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Cassava bioethanol

bioethanol production
production
Cassava
by

Dr. Kuakoon Piyachomkwan


Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit (CSTRU)
National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)
National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)

South - South Technology Transfer: Ethanol Production from


Cassava
Siam City Hotel, Bangkok
22-24 June 2011

World Ethanol Production


by continent in %

South America

N&C America

35.1%

45.9%

Asia

Europe

Africa

10.5%

7.6%

0.9%

Total production 77,000 mln litres (2008)

World Ethanol Consumption


Potable 11.5%
Industrial 8.8%

(7,375 mln litres)

(5,643 mln litres)

Fuel 79.6%
(51,044 mln litres)

Total 64,126 million litres (2007)

Fuel Ethanol Market


Thailand EU
China India 0.5%
4%
2.9% 0.6%

Others
1.6%

Canada
1.4%
Brazil
38%

USA
51%

63,421 million litres (2008)

World Ethanol Production by Feedstock


Synthetic

Sugar crops
55%

6%

Grains
37%

Others
2%

H12O
O + Yeast
CC66H
12 66+ Yeast
Glucose
Glucose
100grams
grams
100

2CO2 ++
2CO
2
Carbondioxide
dioxide
Carbon
48.89grams
grams
48.89

2C2H
H OH
2C
2 55OH
Ethanol
Ethanol
51.11grams
grams
51.11

The Gay-Lussac equation for ethanol production


from glucose by fermentation

Feedstock for ethanol production

Sugar crops

Cellulose

Sugar cane

Rice straws

Molasses

Bagasse

Sugar beets

Corn cops
Sawdust

Starch crops
Corn Cassava

Rice Wheat Potato

Sugar crops

Starch crops

Cellulose

Liquefaction
Pretreatment
Juice Extraction
Saccharification
Enzyme Hydrolysis
Diluted Molasses

Sugar syrup

Fermentation

Distillation & Dehydration

Anhydrous ethanol

Ethanol yields from various feed stocks


To produce 100 litres of ethanol* it takes:
4,000 l

of cheese whey

1,400 kg

of sweet sorghum

1,270 kg

of sugar cane

1,250 kg

of Jerusalem artichoke

1,030 kg

of sugar beet

850 kg

of potatoes

545 kg

of cassava

385 kg

of wood

360 kg

of molasses

368 kg

of maize (wet milling)

258 kg

of maize (dry milling)

260 kg

of wheat

230 kg

of millet

225 kg

of paddy rice

*) average values actual yields may vary depending on

Industrial production of ethanol


Brazil
USA
Europe
Russia

- Sugarcane
- Cereal grains (mostly corn)
- Cereal grains, beets
- Cereal grains, beets

Cassava: The winner

The Key of Success

-All year round planting-

The Key of Success

Growth tolerance to poor


environmental condition

The Key of Success

All year round planting/harvesting

The Key of Success

High root productivity


Thai average = 20-25 T/ha
World = 11-12 T/ha
Reported ~ 90 T/ha

The Key of Success

Continuous development of high


yield-improved varieties

Cassava Varieties

Rayong5

Rayong90

KU50
Huaybong 60

The Key of Success

Less input in planting


and harvesting

The Key of Success

High-quantity/quality
carbohydrate source

The Key of Success

Well developed technology


for raw material preparation

Simple conversion to dried chips for


effective storage and transportation

Dried Chips

1.

3.

2.

4.

Chemical composition of cassava chips and corn grain

Composition
Moisture (% wet basis)
Starch (% dry basis)
Protein (% dry basis)
Fat (% dry basis)
Ash (% dry basis)
Crude fiber (% dry basis)
*Source: Watson, 1984

Content
Corn grain* Cassava chips
7-23
10-14
64-78
75 85
8-14
1.5 3
3.1-5.7
0.2
1.1-3.9
24
1.8-3.5
34

Raw materials
Raw materials
Steeping with water
Grinding
Grinding
Liquefaction
Protein

Starch Separation

/ Fiber

Saccharification

Starch hydrolysis
(Liquefaction and Saccharification)

Fermentation
DDGS

Fermentation

Ethanol
Yeast

Ethanol

(a)
368 kg of corn /100 liters of ethanol

(b)
258 kg of corn /100 liters of ethanol

Ethanol production from corn by (a) Wet milling and (b) Dry grinding process

Raw material preparation


in ethanol production process

Air bag filter

Hopper

1st milling
Metal and stone detector

2nd Milling

Bucket elevator

Sifter

Chip grinding and


slurry preparation

Mixing tank

To Liquefaction

Root Hopper

Root Peeler
Root Chopper

Root Washer

Root Rasper

st

1 fine extractor
(vertical type)

2nd coarse
extractor

2nd fine extractor


(vertical type)

1st coarse extractor


(Horizontal type)

Starch
milk tank

Screener

3th coarse
extractor

De-sand
cyclone

M
Agitator
tank

Starch slurry (without fiber) prepared from fresh root

Separator

Hydrocyclone

To liquefaction section
Concentrate Starch
milk tank

The Key of Success

Improved technology
for ethanol production

6 kg

Root
Chopping

Drying

2.5 kg

Chips
Grinding

Slurry & Cooking

Liquefaction

Saccharification

55OC

Fermentation

30OC

Distillation

Conventional process of
ethanol production from cassava

Dehydration

1L

105OC

99.5%Ethanol

Cooking
Liquefaction

Ethanol

Fermentation Saccharification

Cassava Chips

-amylase

glucoamylase

yeast

Milling

Distillation
&Dehydration

Cooking & Liquefaction

Saccharification

Fermentation

A pilot plant of ethanol production


located at The Thai Liquor Distillery Org, Chachengsao province

Raw material preparation

Cooking

Process of ethanol production from cassava chips


located at The Thai Liquor Distillery Org, Chachengsao province

Saccharification and Fermentation

Distillation and Dehydration

Process of ethanol production from cassava chips


located at The Thai Liquor Distillery Org, Chachengsao province

20
18

15

16
ethanol

14

10

12

pH

10

5
TSS

glucose

6
0

20

40

( (hr)
)
Time

60

active cell

20

25
20

22

Active Cellx10 (cells/ml)

30

24

25

Total Soluble Solid ( Brix)

6.0
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.0

glucose and ethanol (%w/v)

pH

- Conventional process -

15
10
5
0

80

glucose
ethanol
TSS
pH
Active cell

Ethanol production from cassava chips by conventional process (CF)


Conditions: Ground cassava chips (25% DS); Liquefaction by 0.1% -amylase at 95C, 2 hrs; Saccharification
by 0.1% glucoamylase at 55C, 15 hrs; Fermentation by yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, at 32 C )

Cassava

Cassava

Rough Grinding

Rough Grinding

Sand Separation

Sand Separation

Liquefaction

(100 oc)

24-36
Hours
Liquefaction

Saccharification

Fermentation

Distillation
(a)

(100 oc)

72
Hours

o
(60 c)

(30 oc)

36-72
Hours

Simultaneous
Saccharification & (30 oc)
Fermentation, SSF

Distillation
(b)

Ethanol Production Process from cassava by (a) Normal Process


and (b) Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation (SSF)

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation, SSF


Cassava Chips

-amylase

glucoamylase
yeast

Milling

Cooking & Liquefaction

SSF

Distillation
&Dehydration

25

40
35
glu-cf

30

active cell-ssf

7
active cell x10 (cells/ml)

ethanol and glucose (% w/v)

20

25

15
active cell-cf
eth-cf

20

10

15
eth -ssf

10
5
5
glu-ssf

0
0

20

40
tim e (hrs.)

Ethanol production from cassava chips by


conventional (CF) and SSF process

60

80
glu -C F
glu -S S F
eth-C F
eth-S S F
act-cell-C F
act-cell-S S F

Conditions: Ground cassava chips (25% DS); Liquefaction by 0.1% -amylase at 95C, 2 hrs; Saccharification
by 0.1% glucoamylase at 55C, 15 hrs; Fermentation by yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, at 32 C.
For SSF process, glucoamylase was added with yeast.

Production of ethanol from cassava chips


by CF and SSF process
Parameter

Process

CF

SSF

Ethanol concentration (%w/v)

10.01+ 0.40

10.05+0.13

Yield (g ethanol / g cassava chip)

0.400+ 0.010

0.402+ 0.013

Yield (g ethanol / g starch)

0.504+ 0.08

0.503+ 0.010

89

89

% Fermentation Efficiency

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation, SSF


Cassava Chip

- Moisture 15 %
- Starch content 65% (wet basis)

362.17 T/D
85.00% TS

Milling

1,248.50 T/D

Water
Mixing
1,794.43 T/D
17.16% TS

Steam

Liquefaction

120 T/D
1,914.43 T/D
16.08% TS

SSF
Fermentation

CO2

114.98 T/D

1,799.45 T/D
7.42%(w/w) Alcohol
Spent wash recycle
177.53 T/D

6.23 T/D

0.50 T/D

Thick Slop

1,496.84 T/D
6.5% TS

Distillation
124.58 T/D
95% Alcohol

Spent wash recycle

Fusel oil

Molecular Sieve
Dehydration

Fuel Ethanol
118.35 T/D or
150,000 L/D

Mass Balance of Ethanol Production


from Cassava Chip by SSF process
T/D = Ton/Day, TS = Total Solid ,L/D =Liter/day

Fermentation efficiency 90%, Distillation efficiency 98.5%

Simultaneous Liquefaction, Saccharification


Cassava Chips
and Fermentation, SLSF

Raw-starch
digesting enzyme

yeast
Milling

Distillation
&Dehydration

SINGLE STEP
&
UNCOOKED
process

SLSF

Cooking

Liquefaction /Saccharification

+
Fermentation

Ethanol

Cereal starches

Corn

Rice

(55%hydrolysis)

Wheat

(65%hydrolysis)

(40%hydrolysis)

Root & tuber


starches

Cassava

(50%hydrolysis)

Potato

(20%hydrolysis)

SEMs of various starches treated with


granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE)

Corn

Cassava

6 - hr
incubation

12 - hr
incubation

24 - hr
incubation

48 - hr
incubation

SEMs of corn and cassava starches treated with granular


starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE)

Ethanol concentration (%w/w)

12

0.125

10

0.125 Pretreat

0.25

0.25 Pretreat

0.50

0.50 Pretreat

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Fermentation time (hr)

Ethanol concentration produced from cassava chips (25%DS) with and without
alkali pretreatment by granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (0.125-0.5% by wt)
in SLSF process

5.8

11

5.4
5.2
5.0

pH

4.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4

Glucose and ethanol content (%w/v)

5.6

TSS

22

Ethanol

10

7
6

3
TS

5
4

pH

3
2
1

3.0

0
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

Glucose
0

20

3.2

24

Total solid, TS (%w/w)

12

Total soluble solid, TSS (OBrix)

6.0

80

Time (h)

Ethanol production from cassava chips by SLSF process


Conditions: Ground cassava chips (25% DS); Liquefaction and Saccharification by 0.25% granular starch
hydrolyzing enzymes and Fermentation by yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 32 C

Conventional process

Todays process

1. Cassava chips

1. Cassava chips

Future process
1. Cassava chips

2. Milling / Cooking

2. Milling / Cooking

3. Liquefaction

3. Liquefaction

(100oC, 2 hr)

4. Saccharification
(60oC, 15-24 hr)

5. Fermentation

(100oC, 2 hr)

4. Simultaneous
Saccharification and
Fermentation (SSF)
(30oC, 36-48 hr)

(30oC, 36-48 hr)

6. Filtration& Distillation

2.Milling / Uncooked

3. Simultaneous
Liquefaction
Saccharification and
Fermentation
(30oC, 36-48 hr)

4. Filtration & Distillation

5. Filtration& Distillation
Ethanol

Ethanol

Ethanol

The Key of Success

Various forms of cassava can be used

The Key of Success

4 million tons/year
(12% moisture content)

25 million tons/year
(65-70% moisture content)

Roots
Water
Chips

2-3 million tons/year


(12% moisture content)

Pulp
Starch

3 million tons/year
(70% moisture content)

Composition of cassava feedstock


Composition
(% dry basis)

Roots

Chips

Starch

Fiber content

1.5-6.0

2-5

nil

Protein

1.5-6.0

2.0-2.5

0-0.3

Ash

1.5-6.0

2.0-3.5

0.1-0.5

Starch content

70-85

Starch content
(wet basis)
(%MC)

25-30

60-75

85-90

(65)

(10)

(12)

70-85

97-100

Starch slurry (with fiber) prepared from fresh root

PROBLEM: At high total solid content


Roots

Viscosity
Flowability
Processing effectiveness

Chips

Starch

Ethanol production from cassava fresh roots


Ground fresh roots (35-40% DS)

Total solid adjustment (20% DS) by water addition


(feedstock to water ratios 1:0.5 to 1:1)

Liquefaction

Saccharification and Fermentation

Fermented mash with


8% (w/w) or 10% (v/v) ethanol

VHG (very high gravity) technology in fuel alcohol production

To increase the alcohol concentration to


18% (v/v) or 14.6% (w/w)

Increase total solid/starch content


(or increase the feedstock to water ratio)

VHG (very high gravity) technology in fuel alcohol production


1.

Increased plant capacity

2.

Increased plant efficiency - reduction in labor costs

3.

reduction in energy costs - less heating/cooling of mash, less


water to process in the still, optimum ethanol for efficient
distillation, lower solids in the still

4.

reduction in inputs - decreased water usage

Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit

VHG technology development for cassava roots

Mash viscosity reduction

Ethanol production from cassava fresh roots


Ground fresh roots (35% DS)
(feedstock to water ratios 1 : 0.1)

Mash viscosity reduction


Liquefaction

Saccharification and Fermentation

Fermented mash with


16-18% (v/v) ethanol

SSF process
VHG - SSF process

20

Ethanol concentration (%v/v)

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Fermentation time (hr)

Ethanol concentration during fermentation of cassava fresh roots


by SSF and VHG-SSF process
Raw material: moisture content = 65%, starch and sugar contents = 85 and 6.25% dry basis, respectively
Condition: SSF: 20% dry solid, VHG-SSF: 35% dry solid

Sun
Drying
Water
59 Tons
Cassava Chip
(moisture content = 14%)
41 Tons

Fresh Root

(moisture content = 60-70%)


100 Tons

VHG Technology
Milling
Process water saving Development

Process water
99 Tons
Mixing
(total solid = 25%)
140 Tons

Ethanol Fermentation

Energy Saving
18.5%

Energy Consumption
(MJ/L ethanol)

12
10

Dehydration
8

Distillation

6
4

Fermentation

Root Preparation
&Liquefaction

0
SSF process

VHG/SSF
process

Estimated reduction on energy consumption of ethanol production


by VHG-SSF process

Water
H2O

H2O

Less by using
H2roots
O
fresh

Energy

Energy

Energy
Energy

Less by
using
fresh roots

Less by using
SLSF process

Energy
Energy
Less by using
VHG process

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

http://www.cassava.org/
aapkrs@ku.ac.th