. Calculate the vertical deflection vz v

The load also deflects laterally, in this case to the left because the

lateral deflection due to twist is larger than due to bending.

vy v

Fz

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

53

S.C

.

Cv

Cv

a. Add stiffeners

b. Change cross section so that the load

acts through the shear centre

c. Use hollow sections

Cv = torsion

stiffness (relative)

EUROCODES

54

For members subjected to torsion for which distortional deformations and warping

torsion may be disregarded (St Venants torsion) the design value of the torsional

moment at each cross-section shall satisfy

V

b1

t1

t2

t2

b2

St Venants torsion

stiffness and strength

considerably; see Annex J

Warping torsion

EUROCODES

55

disregarded but not warping torsion (Vlasov torsion) the total torsional moment at

any cross-section should be considered as the sum of two internal effects:

The following stresses due to torsion should be taken into account:

- the shear stresses t,Ed due to St. Venant torsion moment Tt,Ed

- the direct stresses w,Ed due to the bimoment BEd and shear stresses w,Ed due

to warping torsion moment Tw,Ed.

Check the von Mises yield criterion

2

x,Ed

z,Ed

x,Ed z,Ed Ed

+ 3

C

f /

f /

f /

f /

f /

o M1

o M1

o M1 o M1 o M1

where C = 1,2

If the resultant force is acting through the shear centre there is no torsional moment

due to that loading.

Formulae for the shear centre for some frequent cross-sections. see Annex J

EUROCODES

56

h0

NEd

h0

N

V

L/2

yst

e0

L/2

2a

z

Ach

NEd

Ach

Ach

Ach

y

b

battening [Eurocode 3]

d

e

under in-plane loadings [2]

EUROCODES

Plate girders

tf,ef

bc = bw /2

hf

hw

Bending

bw

tw,ef

References

tw,ef

bc

bf

57

tf

G1

G2

tw

BS 8118 [4]

Hglund [2, 8]

tw

t w,ef =

(a)

cw tw

tf,ef =

(b)

(c)

a

E

cf tf

bf t

f

MSd

Ed

Shear

tw

Vw

(a)

Vw

Hglund [5]

Vf

(b)

Vf

Others [6]

(c)

Lagerkvist [6j]

Tryland [6l]

Patch loading

2a

Corrugated web

a3

a0

tw

a2

a1

x

Hglund [5]

Benson [6a]

Ullman [12]

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

58

version of Eurocode 9 are available on the

TALAT CD-ROM, also available at:

http://www.eaa.net/eaa/education/TALAT/2000/2300.htm

2301 Design of Members and

2302 Design of Joints can be found

About 50 examples based on EN 1999 and updated

lectures will be available on the EAA homepage.

A list of the examples are given at the end of this presentation

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Main references

59

1-1: General rules. CEN (European Committee for Standardization) 2007.

[2] Hglund, T., Design of members. TALAT CD-ROM lecture 2301, (Training in

Aluminium Application Technologies), European Aluminium Association.

http://www.eaa.net/eaa/education/TALAT/2000/2300.htm

[3] Mazzolani (ed), Valtinat, Hglund, Soetens, Atzori, Langseth, Aluminium

Structural Design. CISM Courses and Lectures No. 443,

SpringerWienNewYork 2003

[4] BS 8118 Structural use of aluminium, Part 1. Code of practice for design

Part 2. Specification for material, workmanship and protection 1991

[5] Hglund, T., Shear Buckling resistance of Steel and Aluminium Plate Girders.

Thin-Walled Structures Vol. 29, Nos. 1-4, pp. 13-30, 1997

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

60

[a] Benson, P.G.(1992). Shear buckling and overall web buckling of welded aluminium girders. Royal Institute of

Technology, Division of Steel Structures, Stockholm, PhD thesis

[b] Brown, K.E.P.(1990). The post-buckling and collapse behaviour of aluminium girders. University of Wales

College of Cardiff, PhD thesis.

[c] Burt, C.A.(1987). The ultimate strength of aluminium plate girders. University of Wales College of Cardiff, PhD.

[d] Edlund, S., Jansson, R. and Hglund, T.(2001). Shear buckling of Welded Aluminium Girders. 9th Nordic Steel

Construction Conference, Helsinki.

[e] Evans, H.R. and Lee, A.Y.N.(1984). An appraisal, by comparison with experimental data, of new design

procedures for aluminium plate girders. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Structures & Buildings, Feb. 1984.

[f] Evans, H.R. and Hamoodi, M.J. (1987). The collapse of welded aluminium plate girders - an experimental study.

Thin-Walled Structures 5.

[g] Evans, H.R. and Burt, C.(1990). Ultimate load determination for welded aluminium plate girders. Aluminium

Structures: advances, design and construction. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York.

[h] Hglund, T.(1972). Design of thin plate I girders in shear and bending with special reference to web buckling.

Royal Inst of Technology, Dept. of Building Statics and Structural Engineering, Stockholm.

[i] Hglund, T.(1995). Shear buckling of Steel and Aluminium Plate Girders. Royal Inst of Technology, Dept. of

Structural Engineering, Technical Report 1995:4, Stockholm

[j] Lagerqvist, O. (1994). Patch loading. Resistance of Steel Girders Subjected to Concentrated Forces. Ph.D. thesis,

Lule University of Technology, Division of Steel Structures, Lule, Sweden.

[k] Rockey, K.C. and Evans, H.R.(1970). An experimental study of the ultimate load capacity of welded aluminium

plate girders loaded in shear. Research Report, University of Wales College of Cardiff.

[l] Tryland, T. (1999). Aluminium and Steel Beams under Concentrated Loading. Dr.Ing. Thesis. Norwegian

University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

61

[7] Hglund, T., Approximativ metod fr dimensionering av bjd och tryckt stng.

Royal Inst. of Technology, Division of Building Statics and Structural

Engineering, Bulletin 77, Stockholm 1968

[8] Hglund, T., Dimensionering av stlkonstruktioner. Extract from the handbook

Bygg, Chapter K18. The Swedish Institute of Steel Construction, Stockholm

1994

English Translation in: Hglund, T., Steel structures, Design according to the

Swedish Regulations for Steel Structures, BSK. Dept. of Steel Structures,

Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm 1988

[9] Edlund, S., Buckling of T-section Beam-Columns in Aluminium with or without

Transverse Welds. Royal Inst. of Technology, Department of Structural

Engineering, Stockholm 2000

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

aluminium extrusions. Thin-walled Structures, 27, pp. 117-126, 1996

[11] Hopperstad, O.S., Langseth, M. and Tryland, T., Ultimate strength of

aluminium alloy outstands in compression: experiments and simplified

analysis. Thin-walled Structures, 34, pp. 279-294, 1999

[12] Ullman, R., Shear Buckling of Aluminium Girders with Corrugated webs.

Royal Inst. of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering, ISRN

KTH/BKN/B-67-SE, Stockholm 2002

62

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

63

63

Torsten Hglund

1. Mathcad formulations

2. Serviceability limit state

3. Axial tension

4. Bending moment

5. Axial force

6. Shear force

7. Concentrated force

8. Torsion

9. Axial force and bending moment

10.Nonlinear stress distribution

11.Trapezoidal sheeting

12.Shells

Mathcad formulations

The calculations in the following examples are set out in detail. In most

cases, the designer can make simplifications when he/she has learned by

experience which checks are not usually critical.

submatrix ( a , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2)

first column is numbered 0

The examples are worked out in the mathematics program Mathcad, version 8.

Some of the operators and notations used in the examples are explained below.

x := 50.6 mm

Definition of value

y 2.5 mm

Global definition

x + y = 53.1mm

Calculation result

Boolean equality

augment ( f , g )

0.5

c := ( 1 3 2 )

( c d )

Row vector

g := 3 4 7

5 6 9

Example:

1 8 2

g = 3 4 7

5 6 9

submatrix ( g , 0 , 1 , 1 , 2) =

1 1 8 2

3 4 7

2 5 6 9

T

augment ( c , g ) = 3

Column

Example:

gives a = ( 2 12 6 )

Matrix

Example:

1

c = 3

2

T

1 3 5

g = 8 4 6

2 7 9

T

8 2

4 7

Augmentation of matrices

Example:

on each element of a vector or matrix

Example:

a := ( c d )

d := ( 2 4 3 )

1 8 2

define columns)

8

= 4

6

Aef

Subscript i

Example:

1, 2

=7

No.

Description

2.1

made of two extrusions and one plate.

Distributed load.

2.2

deflection of class 4 cross section girder.

Distributed load.

2.3

due to bending and torsion of concentrated

load. Check of stresses included.

Axial tension

No.

Description

3.1

3.2

plate

b) Axial tension force resistance of a plate

with MIG butt weld across the plate

c) Axial tension force resistance of a plate

with longitudinal butt weld

d) Axial tension force resistance of a plate

with welded attachment across the plate

e) Axial tension force resistance of a plate

with bolt holes

Bending moment

No.

Description

4.1

with closed cross section parts and

outstands

4.2

hollow cross section

4.3

hollow cross section with outstands. Class 2

cross section

4.4

hollow cross section with outstands. Class 4

cross section

Axial compression 1

No.

Description

5.1

square hollow cross section (local and

flexural buckling)

5.2

symmetric hollow extrusion (local and

flexural buckling)

5.3

section with radiating outstands (torsional

buckling)

5.4

channel cross section (distortional buckling)

Axial compression 2

No.

Description

5.5

5.6

with

a) open stiffeners

b) trapezoidal stiffeners

c) closed stiffeners

a)

b)

c)

5.7

a)

b)

c)

a) profiles joined with grooves and

tongues

b) truss cross section

c) frame cross section

Shear force 1

No.

Description

6.1

no intermediate stiffeners incl. contribution

from the flanges

6.2

a) flexible intermediate stiffeners

b) rigid intermediate stiffeners

6.3

transverse and longitudinal stiffeners

6.4

corrugated web

Shear force 2

No.

6.5

Description

Shear force resistance of orthotropic plate

with

a) open stiffeners

b) trapezoidal stiffeners

c) closed stiffeners

a)

b)

c)

6.6

a)

b)

c)

double-skin plate

a) profiles joined with grooves and

tongues

b) truss cross section

c) frame cross section

No.

Description

7.1

plate girder (patch loading).

7.2

bending moment for a plate girder at the

support region.

7.3

concentrated forces. Rigid end post, no

intermediate stiffeners.

Torsion

No.

Description

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

No.

Description

9.1

9.2

section

9.3

9.4

cross weld

9.5

column fixed to ground with bolted foot

plate or fixed into a concrete block

No.

10.1

Description

member in torsion and bending.

See 8.4 and also 2.2

Trapezoidal sheeting

No.

Description

11.1

11.2

the webs

11.3

the top flanges and one stiffener in the

webs

11.4

the flanges and two stiffeners in the webs

Cylindrical shells

No.

Description

12.1

Cylindrical shell in

a) Meridional (axial) compression and

bending

b) Meridional (axial) compression with

coexistent internal pressure

12.2

compression

12.3

12.4

thickness in circumferential compression

No.

Description

12.5

orthotropic shell. Axial compression and

external pressure

12.6

pressure

12.7

pressure

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