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Asignatura
Clave Mster y Curso

SLOPED ROOFS
ROOFS
Construction II. Systems. 2nd year

Construction Area
Academic Year 2014-2015
Review 18/03/2015
Authors: Carlos Gelp Almirall

Index
1. General concepts

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

1.1. Definition of a sloped roof

characteristics
slopes

1.2. General classification

cold and warm (cat. fredes i calentes)


Ventilated and non ventilated
(cat. ventilades i no ventilades)

1.3. Requirements

support
comfort

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Construcci II

2. Determining factors and strategies


3. Design principals

3.1. Geometry
3.2. Water control
3.3. Layer composition
3.4. Nomenclature

4. Singular points
5. Finishing typologies and installation on site
6. Image of the sloped roof
7. Use
8. Information sources

Ventilated (cat. ventilada)


Non ventilated (cat. no ventilada)

Construcci II

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

General definition of a sloping roof. Characteristics.

Sloping roofs are those whose slope is greater than 5%.

Sloping roofs are those whose water and snow tightness rely on their geometry and
the waters velocity provided by the sloping plane.

The water and snow tightness of sloping roofs rely on their covering or finishing
material, which is not always a waterproofing material by itself.

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Generally, the space under roof or under cover is a usable space.

Due to the roofs geometry, sloping roofs can be a good support to place energy
collector panels as well as rainwater collectors for their further use.

Definition of a sloping roof. Slopes.

Sloping roofs are those roofs that have a slope greater than 5%.

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SLOPING > 5%

5%

Font: Construir la arquitectura, Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

FLAT < 5%

Roof slopes according to CTE

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Minimum
slope in %

Construcci II

Table 2.10 Slopes for sloping roofs

Tiles
Slate
Zinc

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Fiber cement
Synthetics

Galvanized
Profiles
And plates

Light alloys

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

General classification
- Sloping roofs can have a chamber or not. In the case the chamber, big or small, is ventilated, it
contributes, to a big extent, to the buildings energetic behavior.
- Sloping roofs can be cold or warm roofs, depending on whether or not they contain an air ventilated
chamber.
Cold roofs.
- The space under roof or under cover is usually a non-habitable space depending on the type of ventilation
or the dimension of the ventilated chamber in traditional roofs. In current roofs, internal ventilation can be
achieved without compromising the under roof.
- It relies on the ventilated chambers thickness in order to ensure the roofs energetic behavior. The
ventilated chambers thickness is responsible for ensuring the roofs energetic behavior.
- In this type of roof, a thermal insulation layer is necessary, with a smaller thickness than one needed in
non-ventilated roofs. A higrothermic calculation is also necessary in order to confirm whether a vapor
barrier is needed or not.
- Slopes are achieved with a specific sub-structure supported by the main structure.
Warm roofs.
- Under roof space is habitable.
- It relies on the insulation materials thickness in order to ensure the roofs energetic behavior.
- It will certainly need a vapor barrier, and in some cases, barriers against wind and dust filtrations.
- Slopes are achieved with the structural support.
Source: Construir la arquitectura, Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

COLD ROOFS

WARM ROOFS

(cat, COBERTES FREDES)

(cat. COBERTES CALENTES)

Support requirement. Common or shared structure.

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Construcci II

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Joaniquet House. La Molina.

Church from S. Bonifaci. Reichhof. Germany. 1974-88. H. Bienefeld

Support requirement. Roof independent from structure.

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Masia Can Llopart. Banyoles

Rodriguez House. Roda de Bar. 1980. J. Bach i G. Mora

Comfort requirement
External and internal factors which affect the roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Rainwater (cat. Aigua de Pluja)


Solar radiation (cat. Radiaci solar)
Wind (cat. Vent)
Temperature (cat. Temperatura)
Vapor difusion (cat. Difussi de vapor)
Snow (cat. Neu)
Mechanical damages (cat. Danys

Construcci II

mecnics)

(cat. Acabat de coberta. Lmina metllica)


(cat. Capa separadora. Geotextil)
(cat. Capa de suport acabat coberta. Tauler de fusta)

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(cat. Formaci ventilaci entre rastrells fixaci tauler fusta)


(cat. Capa dimpermeabilitzaci. Refor estanquitat.(no
necessria))
(cat. Capa dAllament trmic)
(cat. Capa Barrera de vapor.)
(cat. Capa de suport barrera de vapor i acabat interior)
(cat. Capa de suport estructural. Bigueta de fusta)
Source: Constructing
Architecture, Andrea
Deplazes. Ed. GG

Comfort requirements

INSULATION

WITHOUT INERTIA
ONLY WITH INSULATION

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Sogn Benedetg Chapel. Sumvitg, Graunbnden . Switzerland. 1985-87. Peter Zumthor

Comfort requirements

THERMAL MASS (THERMAL INERTIA)

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Norway rural house

Comfort requirements
INSULATION AND THERMAL MASS
INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR THERMAL MASS
INSULATION IN BETWEEN

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Dr. Olgiatti house. Flims. Switzerland. 1964-65. R. Olgiatti

University library. Delft. Netherlands. 1997. Mecanoo

Comfort requirements
SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Sports center. Jeddah. Saudi Arabia. 1980. Frei Otto

Comfort requirements
VENTILATION

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Masia Can Llopart. Banyoles

Rodriguezs house. Roda de Bar. 1980. J. Bach i G. Mora

Comfort requirements

VENTILATION

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House and studio. Gleissenberg. Germany. 2001. Florian Nagler

Comfort requirements
TIGHTNESS

AFTER SUPPORT AND/OR STABILITY, THE FIRST REQUIREMENT FOR ALL ROOFS IS TO
ENSURE WATER TIGHTNESS.

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Rehab Juval Castle. Italy. 1996. Robert Danz

Rodriguezs house. Roda de Bar. 1980. J. Bach i G. Mora

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Determining factors and strategies

Municipal regulatory norms:


One of the main factors when designing a building is municipal regulations and ordinances. Regarding roofs, many
municipalities have regulated and set a maximum and minimum slope for roofs, the type of finishing material, and their
use to collect solar energy and/or to place facility elements.
Climate conditions:
The buildings environmental climate conditions will help to make decisions for which type of roof to choose, taking into
consideration solar radiation, exterior temperatures, wind conditions, etc., which will help design one type of roof or
another.
Use of roof:
In the case of sloping roofs, we should consider whether the use of under cover or under roof is habitable or not, or if it
will have a specific use. Depending on this, we will project a warm or cold roof.
Roofs geometry:
The roofs geometry will be determinant when determining the roofs finishing or the type of roof in general, because
the roof needs to ensure the compliance of the stability and comfort requirements.
Water evacuation:
The roofs geometry has to ensure the evacuation of rainwater. Not only the roofs geometry but the roofs finishing will
determine this evacuation as well. In this case, the chart of slopes and materials is an indispensable tool in order to
ensure a good behavior of the roof regarding water tightness.
Stability of the finishing material:
The material used for the roofs finishing must be suitable to withstand the winds pressures and other forces such as
snow loads in order to ensure stability. In this point, the chart of slopes and materials is also a determining factor.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Roofs geometry
The slope and complexity of each of the
roofs sides will determine the geometry
of the roof.
There are basically two types of
geometries: gabled and hipped roofs
(cat. a dues aiges i a quatre agues).
From here on, there can be endless roof
combinations.
This concept has been studied in the
subject of descriptive geometry.
Image source: Catleg Terreal

Water expulsion
Water is almost always expulsed out of the building at its limits, and this is
known as evacuating water outside (cat. aiges fora)
There are three control strategies for the expulsion of water:
- Without water collection. Water falls down the exterior of the building.
- Exterior water collection. Water is gathered once beyond the roofs limit.
- Interior water collection. Water is gathered at an intermediate point of the
roof or in one of the roofs ends but hidden, and therefore, inside the
buildings perimeter.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Without water collection

Exterior water collection (visible)

Interior water collection (hidden)

SOURCE: Construir la arquitectura, Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Layers composition. Non ventilated roof

1- GENERAL ASPECTS
Non ventilated roofs are susceptible to humidity condensations and reheating.
Non ventilated roofs do not have air chambers.
This types of roof can be found in cold and warm climates, although they are generally used in cold climates with small
solar contributions.
The geometry of these roofs is a determining factor in order to ensure the roofs water tightness.
2- MAIN LAYERS
A supporting structure, mainly made out of wood.
A vapor barrier. Polyvinyl, breathable sheets (cat. Polivinils, lmines transpirables)
Thermal insulation, mainly rock wools or glass wool with significant thicknesses. (cat. Llana de roca o llana de vidre)
Finishing layer, has to ensure water tightness through the method of overlapping elements.
3- FINISHING LAYERS
- Ceramic tiles or mortar tiles (cat. Teules cermiques o de morter)
- Natural stones, mainly slates. (cat. Pedres naturals, generalment Pissarres)
- Metallic sheets, usually made out of Zinc or Copper. They can also be made out of steel or aluminum
(cat. Lmines i safates metlliques, Zinc o Coure majorment. Tamb acer o alumini)
- Waterproofing membranes (cat. Membranes impermeables)
- Panels (cat. Panells)

Layers composition. Non ventilated roof

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Source: Construir la arquitectura,


Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

Standard section. Examples

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Layers composition. Ventilated roof

1- GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Ventilated roofs have an air chamber and it must be ventilated to a bigger or smaller extent.
They can be found in cold and warm climates, although are generally used in warm climates with big solar contributions.
Its geometry is a determining factor in order to ensure the roofs water tightness.
2- MAIN LAYERS
A supporting structure
A sub-structure for the formation of slopes.
Air chamber
Thermal insulation, mainly made out of rock wool or glass wool. (cat. llanes de roca o vidre)
Finishing layer, has to ensure water tightness through the method of overlapping elements.
3- FINISHING LAYERS
- Ceramic tiles or mortar tiles (cat. Teules cermiques o de morter)
- Natural stones, mainly slates. (cat. Pedres naturals, generalment Pissarres)
- Metallic sheets, usually made out of Zinc or Copper. They can also be made out of steel or aluminum
(cat. Lmines i safates metlliques, Zinc o Coure majorment. Tamb acer o alumini)
- Waterproofing membranes (cat. Membranes impermeables)
- Panels (cat. Panells)

Layers composition. Ventilated roof through the attic


(cat. Coberta ventilada per les golfes)

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Source: Construir la arquitectura,


Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

Standard section. Examples

Layers composition. Ventilated roof

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Source: Construir la arquitectura,


Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

Standard section. Examples

Layers composition. Ventilated roof

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Source: Construir la arquitectura,


Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

Standard section. Examples

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Nomenclature
Nomenclature of the elements which make up sloping roofs:
1.

Acroterion

2.

Attic

3.

Fascia board

4.

Ridge vent

5.

Eaves

6.

Storage room

7.

Attic

8.

Slope, gable

9.

Drainpipe

10.

Gutter

11.

Dormer

12.

Skylight

13.

Valley rafters

14.

Chimney
flashing

15.

Chimney

16.

Chimney coping
hood

17.

Roof window

18.

Hip

19.

Hip

Source: Diccionari visual de la construcci. Generalitat de Catalunya i ITEC

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Singular points. Characteristics

The singular points of sloping roofs are mainly ridges, eaves, valley rafters, chimneys, and gutters.
Singular points must be physically and mechanically solved, using the physics basic principles in
order to ensure wind and water tightness.

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Many times singular points are reinforced with waterproofing and thermal insulating materials in
order to ensure their behavior.
It relies on the method of the roofs finishing layer overlapping elements.
Many commercial companies have elaborated special pieces for the execution of singular elements.
Every type of roof needs to create its own solution in order to overcome singular points.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Singular points. Ridges, valleys, and chimneys.

Singular points. Arabic tiled roof on top of a tongue and groove system (cat. encadellat)
supported on honeycomb bond partitions (cat. envanets de sostre mort)
Detail

1. Inferior eaves gutter.


(cat. Rfec inferior canal)
2. Ridge (cat. Carener)
3. Lateral vertical wall face
(cat. Parament vertical lateral)
4. Lateral eaves (cat. Rfec
lateral)
5. Top vertical wall face (cat.
Parament vertical superior)

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Singular points. Ventilated roof using ceramic flat fitting tiles.

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Cabrera de Mar building. 1999. HTT architects

Eaves

Detail of the roofs eaves with


timber joists. Facade with insulation
on the outside. Roman fitting
ceramic tile finishing, fixed with tabs
and nailed on to the roof.
(cat. Detall de rfec de coberta de
biguetes de fusta.
Amb faana abrigada. Acabat de
coberta amb
teula cermica romana dencaix,
fixada amb pestanya i clavada.)

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Source: Construir la arquitectura,


Andrea Deplazes. Ed. GG

Construcci II

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Concepts

CONSTRUCTION. FORMATION OF SLOPES


Construction of a slate roof on top of tongue and groove system supported on honeycomb
bond partitions. (cat. Construcci de coberta de pissarra sobre encadellat i envanets de sostre
mort.)
Construction of a roof with Arabic tiles on top of a timber structure and with insulation and
ventilation.

SMALL ELEMENTS. Water tightness system using the roofs geometry.


FIXING ELEMENTS. Fixing systems for small elements.
OVERLAPS. Doubles and simples.

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SEMI-PRODUCTS. Waterproofing elements using metallic plates.


FIXING ELEMENTS. Fixing system for plates.

Construcci II

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Construction of a slate roof on top of tongue and groove system supported on


honeycomb bond partitions
HONEYCOMB
BOND
PARTITIONS

STRUCTURAL SUPPORT. SETTING OUT.


FORMATION OF SLOPES
VENTILATION
CERAMIC TONGUE
AND GROOVE PANELS

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SLATE FINISHING

ROCK WOOL
INSULATION

Construction of an Arabic tile roof on top of a timber structure with ventilation

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Process of the creation of a sloping roof, with an air chamber incorporated on top of a wooden structural floor and with
an Arabic tile finishing.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Most common small elements


Natural stone, slate, asphaltic
plates, waterproof tiles
(cat. Pedra natural, pissarra, plaques
asfltiques, llosetes impermeables)

Arabic ceramic tile

Flat fitting ceramic tile

(cat. Teula cermica rab)

(cat. Teula cermica plana dencaix)

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Water tightness small elements: types of fixing elements


Simple support
(Cat. Recolzament simple)

Mortars or adhesive elements


(cat. Morter o adhesius)

Tabs
(cat. Pestanya)

Nails and hooks


(cat. Clavat i ganxos)

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Water tightness small elements : overlaps


Double overlap

material: slate

Water tightness small elements : overlaps

Simple overlap

ceramic material: Flemish tile


(cat. Teula flamenca)

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Eigenhaard. Amsterdam. Netherlands. 1917. de Klerk

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Metallic plates. Waterproof materials


Material: Zinc or copper plate
- Specialized workmanship for the treatment of the joints.
- Special attention when nailing the plates to the supporting element.
- Special attention to the plates folds.
- Special attention to singular points.
- High cost of non-ferrous materials.

Joints made by the folds of metallic - copper or zinc - plates.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Longitudinal joints pushed up without using bars.


Folded on site using trays.

Formation of ridge
Transversal joints

Plates on top of the support: detail of the folds execution at the worksite and
its final result.

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Modern Art Museum. Stockholm. Sweden. 1990-98. R.Moneo

Sandwich-type panel made out of coated steel and incorporated


polyurethane foam.

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Construcci II

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

CEIP a Salt. 2007. Serra, Ribera, Adroer

Sloped green roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Lausanne metro station. 20??. ??

Sloped green roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Joaniquets house. La Molina.

Construction of a ceramic roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Execution of
supporting walls
and beveledbrick slab
(cat. Execuci
dels envanets i
la solera de
ma bisellat.)

Construction of a ceramic roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Execution of a slab, setting out of tiles, and waterproofing of valley rafters.

Construction of a ceramic roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Placement of ceramic Arabic tiles fixed with cement mortar and setting out of singular points.

Construction of a ceramic roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Execution of singular points

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

The image of a sloping roof

Roofs made out of ceramic and natural stones (slate) are the most common
sloped roofs in our environment: however, taking into consideration stability and
comfort requirements mentioned previously - sloped roofs can be designed,
executed, and reinterpreted in many different types and ways.
In the next slides, we will show some projects that have chosen a very determining
architectonic language and that have resolved the roof according to the design,
the stability and the comfort requirements.
At this point, every roof image is accompanied by a constructive standard detail.
This way of showing the image with the constructive detail is to encourage you
and make it clear that every project solution is accompanied by a technical
reflection, which will be more or less accurate; and this will be said by time.

Flat tile roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Erain School, Irun. 2008. J.M.Otxotorena

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Clinker brick roof

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Construcci II

El Cueto Occupational Center . Salamanca. 2008 C. Asensio, J.M. Lapuerta.

Ceramic tile roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Santa Caterina Market. Barcelona. 1997-2005. EMBT

Synthetic membrane roof

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Source: Revista Tectnica

Housing. Cologne. Germany. 2011. Manuel Herz

Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Construcci II

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Synthetic membrane roof

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Source: Revista Tectnica

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Reinforced concrete enclosure


Bitumen vapor barrier, e=0,5mm
Pinewood frame
Galvanized steel angle
Rigid thermal insulation, e=12-14cm, mechanically and using
adhesives fixed
F. Fiber glass mesh reinforced render, e=5mm
G. Wooden and aluminum window frames

H. Zinc perimeter flashing


I. Multi-layer polyurethane membrane
1. Waterproof layer, double-component polyurethane and sand,
e=0,2mm
2. Waterproof layer, double-component polyurethane, e=0,2mm
3. UV rays protective layer, one-component polyurethane resin
J. Extruded polyurethane frame

Housing. Cologne. Germany. 2011. Manuel Herz

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Concept l Determining factors l Design l Singular points l Typologies and installation l Image l Use l Information sources

Most common types of roof uses

Sloped roofs, depending on the orientation their slopes have, are more susceptible to take advantage
of their received energy as well as their received water.
Sloped roofs, if well oriented, are an ideal platform for the placement of solar energy collectors, in
order to produce electrical energy and thermal energy to generate hot water. Collector elements can
be placed in an integrated way, as well as in an overlaid position.
Elements which have been designed to be placed in an integrated way, generates integrated energyefficient projects. On the other side, overlaid installations respond only to a specific energy demand.
As overlaid elements, they must take into consideration an anchoring system to be attached to the
roof.
At the same time, roofs regardless of their orientations, are rainwater collector elements. This water
can be conducted and stored for a later use or reuse through evacuation systems

Photovoltaic solar energy collector roof

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Housing. Stuttgart. Germany. Year?. Tina Volz

Energy collector roof through the means of heat


Solar energy collector panels are used for generating electric energy or hot water. These panels can be installed in sloped
roofs as long as they have an orientation within the limits of taking advantage of the collectors efficiency, either in an
integral way or an overlaid way.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Photovoltaic panel with a frame


Bilateral fixator
Conergy profile
Hook
Beam
Lateral fixator

Light collector elements


Sloped roofs can incorporate elements in order to capture sunlight and take it to the place where
windows or natural illumination is needed. This is an important energetic saving system for domestic
illumination.

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SOLATUBE (commercial license) natural interior lighting system

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Rain water collector elements

1. Rain water collector surface


2. Water conducted through gutters for its
evacuation towards a water deposit.
3. Underground or aerial water deposit used for water
storage.
4. Final use:
- watering gardens
- in case of fire
- for greywater

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Information sources
Class bibliography.
CTE. Documento Bsico HS. Salubridad. HS1-2.4. Cubiertas
Constructing architecture, materials processes structures.. A handbook. Ed. Birkhuser. Andrea Deplazes.
Construction Materials Manual. Ed. Birkhuser. Hegger, Auch-Schwelk, Fuchhs, Rosenkranz
Complementary bibliography. RECOMMENDED.
La construcci de la arquitectura, Ignacio Paricio. 2 Els elements
Las cubiertas de chapa, Ignacio Paricio. 1998 .Ed. Bisagra

Construcci II

La Cubierta del Edificio. Jos Coscollano Rodrguez. Ed. THOMSON-PARANINFO.


Las claves para construir arquitectura. Varios autores.
Tectnica nm.8 (Cubiertas inclinadas II)
Detail . Cubiertas ao 2002, nm. 1

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Detail . Cubiertas ao 2004, nm. 4


ITEC. La coberta captadora als edificis d'habitatges
Ecohabitar any 2005 nm. 4
Manual para el diseo y ejecucin de cubiertas de teja cermica. Ediciones Hispalyt seccin tejas
Diccionari visual de la construcci. www10.gencat.net/ptop/binaris/Dicc_cap3_tcm32-12286.pdf
www.salle.url.edu/tecnologia