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Tan, Ida Mae

Section D
1. Discuss the layers of the scalp including the clinical significance of each layer.
a. Skin
o The first layer and it is the outer most protecting of the skull.
o It contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles.
o It has an abundant arterial supply, good lymphatic and venous drainage.
b. Connective Tissue
o It is the fibrous septa that connects the skin to the aponeurosis of the
occipitofrontalis muscle
o Dense and well vascularized with numberous arteries and veins.
o Arteries are branches of the external and internal carotid arteries.
c. Aponeurosis ( Epicranial / Galea Aponeurotica)
o Thin and tendinous sheet that connects occipital and frontal bellies of the
occipitofrontalis muscle; its lateral area connects to the temporal fascia; its
muscles are innervated by the facial nerve
d. Loose areolar tissue
o It is found under the subaponeurotic space
o It loosely connects the epicranial aponeurosis to the pericranium
o It has spaces that may distend with fluid as result of injury / infection.
o Allows the free movement of the first three layers.
e. Pericranium / Periosteum
o Dense layer of connective tissue forms the external periosteum of the
o At the suture of the skull, the outer periosteum connects with the inner
2. Illustrate the neurovascular supply and venous drainage of the scalp

3. Describe the temporalis muscle

The temporalis muscle is located at the temple area.
Originates from the floor of the temporal fossa, and inserts at the coronoid
process of the mandible.
Innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
Anterior and superior fibers elevate the mandible; posterior fibers detract the
4. Enumerate the bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium
Neurocranium (8 bones)
Viscerocranium (14)
Parietal bones: 2
Zygomatic bones: 2
Temporal bones: 2
Maxillae: 2
Frontal bone: 1
Nasal bones: 2
Occipital bone: 1
Lacrimal bones: 2
Sphenoid bone: 1
Palatine bones: 2
Ethmoid bone: 1
Inferior conchae: 2
Mandible: 1
Vomer: 1

5. Define the bony landmarks that demarcate the three cranial fossae and its contents
A. Anterior Cranial Fossa
Anterior: inner surface of frontal bone
Posterior: Lesser wing of sphenoid
Anterior Clinoid Process- attachment for tentorium cerebelli
Medial floor: Cribriform plate of ethmoid
Crista Galli- attachment or falx cerebri
Small perforations for Olfactory Nerves
B. Middle Cranial Fossa
Anterior: Lesser Wings of Sphenoid
Posterior: Superior boundaries of petrous parts of temporal lobe
Optic Canal- in lesser wing of sphenoid
Superior Orbital Fissure- between lesser and greater wings of sphenoid
Foramen Rotundun- in greater wing of sphenoid
Foramen Ovale- in greater wing of sphenoid
Foramen Spinosum- in greater wing of sphenoid
Foramen Lacerum- between petrous and sphenoid

C. Posterior Cranial Fossa

Anterior: Superior boundaries of petrous parts of temporal lobe
Posterior: Internal surface of the squamous part of the occipital bone
Foramen Magnum- in occipital
Hypoglossal Canal- in occipital
Jugular Foramen- between petrous part of temporal and condylar part of occipital
Internal Acoustic Meatus- in petrous part of temporal

Internal Occipital Crest- attachment for falx cerebelli

6. Identify the neurovascular structures transmitted by the different foraminae

Structures transmitted
Perforations in cribiform plate
Olfactory nerves
Optic canal
Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery
Superior orbital fissure
Lacrimal, frontal, trochlear, occulomotor,
nasocilliary, abducent nerves, superior
ophthalmic veins
Foramen rotundum
Maxillary divison of the trigeminal nerve
Foramen ovale
Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve,
lesser petroval nerve
Foramen spinosum
Middle meningeal artery
Foramen lacerum
Internal carotid artery
Foramen magnum
Medulla oblongata, spinal part of
accessory nerve, right and left vertebral
Hypoglossal canal
Hypoglossal nerve
Jugular foramen
Glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory
Internal acoustic meatus
Vestibucochlear and facial nerve