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Geochemical analysis of the fine grained material ejected by the Cotopaxi volcano in 2015
POSTER DECEMBER 2015
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3331.4643

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Andy Vaca

Luis Cumbal

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Available from: Alexis Debut


Retrieved on: 12 December 2015

GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FINE GRAINED MATERIAL EJECTED BY THE


COTOPAXI VOLCANO IN 2015
Vaca V. A.*; Moya C. **; Arroyo R. C.*; Debut A.*; Cumbal L.*; Mato F.*** ; Aguilera E.**; Cruz M.**;Toulkeridis T.***
* Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologa, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, P.O. Box 171-5-231B, Sangolqu, Ecuador
e-mail: andreavacamora@gmail.com
** Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Construccin, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, P.O. Box 171-5-231, Sangolqu, Ecuador
e-mail: macruz@espe.edu.ec
*** Departamento de Seguridad y Defensa, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, P.O. Box 171-5-231, Sangolqu, Ecuador
e-mail: ttoulkeridis@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT

RESULTS

By using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS) techniques,
we have determined the geochemical and mineral composition of the volcanic samples
ejected by the Cotopaxi volcano.

XRD ANALYSIS
The standard 2 configuration in the XRD setup was used to analyze the
mineral composition of all samples. The four samples show quite similar
spectra and the analysis reveals composition of a typical Na-rich Anorthite. The
slight differences observed in the main peaks from one sample to another are
due to the non-inhomogeneity and granularity of the samples.
Counts
CENIZA COTOPAXI-COTOGCHOA

8000

6000

4000

2000

Figure 1. X-ray diffraction (XRD)

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Figure 8 . XRD spectrum


Position [2] (Copper (Cu))

SEM ANALYSIS
The angular shape of the rock fragments as well as their minerals, the
nonexistence of newly formed (juvenile) magmatic material evidences an
exclusively hydrothermal explosive origin.

Figure 2. Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS)

EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
XRD studies were carried out using a PANalytical EMPYREAN setup within a
2 configuration (generator-detector) x-ray tube copper = 1.54 and
XCELERATOR detector (minimum angle step 0.0001). To perform the
measurements shown in this work, 10 the ash powder samples were directly
deposited on optical microscope slides. The mineral composition of the
samples was determined by using the PAN-ICDS database.

Figure 9 . SEM micrographs (8000X) showing the surface structure of the particles

The samples rich in sulfur, were taken close to the volcano, while the ones
having high contents in iron, magnesium, manganese were located far away.
Iron appeared on samples far away from volcano because most likely they
were oxidized with atmospheric oxygen and falls down as a Fe(III) precipitate
as soon as it gets denser particle.

Figure 3. The ash powder samples were


deposited on optical slides

Figure 4. PANalytical Empyrean X-ray diffractometers.

The SEM inspection was performed using a TESCAN MIRA3. The fine grained
samples were fixed onto SEM stubs using an adhesive layer and sputtercoated with gold (99.99% purity) before the SEM imaging. The chemical
analysis was carried out by an EDS of the brand BRUKER model Quantax
200, installed in the SEM chamber and a detector XFlash 6130, reaching a
resolution of 124 eV

Figure 10 . Element mapping at the samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray
spectrometry EDS

CONCLUSIONS
The shape of the rock fragments and minerals expelled on the first eruptive
event in the early morning of the 14 August as well as pyroclastic material of
later ejections have been exclusively characterized as fragmented and
angular shaped. Juvenile magma at the proximity of the crater can therefore
categorically be excluded.
The mineral classification and also the chemical composition of the ejected
material determined a typical andesitic to dacitic and rarely rhyodacitic
composition with a high abundance of classical mineral composition of such
rocks, being plagioclases, quartz, biotite, hornblende but also obsidian, pyrite
and some other accessory minerals.

Figure 5. The samples were


fixed onto SEM stubs

REFERENCES

Figure 6. Samples were


coated with gold 99,99%
purity
Figure 7. Scanning electron microscope TESCAN MIRA 3

T. Toulkeridis, C. R. Arroyo, M. Cruz DHowitt, A. Debut, A. V. Vaca, L. Cumbal, F.


Mato, and E. Aguilera. NHESS. Evaluation of the Initial stage of the reactivated
Cotopaxi Volcano- analysis of the first ejected fine-grained material. 3, 69476976.
2015
Ninithi.: Spectroscopy tools in nanotechnology, 2015